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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MAGNETICS, VOL. 50, NO.

4, APRIL 2014

4004204

Influence Factors Analysis and Improvement Method
on Efficiency of Wireless Power Transfer Via
Coupled Magnetic Resonance
Zhuo Yan1 , Yang Li2 , Chao Zhang3, and Qingxin Yang2
1 School

2 Tianjin

of Information and Electronics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China
Key Laboratory of Advanced Electrical Engineering and Energy Technology, Tianjin Polytechnic University,
Tianjin 300384, China
3 Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China

Wireless power transfer via coupled magnetic resonance has many merits, which has become one of the hot research spots in
recent years. The progress of technology in the field of wireless power transfer is remarkable, but its power and efficiency vary with
the impacts of the distance, orientation, and center deviation on transmission. To suppress the fast decrease of the transfer efficiency,
the equivalent circuit model of wireless power transfer and mutual inductance theory were presented. The results provided critical
insight into the design of improving efficiency using a novel method of frequency tracking. The measurement results showed that
the efficiency decreased greatly with the distance, orientation and center deviation at fixed-resonance frequency, and the efficiency
decreased slowly using adapted resonance frequency. The proposed method is proved through the experiment, and it can provide
an effective way to improve the power and efficiency of wireless power transfer.
Index Terms— Frequency tracking, influence factors analysis, resonance coupling, wireless power transfer.

I. I NTRODUCTION

I

N THE same way as the requirement of wireless communications, people are looking forward to a future when the
energy supply can slip the leash of the electrical wire. So
application of wireless power transfer is a dream of human
beings. Some scientists have been dedicated to the study, but
little progress has been made [1]–[3]. In 2007, scientists in
Massachusetts Institute of Technology made a breakthrough
in the principle of wireless energy transmission, and carried
out a middle distance wireless energy transmission through the
magnetic resonant coupling, which is one of the research hot
spots in wireless power transfer field in recent years [4].
A series of methods were researched which can be clarified
into three types [5]: Far-field radio frequency broadcasting
methods, inductive coupling (or near-field) techniques, and
coupled magnetic resonance.
Coupled magnetic resonance, commonly called Witricity
(wireless electricity), was reported in Science [4]. This technology showed the potential to deliver power with higher efficiency than far-field approaches [5]–[10], and at longer ranges
than traditional inductively coupled schemes [11]. Witricity
technology can be used to provide direct wireless power or
automatic wireless charging widely in consumer electronics,
industrial applications, transportation, etc.
This technology quickly became the hot pursuing topic
for research institutions in recent years, and then has made
some major breakthroughs in electric vehicles, body implanted
medical devices, small robots, and portable mobile device
chargers [12], [13]. But it is quite difficult to enhance the
Manuscript received August 5, 2013; revised November 3, 2013; accepted
November 12, 2013. Date of current version April 4, 2014. Corresponding
author: Z. Yan (e-mail: yanzhuo_mail@163.com).
Color versions of one or more of the figures in this paper are available
online at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org.
Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TMAG.2013.2291861

system’s transmitting range and the efficiency. Many scholars
have attempted to change the parameters of the resonator coils
[14], [15] by increasing the radius of the conductor or using
multiturn wire coils to improve the transfer efficiency, but
failed once the coil parameters were fixed. In fact, the receiver
coils of the system are moving equipment or terminals, and
their transmitting ranges are uncertain. This paper is to solve
the problem of how to ensure high efficiency when the transfer
distance changed in a certain range.
In this paper, a novel circuit model of wireless power
transfer is proposed. However, its theory was complicated
and inconvenient when it came to design the circuits. So
mutual inductance theory was used to analyze the power of
wireless power transfer system. Then the function of transfer
efficiency was yielded that can be used for hand analysis
of the efficiency and its influence factors. To verify the
theoretical analysis, the wireless power transfer experiment
device is designed. Corresponding experiments were taken out
to study the efficiency at different distance, the orientation
and the center deviation with fixed frequency and automatic
turning frequency. Through establishing the equivalent circuit
model and experiments, it is found that the system’s resonant
frequency plays an important role on transfer efficiency.
II. I NFLUENCING FACTOR A NALYSIS ON E FFICIENCY
OF W IRELESS P OWER T RANSFER
As a new wireless power transfer technology, Witricity
is based on the concept of near-field and strongly coupled
magnetic resonance. The fundamental principle is that two
same-frequency resonant objects exchange energy efficiently,
while nonresonant objects interact weakly.
As shown in Fig. 1, the basic version of the Witricity system
consists of two resonators (labeled as Source and Device),
a driving loop, and an output loop. The source resonator
is inductively coupled with the driving loop linked to an

