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1 Introduction 1
2 Tire 2
3 Manufacturing process 3
4 Production planning and control 9
5 Industrial engineering 11
6 Product industrialization 14
7 Mixing 17
8 Dual extruder 18
9 Triplex extruder 19
10 4 roll calendar 20
11 3 roll calendar 22
12 Bead and band building 23
13 Tire building 25
14 Radial tire building 27
15 Bias tire building 30
16 Mechanical maintenance 31
17 Curing 33
18 Final finish 35 2
We the students of NED university of engineering and technology
(Industrial and manufacturing department) visited General Tire and Rubber
company for internship program from date 2-dec-2009 to 31-dec-2009.
In the company we had visited many sections and areas according to
the schedule provided by IE department. The following pages consists our
report about the company.


The General Tire and Rubber Company of Pakistan Limited (Gentipak)
is Pakistan‘s premier industry. It was established in 1963 by General Tire
USA and has been in production since 1964.

Gentipak has a Technical Services Agreement (TSA) with CONTINENTAL AG

(Germany’s largest tire manufacturer) which enable it to produce tires of
“GENERAL” brand and also receive the latest technology for production of
tires based on Continental’s, R&D.
The Plant and the Offices are located in suburb of Karachi. Initial
production capacity was only 120,000 tires per annum but is now around
2,000,000 tires per annum. It has been constantly upgraded and boasts the
latest equipment in tire manufacturing.

• Passenger car tires
• Light truck tires
• Truck / Bus tires
• Tractor tires
• Tubes

2. TIRE:

Tire is a Dressing of wheel. As far as manufacturing is considered it is
the assembly of different components, build up on drum. Later is cured in
a press under heat and pressure.



Side wall

Body ply

Inner liner
° Inner liner: Extruded rubber sheet with low air permeability.(alternate
for the tube)
° Body ply: Calendared sheet of rubber and reinforcement (fabric).
° Tread: Thick extruded profile that comes into contact with the road.
° Side wall: Non reinforced extruded component with antioxidants.
° Beads: Bands of high tensile strength steel, encased with rubber.
° Belt: Calendared sheet of rubber and closely spaced steel cords.
° Cushion gum: Thin sheet of rubber. Applied on the inside of the


Five steps involved in the manufacturing of a tire.

° Compounding and Mixing
° Component preparation
° Building
° Curing
° Final finish

3.1. Materials used:

• Rubber (Natural and synthetic)
• Fillers (Carbon black, silica, carbon chalk)
• Reinforcing materials (steel, rayon, nylon)
• Plasticizers (oils and resins) 10
• Chemicals for vulcanization (sulphur, zinc oxide, various
• Chemicals as antioxidants to counter ozone effects and material
• Miscellaneous 1%

3.2. Compounding and Mixing:

Operation of bringing together all ingredients required for mixing a

batch of rubber component. Then applying mechanical work to the
ingredients in order to blend them into a homogeneous substance.
Internal mixer is used consisting of two counter rotating rotors. Heat
is generated, cooled by water so that vulcanization should not begin.
In the first step the compounds are brought together and mixed in the
internal mixer. Each mix is then milled with additional heating to soften the
batch and mix the chemicals forming the master compound. In a third step,
the master batch goes through a mixer again, where additional chemicals
are added to form what is known as the final mix. During all three steps of
mixing, heat and friction are applied to the batch to soften the rubber and

evenly distribute the chemicals. The chemical composition of each batch
depends on the tire part—certain rubber formulations are used for the body,
other formulas for the beads, and others for the tread.

3.3. Component preparation:

Component preparation involves
° Extrusion
° Calendaring
° Bead building

3.3.1. Extrusion:

Extrusion applies heat and pressure to the compound. In the extruder,
the batch is further mixed and heated and is then forced out through a die—
a shaped orifice—to form a layer of rubber. This is then cut into lengths
automatically by a cutter run by PLC. The cut lengths are loaded into large,
flat metal cases called books. Two components are extruded

• Tread
• Side wall

3.3.2. Calendaring:

Calendar is a set of large diameter rolls that squeeze rubber

compound into a thin sheet. Fabric calendar produce an upper and lower
rubber sheet with a layer of fabric in between. Calendar used to produce.
• Body plies
• Belts

3.3.3. Bead building:

Bands of high tensile strength steel encased with rubber cut in
circumferential manner on a machine. It provides mechanical strength to fit
tire into the rim. For the beads of a tire, wire bundles are formed on a wire
wrapping machine. The bundles are then formed into rings, and the rings
are covered with rubber.

