You are on page 1of 136

A Reading Course in

Homeric Greek
Book 2
Third Edition

Leslie Collins Edwards


based on the edition by Raymond V. Schoder, S.J., M.A., Ph.D. and Vincent C. Horrigan, S.J., M.A.

A Reading Course
in
Homeric Greek
book 2

Third Edition

A Reading Course
in
Homeric Greek
book 2

Third Edition

Leslie Collins Edwards

based on the edition by Raymond V. Schoder, S.J., M.A., Ph.D.


and Vincent C. Horrigan, S.J., M.A.

A Reading Course in Homeric Greek, Book 2. Third Edition


2008 Chicago Province of the Society of Jesus
Additional materials 2008 Focus Publishing / R Pullins Co. Inc.
Focus Publishing/R. Pullins Company
PO Box 369
Newburyport, MA 01950
www.pullins.com
Cover: Book 4 The Iliad Series (mixed media on paper) 2002 Merle Mainelli Poulton.
ISBN 978-1-58510-705-6
Also available in paperback (ISBN 978-1-58510-176-4). To see all available eBook versions, visit www.pullins.com. Some content that appears in the print edition may not be
available in other formats.
All rights are reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a
retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, by
photocopying, recording, or by any other means, without the prior written permission
of the publisher. If you have received this material as an examination copy free of charge,
Focus Publishing/R. Pullins Company retains the title to the information and it may not
be resold. Resale of any examination copies of Focus Publishing/R. Pullins Company
materials is strictly prohibited.
Last updated April 2013

Table of Contents
PREFACE.............................................................................................................................. viii
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS..................................................................................................... ix
ABBREVIATIONS...................................................................................................................x
LESSON I..................................................................................................................................3
TEXT Od. 6. 1-10
NEW GRAMMAR: First Declension Masculine
LESSON II.................................................................................................................................5
TEXT Od. 6. 11-24
NEW GRAMMAR: Present Indicative, Subjunctive, Optative, Imperative,
Infinitive and Participle Active of I go, I shall go.
LESSON III...............................................................................................................................8
TEXT Od. 6. 25-40
LESSON IV.............................................................................................................................10
TEXT Od. 6. 41-56
NEW GRAMMAR: Present Indicative, Infinitive and Participle Active
of I say, I assert and Present and Imperfect Indicative of I sit
LESSON V...............................................................................................................................13
TEXT Od. 6. 57-70
LESSON VI.............................................................................................................................15
TEXT Od. 6. 71-84
LESSON VII............................................................................................................................17
TEXT Od. 6. 85-98
NEW GRAMMAR: Result and Purpose Infinitives
LESSON VIII..........................................................................................................................19
TEXT Od. 6. 99-114
LESSON IX.............................................................................................................................21
TEXT Od. 6. 115-129
LESSON X...............................................................................................................................23
TEXT Od. 6. 130-144
NEW GRAMMAR: Crasis
LESSON XI.............................................................................................................................25
TEXT Od. 6. 145-159
NEW GRAMMAR: Declension of , ,
LESSON XII............................................................................................................................27
TEXT Od. 6. 160-174
LESSON XIII..........................................................................................................................29
TEXT Od. 6. 175-190
LESSON XIV..........................................................................................................................31
TEXT Od. 6. 191-205
NEW GRAMMAR: The Demonstrative , , this
LESSON XV............................................................................................................................33
TEXT Od. 6. 206-222
LESSON XVI..........................................................................................................................35
TEXT Od. 6. 223-237
NEW GRAMMAR: Imperfect Indicative of I (shall) go
v

A Reading Course in Homeric Greek


LESSON XVII.........................................................................................................................37
TEXT Od. 6. 238-250
LESSON XVIII.......................................................................................................................38
TEXT Od. 6. 251-274
LESSON XIX..........................................................................................................................41
TEXT Od. 6. 275-288
NEW GRAMMAR: introducing an infinitive clause
LESSON XX............................................................................................................................43
TEXT Od. 6. 289-299
NEW GRAMMAR: Further Vowel Contraction
LESSON XXI..........................................................................................................................45
TEXT Od. 6. 300-315
LESSON XXII.........................................................................................................................47
TEXT Od. 6. 316-331
LESSON XXIII.......................................................................................................................51
TEXT Od. 12. 1-15
LESSON XXIV.......................................................................................................................53
TEXT Od. 12. 16-28
LESSON XXV.........................................................................................................................54
TEXT Od. 12. 29-54
LESSON XXVI.......................................................................................................................57
TEXT Od. 12. 55-72
NEW GRAMMAR: Present Indicative, Infinitive, and
Participle Active of I send
LESSON XXVII......................................................................................................................59
TEXT Od. 12. 73-100
LESSON XXVIII....................................................................................................................62
TEXT Od. 12. 101-126
NEW GRAMMAR: and with supplementary participle
LESSON XXIX.......................................................................................................................65
TEXT Od. 12. 127-152
LESSON XXX.........................................................................................................................67
TEXT Od. 12. 153-172
LESSON XXXI.......................................................................................................................69
TEXT Od. 12. 173-194
LESSON XXXII......................................................................................................................71
TEXT Od. 12. 195-221
NEW GRAMMAR: Genitive Absolute
LESSON XXXIII....................................................................................................................73
TEXT Od. 12. 222-246
LESSON XXXIV....................................................................................................................75
TEXT Od. 12. 247-270
LESSON XXXV......................................................................................................................77
TEXT Od. 12. 271-296
LESSON XXXVI....................................................................................................................79
TEXT Od. 12. 297-323
LESSON XXXVII...................................................................................................................81
TEXT Od. 12. 324-351
vi

Table of Contents
LESSON XXXVIII.................................................................................................................83
TEXT Od. 12. 352-376
LESSON XXXIX....................................................................................................................85
TEXT Od. 12. 377-402
LESSON XL.............................................................................................................................87
TEXT Od. 12. 403-425
LESSON XLI...........................................................................................................................89
TEXT Od. 12. 426-453
SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY...................................................................................................91
GREEK-ENGLISH VOCABULARY...................................................................................93
APPENDIX A.......................................................................................................................107
APPENDIX B........................................................................................................................121

vii

Preface

Schoder and Horrigan chose to begin the second volume of their A Reading Course in Homeric
Greek with Book 10 of the Odyssey because that is what, in the poem itself, follows immediately upon
the Cyclops episode that makes up the last half of their first volume. They also opted for a strictly
chronological presentation of the events of the Odyssey, rather than adhering to the poems original ring
compositional structure. Their book is thus a series of excerpts from the Odyssey Books 10, 11, 12, 7, 6,
8, and 13 in that order. The original A Reading Course in Homeric Greek Book 2 also includes some
selections from the Iliad.

I decided to depart from this presentation, and instead to annotate the Iliad Books 6 and 12 in
their entirety. I chose these two books both because of their intrinsic interest and difference from one
another and because the most extended excerpts in Schoder and Horrigans text were from those books.
In addition, a text containing portions of the Odyssey in the original form, rather than chopped up and
rearranged, is more suited to a college-level course.

The format and structure of the lessons will be familiar from Homeric Greek Book 1. Odyssey
passages of from about ten to twenty-five lines are labeled Text. Vocabulary is given in two places in each
lesson. Under the heading Memorize are the words more frequently found, either in general or in this
volumes passages. The vocabulary words printed beneath the text in smaller font occur less frequently but
are necessary to translate the passage. The Greek-English Vocabulary includes all of the words from the
Memorize sections in both volumes.

The Notes have been considerably expanded and revised from those in the original Homeric
Greek Book 2. In particular, on questions of morphology and syntax, I have tried to cite relevant sections of
Book 1 when possible. These notes now contain almost exclusively grammatical information, since I have
found that students cease even to look at notes if such practical information is buried under discussions
of, to them, less pressing matters. For this reason, thematic commentary has been separated from the
grammatical notes and placed in shaded boxes.

As did Schoder and Horrigan, I have included some brief explanations of additional points of
grammar not covered in Homeric Greek Book 1. These sections are labeled New Grammar.

Although this volume assumes a foundation provided by Homeric Greek Book 1, it should be
possible to use this text in a second-year Greek course without first having used Book 1 or without making
reference to it. The instructor may need to fill in information here and there, or encourage the students to
consult a standard grammar on their own.

The second year of Greek is always a difficult transition. Even the best students need some help
recalling the morphology and syntax learned in the first year, and the ascent can be trying for the rest of
them. I hope that this text will support these students as they try to get over the hump, so that they can
enjoy the view on the other side.
Leslie Collins Edwards
2007

viii

Acknowledgments

Without the encouragement and support of Ron Pullins at Focus Publishing, I would never have
undertaken this volume. I also owe a tremendous debt of gratitude to Kathleen Brophy, Linda Diering,
and Cindy Zawalich at Focus. They were endlessly patient, cheerful and efficient in shepherding this
manuscript through its various stages, and I felt confident in relying on their expert judgments on many
issues. The comments of the reviewers, Michael Shaw at the University of Kansas and Tom Winter at the
University of Nebraska at Lincoln, significantly improvevd my efforts. Greek students, past and present, at
the University of California at San Diego, whose practical problems in learning to read Greek have guided
me in writing this book.

ix

ABBREVIATIONS
acc.
act.
adj.
adv.
aor.
cf.
comp.
conj.
dat.
decl.
def.
f.
fut.
gen.
impf.
impt.
ind.
indecl.
indef.
inf.
interr.
intr.
irreg.
m.
mid.
m.-p.
n.
neg.
nom.
obj.
opt.
pass.
pers.
pf.
pl.
plpf.
prep.
pres.
pron.
ptc.
rel.
sg.
sub.
subj.
supl.
syst.
trans.
vb.
voc.
w.
+

accusative
active
adjective
adverb
aorist
compare
comparative
conjunction
dative
declension
definite
feminine
future
genitive
imperfect
imperative
indicative
indeclinable
indefinite
infinitive
interrogative
intransitive
irregular
masculine
middle
middle-passive
neuter
negative
nominative
object
optative
passive
person
perfect
plural
pluperfect
preposition
present
pronoun
participle
relative
singular
subject
subjunctive
superlative
system
transitive
verb
vocative
with
followed by, takes, with

Book Six

Context
Still angry because of Odysseus blinding
of his son Polyphemus, Poseidon wrecks
Odysseus raft as he sails near Scheria,
the island of the Phaeacians. The nymph
Leucothea and the goddess Athena save him
from the storm. Odysseus manages to swim
ashore at the mouth of a river; he supplicates

the river-god for help, the current becomes


still, and Odysseus climbs ashore. His body
swollen and exhausted, he lies down in a bed
of rushes and kisses the earth. Odysseus then
finds a sheltered spot in the woods to sleep the
night, and he buries himself in a pile of leaves.
Athena pours sleep upon his eyes.

Lesson I
1.MEMORIZE
-, etc.
, - [m.]
, -
, - [m.]
, ,
(), () [m.]
[m. adj. nom. only]
[adv.]
, [n.]
, [m. pl.]

I stand up; I cause to rise up


people, realm
godlike
toil, weariness
I inhabit, I dwell
Odysseus
much-enduring, unflinching [epithet of Odysseus]
before, sooner; [conj. + inf. or subj.] before, until
wall
Phaeacians

2.TEXT Od. 6. 1-10




,
,
, .
,
, ,

.
= [+ gen.] near
, - laboring for their grain [epithet of
men]
, -, - worn out, conquered
, , I divide, I apportion
, , I build
[aor. of ] settled [his people]
[+ gen.] far from
, - spacious [epithet of lands and
cities]

10

- I sleep
, - [m.] Nausithous [son of Poseidon
and father of Alcinous, King of the Phaeacians]
3 pl. iterative of I despoil
, - Scheria [land of the Phaeacians]
, - [f.] Hyperia [the former abode of the
Phaeacians]
, - [ptc. as adj.] arrogant
, -, - [comp. of ] better, more
powerful

A Reading Course in Homeric Greek


3.NOTES
1
6
7

8
9
5

there, i.e., on the island of Scheria, home of the Phaeacians. At 5. 29-42 we are told
that in this place Odysseus is destined to escape from his wanderings.
should be scanned as one syllable (synizesis; 35).
: is aor. act. m. nom sg. ptc. of -
with the understood obj. or his people. Translate having removed his people
from there Nausithous led them means swift in ships. You will notice that
many of the Phaeacian names have nautical etymologies. Nausithous is a descendant of
Poseidon, and, besides being the father of the current Phaeacian King Alcinous, he is also
the grandfather of Queen Arete.
: for the declension of see New Grammar below, 4.
for (the benefit of) the city.
: Before we meet any of the Phaeacians, we
are told that they, much like Odysseus, are the ethical antitheses of the Cyclopes,
who were once their neighbors (3-6). The Phaeacians, like Odysseus, do not excel
in physical force, and the Cyclopes are more powerful ( ,
6); to escape the violent harassment of the Cyclopes, the Phaeacians migrated to
Scheria (5-8). Besides this instance, the verb is used of those ultimate
antagonists of Odysseus, the suitors; the word is used in the context of their
disrespectful behavior towards Telemachus and Odysseus (2. 266, 324, 331; 4. 766;
17. 581, 21. 361, 401, etc.).

4. NEW GRAMMAR: First Declension Masculine


Masculines of the first declension are declined like feminines except in the nominative, genitive
and vocative singular
Singular

Plural

G.

, -

D.

A.

, -

N.

V.

Note: Attic Greek has in gen. sg.

Lesson II
5.MEMORIZE

, -

,
, [n.]
(), , ()
, [n.]

[adv.]
, - [m.]
, - [keeps throughout
singular] [f.]
, [n.]
, - [f.]
, [f.]
, ,
, - [f.]
, - [m.]
, - [keeps
throughout singular] [f.]
-
, -, -

to (the house of) Hades


Alcinous [king of the Phaeacians]
I lead, I hold sway
gleaming-eyed [epithet of Athena]
house, hall
I appear; I seem (like to) [+ dat.]
appearance, face
I go, I shall go
by now, already, now
bed-room, store-room
goddess
beauty
head
fate, death
I put to sleep; I calm
girl, daughter
word, speech
Nausicaa [daughter of King Alcinous]
I speak to, I address
bright, shining

6.TEXT Od. 6. 11-24

,
, .
,
.
,
,
, ,
, ,
.
,
,
,
, .

15

20

A Reading Course in Homeric Greek


, - [n. pl.] bed
, - [m.] Dumas [a Phaeacian]
() [+ gen.] on either side of
- I am closed
-() I speed toward
, - [n.] only pl. plans, counsels
I devise
, - [adj.] famed for ships

, - [f.] person of like age, contemporary


, - [f.] breath, breeze, blast
, - elaborately adorned
, , I put to sleep
, - [f.] physique
I am pleasing to [+ dat.]
, [f.] the Charites, or Graces
[goddesses associated with Aphrodite]

7.NOTES
11
12
13
14
15
16
19
20
21
23

12

is aor. pass. ptc. nom. m. sg. of , I subdue.


: ptc. from
refers to Alcinous (gen. of possession). is sometimes translated owl-eyed
as if from (owl). In later times, Athena would be associated with the owl.
= , which contracts to . The in has been inserted
to re-lengthen the word for the sake of the meter.
: pres. inf. of . combined with the infinitive of means I start to go or I
set out to go. For the forms of , see New Grammar below, 8.
: both and are acc. of respect (644 in Book 1).
Translate ...similar to the immortal goddesses in figure and face....
on either side of (the) two door posts. is gen. dual.
= 3 pl. plpf. of .
is a non-thematic 2nd aor. of -().
: The verb is made up of both the preposition () and , and
governs both accusatives ( and ). : The two initial epsilons were originally
separated by a digamma: .
is 3 sg. plpf. of . The pf. of this verb has a pres. sense, and the plpf. an
impf. sense: ....and she was pleasing to her heart.

: Like Odysseus, who has () (13. 89),


the Phaeacian king Alcinous is notable for his intelligence. The second element in
his name, , may be connected to and therefore to the central Odyssean
value, intelligence. (Many of the Phaeacian names have appropriate etymologies,
on which see the note at line 7 in 3 above.) As we saw in the Cyclops episode, the
dyssey likes to pit intelligence against physical might (511 in Book I). Moreover,
it associates intelligence with moral virtues such as justice () and proper
hospitality (). Therefore, we may expect that Alcinous will treat Odysseus well.

