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Wireless Power Transfer

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4, APRIL 2014

4004204

**Influence Factors Analysis and Improvement Method
**

on Efficiency of Wireless Power Transfer Via

Coupled Magnetic Resonance

Zhuo Yan1 , Yang Li2 , Chao Zhang3, and Qingxin Yang2

1 School

2 Tianjin

**of Information and Electronics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China
**

Key Laboratory of Advanced Electrical Engineering and Energy Technology, Tianjin Polytechnic University,

Tianjin 300384, China

3 Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China

Wireless power transfer via coupled magnetic resonance has many merits, which has become one of the hot research spots in

recent years. The progress of technology in the field of wireless power transfer is remarkable, but its power and efficiency vary with

the impacts of the distance, orientation, and center deviation on transmission. To suppress the fast decrease of the transfer efficiency,

the equivalent circuit model of wireless power transfer and mutual inductance theory were presented. The results provided critical

insight into the design of improving efficiency using a novel method of frequency tracking. The measurement results showed that

the efficiency decreased greatly with the distance, orientation and center deviation at fixed-resonance frequency, and the efficiency

decreased slowly using adapted resonance frequency. The proposed method is proved through the experiment, and it can provide

an effective way to improve the power and efficiency of wireless power transfer.

Index Terms— Frequency tracking, influence factors analysis, resonance coupling, wireless power transfer.

I. I NTRODUCTION

I

N THE same way as the requirement of wireless communications, people are looking forward to a future when the

energy supply can slip the leash of the electrical wire. So

application of wireless power transfer is a dream of human

beings. Some scientists have been dedicated to the study, but

little progress has been made [1]–[3]. In 2007, scientists in

Massachusetts Institute of Technology made a breakthrough

in the principle of wireless energy transmission, and carried

out a middle distance wireless energy transmission through the

magnetic resonant coupling, which is one of the research hot

spots in wireless power transfer field in recent years [4].

A series of methods were researched which can be clarified

into three types [5]: Far-field radio frequency broadcasting

methods, inductive coupling (or near-field) techniques, and

coupled magnetic resonance.

Coupled magnetic resonance, commonly called Witricity

(wireless electricity), was reported in Science [4]. This technology showed the potential to deliver power with higher efficiency than far-field approaches [5]–[10], and at longer ranges

than traditional inductively coupled schemes [11]. Witricity

technology can be used to provide direct wireless power or

automatic wireless charging widely in consumer electronics,

industrial applications, transportation, etc.

This technology quickly became the hot pursuing topic

for research institutions in recent years, and then has made

some major breakthroughs in electric vehicles, body implanted

medical devices, small robots, and portable mobile device

chargers [12], [13]. But it is quite difficult to enhance the

Manuscript received August 5, 2013; revised November 3, 2013; accepted

November 12, 2013. Date of current version April 4, 2014. Corresponding

author: Z. Yan (e-mail: yanzhuo_mail@163.com).

Color versions of one or more of the figures in this paper are available

online at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org.

Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TMAG.2013.2291861

**system’s transmitting range and the efficiency. Many scholars
**

have attempted to change the parameters of the resonator coils

[14], [15] by increasing the radius of the conductor or using

multiturn wire coils to improve the transfer efficiency, but

failed once the coil parameters were fixed. In fact, the receiver

coils of the system are moving equipment or terminals, and

their transmitting ranges are uncertain. This paper is to solve

the problem of how to ensure high efficiency when the transfer

distance changed in a certain range.

In this paper, a novel circuit model of wireless power

transfer is proposed. However, its theory was complicated

and inconvenient when it came to design the circuits. So

mutual inductance theory was used to analyze the power of

wireless power transfer system. Then the function of transfer

efficiency was yielded that can be used for hand analysis

of the efficiency and its influence factors. To verify the

theoretical analysis, the wireless power transfer experiment

device is designed. Corresponding experiments were taken out

to study the efficiency at different distance, the orientation

and the center deviation with fixed frequency and automatic

turning frequency. Through establishing the equivalent circuit

model and experiments, it is found that the system’s resonant

frequency plays an important role on transfer efficiency.

II. I NFLUENCING FACTOR A NALYSIS ON E FFICIENCY

OF W IRELESS P OWER T RANSFER

As a new wireless power transfer technology, Witricity

is based on the concept of near-field and strongly coupled

magnetic resonance. The fundamental principle is that two

same-frequency resonant objects exchange energy efficiently,

while nonresonant objects interact weakly.