3.4. Tire Assembly:

It involves assembling all the components onto a tire building

drum. Tire building machines can be fully automatic or manual. Final
product of tire building machine is green tire (uncured state).

3.5. Curing:

Green tire obtained from tire building machines is then cured in
a press. The tire is applied heat and pressure by means of a bladder which
is filled with steam or hot water. Vulcanization takes place and all the
components are bonded with each other. The imprints on the mold in which
the tire is pressed are obtained on the tire.

3.6. Final finish:

After the tire has been cured, there are several additional operations
such as trimming and bulge testing etc. Tire uniformity measurement is a
test where the tire is automatically mounted on wheel halves, inflated, run
against a simulated road surface, and measured for force variation. Tire
balance measurement is a test where the tire is automatically placed on
wheel halves, rotated at a high speed and measured for imbalance.
Large commercial truck/bus tires, as well as some passenger and light
truck tires, are inspected by X-ray machines that can penetrate the rubber
to analyze the steel cord structure.
In the final step, tires are inspected by human eyes for numerous
visual defects such as incomplete mold fill, exposed cords, blisters,
blemishes, and others.

4.1. Working:
The working of production planning and control starts with the sales
forecast by the sales department. In which the demand of tires has been
elaborated. The PPC department keeping in view of that forecast and the
production capability of the floor plans the production, which is further
transformed into daily schedules to be sent to different sections and areas
of the company.


4.2. Demand Planning:

Taking in account the forecast of marketing department, production
time, capacity and labour is estimated for the production. Demand can be
• OEM (original equipment manufacturer)
• Replacement

4.3. Schedule:
Pre formulated timings of every machine operation, labour, setup time
and department to department transportation time, a schedule is made in
backward integration manner (reverse procedure of production).
For a particular department it is partitioned and forwarded to that
department. Any reasons for late arrival of components alternatives are

4.4. Material and labour reporting:

This involves data linking between different departments of
production and PPC department. Material and labour is reported every day.
Time utilized for the production is also reported.

4.5. Material requirement:

Material is ordered according to the demand or the forecast from the
marketing department three or four months before the production. This is
helped out by the quarterly forecasts. Depends upon the type and quantity
of tire allowance is provided.

4.6. Capacity and requirement planning:

Negotiations are made between the capacity of the plant and
requirement of dealer. Inventory is not raised in warehouse .out sourcing if
required is also managed.

4.7. Process priority:

Raw material shortage or machine downtime causes low productivity
then according to the priority process are made.
Priority refers to the demand and the relation with the customer and
the profit of the process.

INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING department concerns with
• Design
• Improvement of system of man, machine, material and
• Installation

5.1. Functions:
5.2. Work study:
• Work measurement
• Methods study

5.2.1. Work measurement:

Production planning and control department’s reports are based
on the time study provided by the IE department.
Work measurement includes
• Time study
• P. M. T. S.
• Synthesis Aid to control
• Activity sampling
• Comparative and analytical

5.2.2. Method study:
Method study includes
higher productivity
• Problem solving
• Imported systems
• Plant layout Aid to improve
• Material handling productivity
• Value analysis

5.3. Job Analysis:

Systematic process of collecting information about jobs. Including
purpose of each job, duties, place, organizational hierarchy, and its working
condition and employee requirement.
Components of job analysis.
• Positional description
• Job standards
• Job description

5.4. Job Evaluation:

Job evaluation includes wage, authority, responsibility and promotion.
This must be in parity with other companies.
Components of job evaluation.
• Job ranking
• Job grading
• Factor comparison
• Point system

5.5. Material Handling:

This includes the following factors regarding material.
• Movement
• Time
• Quality
• Safety
Good material handling outputs.
• Increased productivity
• Increased production capacity
• Reduced fatigue and easy work
• Clean shop-floor, enabling smooth and efficient functions of the
• Less wastage, spoilage and damages

5.6. System engineering:

Process of developing large scale complex man machine systems
within cost, performance and time. Man power required on a machine is
estimated according to the running of the machine and then it is provided to
the department.

