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Circuit Analysis of Wireless Power Transfer by “Coupled

Magnetic Resonance”
F.Z. Shen1, W.Z. Cui2, W. Ma2, J.T. Huangfu1*, L.X. Ran1

Department of Information and Electronic Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China
Xi’an Institute of Space Radio Technology, Xi’an 710000, China

Keywords: Power transfer, Wireless, Magnetic resonance,

Wireless energy transfer by coupled magnetic resonances is a
popular technology in which energy can be transferred via
coupled magnetic resonances in the non-radiative near-field.
In this paper, we use coupled inductance model in circuit
theory to analyze the power transfer efficiency of this
technology, instead of using coupled mode theory (CMT).
The analysis result is verified by some simulations and

1 Introduction
Recently, the wireless power transfer technology is becoming
people’s interest and has many applications, such as RFID
and so on. Paper [1] and [2] proved the feasibility of
“wireless power transfer via strongly coupled magnetic
resonances” theoretically and experimentally. They used the
coupled mode theory (CMT), and got the relation between
transfer efficiency and system parameters (loss, coupling
coefficient and so on). They proposed the “strong coupling
regime”, in which efficient wireless non-radiative mid-range
energy transfer could be implemented. We feel in
mathematical essence, the coupled inductance model in
circuit theory is identical with CMT. So instead of using
CMT, we do circuit analysis using coupled inductance model,
and get the same relationship between transfer efficiency and
system parameters, giving an easier understanding of
“strongly magnetic resonance”. In fact, similar circuit
analysis existed in many papers [3,4], but the analysis results
were not related to the concept of “strong coupling regime”.
In this paper, we consider the wireless power transfer
technology from the familiar electric equipment: the
transformer. Transformers also utilize the coupling of two
inductances, realizing the effect of voltage transformation. If
the primary and secondary coils are not on the same iron core
or even without iron cores, the transformer becomes a simple
device for wireless power transfer. But the energy transfer by
this device is restricted to very close-range. Adding capacitor
(or utilizing the coil’s parasitic capacitor) to make the primary
and secondary circuit loop resonant, could improve the
performance greatly. In section 2, we analyze the nonresonant coupling situation, and give the reason why it is only

suitable for close-range wireless power transfer. In section 3,
we analyze the resonant coupling situation, and give the
relationship between power transfer performance (power
transfer efficiency and power transfer rate) and system
parameters. In section 4, we describe a simple experiment to
verify our analysis result.

2 Non-resonant coupling
Consider such a device: one coil connected to a sinusoidal
source, another coil connected to the load. Suppose the
parasitic capacitor is negligible. The equivalent circuit is as
shown in Figure 1. In the figure, r represents the source
internal resistance. R1 and R2 represent the loss resistances of
the two coils. Rload is the load, and ț represents the coupling
coefficient of the two coils, which is defined by


N L1 L2

, in which M represents the mutual

inductance between L1 and L2.

Figure 1 The circuit model
Using the circuit model of two coupled inductance [5], one
can get the equivalent impedance Z (as marked in Figure 1):


R1  jZL1 

N 2Z 2 L1 L2
jZL2  R2  Rload


Figure 1 can also represent the equivalent circuit of a
transformer. For ideal transformer, L1 and L2 are infinite, R1
and R2 are zeros, and ț is 1. Thus the above equation becomes





loss resistances R1 and R2 will take up more and more percentage in the real part. the imaginary part should be eliminated in the equivalent impedance. It should be noted that. And with the decrease of ț.This is our familiar impedance transformation effect of a transformer. The non-zero imaginary part brings a non-zero reactive power. for a given ț2Ȧ2L1L2/R1R2. 2]. As an example. If any one of the assumed conditions fails. which means the decrease of power transfer efficiency. so in paper [1. a large imaginary part will emerge. The power transfer rate and efficiency will decrease quickly since ț decreases quickly with the increase of the distance of the two coils. which means the Q factor of the coil should be large. there is an optimum Rload/R2 to reach the highest value of Ș. then at this frequency.) It is seen that the key of high efficiency is that ț2Ȧ2L1L2/R1R2 must be large enough. Figure 3 Relation curves between Ș and system parameters 3 Resonant coupling To reduce the reactive power. which means the decrease of the obtained power on the load. Note that there is no imaginary part because of the assumption of infinite L1 and L2 and ț = 1. the equivalent impedance is Z R1  N 2Z 2 L1 L2 ª § Z  r ·2 º Psource «1  ¨ ¸ »K ¬« © Z  r ¹ ¼» Psource 4rZ K (5) r  Z . we connect capacitances in primary and secondary circuit loops as shown in Figure 2. the obtained power on the load is Pload Figure 2 The circuit model within capacitors Make the primary and secondary circuit loops resonate at the same frequency. In the system of Figure 2. it is called “strongcoupling” regime when ț2Ȧ2L1L2/R1R2 is much larger than 1. (We choose series resonance because current in series resonance is very large and is beneficial to magnetic induction.