As shown in Fig. 1, the basic version of the Witricity system

consists of two resonators (labeled as Source and Device),

a driving loop, and an output loop. The source resonator

is inductively coupled with the driving loop linked to an

**0018-9464 © 2014 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission.
**

See http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.

The resonant nature of the process ensures that the interaction between the source and device is sufficiently strong so that the interactions with nonresonant objects can be neglected. A simple one-turn drive loop can be modeled as an inductor (L 1 ) with parasitic resistance R p1 and Rrad1 . E XPERIMENT Fig. The following part focuses on the experiments to improve transfer efficiency by adapting frequency f . Therefore. 2. III. Equivalent circuit model of wireless power transfer. and a straightforward circuit diagram was shown in Fig. it is necessary and important to control the resonant frequency f . C. the transmitter and receiver coils are linked by coupling coefficient M23 . the resulting oscillating . 2. This circuit model provides a convenient reference for analyzing of the transfer characteristics of coupled resonant system. Finally. an efficient wireless channel for power transmission can be constructed. M23 is also fixed. it can be concluded that the influencing factors of the system transfer efficiency are the mutual inductance M23 and the resonant frequency f . the drive loop is excited by a source with output impedance Rs . APRIL 2014 Fig. M24 . The wireless power transfer system involves two identical resonating antennas (the source and device in Fig. which is represented by C2 . As the mutual inductance M23 varies with the load. The drive loop and the transmitter coil have been built into a single device. oscillator to obtain the energy for the system. 50. 4. the receiving side is defined similarly. the transfer efficiency η is related with resonant frequency f and the mutual inductance M23 (which varies as the distance. The power is transmitted through magnetic resonant coupling between the two antennas at the resonance frequency. Similarly. Instead of irradiating the environment with loss irradiative fields. The transmitter consisted of a single turn drive loop and a multiturn spiral coils.5 (r x r y ) Mx y = (2) 2D 3 where n x and n y are the number of coil turns. and the coupling coefficient is defined in 1 R S + Rrad1 + R p1 + j ωL 1 + I1 + j ωI2 M12 = VS j ωc1 1 Rrad2 + R p2 + j ωL 2 + I2 + j ωI1 M12 − j ωI3 M23 = 0 j ωc2 (1) 1 I3 + j ωI4 M34 − j ωI2 M23 = 0 Rrad3 + R p3 + j ωL 3 + j ωc3 1 R L + Rrad4 + R p4 + j ωL 4 + I4 + j ωI3 M34 = 0 j ωc4 πμ0 (n x n y )0. and M14 ) are neglected in the following analysis. the device coil is inductively coupled with the output loop to supply power to an external load. Inductors L 1 and L 2 are connected with coupling coefficient M12 . j ωc4 (3) (4) (5) If the resonator size and material parameters are fixed. linked magnetically by coupling coefficients M12 . The transmitter coil consists of a multiturn air core spiral inductor (L 2 ). The schematic consists of four resonant circuits. M23 . The coupled magnetic resonant system can be represented in terms of lumped circuit elements (L. For the sake of simplicity. with parasitic resistance (R p2 and Rrad2 ). In this way. so M12 can be fixed. 1. The power transmitted to the receiving coil was then rectified and used to charge the load. Starting from the left. Fig. NO. VOL. and D is the distance between the two coils. Similarly. 1) with a high-frequency power source at MHz. Then Kirchhoff’s voltage law (KVL) can be applied to determine the currents in each resonant circuit in (1). A capacitor (C1 ) is added to make the drive loop resonant at the certain frequency. the Witricity source resonator fills its surrounding with lossless non-radiative magnetic fields. the cross-coupling terms (M13 . 3 shows the picture of wireless power system using coupled magnetic resonance. to ensure the stability of system. orientation. and center deviation of the transmitter and the receiver). and M34 . The geometry of the transmit coil determines its self-capacitance. Transmitter and receiver model of wireless power transfer via coupled magnetic resonance.4004204 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MAGNETICS. These four KVL equations are simultaneously solved for the voltage across the load resistor (3) and (4) is yielded to get PL = η= 2 M2 M2 R ω6 M12 23 34 L 2 VS Z2 2 M2 M2 R R ω6 M12 23 34 L 1 2 R R − ω4 M 2 M 2 ) Z (Z − ωM12 3 4 12 34 2 2 + R1 R2 ω2 M34 z = R1 R2 R3 R4 + R3 R4 ω2 M12 2 2 2 +ω4 M12 M34 + R1 R4 ω2 M23 1 R1 = R S + Rrad1 + R p1 + j ωL 1 + j ωc1 1 R2 = Rrad4 + R p2 + j ωL 2 + j ωc2 1 R3 = Rrad4 + R p3 + j ωL 3 + j ωc3 1 R4 = R L + Rrad4 + R p4 + j ωL 4 + . When the amplifier powers the drive loop. and R). r x and r y are the radiuses of the coil.