5.7. Plant layout:

Arrangement and location of different departments and machineries.
Good plant layout effects
• Reduced effort of labour
• Reduced number of handling
• Provides better working condition
• Minimizes accidents
• Reduces number of workers
• Minimizes lost motion between operators
• Minimizes maintenance and tool replacement costs
• Effective cost control
• Eases the burden of supervision

5.8. Manpower planning:

Right quantity of right men at right time on the right job.
This includes
• Making correct estimate of man power requirements
• Managing the manpower
• Guide in recruitment and selection
• Maintain correct production level
• Reduce manpower cost

5.9. Incentive scheme:

System which motivates the worker to increase the production. This
includes monthly bonus or good work reward.
The incentive scheme currently running in GTR must be reviewed and
must be provided to all the workers on the same criteria so that every body
will be motivated for work.


6.1. Design and development:

This includes two main things in GTR.
• Die shop
• Repair shop

6.2. Product engineering:

This includes construction check of two types
• Radial
• Bias

6.3. Action plan:

Action plan includes several steps
1. Design input: study existing ,PR check, study competitor
2. Design output: drawing development, modification, finalization
3. Design review: review final drawing, prepare development
4. Mold manufacturing: raise PR to procurement, vendor forwarded
tread pattern
5. Mold inspection: mold inspection to be carried out at vendor’s
6. Product development: building specs, cured tire analysis
7. Validation and verification: indoor testing, outdoor testing
8. Control of design development changes: changes needed are
9. Release new product: new product is marketed

6.4. Molds:
The mold in the curing press is the cavity in which tire is cooked and
is given the final shape. The mold has the embossed imprints of the tread
pattern and the codes printed on the sidewall of the tire. The two basic
types of mold used are

• Segmented molds
• Two parts mold


These molds are divided into segments in the circumferential

projection of the tire. The number of segments can be 6 or more depending
on the size of the tire. The engravements of sidewall are on a separate part.


These molds are divided into two parts along the centre line of
tread. The engravements are on both the parts of the mold.


7.1. Purpose:
To bring together all the ingredients required to mix a batch of rubber
component and then applying mechanical work in order to blend them into
a homogeneous substance in the form of sheets.

7.2. Equipments:
Two banburys. Each with two sheeter mills and a cooling line.
7.3. Banbury:
A banbury is an internal mixer consisting of two counter rotating
rotors in a sealed housing.

The construction of banbury includes two motors. One associated with

the rotors and the other controls the hydraulic system for closing and
opening of doors.

All the raw materials for a particular tire are weighed and then
automatically dropped in the banbury by the conveyor operated by the
software. The banbury mixes the compounds and then the batch is dropped
over the sheeter mill which transforms it into sheets.
For a particular tire compound batch is mixed two times in different
banburies. The final product of mixing is called finish which is tested in a
laboratory and if the composition is found ok then this is sent to component
building. And if the batch is not according to the specification it is reused in
mixing. Hence no scrap from mixing department. A schedule and a
specification chart from PPC and compounding department respectively are
received by the mixing department according to which the batch is
prepared. This batch is now raw material for the component building

8.1. Purpose:
To form tread (component of tire which comes in contact with the
road surface) and sidewall (bridges between tread and bead) of truck,
tractor and passenger Bias tires.

8.2. Construction and working:

Two large diameter screws in a sealed housing having individual feed
area. Driven by a single motor. Rpm of screw and line speed adjustable by
panel. Die inserting, a cooling line followed by a conveyor and a cutter run
by a separate motor and having a separate cooling system
Both the screws push the rubber compound (wing tip and cap area
compounds) towards a single die having the cavity of the size of tread or
sidewall to be extruded. Cushion gum if required is applied separately after
extrusion from the die. The extruded component is then sent to the cooling
line and after cooling it is sent towards cutting where according to the size it
is cut by automatically running cutter.

Dual extruder is hot feed that’s why two mills are installed separately
for making the feed warm and soft.
A specification chart from product industrialization department and a
schedule from production planning and control department respectively is
received by the operator according to which extrusion of rubber is carried
Die is provided by the die shop running under the supervision of
product industrialization department.

8.3. Maintenance:
Maintenance is done by maintenance department. Predicted,
prevented, and scheduled. Lubrication is manual.