Lesson II
8. NEW GRAMMAR: Present Indicative, Subjunctive, Optative, Imperative, Infinitive and Participle
Active of I go, I shall go.
The present tense of this verb often has a future sense.
Indicative

Subjunctive

Optative

1 sg.

2 sg.

3 sg.

()

1 pl.

2 pl.

3 pl.

()

Infinitive
Participle

Imperative

, , ,
, ,

Lesson III
9.MEMORIZE
, - [m.]
[adv.]
, [n.]
, (), ()
, ,
-, ,
-, ,
()
, - [m., f.]

() [enclitic adv.]
, - [f.]
, ,
, - [f.]
, [m.]
, -, -

marriage, marriage-feast
for long
garment; [pl.] clothes
I clothe, I put on
I follow [+ dat.]
I exhort [+ acc. and inf.]
I prepare, I equip
mule
I woo
now [usually not temporal]
a young unmarried woman
I wash clothes
queen, lady [title of honor]
foot
shining

10.TEXT Od. 6. 25-40

, ;
,
,
, ,

, .

,
,

, .

,
.

.

25

30

35

40

Lesson III
, - uncared for
, - [m.] a distinguished man
, - [n.] race, stock, family
I make ready
[n.] girdle
, - [adj.] remiss, careless

, - [m.] robe
, - [m.] washing trough
, - [n.] cloth, coverlet
, - [m., f.] fellow-laborer
, - [f.] report, reputation

11.NOTES
25
26
27
28

29
31
32
33

34
35
36
37
39
40

is 3 sg. trans. aor. of : gave birth (to)


= , dat. of possession or person interested
has a temporal meaning here (near in time or soon). Likewise temporal is
(when).
is pres. mid. inf., with a reflexive meaning: to put (clothes) on oneself. Its
subject is and object is (both in 27). stands for (); it is object of
(to provide). is the antecedent to the relative . : The
relative pronoun with () + subj. indicates purpose. Nausicaa will be expected to provide
her attendants with nice, clean clothing on her wedding day.
reputation spreads abroad among people
= metrical variant of , 1 pl. pres. subj. act. of (8 above). : fut.
ptc. to express purpose; see 199 in Book I. : the suffix (422c in Book 1)
is attached to the dat. ptc. agreeing with , obj. of prep. .
: dat. sg. 2 pers. pron. = , unlike in 33 (surely).
is subj. (= ). The middle has a reflexive sense: in order that you may
make yourself ready. Scan the final two syllables of as one (synizesis). Likewise
with . : In Homer, the final syllable before is always long because a
digamma originally followed the delta ().
= (399 in Book 1).
is a dat. of possession (18c in Book 1). = .
The impt. of is used as an interjection: Come! and often preceeds an
impt. or hortatory subj. : Locative of with prep. (before dawn).
: is 3 sg subj. (= ). On the relative pronoun () with () + subj., see
note on line 28 above.
: In this way () it is much more seemly for you
yourself also than.... Supply a linking verb such as .
: far away from with .

Lesson IV
12.MEMORIZE
, -, -
admirable, noble
, ,
I announce (to) [+ dat.]
-, -, - I depart
[adv.]
straightway, at once
, [m.]
king, chief, noble
, ,
I arouse, I awaken [trans.]; [mid.] I wake up [intr.]

I sit
, , ()
I call, I invite
, ,
I come upon
, - or , - Olympus [mountain in Thessaly, home of the gods]
, - [m.]
dream
, , ()
I spread out
, ,
I cheer, I amuse, I comfort; (in mid.) I take pleasure (in)
or () [+ dat.], I take my fill of [+ gen.]
, [m., f.]
parent
13.TEXT Od. 6. 41-56


,

,
,
.
, .
,
,
, ,
.
,


, .

10

45

50

55

Lesson IV
, - [f.] radiance
, - [f.] clear sky
, - dyed in sea-purple
, - cloudless
-, -, - I
marvel at
, - immovable
I moisten
- I speak
, - [n.] seat, abode
- I come near

- I run to, I run over


, - [f.] hearth
, - well-throned [epithet of ]
, - well-robed [epithet of women]
, - [n. pl.] yarn (spun on a distaff)
, -, - famous
I twist (yarn) into threads, I spin (yarn)
- or - I throw together, I cause
to meet
I shake
, - [f.] snow

14.NOTES
42
45
46
47
48
50
52
54
55
56

: The first syllable is lengthened for metrical reasons. : 3 pl. pres. ind of
(15 below). In the 3 pl. pres. with an indefinite subject understood, this verb means
men say or they say.
: 3 sg. pf. pass. with pres. sense: is stretched out or spreads [intr.].
: 3 sg. pf of . Literally, the white radiance (light) has run over
Olympus.
= . is postpositive with , in that (place), i.e., Olympus. : acc. of
extent of time (18d in Book 1).
: 3 sg. aor of .
: in apposition with in 49.
: is pres. inf. of (8 above). On combined with the infinitive of
, see note on line 15, above. : dat. pl of .
: 3 sg. impf. of (15 below).
: 3 sg. aor. mid. of (= ). The middle of this verb is
intransitive, and here takes the dative (she met him...).
: the council (of chiefs). : where.
is 3 aor. ptc. f. nom. of . = .

15. NEW GRAMMAR: Present Indicative, Infinitive and Participle Active of I say, I assert

and Present and Imperfect Indicative of I sit


1 sg.


2 sg.
/

3 sg.
()
1 pl.


2 pl.


3 pl.
()

Infinitive
,
Participle , ,

11

A Reading Course in Homeric Greek


has no thematic vowel and is used only in the present and imperfect. Its stem is -, but the
drops before another or . In the third person plural, is sometimes written as .
Present

Imperfect

1 sg.

2 sg.

3 sg.

1 pl.

2 pl.

3 pl.

Infinitive

Participle
, -, -

12

Lesson V
16.MEMORIZE
, - [f.]
, , or
, -, -
, - [n.]
, , ,
, [n.]
,
, - [m.]
, or [m.]

wagon
I fit together; I am fitted with
lusty, in prime of youth
the chief room of a house; [in pl.] house
I am a care to
child, offspring
three
dancing, the dance
body, flesh, skin

17.TEXT Od. 6. 57-70

,
,
, ;

.
,
,

.


, , .

, .
[= ] I feel embarrassed, I blush
-, , - I speak the name of,
I mention aloud
, - well-wheeled
, - an unmarried youth
I flourish, I am in the prime of life
, -, - clean, spotless
, - newly-washed

60

65

70

I am married
, - [voc. ] [m.] papa
[indecl.] five
, -, - [pf. m.-p. ptc. of I am
dirty]soiled
, - [f.] receptacle, box (fixed on a
wagon)
I am begrudging of [+ gen.]

13

A Reading Course in Homeric Greek


18.NOTES
57
59
60
62

63
67
68
70

14

is a 1st decl. m. noun (4), although the nominative does not appear in Homer; the
word is colloquial and does not appear often in literature. : The
potential opt. in a question is equivalent to a polite request.
: The fut. ptc. here expresses purpose; cf. 199 in Book 1.
agrees with understood, represented by here in this line. here has the
meaning it is fitting. It takes the dative (for you yourself) which is then
attracted into the accusative and infinitive construction (() ).
= . = by hyphaeresis, the disappearance of before a vowel. (
means omission.) Note that can be declined in both the second and third
declensions. is pf. of : are in a state of having been born or, perhaps,
more simply, live.
: pf. of with pres. force.
= .
: anything else. It is neuter.
: pf. ptc. of .

Lesson VI
19.MEMORIZE
, - [f.]
food
[adv.]
outside
, - [n.]
olive oil
, [f.]
clothing
, (-), -
well-polished, well-planed
[epithet of the products of a carpenter]
, ,
I yoke
, - [n. pl.]
reins
, ,
I go
(), -, -
of gold
20.TEXT Od. 6. 71-84

, .


.


, ,
.
,
.
,

, ,
.
, -, - of a goat or goatskin
[adv.] eagerly
, - well-wheeled
, -, - of mules, mule-drawn
, [f.] rattle, clang
, - box, chest
, - [f.] oil-flask
, , I whip

75

80

, - [f.] whip
, - satisfying
I prepare
, - [n.] a relish [i.e., olives, cheese, onions,
meats, fish]
I stretch
- I lead under (the yoke)
, , I anoint

15

A Reading Course in Homeric Greek


21.NOTES
71
76
78
79
80
82
83
84

16

: 3 sg. reduplicated aor. of I give orders. : 3 pl. aor. mid. of


.
is 3 sg. impf. of , as is in the next line ( 485 in Book I).
= . This is a mixed aorist with a first aorist type of stem but second
aorist endings. The verb has an intransitive sense here.
: the subject is Nausicaas mother, not of the previous line. : disyllabic
by synizesis (35).
= (until), here indicating purpose. (Cf. the Irish: Come here till I whack you!)
: epic pres. inf. of , a variant of . The inf. here expresses purpose, and
mules or wagon should be understood as the obj. : gen. (or dat.) dual of
. = the mules (usually f. in Homer).
: the mules were stretching themselves out or pulling.
: also or besides.

Lesson VII
22.MEMORIZE
, - [f.]
, - [m.]
[adv. = ]
, [f.]
, [f.]
, ,
, , ()
[adv., supl. pf. ]
, -
, - [m.]
, ,
, - [f.]
, ,

light; ray
hole, pit
in a specified order, in a row or rows
strife, rivalry
beach
I cleanse
I wash
especially
very beautiful
stream, current
I set in motion, I drive; [mid.] I rush
dry land, land
I anoint

23.TEXT Od. 6. 85-98

,
,
,
.


,
, .
,
,
.

,
.
, - [f.] dogs tooth grass
- I wash away from myself, I wash up
, -, - eddying, swirling
, - never-failing, ever-flowing
- I bring in
[adv. conj.] where
, [f.] pebble
[adv.] richly, plenteously
, - [f.] bank, shore
, - [m.] washing-trough

85

90

95

-, etc. I display
, - [n. pl.] defilement, dirt
I am dirty
I trample, I tread on
[pres. inf. ] I dry
I nibble, I crop
---, etc. I loose from under and out, I
release
--- I flow up and out from beneath

17

A Reading Course in Homeric Greek


24.NOTES
86
87
91
98

: where (spatial) but in 88 is then (temporal), correlative to in 85.


: to clean even very soiled clothing. Understand as
the subject of . The inf. expresses result. See New Grammar below, 25.
: acc. of place to which (18 in Book I).
: See New Grammar below, 25.

25. NEW GRAMMAR: Result and Purpose Infinitives


The infinitive may express purpose.

.
He gave us wine to drink.

.
The milk is for him to drink.

The infinitive may also express result. The result infinitive is usually introduced by the
conjunction (so as to). Negative is .


.
The water is too dark to clean clothes.
(The water is so dark as to be to be unable to clean clothes.)

However, as in line 87 above, the infinitive can express result without .





18

.
Much clear water flowed up to clean even very soiled clothing.
(Water flowed up so plentiful and clear as to be able to clean
even very soiled clothing.)

Lesson VIII
26.MEMORIZE
, [f.]
Artemis [goddess of the hunt, daughter of Zeus and Leto]
, ,
I rejoice (at)
, - [f.]
handmaid
, ,
I arouse, I awaken [trans.]; [mid.] I wake up [intr.]
, - [f.]
deer
, ,
I lead, I guide [+ dat.]
, - [f. adj. and subst.]
pouring arrows [epithet of Artemis]
, - [m.]
boar
, () or () [n.] head
, - [n.]
veil
, -
white-armed
, ,
I fold
[adv.]
easily, at ease
27.TEXT Od. 6. 99-114

,
, ,
.
,
,

, ,

,
,
.

,
,
, ,
.
, - haunting the fields
, - [adj.] unwedded
, -, - known, recognizable
, - [m.] Erymanthus [mountain
between Arcadia and Elis]
, - [adj.] fair-faced
, - [f.] Leto [mother of Artemis and
Apollo]
- I am preeminent among [+ dat.]

100

105

110

, - [n.] forehead
, - [f.] song accompanied by rhythmic
movement; play, sport
, - [n.] mountain
I play, I sport
, -, - of great height
, - [f.] ball
, [m.] Taygetus [mountain range
between Laconia and Messenia]

19

A Reading Course in Homeric Greek


28.NOTES
99
100

101
102
104
105
106
107
108
112
114

20

: aor. pass. 3 pl. (alternate ending to ) of .


: the was a veil worn in public by women of
marriageable age to conceal modestly the head, face and shoulders. When Penelope
appears before the suitors at Odyssey 1.334, she holds a in front of her face. As
W.B. Stanford comments ad loc., the was not generally worn at home; the
fact that Penelope wears it among the Suitors probably shows that she regards them as
strangers. Here, the young womens gesture of casting off their veils assumes that there
are no strange men present, who might be aroused by the sight of their bare faces. :
adverbial, with .
: often takes the gen. is a combination of dancing and singing;
here the young women may be playing a rhythmic ball-game accompanied by their
singing.
: just as. : 8.
: taking pleasure in [+ dat.]. Artemis, goddess of hunting, was called
(queen of beasts).
: obj. of .
: pf., with pres. force, of . is acc of specification (644 in Book I).
: adverbial, with : she over-tops them all and are acc. of
specification or respect (644 in Book I). The pl. is used for the sg.
: concessive. For the verb, understand .
: thought other things or planned otherwise.
: rel. pron. + opt. indicating purpose. : + dat. : acc. of place
to which (18 in Book I).

Lesson IX
29.MEMORIZE
, [f.]
, ,
, - [n.] [only in pl.]
, ,
, - [n.]

shout
I shout
heads, summits
I ponder; I stir up
leaf

30.TEXT Od. 6. 115-129


, .
,

, ;
,
;
,
,

;
.
,

, .
, -, - high, lofty
-, -, -() I surround, I
come around
, -, - using (mortal) speech
, - [f.] queen, princess
, - [f.] whirlpool, eddy
-, -, - I throw in
, - [m.] bush
, - god-fearing
, , I break
, - [n.] the genitals

115

120

125

, - [f.] spring
, - [n.] water-meadow
, -, - grassy
, - [m.] branch
, , I protect, I hide
, - [f.] ball
, - [adj. and subst.] wanton, violent
(person)
-, -, - I emerge
from under [+ gen.]

21

A Reading Course in Homeric Greek


31.NOTES
115
116
117
118
119
120
122
125
126
127
129

: towards or at.
: the subject of this and is still .
: over a great (distance), i.e., loudly.
: sitting up.
: an exclamation, i.e., Woe is me! : indef. interr. adj. Scan as one syllable
(synizesis; 35).
: understand . Cf. the same question asked
before setting out to meet the Cyclops at 9. 175-176 (Book I 508).
: as if it were that of girls.
introduces a question (Is it perhaps that....?).
is probably aor. subj., like , rather than fut. ind. Both would be hortatory
(Let me...). This sense is strongly suggested by the preceding (see the note on 6.
36, above). The in is used in place of for metrical reasons.
is a mixed aorist, with a first aorist stem and second aorist endings (cf. 6. 78 and
note ad loc.).
is governed by in 128.


120f. ,/
; These are the very words Odysseus uses in his address to his assembled
companions before setting out to explore the land of the Cyclopes (9. 175-76, 508
in Book I; cf. also 13. 201f. and 8. 575f.). In the Odyssey, is a quality regularly
opposed, as it is here, to as well as to proper hospitality. Besides the Cyclops
Polyphemus, it is also attributed to the suitors because of their misbehavior in
Odysseus household, i.e., their consumption of his households wealth through their
continuous partying (1. 227, etc.), and their mistreatment of guests and servants
(17. 565, etc.). When the suitors are killed, Penelope conjectures that a god has
accomplished this deed to punish their (23. 63f.). Accordingly, the suitors are
said to be unjust (e.g., 2. 282, 14. 90). : In the Odyssey, when this adjective is
used of specific characters, it is used most often of Polyphemus; but it is also applied
to the monster Scylla (12. 119) and to the Giants (7. 206). Otherwise it is used in
constructions much like this one, to describe a type of people who are not or
, i.e., do not conform to the laws of civilization in their behavior towards
others. It is also used of the wild goats who populate the forested and pristine island
near the land of the Cyclopes in which Odysseus sees so much potential for the
improvements of civilization (9. 119 and 116-141 passim); while there is certainly no
fault to be found in these goats for being , Odysseus clearly finds something
objectionable (and expects his Phaeacian audience to, as well) in the wild
Cyclopes failure to develop this real estate. By contrast, in the Iliad the word does
not carry the same morally pejorative undertones when used of humans. The heroes
Diomedes, Hector and Achilles are described as while they are dominant on
the battlefield (6.97, 8. 96, 21. 314) though in each of these instances the speaker
wishes to put an end to the warriors aristeia.