When assuming R1 = R2 = 2 ȍ. as shown in Figure 5. Figure 3 shows this relation intuitively. one can obtain the expression of efficiency Ș N 2Z 2 L1 L2 K Rload R2  Rload u 2 2 N Z L1 L2 R2  Rload R1  R2  Rload Rload N 2Z 2 L1 L2 R2 R1 R2 § Rload ¨¨1  R2 © · N 2Z 2 L1 L2 § Rload ¸¸  ¨¨1  R2 © ¹ R1 R2 Figure 4 The calculated relationship between received power Pload and ț (4) 4 Experiment · ¸¸ ¹ 2 It is consistent with the expression of Ș in paper [2]. As the way in Figure 2. the first two terms represents the variation of the source’s output power which is caused by the resistance mismatch to the source. (3) R2  Rload From Equation (3). and then connected them to a signal generator and a spectrum analyzer respectively. We made two twin coils with diameters of 7 cm and helices of 6 turns.2 In which. r = Rload = 50 ȍ and Psource= -10 dBm (these are the parameter values in the experiment we described below). In equation (5). the relationship between Pload and ț is as shown in Figure 4. we connected them with two capacitors of 47 pF. So the product of the two is the received power on the load. the expressions of Z and Ș are Equation (3) and Equation (4). and Ș is the percentage of the output power going onto the load. 603 .

So there is a compromise of selecting the value of Rload.Figure 5 Photo of experiment system Figure 7 The estimated relation between ț and distances The signal generator was set -10 dBm power level. When testing the resonant frequency of the primary (or secondary) circuit loop. we deduced that R1 (R2) is about 50/30=1. The middle coil can work as relay. In summarize. That is. using Equation (4). we can get the relation between ț and distance in our experiment. From this figure. Putting the two coaxially aligned coils under different separation. the output power of the signal generator is largest. we get the relation between Ș and distance. to extract the maximum power from the source. as shown in Figure 7. The quality factor Q of the coil we used is only about 180.45 MHz. the received power is not greatest when the two coils are put most closely to each other. the equivalent impedance (Equation (3)) is most close to the source internal resistance.4 ȍ. there is an optimum value of Rload to reach the highest value of Ș. ț2Ȧ2L1L2 = 2500 ȍ2 and R1=R2.4 dB (the data at distance=3 cm from Figure 5). and the expression of Ș will change a lot. making the equivalent impedance quite different the present one. we got the result as Figure 5. we get R1=R2=2. Distance We have tested the resonant frequencies of the primary and secondary circuit loop. They are all 9. In this paper. This phenomenon is consistent with our analysis result in Figure 4. so the coil inductance is about 6nH. From another point of view. if using resonant coils to implement wireless power transfer. as shown in Figure 8. we found that the output voltage of the signal generator at resonant frequency is about 1/30 of the maximum output voltage at other frequencies. the key of high efficiency the Q factor of the coil should be large. the efficiency will still be high when distance is a few times of the coil size.7 ȍ. Put the data in Figure 7 into Equation (4). If we used an optimized coil with a high quality factor Q. Figure 8 The estimated relation between Ș and distances 5 Conclusion Figure 6 Received power vs. one can observe a phenomenon which is a little beyond our intuition. the equivalent impedance Z should be equal to the source internal resistance. 604 . when assuming Ș=-0. The received power reaches its maximum value when the two coils are 3 centimeters away. So from this point of view. So we can estimate the loss resistances R1 and R2 are no more than 2. Further studies can be done by considering more than two coils to implement wireless power transfer. This is because when distance is 3cm. we analyzed how to get the maximum power on the load.4 ȍ. Then. and as shown in Figure 3. To estimate ț at different distances. longer work range and better performance may be realized. using the data in Figure 5 and the relation curve in Figure 4 (where R1=R2=2 ȍ is assumed). From another point of view. We presented how the transfer efficiency and the obtained power on the load related to the system parameters.

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