9.1. Purpose:
To form tread (component of tire which comes in contact with the
road surface) and sidewall (bridges between tread and bead) of radial tires.

9.2. Construction and working:

Three screws of diameters 90mm, 200mm and 150mm in a sealed
housing having individual feed area. Housing is fitted with small pins to
blend the rubber properly. Multiple dies can be installed at the same time.
Cushion gum if required is applied separately and also an option in the
extruder itself. Cooling line is provided so that the rubber shrinks before it is
cut into size.
Triplex extruder is cold feed that’s why no separate machinery is
required as in dual extruder to warm up the feed. A cutter is provided at the
end of the shrinkage conveyor for cutting the tread and the sidewalls into
sizes which runs according to the recipe fed in the PLC.

Line speed of the shrinkage conveyor is adjustable and the variation
in line speed is automatically induced in the rpm of the screws so as to
compensate if material shortage occurs at die.
Triplex extruder is designed on the phenomenon of safety first that’s
why multiple safety switches and sensors are installed for this purpose.
Three metal sensors are installed at the individual feed insert so that no
metal can get inside the housing of the screws and cause wear to them.
A specification chart from product industrialization department and a
schedule from the department of production planning and control is
received by the operator for the production. Triplex extruder runs only in
one shift as it produces the requirement of the other departments in it.

9.3. Maintenance:
Triplex extruder is maintenance free.


A machine for calendaring the fabric with rubber sheets on both sides.
The machine consists of four large diameter rollers for the operation.

10.1. Produce:
4 roll calendar produces calendared sheet of rubber with fabric inside
known as ply. Used both in radial tires and bias tires. Before 4 roll calendar
was installed in the company this operation was done on 3 roll calendar
which utilized more time because it was done in two stages.

10.2. Working:
Four mills of large diameter prepare rubber feed for the calendar.
• Break down mill
• Warm up mill
• Feeding mill
• Holding mill
The feed of fabric is given directly to the rollers of the 4 roll calendar.
The banana roll calendars the sheet which is then sent to the cooling drum.
And then wind up unit in which rolls are prepared of the calendared sheet
for easy utilization and storage.

For radial tire ply another operation is induced in this machine in

which ply cords are pressed in the sheet. A separate calendar is installed for
this purpose.
A specification chart from the product industrialization department
and a schedule from the PPC. Department is received by the operator
according to which production is carried out.

10.3. Maintenance:
The maintenance of 4 roll calendar is carried out during production as
manual lubrication reducing metal to metal contact. Small troubleshooting
is carried out by the mechanic during the working.

A machine for calendaring in which 3 rolls of large diameters are used
fro the operation.

11.1. Produce:
3 roll calendar produces

• Inner liner for radial tire

• Squeegee

11.2. Working:
Finish compound is fed to the separately installed mill CM-1 which
warms up the compound, this warmed compound is then fed to CM-2 which
further mills the compound and from the same mill it is cut into short width
sheet and fed to upper two rollers of the three roll calendar. Which forms

sheet of larger width whose thickness and width is reduced by the lower two
cutters and rollers respectively according to the requirement. The
clearance between the rollers is adjustable.

The final sheet from the three roll calendar is passed through two
mills sustaining tension in the sheet and is further put upon the conveyor on
which manually it is transformed in the forms of rolls packed with cloth.

A specification chart from product industrialization department and a

schedule from the PPC. department is received by the operator according to
which production is carried out.

Due to manual stock preparation manpower utilization is more.

11.3. Maintenance:
As 3 roll calendar is as old that’s why it requires more maintenance
than the 4 roll calendar. Manual lubrication is done daily.


12.1. Bead:
Part of tire which comes in contact with the rim.
• Bands of high tensile strength steel
• Encased with rubber
• Coated with special alloys bronze or brass to prevent corrosion
• Copper in the alloy improves bonding of bead to rubber
It provides mechanical strength to fit tire in the wheel.

12.2. Equipments:
Two machines for bead preparation.

12.3. Building:

Spools of steel wires are placed over pulleys which can rotate on the
application of tensile force on the wires. A machine pulls at the same time
all the wires from the coils and an extruder coats rubber on the wires then
automatically it is cut into a circular band of required size by a machine.
Further more if required filler is attached too.