22

Lesson X
32.MEMORIZE

, - [f.] [dat. sg. ]
, - [f.]
[adv.]
, - [n.]

, ,
, [n.]
, - [m.]
, -
, [m.]
[nom. dual]
, -, -

I blow
defence, prowess
brine, briny crust
opposite; [prep. + gen.] over against, before
limb
I light up; [pass.] I blaze
I show
fear, terror
house, room
fair-tressed
lion
(two) eyes
frightful, terrible

33.TEXT Od. 6. 130-144

, ,
,




, .
,
.

.
,
,

, .
, -, - wild
() [adv.] some one way, others another
way
[adv.] standing aloof, at a distance
, -, - naked
, - [adj.] fair-faced
, - [f.] beach, seashore, strand

130

135

140

, - [n.] boldness
I disfigure, I maltreat
-, etc. I mingle with [+ dat.]
, - mountain-bred
-, etc. I project, I jut out
, , I flee (in fright)
I rain

23

A Reading Course in Homeric Greek


34.NOTES
130

: See the note at line 15. : after introducing a simile is common and
has a generalizing force. : pf. ptc. of with pres. sense (trusting in + dat.).
131 : See 8 above. : passive (being rained upon). : passive ptc. of .
: adverbial (within).
133 : the lion has to chase after the wild deer, unlike the domestic
flocks.
134 : fut. ptc. indicating purpose, with subject in 133; cf. 199 in Book 1. :
even. : the carefully-closed sheepfold.
136 : understand as obj.
137 : pf. m. ptc. (disfigured).
138 = - by crasis. See New Grammar, 35 below.
140 : is direct obj., is gen. of separation (18 in Book I).
141 : holding her ground.
142 takes , a gen. following a verb signifying to touch or take hold of. :
this opt. and in 144 are in secondary sequence indirect question (214 and 465 in
Book 1).
143 : just as (where) he was, i.e., .
144 : more indirect question.
35. NEW GRAMMAR: Crasis
You have seen a few methods by which Greek prevented two vowel sounds from coming together
in adjoining syllables. If the two vowel sounds came together within a word, they frequently
contracted them to one vowel sound, as in the example of in line 67, a contraction of .
Sometimes the two vowel sounds were simply pronounced as one, as in synizesis. There is an
example of synizesis in in line 119. If the successive vowel sounds occurred between two
words, a movable might be placed at the end of the first word, or the final vowel sound of the
first word might be dropped in elision. Sometimes, however, neither elision nor the movable is
possible.
Crasis (, mingling) is a type of vowel contraction. A vowel or diphthong at the end of a
word may contract with a vowel that begins the next word. A mark called a coronis (,
curved line) is placed above the contracted syllable (). This is why in line 138 appears
to have a smooth breathing mark over the middle of the word. That mark is actually a coronis
placed to mark the crasis of the omicron at the end of and the with which begins;
and contract to . (For the purposes of crasis, the preposition and the verb are
considered two words.)
Other examples of crasis are (= , those other things) and (=
, they showed forth).

24

Lesson XI
36.MEMORIZE

or , - [n. pl.]
, ,


, ,
, (),

I supplicate
bride-price, dowry
I warm, I melt, I soften (the heart)
I see, I look
I dwell, I inhabit; I am situated; I exist
such (as this); such (as that)
I anger; [mid.] I am angry (with) [+ dat. of person]

37.TEXT Od. 6. 145-159

,
,
.

, ;
, ,
, ,

, ,
,

,
.
,
.
[adv.] supl. of
=
, - [f.] queen [only of goddesses]
[adv.] standing aloof, at a distance
, , I am heavy; I prevail
[defective verb] it seemed, it appeared
I liken (someone) to [+ acc., + dat.]

145

150

155

- I come in, I enter


[adv.] preeminently, most
, - [f.] gladness, merriment
, - [n.] young shoot, young person
, -, - profitable, cunning
, - [n.] stature, height
, [f.] physique

25

A Reading Course in Homeric Greek


38.NOTES
147
150
152
154
157
158
159

: dat. 3rd pers. pron., subject of . : in 142, this verb took the gen.,
but here it takes an acc. direct obj. : acc. of specification (644 in Book 1).
: rel. pron. whose antecedent is a implied in .
: acc. of specification (644 in Book 1).
..... : is understood.
: agreeing in sense with the dat. of possession in 155 ().
should, strictly speaking, agree with the neuter , but since in this case the is
Nausicaa, the ptc. is attracted into the f. gender.
: superlative of .
: obj. of rather than . is subjunctive in a Future More Vivid
condition (247a in Book 1); understand as the verb in 158.

39. NEW GRAMMAR: Declension of , , such (as this, as that)


- and are not declined; --, --, -- are declined in the manner of first and second
declension adjectives such as , -, -. For example,

26

f. dat. sg. = -- ()
n. acc. pl. = -- ()

Lesson XII
40.MEMORIZE
[adv.]
[adv.]
, - [f.]
[adv.]
, [n.]
, -, -
, - [f.]
,
() [adv.]
, ,
, [n.]
, -, -
[adv.]
, - [f.]

in the same way, just (so)


here, hither
blast, storm
thither
care, woe
young, fresh, new
island
wine-colored [epithet of the sea and of cattle]
before
I stop; [mid.] I cease
sorrow, grief
such
(for) so long; meanwhile
Ogygia [a mythical island, residence of the nymph Calypso]

41.TEXT Od. 6. 160-174

,
.


, ,
,
,
, ,
, , ,
.


,

, .
I admire
- I come up
, - [m.] altar; pedestal
, - [m.] Delos [the central island of the
Cyclades]
, -, - twentieth
, - [n.] sapling, young tree

160

165

170

-, -, - I cast (down or ashore)


, -, - swift
[indecl. n.] awe
[pf. with pres. sense] I am amazed
, - [f.] palm tree
I bear (repeatedly)
, -, - of yesterday, yesterday

27

A Reading Course in Homeric Greek


42.NOTES
162
165
166
167
170
171
173
174

28

Delos was especially noted for a cult of Apollo; Leto stabilized herself as she gave birth
to Apollo and Artemis by throwing her arms around a palm tree (Cf. Homeric Hymn to
Apollo 115-119), which was consequently sacred.
: cognate acc. (602 in Book 1) : 237 in Book I.
: the comparison is in reversed order (Just so did I admire itas I
admire you). : the palm sapling, too (as well as Nausicaa).
: refers to the trunk of the young tree
: an adj. of time used instead of an adv.
: for all of that time (twenty days, 170). : the verb agrees with its
nearer subject only, though it agrees in sense with both.
: purpose subjunctive (98b in Book 1).
: understand as subject acc. : modifies an implied . :
i.e., before the evils stop.

Lesson XIII
43.MEMORIZE
, -, -
, -

[adv.]
, ,
, ,

opposite; towards; in reply


hostile
I pity
nevertheless
I hear (the sound of), I attend to
I toil, I suffer

44.TEXT Od. 6. 175-190

, ,
,
, .
, ,
.
, ,
,
,

,
.

, ,
,
, ,
, .
-, -, - I throw around
, - [f.] queen, protectress
I speak, I address
, - [adj.] foolish, thoughtless
, - [n.] wrapper
, - [m.] well-wisher
, - stronger, mightier
I have in mind, I am bent upon

175

180

185

190

, - [n.] thought, plan


I am of like mind, I sympathize
, - [f.] oneness of mind, concord
, - Olympian, dwelling on Olympus
[rel. adv.] in such manner as, as
, - [n.] rag
, - [n.] a covering; [in pl.] clothes
, - [n.] joy, cause of joy

29

A Reading Course in Homeric Greek


45.NOTES
175
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
189
190

30

is moved from its normal position as object of to show strong emphasis. It is modified
by in 176.
: Odysseus has not yet seen the city but he knows from the presence of the girls that
it must be quite near.
: See 473 in Book I. : the epsilon is lengthened because of an original initial
digamma in the following word (). : middle with reflexive sense. On
the infinitive, see 25 (purpose inf.).
: See 15.
: See 473 in Book I.
are in apposition with in 180. , however, is the object
of .
= (). is gen. of comparison with (stronger and better
than this). is then an expansion of the gen. of comparison (than this, when).
and are both duals with as subjects. is
subjunctive in a Pres. General construction (247b in Book 1).
: understand , here and with in 185.
: for the declension, see 4. : gnomic aor.; translate as if pres. tense.
There have been many opinions as to the meaning of and the phrase
. Perhaps and they hear it (i.e., realize it) most of all themselves.
: subjunctive in a Pres. General conditional relative construction (247b in
Book 1); the main verb is in 188. = .
: pf. inf. of in an acc. and inf. construction with (270 in Book I).

Lesson XIV
46.MEMORIZE
, ,
, [f.]
, ,

I meet
strife
this

47.TEXT Od. 6. 191-205

, ,
,
.
,
,
,
.
,
;
;
,

.
,
, .
or , , I lack [+ gen.]
, -, - living, nimble
- it is fitting [+ acc. and inf.]
- I mingle with [+ dat.]
, - extreme, most remote

195

200

205

, - [m.] suppliant
=
, - much-surging
[interr. adv.] whither?
, -, - sorely tired, much-suffering

48.NOTES
193

194
197

= : The understood would be partitive gen. with


(anything else of those things). is genitive because must be understood,
on the strength of in the preceding line (which it is fitting for a suppliant not
to lack.) : for the declension, see 4. : the subject is , and the
understood object .
= .
: (middle) can mean I hinge upon and
take the genitive with or without a preposition. Here, the preposition follows its object
(= ), referring to Alcinous. Translate: on whom hinge the strength and force of the
Phaeacians.
31

A Reading Course in Homeric Greek


198
199

: 3 sg. impf. of I speak.


: Ethical dative (18 in Book I) in which the personal pronoun has the force of for my
sake or even simply I beg you.
200 : + ind. introduce a question to which the expected answer is no
(Surely you dont?) : 2 pl. pres. mid. of , with the same meaning as the
active. Here, the verb means you deem with the acc. and inf. in indirect
statement (114 in Book 1).
201 : rather than is used in Homer with the subjunctive as a rough
equivalent of the future indicative.
202 : subjunctive in a Pres. (or fut., cf. and note at 201) General conditional
relative construction (247b in Book 1).
203 : understand .
205 is Aeolic for .
49. NEW GRAMMAR: The Demonstrative , , this
and both mean this. Sometimes they are used without distinction. In general,
however, there are two differences:
1. refers more often to the first person; , more to the second person.


this hand (of mine)


this man (you are interested in)
2. refers more often to the future; , more to the past.

.
I shall say this (something to follow).

.
He said these things (things just reported).
Here is the declension:
Masculine
Feminine Neuter
Nom. Sg.
Gen.
, -

, -
Dat.
Acc.
Nom. Pl.
Gen.

Dat.
() ()
()
Acc.

32

Lesson XV
50.MEMORIZE
, or , - [f.]
[adv.]
, -
, ,
-
, [f.]
, [n.]
, [n.]
, [m.]
[adv.]
, - [m.]

food
long
wretched, unfortunate
I wash
I speak among [+ dat.]
drink
shelter
mantle, cloak
tunic
quickly, swiftly
shoulder

51.TEXT Od. 6. 206-222

,

, .
, , ,
, .
210
, ,
,
,
,
,
215
.

, ,
,
.
220

.
, - [f.] ointment
[adv.] openly, before the eyes of a company
-, -, - I wash off
I make naked
, - [f.] gift, loan

I tend, I care for


, - [f.] oil-flask
- I mingle with [+ dat.]
, - [m.] beggar
, - [f.] stream

33

A Reading Course in Homeric Greek


52.NOTES
207
209
210
211
212
214
216
218
219
220
221

34

= , which is the direct obj. of .


: for the form, see 473 in Book I.
: is a contracted form of , given in Lesson VII (22). is adverbial, at
hand.
= .
: aor. of with irregular augment. This form of is transitive: They had
Odysseus sit down beside the shelter.
= . : is predicative (a mantle and a tunic for
clothing).
: middle voice (to wash himself).
= .
: dual gen. of separation. (and in 220) : aor. subj. in a purpose
clause (= , ); cf. 98b in Book 1. is adverbial.
: For truly ointment has been away from my skin for
a long time.
gives the fut. ind. a less positive force (I would not wash myself).

Lesson XVI
53.MEMORIZE
, ,
, -
-, -, - or
, - [f.]
, -, -

I anoint
that yields no crops, barren [epithet of the sea]
I pour down; [mid.] I fall down
hair
graceful, pleasing

54.TEXT Od. 6. 223-237

, , .

,
.
,
,
, ,
,
, .

,
, ,
.
,
.
, - [adj.] unwedded
- I surround, I cover
, - [= , -] Athena
, - [n.] flower
, , I am instructed; I teach
-, -, -, - I am
born from
, - Hephaestus [god of fire and metalwork]
I look (with wonder)
, - [adj.] skilled
[adv.] richly, unctuously

225

230

235

I wash
, -, - wooly, curly
, - [f.] Pallas [Brandisher; epithet of
Athena]
, - [m. adj.] thicker [comp. of ]
- I pour about, I overlay
I wipe off
I am resplendent
=
, - [f.] skill, art
, -, - of the hyacinth
, - [m.] salty crust

35

A Reading Course in Homeric Greek


55.NOTES
223
224
225
228
229
230
231
232
233
235

: See New Grammar, 56 below.


: abbreviated expression for with water from the river. : with second
accusative of what is washed off.
: pl. for sg.
: from .
: caused to be or made. : pf. ptc. from -; see the note on line
62, above.
: On the explanatory (also called epexegetic) infinitive, see 588 in Book I. Lines
230-235 = 23. 157-162, in the presence of Penelope, who is unable to recognize Odysseus in
this form.
: from .
: with . = (aor. subj. in Pres. General construction: 247b
in Book 1).
: In this reduplicated aor. of , the verb means taught rather than learned.
The verb takes a double acc. obj. of the person taught () and the subject taught (
).
are in apposition with .

56. NEW GRAMMAR: Imperfect Indicative of I (shall) go


1 sg.
2 sg.
3 sg.
1 pl.
2 pl.
3 pl.

36

/ /

/
/

/ /

Lesson XVII
57.MEMORIZE
[prep. + gen.]
, ,
, -, -
[adv.]
, [f.]
, [m.]

against the will of


I am pleasing (to) [+ dat.]
godlike
right here, right there
food
husband

58.TEXT Od. 6. 238-250


, , .
, ,
240

,
, .

, .
245
, , .
, ,
.

.
250
, -, - mean, shabby
, - not partaking of (food or drink)
(+gen.)
[adv.] voraciously

[impf. of defective verb] he seemed, he


appeared
-, -, - I mingle with [+ dat.]

59.NOTES
239

: can take the gen. of the person or thing heard (as at 247), but also the dat.,
i.e., Attend to me.
240 : with .
244 (= ) introduces a wish (106a in Book I). : pf. pass. ptc. of .
is a periphrasis (circumlocution), i.e., the use of more words than are
necessary to express an idea. Translate might be called. The subject is , and
is predicative.
245 : dat. pronoun after . The subject of is the inf. (114 in Book 1).
247 : very willingly.
248 = . : for the form, see 485 in Book I.
37

Lesson XVIII
60.MEMORIZE
, - [f.]
place of assembly; assembly
, - [m.]
field, country [as opposed to city]

I avoid, I shun
, - [f. adj.]
easily directed [epithet of ships]
[adv.]
apart; around; [prep. + acc., usually following its case]
about, around
, -
sagacious
, ,
I lead the way

, -, -
equal
, [m.]
stone
, [m.]
harbor
, ,
I name, I call (by name)
() [adv.]
hereafter, back, behind
, - [n.]
tool; rope
, , ,
I incite, I raise; [mid.] I rush, I speed
[aor. mid. also ()]
, ,
I urge on; I send
, ,
I cross, I traverse, I pass through
, - [m.]
turreted wall; tower built into a wall
, -
overbearing
61.TEXT Od. 6. 251-274


,
, .