from 15 to 140 cm.27 MHz.YAN et al. Comparing with the fixed-frequency case. The receiver coil and load loop are similarly fixed. Finally.: INFLUENCE FACTORS ANALYSIS AND IMPROVEMENT METHOD 4004204 Fig. 4. The receiving side functions in a similar manner. Efficiency distance characteristic curve with and without frequency tracking. To demonstrate orientation independence. Fig. and the automatic frequency tuning case. thus the transfer power decreases too. The output efficiency data are recorded with every 5 cm. Experiment device of wireless power transfer. Fig. as shown in Fig. The curve of fixed frequency is expressed by red triangle and the curve of adapting frequency is expressed by blue quadrangle. Fig. the amount of magnetic flux that passes through the opening of the coil decreases. the efficiency can be ensured higher than 80% within 30 cm. magnetic field excites the source coil. 7 shows a plot of power transfer efficiency versus orientation angle as the receiver is rotated from 0° to 90°. especially in short ranges. And the relevant resonator parameters are shown in Table I. it shows that the system is very efficient when the frequency tuning is enabled. As the receiver coil is rotated. the efficiency obtained by the receiver is higher than the fixed-frequency case. which stores energy in the same manner as a discrete LC tank. 3) are placed facing each other along their concentric axis. 4 represents the top view of the experimental setup. 5. The parameters of source and device resonance coils are the same. the receiver unit is placed on the concentric axis at a fixed distance of 45 cm from the transmitter coil and the receiver coil are rotated along the axis that comes through its center and is vertical to the concentric axis. for both fixed-frequency and auto-tuned operation. Transmitter and receiver diagram (top view). to keep M12 constant. It should be noted that the maximum efficiency of this experiment system is obtained at the distance of 30 cm. but this number varies for different experiment systems. but the efficiency decreases rapidly when the distance is beyond this range. Fig. In the experiment. 6. efficiency versus distance for both fixed-frequency case of f o = 10. 5 showed the curves of transfer Orientation of receiver diagram (top view). The drive loop and transmit coil are set at fixed distance. The distance between the transmitter and receiver is kept at a fixed distance of 40 cm and then the receiver (as a single unit) is moved to increase the center deviation. while the load replaces the power source. 3. the receiver (as a single unit) is moved away from the transmitter along the concentric axis. In the case of automatic frequency tuning. 6. the transmitter and receiver (shown in Fig. TABLE I E XPERIMENT D EVICE VALUES Fig. Fig. This is shown in . When frequency tuning is applied.