The production of bead building in GTR does not fulfill its requirement
from other departments. Many of the tires building machines were found
down due to the shortage of beads.

12.4. Band:
Band is a set of plies utilized in tire building. Plies are cut according to
the circumferential size of tire and at an angle then are build up on the
machine so that the time for bias tire building is lessened. The plies are
build at opposite angles forming criss cross pattern.

12.5. Building
It is built according to the ply rating of the tire. Distinguished in two
types of building.
• Tractor
• Truck

12.5.1. TRACTOR:
In tractor band building usually drum squeegee is used. That’s why
a different type of machine is used.

12.5.2. TRUCK:
In truck band building no drum squeegee is used. And the plies are
built according to the ply rating of the tire.
The bands are then sent to the bias tire building department. Where
they are utilized in the tire building.
Band building in the company does not fulfill the requirement from
the other departments. More machines are required to be installed.


Since the recent development in the tire industry a new type of tire
has come into notice known as RADIAL tire and the former came to be
known as BIAS tire. Due to the difference in the construction of both types
the tire building is split into two departments one for RADIAL and other for

It is a type of construction of tire in which ply cords extending from
beads are at right angle to the centre line of tread and parallel to each

• Longer life
• Better steering control
• Lower rolling resistance
• Better grip at higher speeds

• Harder ride At low speed on rough road
• Decreased self cleaning
• Lower grip at low speeds

13.2. BIAS TIRE:

A type of construction of tire in which ply cords extending from bead
to bead are at an angle lying between 30 to 40 degrees. Successive plies at
opposing angles are laid over each other to form a crisscross pattern to
which the tread is applied.

• Flexibility in the tire

• Smooth ride on rough surface


• Increased rolling resistance

• Less control
• Less traction on high speed

13.3. Green tire testing:

If any defect is found in the green tire then the material can be
reused hence no scrap. But If the tire is cured then any defect comes out,
the material gets scrap. There are much many defects that are because of
improper building. Some of them can be pointed out by visual inspection but
there are many which cannot be pointed out for example the uniformity of
If the green tire is tested for any defect in it then the scrap of
company can be reduced. There is a system which can monitor the green
tire developed by BYTEWISE. Known as green tire monitoring system.


14.1. PRODUCE:

Green tires of radial construction in which all the components from
component building department are assembled together.

14.2. Radial tire building:

Green tire of radial construction is build up in two stages. In first stage
a carcass is built in which
• Inner liner
• Ply-1
• Bead
• Chafer (if required)
• Side wall
Are assembled on the tire building drum.
In second stage
• Belt -1
• Belt-2
• Cap ply
• Tread
Are assembled over the carcass formed in first stage .the final
product after second stage is green tire and it is ready for curing.

14.3. Tire building machines:

Tire building machines (TBMs) are machines over which tire
components are assembled over a drum to produce green tire.

Radial Tire building department utilizes two different types of TBM
machines. One for the first stage building and other for second stage

This is because a radial tire has steel belts which require actual shape
of tire to get assembled. The steel belts in radial tire consist of thin closely
spaced steel cords calendared with rubber. And then cut in angle to
increase the individual length of each cord. Finally two belts are applied at
different angles to form criss cross pattern.

The main components of first stage machine are

• Drum
• Bead applier
• Turn up assembly

And the main components of second stage machines are

• Belt and tread drum

• Transfer ring
• Expander

The TBM machines in GTR, Radial tire building department are automatic.
Controlled by PLC (program logistic control). Recipes are already fed in the
machines by product industrialization department. An operator and a helper
over a single machine are required for production. Around two and a half
minutes required for a single tire to be built in both stages. This gives the
production of above 200 green tires depending upon the size of tire.

Due to the different downtimes for example no material, machine fault the
production schedule badly suffers. And if no down time is there on the
machine then schedule is achieved and a possibility for over scheduled
production due to the incentive scheme proposed by the industrial
engineering department.

14.4. Downtimes:
On the day of orientation to the department three machines were
found down due to the shortage of material. Machine PB-16, PB-17 and PB-
15 were running short of the sidewalls of the tire they were building. Triplex
extruder responsible for the production of these sidewalls had produced the
sidewalls of that particular tire according to the schedule by the PPC
department one day back.

