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# Circuit Analysis of Wireless Power Transfer by “Coupled

Magnetic Resonance”
F.Z. Shen1, W.Z. Cui2, W. Ma2, J.T. Huangfu1*, L.X. Ran1
1

Department of Information and Electronic Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China
2
Xi’an Institute of Space Radio Technology, Xi’an 710000, China
*Email:huangfujt@zju.edu.cn

Keywords: Power transfer, Wireless, Magnetic resonance,
Coupling

Abstract
Wireless energy transfer by coupled magnetic resonances is a
popular technology in which energy can be transferred via
coupled magnetic resonances in the non-radiative near-field.
In this paper, we use coupled inductance model in circuit
theory to analyze the power transfer efficiency of this
technology, instead of using coupled mode theory (CMT).
The analysis result is verified by some simulations and
experiments.

1 Introduction
Recently, the wireless power transfer technology is becoming
people’s interest and has many applications, such as RFID
and so on. Paper [1] and [2] proved the feasibility of
“wireless power transfer via strongly coupled magnetic
resonances” theoretically and experimentally. They used the
coupled mode theory (CMT), and got the relation between
transfer efficiency and system parameters (loss, coupling
coefficient and so on). They proposed the “strong coupling
regime”, in which efficient wireless non-radiative mid-range
energy transfer could be implemented. We feel in
mathematical essence, the coupled inductance model in
circuit theory is identical with CMT. So instead of using
CMT, we do circuit analysis using coupled inductance model,
and get the same relationship between transfer efficiency and
system parameters, giving an easier understanding of
“strongly magnetic resonance”. In fact, similar circuit
analysis existed in many papers [3,4], but the analysis results
were not related to the concept of “strong coupling regime”.
In this paper, we consider the wireless power transfer
technology from the familiar electric equipment: the
transformer. Transformers also utilize the coupling of two
inductances, realizing the effect of voltage transformation. If
the primary and secondary coils are not on the same iron core
or even without iron cores, the transformer becomes a simple
device for wireless power transfer. But the energy transfer by
this device is restricted to very close-range. Adding capacitor
(or utilizing the coil’s parasitic capacitor) to make the primary
and secondary circuit loop resonant, could improve the
performance greatly. In section 2, we analyze the nonresonant coupling situation, and give the reason why it is only

suitable for close-range wireless power transfer. In section 3,
we analyze the resonant coupling situation, and give the
relationship between power transfer performance (power
transfer efficiency and power transfer rate) and system
parameters. In section 4, we describe a simple experiment to
verify our analysis result.

2 Non-resonant coupling
Consider such a device: one coil connected to a sinusoidal
source, another coil connected to the load. Suppose the
parasitic capacitor is negligible. The equivalent circuit is as
shown in Figure 1. In the figure, r represents the source
internal resistance. R1 and R2 represent the loss resistances of
the two coils. Rload is the load, and ț represents the coupling
coefficient of the two coils, which is defined by

M

N L1 L2

, in which M represents the mutual

inductance between L1 and L2.

Figure 1 The circuit model
Using the circuit model of two coupled inductance [5], one
can get the equivalent impedance Z (as marked in Figure 1):

Z

R1  jZL1 

N 2Z 2 L1 L2

(1)

Figure 1 can also represent the equivalent circuit of a
transformer. For ideal transformer, L1 and L2 are infinite, R1
and R2 are zeros, and ț is 1. Thus the above equation becomes

602

Z

L1