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The resonant nature of the process ensures that the interaction between the source and device is sufficiently strong so that the interactions with nonresonant objects can be neglected. A simple one-turn drive loop can be modeled as an inductor (L 1 ) with parasitic resistance R p1 and Rrad1 . E XPERIMENT Fig. The following part focuses on the experiments to improve transfer efficiency by adapting frequency f . Therefore. 2. III. Equivalent circuit model of wireless power transfer. and a straightforward circuit diagram was shown in Fig. it is necessary and important to control the resonant frequency f . C. the transmitter and receiver coils are linked by coupling coefficient M23 . the resulting oscillating . 2. This circuit model provides a convenient reference for analyzing of the transfer characteristics of coupled resonant system. Finally. an efficient wireless channel for power transmission can be constructed. M23 is also fixed. it can be concluded that the influencing factors of the system transfer efficiency are the mutual inductance M23 and the resonant frequency f . the drive loop is excited by a source with output impedance Rs . APRIL 2014 Fig. M24 . The wireless power transfer system involves two identical resonating antennas (the source and device in Fig. which is represented by C2 . As the mutual inductance M23 varies with the load. The drive loop and the transmitter coil have been built into a single device. oscillator to obtain the energy for the system. 50. 4. the receiving side is defined similarly. the transfer efficiency η is related with resonant frequency f and the mutual inductance M23 (which varies as the distance. The power is transmitted through magnetic resonant coupling between the two antennas at the resonance frequency. Similarly. Instead of irradiating the environment with loss irradiative fields. The transmitter consisted of a single turn drive loop and a multiturn spiral coils.5 (r x r y ) Mx y = (2) 2D 3 where n x and n y are the number of coil turns. and the coupling coefficient is defined in   1 R S + Rrad1 + R p1 + j ωL 1 + I1 + j ωI2 M12 = VS j ωc1   1 Rrad2 + R p2 + j ωL 2 + I2 + j ωI1 M12 − j ωI3 M23 = 0 j ωc2 (1)   1 I3 + j ωI4 M34 − j ωI2 M23 = 0 Rrad3 + R p3 + j ωL 3 + j ωc3   1 R L + Rrad4 + R p4 + j ωL 4 + I4 + j ωI3 M34 = 0 j ωc4 πμ0 (n x n y )0. and M14 ) are neglected in the following analysis. the device coil is inductively coupled with the output loop to supply power to an external load. Inductors L 1 and L 2 are connected with coupling coefficient M12 . j ωc4 (3) (4) (5) If the resonator size and material parameters are fixed. linked magnetically by coupling coefficients M12 . The transmitter coil consists of a multiturn air core spiral inductor (L 2 ). The schematic consists of four resonant circuits. M23 . The coupled magnetic resonant system can be represented in terms of lumped circuit elements (L. For the sake of simplicity. with parasitic resistance (R p2 and Rrad2 ). In this way. so M12 can be fixed. 1. The power transmitted to the receiving coil was then rectified and used to charge the load. Starting from the left. Fig. NO. VOL. and D is the distance between the two coils. Similarly. 1) with a high-frequency power source at MHz. Then Kirchhoff’s voltage law (KVL) can be applied to determine the currents in each resonant circuit in (1). A capacitor (C1 ) is added to make the drive loop resonant at the certain frequency. the Witricity source resonator fills its surrounding with lossless non-radiative magnetic fields. the cross-coupling terms (M13 . 3 shows the picture of wireless power system using coupled magnetic resonance. to ensure the stability of system. orientation. and center deviation of the transmitter and the receiver). and M34 . The geometry of the transmit coil determines its self-capacitance. Transmitter and receiver model of wireless power transfer via coupled magnetic resonance.4004204 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MAGNETICS. These four KVL equations are simultaneously solved for the voltage across the load resistor (3) and (4) is yielded to get PL = η= 2 M2 M2 R ω6 M12 23 34 L 2 VS Z2 2 M2 M2 R R ω6 M12 23 34 L 1 2 R R − ω4 M 2 M 2 ) Z (Z − ωM12 3 4 12 34 2 2 + R1 R2 ω2 M34 z = R1 R2 R3 R4 + R3 R4 ω2 M12 2 2 2 +ω4 M12 M34 + R1 R4 ω2 M23 1 R1 = R S + Rrad1 + R p1 + j ωL 1 + j ωc1 1 R2 = Rrad4 + R p2 + j ωL 2 + j ωc2 1 R3 = Rrad4 + R p3 + j ωL 3 + j ωc3 1 R4 = R L + Rrad4 + R p4 + j ωL 4 + . When the amplifier powers the drive loop. and R). r x and r y are the radiuses of the coil.