317. [9] J. M. P. “Coupling of modes analysis of resonant channel add-drop filter. Power Electron. vol../Oct. Jul. 2009. Conf. pp. which varies with the distance. Int. H. “Wireless power transmission for implantable devices using inductive component of closed magnetic circuit. Sedwick and L. Jung. C ONCLUSION Wireless power transfer system with equivalent circuit is developed in this paper. 07E704-1–07E704-3. no. Joannopoulos. pp.. et al. . P. vol. Ho. 2011. and Y. Ind. vol. Yu. and T. vol. 2007. Manolatou. 1819–1825. Goldstein. the efficiency can be improved using frequency tracking technology. Kim. Zhao. “A new approach to power supplies for robots. “Experimental system design of wireless power transfer based on Witricity technology. and M. “Optimization of wireless power transmission through resonant coupling. As in the previous experiment. Joannopoulos. 6. 83–86. 9. no.. 2009. Efficiency center deviation characteristic curve with and without frequency tracking. [1] A. [4] A. Kim. Zhang. and A. 1069–1073. IV. 7. VOL. W. 2012. Zhu. J. R. Ho. J. X. and H.. pp. no. [8] E. Sep.” IEEE Trans. Appl. pp. 15. 2010.” in Proc. Wang “Maximum efficiency analysis and design of self-resonance coupling coils for wireless power transmission system. efficiency.-L. Veh. Staring. J. Sep. 111. T. 27. M. Skudelny. vol. [13] K. S. Power Electron. 8. 2008. C. pp. R EFERENCES Fig. 48. 21–27. 325. 1–4. vol. and Y. 3) When frequency tuning is applied. 2) If the resonant frequency is fixed. and Z. J. W. ACKNOWLEDGMENT This work was supported by the National Nature Science Foundation of China under Grant 51207106 and Grant 51207150. 2009. Fu.” IEEE Trans. S. Sun. pp. no. no. [2] C.” J. 11. vol. Phys. [11] C. which represents the top view of the experiment setup. Conf. 1. R. Hoburg. Zhang. Nevertheless. Kim. Kang. pp. and distance) needed to be done to make this technology more practical. J. and J. Appl.-G. Lee. 2. 2000. no. frequency tracking is critical. no. Q. 4522–4525. H. Fig. Motion. we have obtained the transfer efficiency formula and found out the influencing factors of efficiency. 9 shows a plot of power transfer efficiency versus center deviation as the receiver is moving from 0 to 30 cm. [6] J.. 29. 2009.. Three conclusions can be obtained from the theoretical analysis and the experiment. H. 8. Yan.-Y. J. “Inductive power transfer with superconducting oscillators. Symp. Hirai..” in Proc. “Analytical study and corresponding experiments for a new resonant magnetic charger with circular spiral coils. Kim. pp.” IEEE Trans. 1. pp. 9. Conf. A. 18. B. N. 287–299. D. 1–3.” Ann. S. and W. Efficiency orientation characteristic curve with and without frequency tracking. 24. [7] Y. and center deviation of transmitter and receiver change.. Kawamura. J.” Proc. “Magnetic resonant coupling as a potential means for wireless power transfer to multiple small receivers. Soljacic. Waffenschmidt and T. Li. Villeneuve. Moffatt. pp.. 1991. [3] J. 5. 4. 7. Chen. D. “Lateral and angular misalignments analysis of a new PCB circular spiral resonant wireless charger. power.. Jan. Power Electron. R. Yang. J. Wang. Qiu. pp.. Phys. Fu. It was shown that the power efficiency is affected by the mutual inductance M23 and the resonant frequency f . Veh. and center deviation of the transmitter and the receiver.” IEEE J. no. CSEE. vol. pp. pp.-H. Stancil. Wireless power transfer is completely feasible using the technology of coupled magnetic resonance. the efficiency obtained is higher than fixed-frequency operation. D. Intell. no. D. Fig. vol. J. Y. vol. “Wireless power transfer via strongly coupled magnetic resonances. Technol. [14] W. F. “Simulation and experimental analysis on wireless energy transfer based on magnetic resonances. 13th Eur. Esser and H. and M. pp. “Basic experimental study on helical antennas of wireless power transfer for electric vehicles by using magnetic resonant couplings. A. Yu. It was also shown by experiments that. orientation. Ma. By using mutual inductance theoretical analysis. Fu. Kurs.. and S. 2009. W. 21–22. [15] R. 7.4004204 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MAGNETICS. Haus. Hori. Li. orientation angle. 50. C. “Limitation of inductive power transfer for consumer applications. there are still a lot of researches and experiment work (such as adaptive impedance matching.. Yan.” in Proc. Khan. Z. B. Power Electron. Magn. Quantum Electron. Z. H. H. Y. Fig. 35. the transfer efficiency is related with resonant frequency f and mutual inductance M23 . APRIL 2014 Fig. 1322–1331. Center deviation of receiver diagram (top view).” in Proc. Li. K. 1–10. Imura. Cannon. Wang. Power Propuls. Liu.” Science. critical coupling. pp. L. 871–875. NO. for both fixed-frequency and auto-tuned operation. 1999. Shanhui. [12] T.” Electron Lett. Conf. 2012. for high-efficiency power transfer system with changing mutual inductance M23 . Nov. “Wireless transmission of power and information for cableless linear motor drive. 2010. Electr. L. Okabe. 45. no. Appl. [5] Y. 1) If the geometry and material parameters of the coils are fixed. [10] B. the transfer efficiency varies the distance. Int.” IEEE Trans. 21–26. Drives Autom. 936–940. Power Propuls. Fisher. Karalis. Kim. Cheng. Zyung. W. Control Inf.” in Proc. N. Rang.

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