, , ,
,
, .

,

.
,
, ,

.
,
38

255

260

265

Lesson XVIII
.
,
, .
,
,
.
,

I exult in [+ dat.]
, - harsh, unkind
I care for
I lack understanding
- I sharpen, I taper
, - [m.] a bow
, - [f.] an entrance
() [adv.] on either side; [prep. + gen.] on
either side of
, - [n.] boat slip; boat house
, - embedded in the ground

270

, - solid-hoofed [epithet of horses


and mules]
I blame, I reproach
, - [n.] rope, cable
, - [m.] citizen
, - [n.] a temple of Poseidon
, - [m. adj.] quarried, dug out of the earth
, - [f.] cable
, - [f.] a quiver for arrows
, - [f.] speech, talk

62.NOTES
253
255
257
258
259

260
261
262

265
266

= ; take with .
: imperative of a rare mixed aorist, with first aorist stem and second aorist
endings.
is a fut. inf. of , with the subject in 256 and the object the noun clause
() .
: infinitive as imperative (148 in Book 1).
is subjunctive of (8) with thematic vowel unlengthened for metrical reasons.
The subjunctive is used here in an indefinite temporal clause introduced by the relative
adverb a conditional relative construction of the Future More Vivid pattern (247a
in Book 1). The demonstrative adverb is the antecedent to the relative .
: are the objects of an understood preposition such as (though). here
means the worked (fields), i.e., the cultivated lands.
: behind.
: infinitive as imperative (148 in Book 1).
(= ) marks a protasis of a Future More Vivid construction (247a in Book 1),
but Nausicaa forgets to give us the apodosis. is second aorist subjunctive (with
shortened thematic vowel) of , which takes the genitive. is postpositive.
is the city wall with projecting towers; understand with it (as with
and in the following lines).
: And maneuverable ships are drawn up along (or to,
acc. of extent) the road. is 3 pl. pf. ind. pass. of , I draw.
: For all there is a boat slip, (one for) each.
= .

39

A Reading Course in Homeric Greek


267
271
272
273

: pf. ptc. f. of , modifying . Translate fitted or built.


= . = , with a prothetic . Used as an epithet of ships, the word means
well balanced or trim.
= by assimilation (593, 627 in Book I).
= the Phaeacians.

262ff. This description of the city of the Phaeacians


further establishes them as civilized, in contrast with the primitive Cyclopes who
have left their land uncultivated and undeveloped (9. 11-141; cf. 500 in Book I). The
Cyclopes have no laws () nor assemblies ( ). They have
not even developed the technology to build houses or ships, or to cultivate the soil;
rather, they live in caves and eat wild foods. Odysseus seems particularly astonished
that the Cyclopes are not exploiting the possibilities of the natural harbor on the
forested island close by, which possibilities of course would not occur to a society
that was ignorant of seafaring. The Phaeacians, whose has a wall (9 and 262),
an (266), and temples (11 and 266), conform to Odysseuss expectations of
a civilized people. Obviously, they are masters of the nautical arts (264-272). (By
contrast, although Ithaca has a regular site for an [2. 6-14], it has gone unused
for twenty years; there has been no assembly held there since Odysseus left for
Troy [2. 26-27]. This is certainly to be understood as a symptom of Ithacas social
dysfunction.)
274

40

: like refers to the wanton


disregard for the rights of others, coupled with a violent and aggressive attitude.
Athena/ Mentes uses both terms to describe the suitors riotous partying in
Odysseus house (1. 227f.: /
). The word is used numerous times of the suitors, individually or
collectively, in the context of their wasting of Odysseus property and abuse of
guests (2., 310, 3. 315, 4. 790, 16. 271, 21. 289, 23. 356, etc.). is also
applied to the Cyclopes by Odysseus as he introduces them to the Phaeacians in his
narrative (9. 106). Here, is paired with (lawless). Odysseus
follows this line with a few lines about their failure to cultivate their land, and then
returns to their lack of and ; he next describes their scattered cave
dwellings and lack of community. The word thus seems appropriate and relevant to
the theme of civilization (or lack of it). Nausicaas fellow-citizens will
indeed make an appearance or one of them, at any rate committing an act of
inhospitality towards Odysseus (8. 158ff.).

Lesson XIX
63.MEMORIZE
, ,
-
-, -, -
, ,
(), (), ()
, , , , ,

I speak, I say, I tell


I go about, I go towards
I descend
I minister to; [mid.] I pick up, I rescue
I am righteously indignant (with) [+ dat.]
I beat; [pass.] I wander

64.TEXT Od. 6. 275-288



; ; .

,

, .
,

, .
, .
, ,

.
, -, - open, public
-, , - I meet [+ dat.]
I dishonor
, - better

275

280

285

, - [n.] reproach, censure; cause of


reproach
, - much prayed for
, -, - lying far off; from a far country

65.NOTES
275
277
278
281

= . The subjunctive in Homer is often equivalent to the future indicative.


: understand as obj.
: for her very own (dat. of possession).
: is the affirmative particle (surely), whereas introduces a bit of hesitation.
The hypothetical speaker suggests another possibility in 280 (). = . Take
with .
: is still the subject. here has the technical meaning I have as wife.
: acc. of extent of time (18d in Book 1).
41

A Reading Course in Homeric Greek


282
284
286
287
288

: understand . : crasis (35).


is the relative pronoun (= ).
= , which could either be pres. subj. (but equal to a fut. ind. in meaning, as
often in Homer), or pres. ind. Commentators have taken it both ways. : opt., as if in
the protasis of a Should-Would condition (285a in Book 1).
: explains (epexegesis). : translate (while still) being
alive.
: before (she) has arrived at a public marriage. See New
Grammar, below (66). is not a direct obj. of , but acc. of the goal of motion
(18d in Book 1).

66. NEW GRAMMAR: introducing an infinitive clause


When introduces an infinitive clause in Homeric Greek, it means before or until, and the
infinitive, which is usually aorist, is best translated as a finite verb. (The subject of this finite verb
will be determined from the context.)


before (she) has arrived at a public marriage


until (we) give back to her dear father the quick-eyed girl

The subject of the infinitive, when it is expressed, is accusative:



42


before he went off to Troy

Lesson XX
67.MEMORIZE
, - [f.]
, [m.]
, - [f.]
, [n.]
, ,

threshing floor; garden, orchard


meadow
escort, arrangements for safe conduct
land marked off (as private property or dedicated to a god)
I happen (upon); I obtain [+ gen.]

68.TEXT Od. 6. 289-299

, ,
.

, ,
,
, .
,
.
,

.
, - [f.] poplar
, - [n.] (sacred) grove
[pres. with fut. sense] I find, I come upon
I grow profusely

290

295

-, etc. I sit down


, - [f.] spring, fountain
I flow
-, etc. I send together; I understand

69.NOTES
289
292
293
294
295

: formed from () according to the rule (422 in Book I). : pres. impt. 2 sg.
from -.
goes with , not . is adverbial, as is . : supply
as the verb.
: f. pf. ptc. of .
: understand as subject (as far as someone having shouted
makes himself heard).
: aorist infinitive as imperative (148 in Book 1). is adverbial (for a time).
: until, with subjunctives ( , 296) in an indefinite Future More
Vivid construction (247a in Book 1).

43

A Reading Course in Homeric Greek


297
298

= , contracted (New Grammar, 70, below). Once again, the construction is


Future More Vivid (247a in Book 1). : pf. inf. of in indirect statement
after , with subject . is acc. of goal of motion (18d in Book 1).
, : infinitives as imperatives (148 in Book 1). : inquire about (2
aor. from , not ).

70. NEW GRAMMAR: Further Vowel Contraction


Some of the more common vowel contractions found in Homer were introduced in 399 in Book
I. As you can see from the example of in line 297, there are other contractable combinations
of vowels. Here are some of the more common:








+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

as in
as in
as in
as in
as in
as in
as in
as in
as in

,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,

Complete charts of all possible vowel contractions in Greek can be found in :



Smyth, Herbert Weir. 1984. Greek Grammar. Revised by Gordon M. Messing.
Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Goodwin, William W. 1972. A Greek Grammar. Basingstoke and London.

44

Lesson XXI
71.MEMORIZE
, -, -
, [m.]
, - [m.]
, , , ,
,
() [adv.]

well-inhabited; well-settled
warrior
seat, chair
I cause to lean; [in m.-p.] I lean, I recline
behind, afterward, hereafter

72.TEXT Od. 6. 300-315

,

,
. ,
,
,
, ,
.
,
.

,
, .
,

.
, - dyed in sea-purple
, -, - recognizable
-, -, - I go through
, - [f.] hope [+ inf.]
, - [f.] hearth
- I sit at, I sit on
, - [n. pl.] yarn (spun on a distaff)
, - [n.] wonder, marvel

300

305

310

315

, - [m. or f.] pillar, column


I drink my wine
-, etc. I pass by
- , etc. [in m.-p.] I lean against, I lean next
to
I twist, I spin
[adv.] from far away

45

A Reading Course in Homeric Greek


73.NOTES
300
301
302
303
304
305
306
308
309
311
312
313

46

(and in 301) refer to in 299.


: 3 sg. pf. pass. of .
: understand .
is a contraction of the genitive . = (aor. subj. of ) in a
Future More Vivid temporal construction (247a in Book 1).
: infinitive as imperative (148 in Book 1)
: for the forms of here and in 307 and 309, refer to 15.
: a wonder to behold.
means either is leaning against her (i.e., Nausicaas mother) or is
leaning against it (i.e., the , as is the queen, 307).
, whose antecedent is , should be taken with . The final syllable of
is lengthened before an original . : when meaning as follows the
word it governs, it receives a pitch mark.
: infinitive as imperative (148 in Book 1).
: even if.
: friendliness or friendly thoughts. = (subj. in Pres. General
condition; 247b in Book 1).

Lesson XXII
74.MEMORIZE
, ,
, , or
, -
, ,
[adv.]
, ,

I pray (to) [+ dat.]


I enter; I put (on); I sink; I set
earth-shaker [epithet of Poseidon]
I rage against [+ dat.]; I am eager
before
I lift up my voice, I utter

75.TEXT Od. 6. 316-331


.
,
,
.
,
, .

, ,
,
, .
.
,


.
, - [n.] (sacred) grove
, - [f.] Atrytone [a name of Athena]
, -, - worthy of pity
, -, - opposite, facing [+ dat.]
-, etc. I lay (the whip) on (the horses or
mules)
[adv.] vehemently
I am charioteer, I hold the reins
,- [f.] lash, whip

316

320

325

330

, , I whip up (horses or mules)


, -, - = , -, -
, - [f.] whip
, - [m.] fathers brother, uncle
, -, - on foot
I stride out
I shatter
, - [n.] stream, current
I run

47

A Reading Course in Homeric Greek


76.NOTES
318
320
322
324
325
327
331

48

= .
: with good sense.
followed by the ind. = where
: 2 sg. impt. of . On the cases that this verb can take, see the note at 239.
: with subject understood from in 325 (while I was being shattered, i.e.,
shipwrecked). is impf. of .
: 473 in Book 1.
: followed by the aor. (or pres.) inf. works just like , on
which refer to 66.

Book Twelve

Context
Beginning in Book 9, Odysseus, following
a feast in the palace of the Phaeacian King
Alcinous, tells the tale of his wanderings
after the fall of Troy, including the loss of
his companions and ships. In Book 11, as
Circe has instructed, he visits Hades in
order to obtain directions from the soul of
the blind prophet Tiresias regarding the
journey home. Besides Tiresias, Odysseus

is able to see or speak with the shades of his


companion Elpenor, his mother Anticleia,
various heroines, some heroes from the war
at Troy, and others. Odysseus is curious to
continue his encounters with men of the past,
but becomes afraid of the gathering hordes of
dead men. He and his companions board their
ship and sail back to Circes island, Aeaea, also
called Aea.

Lesson XXIII
77.MEMORIZE
, [n.]
, - [f.]
, [n.]
, - [m.]
, ,
, - [f.]
, - [m.]

tear
Circe [enchantress, daughter of Helius the sun-god]
wave
corpse
I plant (something) firmly, I stick
breakers, surf
Ocean [river encircling the earth; personified as a god]

78.TEXT Od. 12. 1-15


,
,
,
,

.
,

.
, ,
, .
,

.
, -, - Aeaean [epithet of Circes island and
of Circe]
, - [f.] shore, beach
, - a rising
-, -, - I fall sound
asleep
, - [m.] Elpenor [youngest
companion of Odysseus]
, - well-fitted [epithet of oars]
I pay funeral rites (to a corpse)

10

15

, , I put (a ship) to shore


, - house, abode
- I jut out
, - [f.] pillar of stone set upon a sepulchral
mound, stele
, , I cut
, - [n. pl.] arms, armor
, - [m.] gravemound, barrow
, - [m.] log, piece of wood
, - [f.] sand

51

A Reading Course in Homeric Greek


79.NOTES
3
6
9
10

12
13
14

52

: An adjective formed from the name of Circes island (Aea). is gen., a


contraction of .
: adv.
is from - (Cf. 473 in Book I).
is aor. inf. of on the ordinarily fut. stem -. (There are other aor. forms
of based on this stem.) This infinitive expresses purpose. : the name
means something like Hopeful or Full of fancy. Elpenor is the junior companion who
got drunk and fell asleep on Circes roof; unfortunately, he forgot where he was when he
awoke and walked off the roofs edge rather than remembering to go by way of the ladder,
as Odysseus puts it at 10. 558 and the shade of Elpenor himself at 11. 63, where he requests
that his companions bury him. This anecdote, as well as Odysseuss description of him as
not firm in his intellect ( , 553), suggests that perhaps Elpenors
name is meant to suit him, if hope is equated with delusion or innocence. : pf.
ptc. of .
is adverbial.
is 3 sg. aor. pass. of .
is adverbial.

Lesson XXIV
80.MEMORIZE
, gen. or or [m.] Hades [god of the nether world, or the nether
world itself]
, -, -
painful, grievous
[adv.]
once, one time
[adv.]
(right) here, (right) there
, [n.]
pain, bane
81.TEXT Od. 12. 16-28


,

.

, ,
, .



,
.
, .
o, - [adj.] bright, sparkling [epithet of
wine, copper and bronze]
, , I suffer, I feel pain
, - [f.] = , -
- I attend to
. [adj.] twice-dying
, , I equip, I prepare; [in
mid.] I array (myself)

20

25

- I obey
, -, - red [epithet of wine, nectar,
copper and bronze]
, - [f.] an evil device or plan
, -, - all day long
, , I indicate, I tell about
-, -, - I go (under)
to, I enter [+ acc.]

82.NOTES
16
17
18
23
24
27

: is augmented to in this verb. See 391b in Book 1.


: See .
....... : together with her.
: See the note on 6. 36 (11).
is best translated as an adverb, though it is an adjective. : See
the note on 6. 31 (11).
is gen. of place, perhaps best taken with as is . : aor. subj., with the
in the personal ending shortened for the sake of the meter.
53

Lesson XXV
83.MEMORIZE
, ,
I stop (the ears) with wax; I anoint
, - [f.]
song
() [adv.]
far away, apart; [prep. + gen.] far from, apart from
, -
immeasurable, unspeakable (in amount)
, ,
I give a feast; [mid.] I feast
, - [m.]
bond, fetter
--, --,
I arrive at, I reach [+ acc.]
--
, ,
I bewitch, I enchant
-, -, -
I enumerate, I narrate
, ,
I lull to sleep, I lay to rest; [mid.] I lie down to sleep
, -, -
clear-sounding
, [n.]
mead, wine
, ,
I remind; [mid.] I remember [+ gen.]
, ,
I return (home)
, [dat. pl. also ] [n.]
ear
, [f.]
voice
-, - [adv.]
along past, close by; [prep. + acc.] alongside of, past
, , ()
I bring near to [trans.]; I go near to [intr.]
, [f.]
a Siren [one of two singing sisters who by their song
lure seaman to their death]
, - [n.]
child
84.TEXT Od. 12. 29-54



,
,


.