from 15 to 140 cm.27 MHz.YAN et al. Comparing with the fixed-frequency case. The receiver coil and load loop are similarly fixed. Finally.: INFLUENCE FACTORS ANALYSIS AND IMPROVEMENT METHOD 4004204 Fig. 4. The receiving side functions in a similar manner. Efficiency distance characteristic curve with and without frequency tracking. To demonstrate orientation independence. Fig. and the automatic frequency tuning case. thus the transfer power decreases too. The output efficiency data are recorded with every 5 cm. Experiment device of wireless power transfer. Fig. as shown in Fig. The curve of fixed frequency is expressed by red triangle and the curve of adapting frequency is expressed by blue quadrangle. Fig. the amount of magnetic flux that passes through the opening of the coil decreases. the efficiency can be ensured higher than 80% within 30 cm. magnetic field excites the source coil. 7 shows a plot of power transfer efficiency versus orientation angle as the receiver is rotated from 0° to 90°. especially in short ranges. And the relevant resonator parameters are shown in Table I. it shows that the system is very efficient when the frequency tuning is enabled. As the receiver coil is rotated. the efficiency obtained by the receiver is higher than the fixed-frequency case. which stores energy in the same manner as a discrete LC tank. 3) are placed facing each other along their concentric axis. 4 represents the top view of the experimental setup. 5. The parameters of source and device resonance coils are the same. the receiver unit is placed on the concentric axis at a fixed distance of 45 cm from the transmitter coil and the receiver coil are rotated along the axis that comes through its center and is vertical to the concentric axis. for both fixed-frequency and auto-tuned operation. Transmitter and receiver diagram (top view). to keep M12 constant. It should be noted that the maximum efficiency of this experiment system is obtained at the distance of 30 cm. but this number varies for different experiment systems. but the efficiency decreases rapidly when the distance is beyond this range. Fig. In the experiment. 6. efficiency versus distance for both fixed-frequency case of f o = 10. 5 showed the curves of transfer Orientation of receiver diagram (top view). The drive loop and transmit coil are set at fixed distance. The distance between the transmitter and receiver is kept at a fixed distance of 40 cm and then the receiver (as a single unit) is moved to increase the center deviation. while the load replaces the power source. 3. the receiver (as a single unit) is moved away from the transmitter along the concentric axis. In the case of automatic frequency tuning. 6. the transmitter and receiver (shown in Fig. TABLE I E XPERIMENT D EVICE VALUES Fig. Fig. This is shown in . When frequency tuning is applied.

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