Another case of shortage of tread was noticed on the machine PR-2

.production was badly suffered because of the shortage. Triplex extruder
was again referred for the production check of last day and it was found
that the production was achieved according to the schedule by the PPC

A specification chart from product industrialization department and a

schedule from the department of production planning and control are
received by the operator for the production of tires.


15.1. PRODUCE:
Green tires of bias construction ready to be cured.


Green tire of bias construction is assembled over a tire building drum
in a single stage. That’s why only one machine is required for the assembly.
The following components are assembled.

• Inner liner
• Band
• Beads
• Chaffer
• Tread

15.3. Tire building machines:

Tire building machines for bias tires are different from that of radial
tire building, as all the components are installed in a single stage and upon
a single machine. The main components of bias tire building machine are.

• Drum
• Bead applicator
• Back tool assembly

6 six tire building machines for truck tire building. The machine fault
frequency is increased and no material condition in the department is also
much more.

On the day of visit to the department production log book and the
schedule from production planning and control department was checked out
and there was a lot of difference in the number of tires to be produced and
the number of tires produced without any downtime. The reason which was
given was that the time study by IE department is of the rating 120 and the
worker operates at the rating of around 90. Another reason which was given
was that different allowances like prayer and bathing are not given in the
time study but are necessary for the worker to perform are not provided in
the time study.

16.1. Purpose:
To prevent hazards, to maintain production and troubleshoot the

16.2. Working:
• On floor maintenance
• Maintenance planning

Every time a machine is being maintained as lubrication is provided to

reduce metal to metal contact between the moving parts.


Maintenance carried out before any hazard or maintenance to

prevent hazard is called prevented maintenance. For prevented
maintenance history of a machine is prepared according to which a yearly
plan for maintenance is prepared acting upon which maintenance is carried


Maintenance which is carried out on prediction of technician is

called predicted maintenance. A technician is assigned to the machine
whose work is to troubleshoot any smaller problems and if he finds any sign
for a big problem he calls for maintenance in which the particular area
which was found to be causing problem is maintained, in another case the
operator raises the work order for any problem he finds out in the machine,
which is received by the maintenance planning department. Then if PPC
department allows, downtime for maintenance is given to that machine.

Any spare part work is done in the workshop in GTR. And if not
possible then outsourcing is done according to the case. Some times foreign
countries are also referred.
16.3. Work shop:
In GTR a work shop is managed in which small and easily
manufacturable parts are fabricated. The main equipments are lathe
machines, milling machines and drilling machines etc. Easily repairable
parts are repaired in the workshop and reused.

16.4. Tool shop:

In GTR a tool shop is managed which provides almost all the tools
required for maintaining any machine in GTR. Tools are provided to any
mechanic from GTR on loan basis. Mechanic after use returns it back to the
tool shop.

17.1. Produce:
The curing is where tires get their final shape and tread pattern. Hot
molds like giant waffle irons shape and vulcanize the tire. The molds are
engraved with the tread pattern, the sidewall markings of the manufacturer
and those required by law.

17.2. Equipments:
Curing machines commonly known as Press. These machines are
installed with the particular size of mold in which tire is cooked by means of
heat and pressure which is in the form steam or hot water depending on the
type of machine being used.

17.3. Curing machine:

A green tire is placed inside a large mold for the curing process. A tire
mold is shaped like a monstrous metal clam which opens to reveal a large,
flexible balloon called a bladder. The green tire is placed over the bladder
and, as the clamshell mold closes, the bladder fills with steam and expands
to shape the tire and force the blank tread rubber against the raised interior
of the mold.
During this curing process, the steam heats the green tire up to 280
degrees. Time in the mold depends on the characteristics desired in the tire.

17.4. Bladder:
The bladder is the flexible rubber that is filled with steam or hot water
when tire is being cured. The bladder is attached to the inside of the mold.

The failure of bladder can cause the tire to become scrap. The
common failure of bladder is the leakage. A single bladder lasts for 200

In GTR there are 139 cavities capable of producing 6000 tires a day.
But the production a day is around 5300 tires.

17.5. Maintenance:
The maintenance of curing machines is assigned to the
instrumentation department inside area 3. The downtime frequency due to
machine fault is more which can be reduced by prevented maintenance
during the downtime for no material condition.