, ,
, .
,
, .

,
,
54

30

35

40

Lesson XXV
,

, .
,
,
,

, ,
.
,
.
, - [f.] lack of experience, ignorance
- I tie, I make fast (a rope)
I take delight in [+ dat.]
, , I knead (to soften)
I bind
- I inquire about
, - [f.] mast-stay
-, -, - I go
down; I set
, - [m.] wax

45

50

, - [n.] the evening dusk


I diminish [trans.]; I waste away [intr.]
I bring to an end, I accomplish
, -, - all (the)
- I recline beside
, - [n. pl.] stern cables [for
mooring a ships stern to shore]
I make rotten; [pass.] I rot
skin, hide

85.NOTES
29
30
31
33
34
35
37
39
45

46
47
49
50

: acc. of extent of time (18 in Book 1).


: See 15, above.
: adverbial.
: gen. of a part grasped, after (by the hand).
: augmented aor. of , with trans. meaning. Its understood object is .
: 3 sg. aor. of -.
= .
: 3 sg. pf. pass. of .
: from .
: The special case-ending (422 in Book I) has been added to . It is
probably best translated as a locative (on [their] bones). (usually beach in Homer)
here should be understood as something like dune or sand-bank. Supply as verb.
is adverbial.
is partitive gen. with (sand-bank of rotting men). is
adverbial. : The epsilon is long because was originally .
and : inf. for impt. is inf. of .
= , subjunctive in the protasis of a Future More Vivid construction (247a
in Book 1).
: 3 pl. aor. impt. act. of . The understood subject is the companions; the
object is . : acc. of specification (644 in Book I).

55

A Reading Course in Homeric Greek


51
52
53
54

modifies in 50. : (attached) from it, with it being the mast-stay.


: here means rope or cable rather than boundary. : is 3 sg. pf.
impt. pass. of . Its subject is .
: subjunctive in a primary sequence purpose clause (98 in Book 1). :
gen. dual of .
: subjunctive in a Future More Vivid construction (247a in Book 1).
: 3 pl. pres. impt. of I bind (a parallel form of ).

39-54 Circe gives the first description of the Sirens (cf. 12. 158-166 and 184-191). Through
the enchantment of their song, the Sirens present another threat to homecoming;
the piles of the bones of men who have died there attest to the deadly results of being
charmed by them (41-46). The verb (40, 44) denotes one of the functions of
poetry, along with (52); the fatal allure of the Sirens song (their )
is that of poetry. Circe does not, however, give away the content of this song. On this
passage, see Pietro Pucci, The Song of the Sirens, in The Song of the Sirens: Essays
on Homer (Lanham, Boulder, New York and Oxford: Rowman and Littlefield 1997)
1-9.

56

Lesson XXVI
86.MEMORIZE
, ,
, -
- , -, -
[adv.]
, -, -
() =
, ,

I discourse, I expound, I relate


Amphitrite [goddess of the sea, or the sea personified]
I send (in)
together, at the same time
which of the two
I bear (constantly), I bear along

87.TEXT Od. 12. 55-72

,
,
,
.
,

.

, ,

.
, ,

.

,
,
, .
, - [m.] Aeetes [son of Helius, brother of
Circe, king of Colchian Aia]
, - [f.] the food of the gods
[adv.] from both sides
, - [f.] the Argo [the ship in which Jason and
the Argonauts sailed to Colchis]
[adv.] at length, in detail
, - making up the full number
, - overhanging
, - [f.] Hera [sister and wife of Zeus]
, - [adj.] dark-eyed [epithet of
Amphitrite]

55

60

65

70

=
, -, - smooth
-, -, - I pilot safely
past (a danger)
- I sail past
, - [m.] plank, board
, - [f.] wild dove, pigeon
, - [f.] The Planctae [Wandering Ones]
, - seafaring [epithet of ships]
, -, - winged
I roar [of ocean waves]
, - (f. adj.) timorous, shy [epithet of doves]

57

A Reading Course in Homeric Greek


88.NOTES
55f.
57
58
59
61

63
64
65
69
70

71

: Future More Vivid construction (247a in Book 1).


: This clause is the object of . Understand
with (.(by) which (way) of the two your way will be.).
: inf. for impt. here means that Circe will tell Odysseus about the
two alternative routes.
: the rocks.
: These are the overhanging mentioned in 59. :
This is not the only place in Homer where we are told that the gods have a special name for
something, but usually we are also given the name that mortals use (e.g., Iliad 20. 74, where
the River Scamander is called Xanthos by the gods). (= the overhanging ) is the
direct object of , and is the predicate to .
= , whose antecedent is .
: even. is gen. of separation or the whole after (takes away (one dove)
from/ of these (doves)).
: supply . : See New Grammar, 89, below. : i.e., Zeus.
is predicative with .
: by that route (). : 3 sg. 2 aor. of -.
: being of concern to all (men) probably referring to the fame or popularity
of the story (the voyage of the Argo to claim the Golden Fleece). :
sailing back from Aeetes, i.e., from Colchis, where Aeetes ruled and had the Golden
Fleece. The Argo escaped this danger, in other words, on its return voyage. This passage is
taken as evidence that the voyage of the Argonauts was a model for the Homeric Odysseus
travels, and that the Argos saga pre-dates Homer. In mythical chronology, the voyage of
the Argo occurred one generation before the adventures of Odysseus.
: A Contrary to Fact construction (would have thrown her [the Argo]).
See 91 in Book 1. The subject of is in 68.

89. NEW GRAMMAR: Present Indicative, Infinitive, and Participle Active of I send
Refer to 473 (Book 1) for the Imperfect Indicative Active of .


1 sg.
2 sg.
3 sg.

1 pl.
2 pl.
3 pl.

Infinitive ,

Participle
, ,

58

Lesson XXVII
90.MEMORIZE

, -, -
[indecl.]
[indecl.]
, ,
, -, -
, - [f.]
, -, -
, -
, -, -
, - [f.]
, -
, - [m.]
, - [f.]
.

I feed, I nourish; I pasture


awesome
twelve
six
I steer (a ship); I direct
hollow
top of a mountain or rock; head
dark (blue)
with dark-blue prow
countless, myriad
cloud
of great length, long
crag
Scylla [a monster who lives in a cave opposite Charybdis]
shining, glorious

91.TEXT Od. 12. 73-100


,
,

,

, .
,
,
, .

.
.

,
, .
,
,
, ,
, .
,

75

80

85

90

59

A Reading Course in Homeric Greek



, ,

, .


.
, - much-roaring [epithet of
Amphitrite]
, -, - vigorous
, - [f.] clear sky
, - unharmed
-, - , -, -
I go around; I envelop
, -, - pendulous
, - [n.] deep recess, hollow
, - neck
, - [m.] dolphin
() [indecl.] twenty
-, - , - I snatch away
from [+ gen.]
- I hold outside
[prep. + gen.] outside of
, gen. [n.] Erebus [a place of nether
darkness, above Hades]
I retire, I draw back
I boast [+ inf.]
, - [m.] darkness; the quarter of the setting
sun
, - misty

95

100

[m. pl. adj.] close-set


, - [n.] summer
I fish for [+ acc.]
, - [n.] sea-monster
, [m. or f.] sea-dog
I shriek, I howl
=
, -, - smooth, sheer
, - [m.] sailor
, -, - newly born
, , I shoot arrows
, - [m.] tooth
, - [f.] late summer; harvest-time
-, etc. I pass in safety, I escape past
, - [n.] a being of uncommon size,
monster
- I gaze eagerly around [+ acc.]
-, - very polished
, -, - full of [+ gen.]
[enclitic adv.] somewhere, anywhere
, [m. or f.] puppy
, -, - set in three rows

92.NOTES
73ff. Circe nows describes the second alternative (cf. 56f.), the route
between Scylla and Charybdis. This nominative has no verb, and may be translated as a
partitive genitive: of the two crags, the one ( ) : the rock that has Scyllas
cave. Charybdis rock will be described at 101ff. ( ).
75
= the entire clause / (rather than ,
whose gender is feminine).
76
: envelops.
77f. / : Fut. Less Vivid construction (285a in Book 1).
81
: pf. m.-p. ptc. of . Its subject is in 80. : where
82
: aor. subj. The first aorist subjunctive in Homer often has the short thematic
vowels and o for Attic and . This subjunctive, with in 81, has the force of a future
indicative in a potential sense, as is common in prophecies.
83f. : potential opt. See 285b in Book 1.

60

Lesson XXVII
85

: pf. act. ptc. fem. of . Verbs for animal noises are often put into the perfect
tense. This is called the intensive perfect and is equivalent to a strengthened present tense.
See Smythe 1947. is adverbial.
86f. : contrasts the impression Scyllas voice may make
with her monstrous self.
87
= ; an Ionic form.
87f. / : Fut. Less Vivid construction (285a
in Book 1).
91
is adverbial.
93
: half-way she has sunk into the hollow cave
(i.e., half of her body is hidden in the cave). : 3 sg. pf. act of . here refers to
the extent down or in from an opening (cf. Cunliffe, II.1.c).
95
= by assimilation (cf. the note at 6. 272, above).
96
: 3 sg. aor. subj. of in a subordinate clause expressing indefiniteness of time.
98
= by assimilation (cf. the note at 6. 272, above).
99
: dat. of .

61

Lesson XXVIII
93.MEMORIZE
, ,
-
, -, -
,
-, -,
-, , , -
[adv.]
, -
, , ,
, ,

, ,
-, - [adv.]
, [f.]

I ward off; I aid; I defend


I send up, I let go
hard, painful
earth-shaker [epithet of Poseidon]
I urge on; [mid. and pass.] I rush forward; I am eager to
there, in that place
unfailing; true, clear
I incite; [mid. and pass.] I attack
I plunder; I do mischief to
I bear, I beget (offspring)
out of the reach of something; [prep. + gen.] away from
Charybdis [the whirlpool opposite Scylla]

94.TEXT Od. 12. 101-126

, ,
.
,
.
, ,
105
,
.

,
.
110
,
, , ,
,
, .
,
115
,
, ;
, ,

.
120

62

Lesson XXVIII
,

, .
, ,
,
.
-(), -(), -() I
swallow back down, I suck down again
-, -, - I restrain
(someone) from (doing something) [+ acc. and
inf.]
I am bewildered, I am distraught
I call for aid to someone [+ acc.]
I linger, I tarry
, , I shoot an
arrow over
[adv.] anew, again
, - [m.] wild fig tree
I teem, I bloom
, -, - strongest, mightiest

125

I arm
, - [f.] Crataeis [the mother of Scylla]
, -, - to be fought with
, -, - martial, warlike
[adv.] vigorously
()-, ()-, - I yield (to), I
submit (to) [+ dat.]
---, -, - I escape by
furtive flight
[adv.] later
, -, - [comp. of ] better, more
powerful
, -, - lower-to-the-ground

95.NOTES
101

: here picks up the 73. Circe is now describing Charybdis


rock. = .
102 : n. acc. as adv., with gen. Translate [for they are] near one another (cf. Od.
14.14). : potential opt. See 285b in Book 1.
103 : prep. following its object. Understand with . : pf. ptc. with
pres. meaning from .
104 : prep. following its object. Understand with .
105 : See New Grammar 89, above.
106 : opt. expressing a wish (106a in Book 1). Understand with
(supplementary ptc.). See New Grammar 96. : opt. in an indefinite
temporal (a type of relative) clause; the clause is equivalent to the protasis of a Fut. Less
Vivid (285a in Book 1).
107 : re-echoes at the beginning of the line for emphasis.
108 : pf. ptc. pass. of [+ dat.].
109 : inf. for impt. See the note on 12. 47 above.
110 : inf. of , here used as a noun, subject of in 109 and modified by the
adj. , also in 109.
112 introduces the strong aor. impt. (from ). On used this way,
see the note on 6. 36. For a parallel to the aor. impt. form , cf. and (472 in
Book I).
113f. , : The second refers to Scylla.
116 : indeed, again? should be scanned as one syllable (synizesis). : dat.
after the verb . : pf. with pres. force, as at 6. 63.

63

A Reading Course in Homeric Greek


120

: nor is there any possibility of defence (against her). : inf. as


noun (114 in Book 1).
121 = .
122 : 3 sg. aor. act. subj. .
124 and : inf. for impt. See the note on 12. 47, above.
125 is in apposition with in the same line.
126 : again.

113-120 Odysseus considers responding with force, like the war hero he is, to Scylla.
And, despite Circes discouraging words (116-120), he will arm himself as
they approach the monster at 228f. Circes response is based on not only the
distinction between mortal and immortal (117-118), but between and
intelligence, since it is the information she gives Odysseus that will get him
through, not his heroic prowess.

96. NEW GRAMMAR: and with supplementary participle


The verb is often supplemented by a participle in such a way that the participle actually
carries the main idea. For example:

.
He happened to be there.
(= He was there by chance. )
Like , the verb is sometimes supplemented by a participle that carries the
leading idea, as it does in the following sentence adapted from lines 182-183, below:

.

The swift ship sped near, not escaping the notice of the women.

64

Lesson XXIX
97.MEMORIZE
, ,
I escape, I avoid (impending danger)
-, , -
I go away
-, -,
I embark, I go on board; I enter
-
, - [f.]
Ithaca [island home of Odysseus]
, -, -
fat, strong
, [m.]
steersman, pilot
, - [f.]
nymph [semi-divine female being, inhabiting the sea,
caves, islands, etc.]
, - [m.]
a (fair) wind
, [n.]
flock [of sheep]
, ,
I guard
98.TEXT Od. 12. 127-152


.
, ,
. ,
. ,
, ,
.

,
.
,
, ,
,
( . ,
, .)
, .


.
,
( .)

130

135

140

145

65

A Reading Course in Homeric Greek



, ,
, .

.
, - [f.] herd [of cattle]
-, , - I send away from home
, - unharmed
, -, - using (mortal) speech
, - [m.] offspring
, - [adj.] bent-horned [epithet of oxen]
, - [m.] herdsman
, - [adj.] favorable [epithet of ]
[prep. + gen.] behind, following
, - [f.] Thrinacia [mythical island, home
of Helius and his cattle]
I steer
, - [f.] Lampetia [a nymph, daughter of
Helius and Neaera]
I take thought for, I remember [+ gen.]
, - [f.] Neaera [a nymph]

150

[adv.] late, after the lapse of a long time


, -, - paternal, hereditary
[indecl.] fifty
, -, - swelling the sail
[n. pl.] stern-cables
I harm
I foretell
[adv.] far away
, - [m.] son of Hyperion [epithet of
Helius]
, - [f.] Phaethusa [a nymph, daughter
of Helius and Neaera]
I waste away; I pass away
, - golden-throned [epithet of
Dawn, Hera, and Artemis]

99.NOTES
130
132
135
136
137

138
139
141
143
149
151
152

66

= . See also line 12. 87 above.


: These names mean radiant and gleaming suitable for
daughters of the Sun.
: inf. expressing purpose (25, above and 588 in Book 1).
: inf. expressing purpose (25, above and 588 in Book 1).
= . The regular contracted form of would be . Here, the vowel and
diphthong ( and ) that would ordinarily be contracted have been assimilated so as to
give a double (alpha). , : Protasis of a general
condition, with a potential opt. in the apodosis.
: concessive use of the participle (199 in Book 1).
picks up in 137.
: contracted 2 sg. pres. ind. of (= ), or possibly subj. (short for in ).
Either way, the verb has a future sense.
is Circe.
: impf. ind. act. of (cf. 473 in Book 1).
: having attended to all of the rigging.
: See 15, above.

Lesson XXX
100.MEMORIZE
, -

, -
-
, -
, - [n.]
, ,
, (),

safe, propitious
I grieve
firm, unchanged
I drive on; [mid.] I hasten
divinely decreed; [n. as substantive] divine decrees
sail [pl. often used for sg.]
I relate, I say
I press, I squeeze; I oppress
I make known

101.TEXT Od. 12. 153-172


,
, ,
,
.

