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Febryan Asa Perdana

X MIA B / 11

How Tornadoes are Formed


Tornadoes are one of the most powerful and deadly weather phenomena on land. They
can destroy entire town and fling debris over great distances. However, how does a tornado
form? The answer lies in the atmosphere and air pressure.
Weather is created by changes in the temperature and pressure of the atmosphere.
Tornadoes are formed when both high pressure and low pressure air interact. A tornado happens
in the same way a whirlpool in your sink or bath tub happens. A low internal pressure draws in
high pressure air to form the vortex and eventually the tornado.
Tornadoes are normally formed when a thunderstorm occurs. The most common type of
thunderstorm for forming tornadoes is the supercell. This is because this type of storm already
has rotation occuring within it called a mesocycle. The tornado starts forming when a downdraft
brings the mesocycle down near the grown starting the creation of a vortex.
The next step of the cycle starts when cloud wall is formed. This happens when the
vortex starts drawing down the cloud into a funnel. The most dangerous part of the tornado is not
the visible part its the winds created by the high pressure air being sucked into the tornado. This
is what creates the destruction path scene after a tornado passes.
The next step is the maturation and strengthening of the tornado. Like any major storm
phenomena, a tornado needs energy to increase in strength and sustain itself. The source of this
energy is the moist warm air that is drawn into the tornado. The maturation part of the tornados
life cycle is the most destructive since it not only increases in intensity, but also can last a long
period of time.
Fortunately the down draft of air has cooled so it start to shut down the funnel it created
by cutting off its supply of warm air. This begins the end phase of the tornado. The tornado
begins to thin and become less well developed. Eventually it completely loses energy and the
funnel completely disperses.
Tornadoes dont just form singly. They can also form in groups called families or
outbreaks. These are often weaker tornadoes created by the intense rotation of a strong and larger
tornado. While weaker the biggest tornado ever can create a lot of damage.

For further explanation, below is a picture taken from other source about Tornado Formation.

Tornadoes form when two large air masses of varying temperature and humidity collide, with
warm air in the lower layers and cold air in the upper layers.
There are three steps of tornado formation :
1. The initial funnel which hovers over the surface, grows from a thunder cloud.
2. If conditions are favorable (temperature swings, wind, etc.) a tornado takes shape and
reaches Earth.
3. When the conditions start to change, the funnel narrows and starts to rise gradually.

Tornado has spiral upward movement and counterclockwise rotation. The pressure inside
the tornado is 0.4 atm (atmosphere unit). Based on indirect assessment, the air speed in the
funnel is approx. 200 m/s. While moving at the ground, the tornado reaches speed 20-60 km/h.
Its lifespan can reach up to 7 hours.
Based on the source, tornadoes are classified as below :

Waterspout, the most common type of tornadoes.

Land spout, the diameter of this type of tornado can exceed its height.

Multiple vortex, most of these are powerful tornadoes that cause heavy damage.

The most devastating tornado in history was happened on April 26, 1989 in Bangladesh,
where number of victims reached 1,300 people.

GENERIC STRUCTURE
General Statement :
Tornadoes are one of the most powerful and deadly weather phenomena on land. They
can destroy entire town and fling debris over great distances. In simple terms, tornado
can be defined as strong wind vortex that formed from constellation of strong currents of
dark clouds that stretched to earths surface. The formation of tornadoes based on
atmopshere and air pressure.

Sequence of Explanation :
Tornadoes are normally formed when a thunderstorm occurs. The most common type
of thunderstorm for forming tornadoes is the supercell. This is because this type of
storm already has rotation occuring within it called a mesocycle. The tornado starts
forming when downdraft brings the mesocycle down near the grown starting the
creation of a vortex. The next step of the cycle starts when cloud wall is formed. This
happens when the vortex starts drawing down the cloud into a funnel. The most
dangerous part of the tornado is not the visible part its the winds created by the high
pressure air being sucked into the tornado. This is what creates the destruction path
scene after a tornado passes. The next step is the maturation and strenghthening of
the tornado. Like any major storm phenomena, a tornado needs energy to increase in
strength and sustain itself. The source of this energy is the moist warm air that is
drawn into the tornado. The maturation part of the tornados life cycle is the most
destructive since it not only increases in intensity, but also can last a long period of
time. Fortunately the down draft of air has cooled so it start to shut down the funnel it
created by cutting off its supply of warm air. This begins the end phase of the
tornado. The tornado begins to thin and become less well developed. Eventually it
completely loses energy and the funnel completely disperses.
Tornadoes dont just form singly. They can also form in groups called families or
outbreaks. These are often weaker tornadoes created by the intense rotation of a
strong and larger tornado. While weaker the biggest tornado ever can create a lot of
damage.

Language Feature Analysis :


- Use of present tense.
- Use of complex noun groups to build detailed descriptions.
- Use of abstract nouns.
- Use of pronouns for words already introduced in the text.
- Use of subject that is not human.
- Use of sentences that have a clear subject and verb agreement.
- Use of action verbs to explain cause.
- Use of adverbial phrases of time and place to tell where and when actions
occurred.
- Use of connectives to link time sequences in a cause and effect sequence.
- Use of passive voice and nominalisation to link the events through cause and
effect.
- Use of time conjunctions to sequence and link events and to keep the text
flowing.
- Use of technical terms or word chains about a subject.

QUESTION

What is tornado? Cross your answer with the text.


Answer : Tornadoes are one of the most powerful and deadly weather phenomena on
land. In simple terms, tornado can be defined as strong wind vortex that formed from
constellation of strong currents of dark clouds that stretched to earths surface.

Tornado are classified into three sections. Mention and explain it!
Answer : Based on the text above, tornadoes are classified as below :
-

Waterspout, the most common type of tornadoes.

Land spout, the diameter of this type of tornado can exceed its height.

Multiple vortex, most of these are powerful tornadoes that cause heavy damage.

The most devastating tornado in history was happened on in where


Answer : The most devastating tornado in history was happened on April 26, 1989 in
Bangladesh where number of victims reached 1,300 people.

How tornadoes increase their energy?


Answer : Tornadoes increase their energy from mass-producing of supercell thunderstorm
and the moist warm air that is drawn into the tornado. Other factor that might increase the
supercell thunderstorm production is global warming, which automatically increases the
energy of tornado itself. Its heat creates a favorable atmosphere for the supercell to form.

Which type of thunderstorm that often forming tornadoes?


Answer : The most common type of thunderstorm for forming tornadoes is the supercell.
This is because this type of storm already has rotation occuring within it called a
mesocycle. The tornado starts forming when a downdraft brings the mesocycle down
near the grown starting the creation of a vortex.

How long the tornados lifespan?


Answer : The tornados lifespan can reaches up to 7 hours.

Does a tornado always form singly?


Answer : No. Sometimes, they can also form in groups called families or outbreaks.