The cured tires are then sent or received by the final finish

Each tire is thoroughly inspected for flaws such as bubbles or voids in the
rubber of the tread, sidewall, and interior of the tire. Then the trimming of
the vent rubber is done then again the inspection is carried out in which
more closely a tire is inspected. Bulge test is also done. If anything is wrong
with the tire – if anything even seems to be wrong with the tire, even the
slightest blemish – it is rejected. Some flaws are caught by an inspector's
trained eyes and hands; others are found by specialized machines.

18.1. Bulge test:

Every tire is mounted on the rim and is inflated with an air pressure of
40 psi. Then if any penetration of air is found in the tire it is rejected. This
can be checked by any bubble appearing in the tire after it is inflated.

Most of the defects in the tires are due to improper building of the

Tires that qualify from all the inspections are sent to product
evaluation department.


The products that are qualified from all the tests are sent to finish
good ware house for the shipment to the dealers or OEMs. The delivery of
tires from finish good ware house is done by the invoice which comes from
the sales department. The storage and handling tires is done manually or by
the cranes which can handle a batch of products.

The art of handling the goods in the ware house is a great job.
Accommodating more and more goods in a proper manner in a small area
requires skills of handling. Easy withdrawal of goods at the time of shipment
is made possible.

20.1. Purpose:
To check the performance of the tire and evaluate it according to the
specifications provided by the product industrialization department.
20.2. Working:
Quality control begins with the suppliers of the raw materials. Today,
a tire manufacturer seeks suppliers who test the raw materials before they
are delivered to the tire plant. A manufacturer will often enter into special
purchasing agreements with a few suppliers who provide detailed
certification of the properties and composition of the raw materials. To
insure the certification of suppliers, tire company chemists make random
tests of the raw materials as they are delivered.
Throughout the batch mixing process, samples of the rubber are
drawn and tested to confirm different properties such as tensile strength
and density. Each tire assembler is responsible for the tire components
used. Code numbers and a comprehensive computer record-keeping system
allow plant managers to trace batches of rubber and specific tire

When a new tire design is being manufactured for the first time,
hundreds of tires are taken from the end of the assembly line for destructive
testing. Some of the tires, for example, are sliced open to check for air
pockets between body plies, while others are pressed down on metal studs
to determine puncture resistance. Still other tires are spun rapidly and
forced down onto metal drums to test mileage and other performance
A variety of nondestructive evaluation techniques are also used in tire
quality control. X-ray videography provides a quick and revealing view
through a tire. In an X-ray tire test, a tire is selected at random and taken to
a radiation booth where it is bombarded with X-rays. A test technician views
the X-ray image on a video screen, where tire defects are easily spotted. If a
defect shows up, manufacturing engineers review the specific steps of tire
component assembly to determine how the flaw was formed.
In addition to internal testing, feedback from consumers and tire
dealers is also correlated with the manufacturing process to identify process

20.2.1. Tire uniformity machines:

A tire when enters or exits the foot print it deforms, rubber is
compressed during this cycle due to which some forces are imparted on the
vehicle which depends upon the uniformity of tire. The uniformity of tire is
characterized by the three forces

• Radial force variation

• Lateral force variation
• Tangential force variation

These forces are measured by the tire uniformity machine which
provides the exact value of the forces which are imparted. The machine has
a rim in which the tire is mounted and inflated with the air. Then it is run on
the pulley whose circumferential area is as like that of road. The sensors
installed in the machine check the performance of the tire and display I ton
the computer.

The high point (a point at where the weight of tire is more) is also
marked with a colored spot which helps the tire consumers to balance the

21. SALES:
21.1. Purpose:
To sell the products of industry. And to reveal and forecast the
demand of product in the replacement market.

21.2. Working:
The sales department receives the demand from the dealers all over
the country. GTR has 120 dealers all over the country divided in 8 zones.
Additionally surveys are done. Keeping in view the total number of vehicles
running on the roads of Pakistan a replacement factor is calculated
according to the formula

Replacement factor= Number of tires in the vehicle

Years of service
By the replacement factor the demand from all over the country is
optimized and forwarded to the PRODUCTION PLANNING AND CONTROL

Our visit to the company was very helpful. All the personals we were
referred to were very cooperative. We learned a lot by them and their

Special thanks to the INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING department and

specially Mr. Tahir Hussain who guided us a lot about the company and
regarding our field.


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