.

, ,
, .
,
.


.

, .
,
,
.
-, -, - I fasten
, - [adj.] flowery
, - [f.] a calm
, - [f.] pine (tree); pine oar
-, -, - I arrive at, I reach
[+ acc.]

155

160

165

170

, - [f.] mast-step
I make white
, , I furl, I fold
, -, - windless
, -, - hewn, polished
, - [n.] rope

67

A Reading Course in Homeric Greek


102.NOTES
153 : acc. of respect (also called specification) with . Cf. 644 in Book 1.
154 : it is not right.
156f. : the shift from the subj. in a primary sequence purpose
clause to an optative may indicate that Odysseus regards escape as less probable.
160 : plpf. of .
161 : adverbial.
162 modifies in 160. : on to it (the ). : 3 sg. pf. impt. pass.
of -.
164 = . : inf. for impt. (148 in Book 1).
167 : dual gen.
171 : i.e., the in 170. : 3 pl. 2 aor. ind. of (485 in Book 1).

68

Lesson XXXI
103.MEMORIZE
[adv.]
, [f.]
, - [m.]
, [n.]
[adv.]
, -, -
, [n.]
, - [m.]

hither
strength, sinew
wax
honor, glory
swiftly
stout, strong
mouth
copper, bronze

104.TEXT Od. 12. 173-194



,

.

,
.
, ,
,
,
, , ,
, .
,
,
.
,
,
.

,
.
-, -, - I fasten
, - [m.] Argives, Greeks
-, , - I cut up, I separate
I prepare, I strike up
I row

175

180

185

190

, - [f.] will, decree


, - [f.] mast-step
-, -, - I stop, I station [trans.]
, - fair
, -, - clear-toned

69

A Reading Course in Homeric Greek


, - [adj.] sweet-voiced
I nod, I motion
, -, - our [of two only]
-, -, -() I drive past, I sail
past
, - [n.] rope
, - much praised, glorious

, - [adj.] feeding many, fruitful


-, etc. I bend forward
, - [m.] wheel; round mass
, (-), - small
, - = , - [m.] son of
Hyperion [epithet of Helius]
, - swift on the sea

105.NOTES
174
177
179
182
183
184
187
192

: a substantive (little bits) functioning as a predicate to the direct object in


the previous line (I, having cut up with sharp bronze a big wheel of wax [into] little bits,
kept squeezing [them] with my strong hands.)
: Take with (I sealed).
: See the note at line 162.
here means driving. : the Sirens, direct object of .
: supplementary ptc. with in previous line (= sped not unnoticed).
: See the note on line 36, above. : 8 above.
: 66.
: 3 pl. impf. act. ind. (595 in Book 1). : 89.

184-191 The Sirens, in claiming that no man gets past without listening to them,
contradict Circe (41-46); moreover, (188) can mean returns home.
They characterize the knowledge gained from their song along with the
(188) as a benefit to the traveler rather than a danger. Nor is the pile of bones
mentioned here. In addition, the Sirens reveal the content of their song as
the war at Troy ( /
). P. Pucci (see note on 39-54, above) has shown the
Iliadic character of the diction in this passage; for example, the noun-epithet
combination , (184) is used only here in
the Odyssey but twice in the Iliad, in passages featuring Odysseus in important
roles. Pucci argues that the Sirens sing the events of the Iliad and define
Odysseus as the Iliads Odysseus. The Odysseys hero, therefore, longs to hear
the Iliad, and perhaps his own exploits at Troy, just as he does at Od. 8. 499ff.
Putting Circes warning about the Sirens together with the Sirens appeal to
Odysseus here, it seems the Odyssey is attributing to the Iliad a morbid power
and focus, one opposite to the Odysseys own focus on survival.

70

Lesson XXXII
106.MEMORIZE
(), ,
(), , ()
-, , -
, - [m.]
, ,
, ,

I keep (a ship) away, I ward off; I confine


I confine; I check; [pass.] I throng, I crouch
I enjoin; I give orders to
Eurylochus [a cousin and companion of Odysseus]
I control; I distribute
I fly

107.TEXT Od. 12. 195-221


.

,
,
, .
,
.
,

, .


,
,


, .
, , .

,

, ,
,

, ,
.

195

200

205

210

215

220

71

A Reading Course in Homeric Greek


, - [adj.] inexperienced in, ignorant
of [+ gen.]
-, etc. I loose
, , I hum; I splash
, - [m.] a roaring, a din
-, etc. I escape
-, etc. I rush forth
- I sit at
, - [m.] smoke, vapor, mist
, - [f.] hilt (of a sword); handle (of an oar),
oar

[adv.] more, rather


, - [n.] rudder [pl. sometimes used for sg.]
[adv.] standing by
-, etc. I drive past, I row past
, - [m.] Perimedes [a companion of
Odysseus]
[adv.] ever, somehow
, - sharpened, tapering
-- I flee out from under, I escape
, - [f.] = , - voice

108.NOTES
196 = .
200 is the Attic form of .
203 : either a gen. absolute (see New Grammar, 109) or dependent on
.
204 : down into the water. : stopped.
205 : Understand as the subject.
207 : in apposition with in the previous line.
209 = (exists); the iota is long.
210 : Understand as object.
213 : subj. in a conditional relative sentence (Fut. More Vivid: 247a in Book 1).
216 : 3 sg. 2 aor. subj. of (473 in Book 1).
217 : dat. after .
220f. Understand as the subject of and . is a supplementary
ptc. (96 New Grammar).
221 = .

208-212 As they approach another cave-dwelling monster, Odysseus reminds his men
that it was by his virtue, planning and intelligence ( )
that they escaped the of the Cyclops. Another parallel: six men will be lost
to Scylla, just as six men were devoured in Polyphemus cave.

109. NEW GRAMMAR: Genitive Absolute


A noun and a participle agreeing with it in the genitive case can comprise a clause that stands by
itself, or is absolute, without a further grammatical connection to the rest of the sentence. This
type of participial clause is called the genitive absolute, and it can express a temporal, causal,
concessive or conditional relationship to the main clause. For example:

.

The companions having become scared, Odysseus made his way alone.
(Because the companions had become scared.......)
(After the companions became scared.........)

72

Lesson XXXIII
110.MEMORIZE
[adv.]
, ,
, - [n. pl.]
, , [intr.]
, ,
, ,

on the other side


I arm
deck, deck beams [of a ship]
I grow weary; [trans.] I construct by toiling
I stir (up), I confuse
I look about sharply (for)

111.TEXT Od. 12. 222-246

, .
, ,

, .

,



, .

.

,
.
,

.
,
,
,
.


, .

225

230

235

240

245

73

A Reading Course in Homeric Greek


, , I see, I behold
-, , - I swallow up, I gulp
down
- I foam up
- I sail up
-, , - I swallow (down)
, - [f.] vexation, bane
-(), -() , -() I desist
from [+ gen.]
, - unconquerable, unavoidable
, - [f.] foam, froth
I roar
, - [f.] rowing
[adv.] within, inside
-, , - I vomit forth

, - [f.] command
, - hazy, misty
-, etc. I enter (into); I put on
, - [m.] basin, kettle
[adv.] everywhere
, -, - of the rock
[adv.] in any way, anywhere
, - [f.] prow
I cover (something), I conceal (something)
, - [m.] strait (of the sea)
, - [n. pl.] arms, armor
[adv.] below, beneath
, -, - best, bravest
, - [f.] sand

112.NOTES
225
227

: i.e., within the hold of the ship.


: The negative is often placed near the main verb, even though it actually negates the
subordinate verb.
230 = , with the meaning here I expected.
234 = by assimilation (cf. the note at 6. 272, above).
235 is the subject of an understood .
236 : Note the assonance with the verbs subject in 235.
237ff. : Past General construction (480 in Book 1).
: Take before .
240ff. : Past General construction (480 in
Book 1).
242 : plpf. of . The pf. of this verb has a pres. sense, and the plpf. has an
impf. sense.
243 : .

74

Lesson XXXIV
113.MEMORIZE
, -, -

, [m.]
, ,
, [m.]
, -, -
[adv.]

dreadful
I gasp
fish
I shriek
seer
pitiful, miserable
from above

114.TEXT Od. 12. 247-270




, , .


,
,
.
,
.

, .

,
,
.



, ,
,
.

250

255

260

265

270

75

A Reading Course in Homeric Greek


, -, - Aeaean [epithet of Circes island and
of Circe]
, -, - blind, sightless
, - [m.] fisherman
, - field-dwelling
I am shut up in the farmyard
, [f.] bleating
-, -, - I fall into, I come
to (mind) [+ dat.]
- I question, I explore
[adv.] by name
, - with broad forehead
, -, - Theban
-, etc. I devour

, - [n.] horn; hook made of horn


, - [m.] lowing [of cattle]
I extend
, - lofty, long
, - [m.] way, passage
, - [m.] projecting point
, - [m.] rod, wand
, , I look
, - [m.] Tiresias [blind seer of
Thebes with whom Odysseus spoke in the
Underworld]
, - delighter of mortals
I utter a sound, I shout
, - [f.] sand

115.NOTES
247
248
250
252
253
254

: for my companions.
: i.e., of the companions.
: adv. (for the last time).
: here means bait and is predicative with . : adv., with .
: From -. See New Grammar (89) for conjugation.
: Understand as subject of this ptc. and also as object of . :
from the literal meaning to the doorway this word came to mean out generally.
256 = , the pf. ptc. of . is an Aeolic form,
used here for the meter. Its understood subject, and that of in 257, is the six
companions (245f.).
258 : a superl. of , , -. It is the predicate of , which refers to the sight
of his companions being devoured as described in the previous lines.
260f. is explained by .
265f. : a change of case after . Though more often the gen.
is used of the person from whom one hears, it can also be used of what is heard.
270 : See the note at 12. 153, above.

76

Lesson XXXV
116.MEMORIZE
, ,
, - [m.]
, - [m.]
, -, -
, -,

praise; I consent
the west wind
the south wind
of iron
gloomy, dreadful, loathsome

117.TEXT Od. 12. 271-296

, ,

,

.
275
.
, .

, , ,
,
280

,
,
,
, .
285
, ,
,
,
,
, ;
290


.
, .
, ,
295

77

A Reading Course in Homeric Greek


or I am sated with [+ dat.]
, -, - Aeaean [epithet of Circes island and
of Circe]
, -, - flowed-about, sea-girt
-, -, -, , , I drive off from
, - [n.] destruction
- I tear in pieces
, - harsh-blowing, stormy
-, etc. I put in; I launch, I put to sea
[adv.] suddenly
, - hazy, misty

[adv.] in the morning


- I break down, I crush
, -, - sweet, delicious
, - [n.] oracle, prophecy
[prep. + acc.] past, beyond
(interr. adv.) in what way? whither?
, - [m.] Tiresias [blind seer of
Thebes with whom Odysseus spoke in the
Underworld]
, - delighter of mortals
--, etc. I flee out from under, I escape

118.NOTES
271

: 2 pl. impt. 2 aor. or pf. of , followed by a gen. of both person and thing
heard.
275 : iterative of .
277 : aor. pass. of -.
279 : adv. (over and above others). is the subject of an understood . : acc.
of specification or respect. See the note at 12. 153, above.
280 : everything about you. : See the note at 6. 301, above.
281 : pf. ptc. of (also written ).
282 : On this form, see the note at 12. 137, above. : a less frequent form of
, modelled on the pres. inf. : here with the force of a relative.
283 is a reduplicated 2 aor. mid. 1 pl. opt. of .
284f. Understand as the object of and subject of .
286 : i.e., after nightfall.
287 = . See the note on 12. 87, above.
291 : hortatory subjunctive. See 98a in Book 1.
292 is 1 aor. subjunctive, with a short for the meter. As was in 291,
is hortatory.
293 : 1 pl. fut. ind. of -.
295 = ; an Ionic form. is the adverbial accusative of , , used as a
conjunction = (that).

278-293 Eurylochus opposes Odysseus, consistent with his role at 10. 244ff. and 429ff.,
and foreshadowing his leading role in the coming conflict. He does not know
about the warnings given to Odysseus by Tiresias and Circe (11. 104-111 and 12.
127-141) regarding the potential threat to their homecoming posed by Helios
cattle on Thrinacia. Odysseus has only recommended avoiding the island
without explaining why in precise terms.

78

Lesson XXXVI
119.MEMORIZE
, -
, - [m.]
, ,
, [f.]
, - [m.]
, [n.]
, , ()
, - [m.]
, ,

at rest, undisturbed
love, desire
I cover
tempest
the cloud-gatherer [epithet of Zeus]
cloud
I swear
oath
I bring to pass, I finish

120.TEXT Od. 12. 297-323

, .


,

, .
, .
,


, .
,
,

.
, ,

,
.
,
,

300

305

310

315

79

A Reading Course in Homeric Greek


,
, ,
,
, .
, - [f.] herd
-, -, - or - I slay
- I swear (not to do something)
, - [n.] star, constellation
, - [f.] recklessness, criminal folly
[always pl.]
-, , -() I draw (into) [+ acc.]
-- I come out of, I disembark
- I hear

320

[adv.] skillfully, expertly


- I look upon
, - fiercely-blowing
, - [m.] seat, abode
=
, - sweet, refreshing
, , I moor, I make fast
[adv.] in the third (part)

121.NOTES
297

: Although Odysseus addresses Eurylochus, he speaks to the companions as a


group through him; thus he uses the plural. : Odysseus was forced to yield because
he was alone in his opinion.
300f. : In Homer, the subjunctive with can be used in a clause expressing
anxiety (that no body will kill [as I fear may happen]).
307 : aor. mid. of (prepared).
308 : 3 pl. aor. mid. .
312 : and the stars had passed over the meridian, i.e., near morning.
313 : adv., with .
314 : adv.
315 : plpf. of ; it is intransitive with imperfect force.
319 : 2 aor. ptc. of . See 472 in Book 1.
321 : gen. of separation after . See 18 in Book 1.

300

80

: Thrinacia will test Odysseus ability to contain his


own desire as well as that of his companions, according to Tiresias (11. 104111). However, what Odysseus fears here, , is not desire, but
rather a wickedness committed by conscious and deliberate choice, as shown
by Margalit Finkelberg (Patterns of Human Error in Homer, JHS 115 [1995],
15-28). Finkelberg argues that an action committed by is always
preceded by warnings against it, as have been the companions slaughter and
eating of the cattle. On the companions see also Odyssey 1. 7.

Lesson XXXVII
122.MEMORIZE
, - [m.]
, -, -
-, -, -
, [m.]
, [m., f.]

life, existence; goods, chattels


cowardly, luckless
I meet; I drive; I pursue
month
bird

123.TEXT Od. 12. 324-351

, .
,
, .
,

,
,
, ,

,
, .
,
, ,
,
.

,
,
.
,
, .
, ,

, .

, ,

.

325

330

335

340

345

350

81

A Reading Course in Homeric Greek


, - [n.] a delight, a treasure
, - [n.] hook
, - [f.] chase, hunt
I wander
, - unceasing
[adv.] once, once for all
-, , - I go away
, -, - bent, supple
[adv.] long, for a long time
, - [n.] hook
- I use up

- I make a beginning of [+ gen.]


- I yield, I obey
, -, - deserted, desolate
, -, - ruddy, red
, - [m.] Eurus [East Wind]
, - [n. pl.] provisions
, - [m.] hunger
, , I wash
, -, - straight-horned
I waste away
, , I yawn, I open the mouth

124.NOTES
325
326
329
330
331
333
335
336
337
338f.

: acc. of extent of time. See 18 in Book 1. : 3 sg. impf. .


: See the note on 12. 87, above.
: 3 sg. pf. pass. of -.
: iterative of -.
: in apposition with in 330.
refers to the moment identified in 329 ( ).
: aor. of .
: adv. (at hand or near by.)
: impf. of .
Cf. 10. 31ff., where the companions likewise conceive a (46) after Odysseus
falls asleep.
340 : See the note on 12. 271, above.
341 : in predicative position; understand . : modes of death.
342 and are infinitives used as nouns, and are modified by the predicate
adjective ; understand .
344 : aor. subj. (hortatory) with the thematic vowel not lengthened.
347 : 1 pl. aor. opt of (485 in Book 1); this clause is the apodosis of the Fut. Less
Vivid condition begun in 345 ( ). On the Fut. Less Vivid, see
285a in Book 1. The fut. ind. (347) suggests more certainty.
349 : adv.
350 : to lose (my) life.

339ff.

82

: Eurylochus takes the lead in giving bad counsel to


the companions. This is a virtual synonym for ,
consistent with Finkelbergs analysis (see note at 300). Indeed, Eurylochus
speech is well-crafted and clever, as discussed by A. Heubeck in his note on 12.
340-51 (A. Heubeck and A. Hoekstra, A Commentary on Homers Odyssey, Vol.
II, Books ix-xvi [Oxford: Clarendon Press 1989]).

Lesson XXXVIII
125.MEMORIZE
, - [m.]
, -, -
, - [f.]
, ,
, -

, - [f.]
, - [m.]
, ,
, ,
, ,
[adv.]
, ,

messenger
burning, blazing
infatuation, blindness of the mind
I flay
having good rowing benches [epithet of ships]
I declare myself (to be) [+ inf.]; I exult; I pray (to) [+ dat.]
fat; savor
spit
I pierce (through), I stick, I transfix
I pour a libation
I cut the throat, I slaughter
far (away)
I am angry (with)

126.TEXT Od. 12. 352-376

, .



,

.
,
,
, .
,
.
,
.

.
,


,
,
.

355

360

365

370

83

A Reading Course in Homeric Greek



, .

=
-, -, -(), - I
come around
, - [adj.] double
, , I break off, I pluck
, [f.] oak
, - [n. pl.] entrails, vitals
-, , - I cut (out)
, - [adj.] with bent horns; sleek
- I roast
, - with broad forehead
, (-), - hot
[indecl. n.] barley
, - [f.] Lampetia [a nymph]

375

, , I pour (a libation)
[indecl. n.] mead, wine
(), - [n. pl.] thigh-bones
, , I devise, I contrive
I cut into small pieces
, - sweet, refreshing
-, -, - I surround [+ acc.]
, - [n. pl.] the vitals, the vital organs
, - with trailing robes
, - [adj.] soft, tender
, - with lofty foliage
-, , - I place pieces of raw
flesh (upon)

127.NOTES
352
356
360
361
362
364
365
366
367
370
373
374
375
372f.

84

: adv.
= by assimilation; see the note at 6. 272, above.
: adv.
: Understand .
: inf. expressing purpose.
: adv. : aor. pass. of . : often takes the partitive
gen., but here takes an acc. direct object.
= , by crasis (35). : adv., on both sides. shares with
the direct object . : dat. of means.
is from -.
: On forms of with the inf. of , see the note on 6. 15, above.
strictly means among the immortal gods, though Odysseus is
not in their company. Scholars have suggested various emendations, but the sense is clear
without them, since could mean I made myself heard (among).
: an enormity i.e., a monstrous act.
= .
= (because or seeing that). : an athematic aor. of .
Odysseus uses the verb (373) to describe the companions action,
which is in direct contrast with his own state of , a mental blindness sent
by the gods. A deed produced by ought to owe much more to the intellect
than to desire (see note at 300). In fact, the successful implementation of an act of
typically requires self-control and the patient postponement of satisfaction.
Here, to be sure, the companions have endured deprivation for a long period
without touching the sacred cattle; they made an effort to live off the sparse nontaboo food sources on the island (324-332). Yet their slaughter of the gods cattle
is marked as bad cunning (339), as something done in arrogance (, 379),
and they are condemned for it here as in the poems opening lines (1. 7).

Lesson XXXIX
128.MEMORIZE
-, -,
-, -()
, -, -

, , ()
, - [m.]
, - [m.]
, , ()
, [m.]

I die
starry
I run, I rush
I shatter
thunderbolt
son of Laertes [= Odysseus]
I quarrel with [+ dat.]; I rebuke
corpse; [pl.] the dead
I give light

129.TEXT Od. 12. 377-402

,
,
,
,
.
,
.

,


.

.
,
,
.

, ,
.


,

380

385

390

395

85

A Reading Course in Homeric Greek


,
,
.
=
, - [f.] exchange, requital
-, etc. I answer
, - dazzling white
, - [m.] runner, guide [epithet of
Hermes]
, -, - seventh
-, -, - I put in; I launch
[adv.] for six days
-, - fitting, suitable
[adv.] stopping by each in turn
, - [m.] Hermes [messenger of the gods]
I creep, I crawl
, - fruitful
, - fair-haired [epithet of women and
goddesses]

400

I run, I rush
, - [f.] Calypso [nymph who lived on
the island Ogygia]
, - [n.] remedy, relief
I low [of cattle]
, -, - roasted
-, , - I turn
, etc. I show forth
- I address
, - [m.] hide, skin
, - [n.] sign, portent
, (-), - little
[adv.] wantonly
, -, - raw, uncooked

130.NOTES
378
379
380
381
383
387
388
390

392
393
394
395
398
399
401
402
86

: 2 sg. aor. impt. mid. of .


: in which.
: See 8, above.
: opt. in a Past General construction; see 480 in Book 1.
is fut., while is subj. with a fut. sense. = .
: dat. of means with in the following line.
: adv. (to bits), going with . : potential opt. (285b in Book 1).
: Although the subject of the infinitive in indirect statement is in the accusative case,
it is omitted when it is the same as the subject of the leading verb, as here (Calypsoor
is the subject of both and ). , which modifies , is assimilated to the
nominative case.
: one beginning with one man, one with another, or, more manageably,
one another.
: 3 pl. plpf. of . The pf. /plpf. of this verb means to be dead, so
translate were dead.
: to the companions but also including Odysseus himself. : crasis
for (showed forth). See 35.
is the augmented 3 pl. imperf. ind. of . : 3 sg. plpf. of , with
an impf. meaning. : Take before . : See the note at 12. 87, above.
= by assimilation (cf. the note at 6. 272, above). The verb has an
alternate present form, , whose stem is also used for the future. here is the
pres. ptc. and means driving in.
and the first syllable of should be scanned as one syllable (synizesis). is
adverbial with : put beside or added (on top of the other six days).
: 1 pl. aor. act. ind. of -. Understand as the direct object.
: having set up the mast. : adv., with .

Lesson XL
131.MEMORIZE
[adv.]
-
, , ()

, ,
, ,
, - [m.]
, [f.]

at the same time, together


I take away
I whirl, I turn
I run
I smite
I smash, I break
wall; [pl.] sides [of a ship]
the keel [of a ship]

132.TEXT Od. 12. 403-425


, ,

, .

.

, ,

,

, .

,
.

, .
,
.

,
,
.

405

410

415

420

425

87

A Reading Course in Homeric Greek


, - [m.] bilge, hold [the bottom of a ship
inside]
, , I hammer, I crush
, - [m.] diver
, , I grow dark
, , I thunder
-, etc. I throw in, I cast upon
- I bear among
, - [m.] the backstay of a mast
, - [n.] sulphur

, -, - like, resembling [+ dat.]


-, etc. I fall down
, - [m.] surge (of the sea)
, - [f.] sea-crow
, , I fill (with) [+ gen.]
, - [m.] fore-stay [of a ship]
, -, - hindmost, endmost
, - [m.] hide, skin
- I bind together
, -, - bare, stripped

133.NOTES
407
408
409
411
412
413
414
416
417
420
421
422
423
424
425

88

: not for very long.


: pf. ptc. of , with present force.
: Initial is doubled after the syllabic augment (391a in Book 1).
: aor. of -. : the mast ().
= . is an Ionic gen. ending and is scanned as one syllable.
: adv.
: the steersman ().
: formed according to the rule (422 in Book 1) from what would be the singular
of .
: the ship (). : aor. pass. of . : aor. pass. of .
: adv. : irregular aor. 2 pass. of , followed by a gen. of material ().
: adv., with in 421. : gen. of separation.
: the keel ().
: adv., with , whose subject is the wave (, 421). : dat. of disadvantage,
referring to the ship. : the mast.
: plpf. ind. m.-p. of . : irregular pf. ptc. from . Though active
in appearance, it has a passive meaning, made, with gen. of material ().
: the backstay (); dat. of means.
: the mast and the keel.

Lesson XLI
134.MEMORIZE
, -, -
, [n.]

mighty
a dispute, a quarrel; a reproach

135.TEXT Od. 12. 426-453

,
, ,
.
,
.

,


,
, .
,
,

,
.
,
,
.

.
,
,
, ,
. ;


.

430

435

440

445

450

89

A Reading Course in Homeric Greek


, -, - vigorous
-, , - I measure my way
again to, I retrace my course to [+ acc.]
-, , - I swallow (down)
- I go up, I rise
, -, - raised high and far in the air
[adv.] clearly, plainly
, -, - using (mortal) speech
-, , -() I paddle through the
water
I plead my cause, I seek a judgment
I long
[adv.] far (away)
-, etc. I bring to light; [in pass.] I appear, I
come into view from [+ gen.]
-, , - I make a thud in
falling into [+ dat.]
-, , - I disgorge
, - [m.] wild fig tree

, - [f.] Calypso [nymph who lived on


the island Ogygia]
- I cast a shadow over [+ acc.]
I look after
I tell of, I describe
, - [f.] a bat
[adv.] without cease
, - [m.] a branch, a shoot
[adv.] late, at length
, -, - all the night long
[adv.] in any way, anywhere
-, -, - I cling to
[+ dat.]
, - [f.] a root
, , I set, I fix
[adv.] at that time [correlative with ]
--, etc. I flee out from under, I escape
[adv.] yesterday

136.NOTES
427
428
429
431
432
433
434
435
437
440
441
442
443
444
445
453

: adv., with (came on).


: This is a secondary sequence purpose construction, but the clause
expresses something closer to a result (Cf. 25).
: dat. ptc. of -; for forms of , see 8.
: Charybdis.
: cf. 12. 103, above. : aor. pass. ptc. of .
: nom. m. sg. aor. ptc. of -. : with the infinitive can mean I
have the power (to do). The infinitives are in the next line.
: should be translated as a reflexive, even though it is not middle. =
(nom. ). : adv.
is intransitive here and means extended or stretched.
is temporal (anticipatory).
is a substantive here ([of] vigorous men).
: 3 sg. aor. pass. of -.
: from (473, in Book 1), meaning here I let go. : acc. dual. :
infinitive of purpose (25, above and 588 in Book 1).
: prep. with acc. (just past the long beams).
: the beams (, 443).
: The here picks up the of 431.
: n. acc. pl. pf. ptc. pass. of : (things) said.

437-446 The first time Odysseus faced Scylla and Charybdis, he armed himself in the hope
that he might have the power to resist them (12. 227-230), despite Circes assertion
that his mere mortal prowess (, 120) would be inadequate against these divine
powers. But now he can no longer do that and furthermore understands that it would
be of no use. Instead, Odysseus survives though patience; the words he uses here
( ) are very close to the words he uses to describe his inexorable
grip under the belly of Polyphemus ram ( , 9. 435).
90

Select Bibliography
Ameis, K. F., C. Hentze, and P. Cauer. 1964. Homers Odyssee: Vol. I, Part 1. Amsterdam.
Ameis, K. F. and C. Hentze, eds. 1964. Homers Odyssee: Vol. I, Part 2. Amsterdam.
Autenrieth, Georg. 1958. A Homeric Dictionary. Norman, Oklahoma and London.
Chantraine, Pierre. 1958. Grammaire Homrique: Tome I Phontique et Morphologie. Paris.
Chantraine, Pierre. 1963. Grammaire Homrique: Tome II Syntaxe. Paris.
Cohen, Beth, ed. 1995. The Distaff Side: Representing the Female in Homers Odyssey. New York.
Cunliffe, Richard J. 1963. A Lexicon of the Homeric Dialect. Norman, Oklahoma.
Finkelberg, Margalit. 1995. Patterns of Human Error in Homer. Journal of Hellenic Studies 115:
15-28.
Garvie, A. F., ed. 1994. Odyssey: Books 6-8. New York.
Goodwin, William W. 1972. A Greek Grammar. Basingstoke and London.
Heubeck, A. and A. Hoekstra. 1989. A Commentary on Homers Odyssey. Vol. II. Books ix-xvi.
Oxford.
Heubeck, A., S. West and J.B. Hainsworth. 1988. A Commentary on Homers Odyssey. Vol. I. Books
i-viii. Oxford.
Morris, Ian and Barry Powell, eds. 1997. A New Companion to Homer. Leiden, New York and
Kln.
Morrison, James. 2003. A Companion to Homers Odyssey. Westport, Connecticut.
Murnaghan, Sheila. 1987. Disguise and Recognition in the Odyssey. Princeton.
Osborne, Robin. 1996. Greece in the Making: 1200-479 BC. London and New York.
Pucci, Pietro. 1997. The Song of the Sirens. In The Song of the Sirens: Essays on Homer. Lanham,
Boulder, New York and Oxford. 1-9.
Schoder, Raymond V and Vincent Horrigan. 2004. A Reading Course in Homeric Greek. Book 1.
Revised by L. C. Edwards. Newburyport, Massachusetts.
Segal, Charles. 2001. Singers, Heroes, and Gods in the Odyssey. Ithaca, New York.
Smyth, Herbert Weir. 1984. Greek Grammar. Revised by Gordon M. Messing. Cambridge,
Massachusetts.
Stanford, W. B., ed. 1959. The Odyssey of Homer: Books I-XII. London.
West, M. L. 1997. The East Face of Helicon: West Asiatic Elements in Greek Poetry and Myth.
Oxford.

91

92

Greek-English Vocabulary
Containing all memory words in both books:
Arabic numeral in parentheses identifies the Lesson in which a
Memory word from Book I was introduced.
Roman numeral in parentheses identifies the Lesson in which a
Memory word from Book II was introduced.
Parentheses in definitions enclose words not always needed in translation.
Brackets contain explanatory information.

, -, - good, brave (9)


, - [m.] Agamemnon [king of Mycenae
and Commander-in-Chief of Greeks] (89)
, - [f. ] love, charity (45)
, -, - admirable, noble (IV)
, -[m.]messenger(XXXVIII)
, , I announce (to) [+ dat.] (IV)
, - [adj.] manly, courageous (81)
, -, - splendid (79)
, , I discourse, I expound, I
relate(XXVI)
, - [f.] place of assembly; assembly; marketplace(XVIII)
, (-), - wild, savage (74)
, - [m.] field, country [as opposed to
city](XVIII)
[adv., prep. + gen.] near, close by (75)
, , I lead (17)
, , I injure, I do wrong (19)
, , I lift up, I raise (38)
[prep. + gen.] against the will of (XVII)
, , I increase; [mid.] I grow, I
increase myself (22)
[pres. syst. only] I respect, I revere; I hesitate
to(51)
I blow (X)
, -, - immortal (21)
, - [f.] Athena [goddess, patron of
Odysseus](97)
[= ] if
, -, - aegis-bearing (92)
, (), I reverence, I
respect, I feel shame before (91)
, gen. or or [m.] Hades [god of
the nether world, or the nether world itself] (XXIV)
to (the house of) Hades (II)
[adv.]forever, always(9)
, -, - burning, blazing (XXXVIII)
, -[n.]blood(100)
, , praise; I consent (XXXV)
, -, - dreadful (XXXIV)
{pres. syst. only] I seize upon, I select (83)
[adv.] awfully , greatly (103)
, [m., f.]goat(75)

, -, - steep, utter (93)


, , I seize; [mid.] I select, I choose for
myself(29)
, -, - shameful (16)
, , I ask, I request (22)
[adv.]quickly, suddenly(10)
, - [m. and f. adj.] in silence, silent (112)
, , I hear [+ gen. and acc.] (30)
, -, - top(most), outermost, extreme; [n. as
substantive] edge, tip (39)
[pf. with pres. sense ] I wander
, [n.] pain, distress, woe (43)
, -, - painful, grievous (XXIV)
I avoid, I shun (XVIII)
, , I anoint; I stop (the ears) with
wax (XVI)
, , or I avoid; I shrink
before(53)
, -[f.]truth(7)
, -true(29)
, - [f.] [dat. sg. ] defence, prowess (X)
, - Alcinous [king of Phaeacians] (II)
[conj.]but(8)
, - [pl. only] one another (39)
[adv.] from elsewhere (109)
, -, - other, another, else (32)
, - [f.] brine, briny crust (X)
, -, - salty, briny (83)
, -[f.]wife(80)
, [f.]sea(71)
, , I escape, I avoid (impending
danger)(XXIX)
, - [f.] threshing floor; garden, orchard (XX)
see
[adv., or prep. + dat.] at the same time (as), together
(with)(39)
, -[f.]wagon(79)
, , I fail of, I miss [often
+ gen.]; I err (21)
, , I (ex)change, I reply
(25)
[pres. syst. only] I milk (86)
[acc. pl. of ] us (32)
[nom. pl., = ] we (32)
[dat. pl. of ] to us; for us (32)
[adv.] at the same time, together (XL)

93

A Reading Course in Homeric Greek


, -[adj.]blameless, excellent(110)
, , I ward off; I aid; I
defend(XXVIII)
[adv., or prep. + dat. or acc.] around, on both sides
(of), concerning (48)
, - [f. adj.] easily directed [epithet of
ships](XVIII)
, -[f.]handmaid, attendant(80)
[adv.] apart; around; [prep. + acc., usually
following its case] about, around (XVIII)
, - Amphitrite [goddess of the sea, or the
sea personified] (XXVI)
untranslatable particle giving a theoretical, general,
expected or contrary-to-fact coloring to its clause.
(17)
or [adv.] up, back; [prep. + gen.] on (to); [prep. +
dat.] on (at rest); [prep. + acc.] over, on(to) (74)
-, -, -, - I go up,
I ascend (52)
, -[f.]necessity, need(9)
, [m.]king, lord(27)
, , I am pleasing (to) [+ dat.] (XVII)
, -, - human [referring always to
flesh](94)
, -[m.]wind(31)
- I hold up under, I endure (23)
, or [m.] [dat. pl. or
] man, male
, - [m.] human being, man
- I send up, I let go (XXVIII)
-, etc. I stand up; I cause to rise up (I)
[adv.] opposite; [prep. + gen.] over against,
before(X)
, , I meet (XIV)
, -, - godlike (XVII)
, -, - opposite; towards; in reply (XIII)
, -[n.]cave(82)
, , , [pf. has pres. sense; plpf.
has impf. sense] I urge, I command (99)
, -[f.]song(XXV)
see
[adv., prep. + gen.] away (from), apart (from),
afar(41)
[adv.] once, one time (XXIV)
, , all, the whole (30)
- I am away (24)
- I hold back from, I refrain from (81)
, - safe, propitious (XXX)
, - [f.] wagon (V)
[adv., prep. + gen.] away from, from (6)
- I take away (XL)
-, , I depart (IV)
-, -, -, ()I die(XXXIX)
-, -, -(), - [2 aor.
mid. -] I kill; [in pf. act. and all tenses
mid.] I perish, I am lost (26)
, Apollo [god of prophecy] (35)

94

() [adv.] far away, apart; [prep. + gen.] far


from, apart from (XXV)
[adv.] far away, aloof (76)
-, , - [non-thematic 2 aor.] I rush
away, I rush back (from) (85)
-, , - I go away (XXIX)
, , I fasten; [mid.] I lay hold of; I catch
fire(105)
() or [never first word in clause; often
untranslatable] therefore; then [not temporal] (31)
, , I pray (to) [+
dat.](XXII)
, , or fit together; I
am fitted with (V)
, -, - hard, painful (XXVIII)
, [adj., comp. of , -, -] braver,
better(49)
, - [f.] manliness, virtue (7)
, -, - [adj., supl. of , -, -] best,
bravest(49)
, -[m.](full-grown) ram(77)
, - [no nom. sg.; acc. sg. ] [m., f.] lamb(s)
(82)
, -[f.]soil, earth(103)
, - [m., f.] , - [n.] male,
masculine(86)
, [f.] Artemis [goddess of the hunt,
daughter of Zeus and Leto] (VIII)
, -[f.]beginning(9)
I lead, I hold sway (II)
, -[m.]bag(79)
I gasp(XXXIV)
, - immeasurable, unspeakable (in
amount)(XXV)
[adv.] near, close [often + gen. or dat.] (92)
, -, - starry (XXXIX)
, [n.]town(62)
[conj.]but(64)
, - [f.] infatuation, blindness of the
mind(XXXVIII)
, - that yields no crops, barren [epithet of
the sea] (XVI)
[adv.]again; but now(101)
, - [f.] light; ray (VII)
[adv.] (right) here, (right) there (XXIV)
, - [f.] courtyard, farmyard, fold (40)
[conj.]but, yet(24)
[adv.] again, on the other hand (87)
, [f.]shout(IX)
see , ,
[adv.]at once(81)
[adv.]back, again(103)
, - [f.] breath; vapor; blast (106)
[adv.] right here, right there (XVII)
, -, - self, same, very; himself, herself, itself;
him, her, it [not used in nom. in last sense] (14)
[adv.] in the same place; there (69)
[adv.] in the same way, just (so) (XII)

Greek-English Vocabulary
, , I shout (IX)
-, -, - I take
away(63)
[adv.] straightway, at once (IV)
-, -, - I come to, I arrive [+
acc.](75)
, , () I draw; I heap up (65)
, - [m. pl.] Achaeans [a division of the
Greeks]; also Greeks in general (89)
I grieve(XXX)
[adv.]back, back again(97)

, -, - deep (86)
, , , I go (42)
, , I throw, I strike (44)
, -[f.]kingdom(37)
, [m.] king, chief, noble (IV)
see
see
see
I use violence against, I constrain (110)
, -[f.]force, violence(7)
, - [m.] life, existence; goods,
chattels(XXXVII)
, -[n.]eyelid(106)
, , I roar, I shout (109)
, -[m.]hole, pit(VII)
I feed, I nourish; I pasture (XXVII)
, , I plan, I consider
whether or how to [+ inf. or + purpose
construction](36)
, - [f.] plan, advice, will (36)
, , I desire, I prefer (32)
, [m., f.] [dat. pl. also ] ox, cow (63)
, -, - mortal, human (15)
, - see
, or , - [f.] food (XV)

, -[f.]earth, land(8)
, , or I marry (36)
, - [m.] marriage, marriage-feast (III)
[conj., never first word in clause] for (6)
, or [f.] belly (113)
[enclitic particle] at least, in fact (25)
see
, , , [pf. has pres.
sense] I shout, I make myself heard (119)
see
see
, [m.]old man(27)
, , I rejoice (at) (VIII)
, , , I become, I
happen, I am; I am born (23)
, , , , ,
I know(16)

, gleaming-eyed [epithet of
Athena] (II)
, -, - hollow (70)
, -, - sweet, delightful (32)
see
see
see
, , I weep (for) [+ acc.], I
mourn(118)
, or [n.] knee (34)
I supplicate (XI)
, -[n.]limb(X)
, [f.]woman, wife(45)

, [m., f.] a divinity, a superhuman


power(105)
, , I give a feast; [mid.] I feast (XXV)
, -sagacious(XVIII)
I light up; [pass.] I blaze (X)
, [n.]tear(XXIII)
, , I tame, I overpower (116)
[alone] but, however; and [also see ] (8)
, , , , [pf. has
present sense] I fear [+ inf. or + purpose
construction](25)
, , I show (X)
, -, - cowardly, luckless (XXXVII)
, -, - awesome (XXVII)
, - [n.] main meal, meal (65)
, -, - tenth (50)
, -[n.]tree(12)
, [n.] fear, terror (X)
, , I flay (XXXVIII)
, -[m.]bond, fetter(XXV)
[adv.]hither(XXXI)
, -, - second (49)
, , I receive, I accept (33)
, , I tie, I fasten (70)
[adv.]clearly, indeed(9)
, [f.] strife (XIV)
, - [m.] people, realm (I)
[adv.] for long (III)
[adv.]long(XV)
see
[prep. + gen.] through; [prep. + acc.] through;
among; on account of (28)
, , I teach (21)
, , I give (67 and 68)
see
, -, - just, honorable (12)
, -[f.]justice; custom(7)
, -, - bright, glorious [f. usually keeps alpha
throughout sg.] (95)
see
[adv.] twice, a second time (21)
, , I pursue (19)
, -[f.]handmaid(VIII)

95

A Reading Course in Homeric Greek


, [m.] man-servant (80)
, , I seem, I appear (21)
, - [m.] cunning, craftiness; trickery; bait for
catching fish (45)
, - [m.] house, room (X)
, -[f.]opinion; glory(8)
, -[n.]supper(94)
, or [n.] beam, plank;
spear(106)
or see
= 3 aor. of 1
, , I can, I am able [+
inf.](92)
, -, - [adj.] able, possible; [vb. + + inf.] (I
am) able (to do something) (24)
, -hostile(XIII)
, - wretched, unfortunate (XV)
1, , or I enter; I put (on); I sink;
I set (XXII)
2 or [indecl.]two(35)
[indecl.]twelve(XXVII)
see
, [n.] house, hall (II)
, -[n.]gift(13)
see

him, her, it [acc. sg. 3 pers. pron.] (34)


, , I leave (alone); I permit, I allow (to do
or be something) [+ inf.] (37)
[adv.] from close at hand, neaar (111)
[adv., prep. + gen.] near (14)
, , I arouse, I awaken [trans.];
[mid.] I wake up [intr.] (IV)
, see
() I [nom. sg. 1 pers. pron.] (32)
, [f.] food (XVII)
or , - [n. pl.] bride-price, dowry (XI)
see
[pres. syst. only] I eat (64)
, - [f.] food (VI)
see
, , I sit down; [trans. in aor.] I cause to be
seated(71)
, , I wish (20)
[conj.] if; if only, would that [+ opt. in impossible
wish]; whether [in indirect question]; if
only, would that [+ opt. in impossible wish];
unless(10)
, [n.]food(64)
(), , () I appear; I seem (like to) [+
dat.] (II)
, [n.] appearance, face (II)
if only, would that [+ opt. in impossible wish] (19)
(), , () I confine; I check; [pass.] I throng, I
crouch(XXXII)
see
, [n.] garment; [pl.] clothes (III)

96

I am(10)
I go, I shall go (II)
[prep. + gen.] on account of, for the sake of (12)
[also or ] [conj.] while, until [+ ind.
if purely factual; + purpose construction if
anticipatory, like ] (85)
[2 aor. syst.] I said, I told [augmented , for
] (41)
, -[f.]peace(7)
, , I ask (25)
, , I speak, I say, I tell (XIX)
or [adv., prep. + acc.] into, to (10)
2 sg. pres. ind. of
, , [m. and n. gen. ] one (30)
--, --, -- I arrive
at, I reach [+ acc.] (XXV)
-, -, - I embark, I go on
board; I enter (XXIX)
-I enter(34)
- I see, I look at (87)
[ before vowels] [adv., prep. + gen.] out of (6)
, -, - each (27)
(), -, - that (one) (14)
, - at rest, undisturbed (XXXVI)
-, , - [non-thematic 2 aor.] I rush
out of, I pour out of [intr.] (105)
[adv.]outside(86)
[adv.] outside; [prep. + gen.] outside of, away
from(VI)
, -, - or , -, - (of) olive-wood (98)
, - [n.] olive oil (VI)
or , , () I drive (86)
, -[f.]deer(VIII)
see
I pity(XIII)
, , I pity, I have mercy on (101)
see
2 aor. of
, , () I whirl, I turn (XL)
2 aor. of
or I expect, I hope, I suppose [often +
inf.](40)
2 aor. of
, - [n.] a young one [of animals] (87)
or me [acc. sg, 1 pers. pron.] (32)
or or or [gen. sg. 1 pers. pron.] (32)
or to me, for me [dat. sg. 1 pers. pron.] (32)
, -, - my (26)
, - firm, unchanged (XXX)
[adv.]nevertheless(XIII)
-, -, - I fill (with) (81)
or or or [adv., prep. + dat.] in, on,
among(6)
[adv.]within, inside(82)
1 aor. of
[adv.]there, then(65)
[adv.] here, hither (XII)
[adv.] from there; then [temporal]

Greek-English Vocabulary
- , -, - I send (in) (XXVI)
, , I say, I tell (18)
[adv.]for nine days(64)
, - earth-shaker [epithet of
Poseidon](XXII)
, (), () I clothe, I put on (III)
, earth-shaker [epithet of
Poseidon] (XXVIII)
[adv.] inside; [prep. + gen.] inside of (86)
, -[f.]command, order(34)
() [adv.] within, inside; [prep. + gen.] inside
of (85)
= before vowels (6)
[indecl.]six(XXVII)
[adv. = ] in a specified order, in a row or
rows(VII)
[adv.] in order, in rows (71)
see
of him/her [gen. sg. of 3 pers. pron.]
[pf. with pres. sense; plpf. with impf.
sense] I seem,I am like to; [in 3 sg. impersonal
construction, which may take acc. and inf.] it is
fitting(45)
, -, - his/her own [possessive adj. of the 3 pers.
sg.] (15)
[conj.]when; since(18)
-I drive on;[mid.]I hasten(XXX)
[adv.]then, thereupon
- I come to, I come upon [+ dat., acc.] (81)
contraction of (35)
[adv.] besides, on top, on; [prep. + gen.]
upon; [prep. + dat.] on, at, beside; [prep. + acc.] to,
towards; after (in search or attack) (6)
- I go upon, I land upon [+ gen.] (64)
-, -, - I seek out; I
feel, I touch (95)
-, , - I enjoin; I give orders
to(XXXII)
- I put on; I put in position (86)
- I go about, I go towards (XIX)
, , I follow [+ dat.] (III)
, [n.]word(28)
-, , - I exhort [+ acc. and inf.] (III)
[indecl.]seven (80)
, - work, deed (12)
(), , I keep (a ship) away, I ward off; I
confine(XXXII)
, , I do (31)
, -[n.]oar(71)
see
, - [pl. follows 3 decl. , etc.] faithful,
loyal(70)
, [f.] strife, rivalry (VII)
see
, -[m.]love, desire(XXXVI)
(), (), ()() I save, I rescue,
I protect (62)
, , () I drag, I draw (70)

, , (), I come, I
go(26)
see
see
, [f.] clothing (VI)
, , I eat (19)
, --, - noble, excellent (13)
[pres. syst. only] I eat, I devour (119)
see
, -[m.]companion, comrade(23)
, -[m.]companion, comrade(23)
, -, - (the) other (14)
[adv.] on the other side (XXXIII)
[adv.]yet, still; no longer(31)
[adv.]well(44)
, , I sleep (17)
-, - well-made; fine (80)
, -, - well-inhabited; well-settled (XXI)
, (-), - well-polished, well-planed [epithet of
the products of a carpenter] (VI)
, -fair-tressed(X)
, , I find, I discover (33)
2 aor. of
, - [m.] Eurylochos [a cousin and
companion of Odysseus] (XXXII)
, -, - wide, broad (33)
, - having good rowing benches [epithet of
ships] (XXXVIII)
I declare myself (to be) [+ inf.]; I exult; I
pray (to) [+ dat.] (XXXVIII)
, , I claim (to be), I boast, I
exult; I pray (to) [+ inf.] (40)
-, -, - I meet; I drive; I
pursue(XXXVII)
[irreg. from ] he/she said
-, -, -() I prepare, I
equip(III)
-, -, -, , , -
I urge on; [mid. and pass.] I rush forward; I am
eager to (XXVIII)
, or , or I have, I hold (18)
see

, , I yoke (VI)
, or Zeus [father and chief of the gods]
49
, - [m.] the west wind (XXXV)
see
, , I seek, I search after (34)
, -[f.]life(26)
, , I live (20)

or [disjunctive particle] or; than; either


or; in questions in disjunctive form whether
or (27)

97

A Reading Course in Homeric Greek


1 or second element in direct or indirect questions
in disjunctive form; see ()
2 thus he/she spoke [3 sg. impf. of ]
3 [adv.] truly, indeed; also, an untranslatable
interrogative particle introducing a question (83)
4 3 sg. impf. of
, , I lead the
way(XVIII)
, , I lead, I guide [+ dat.]
(VIII)
[conj.]and(20)
[adv.] by now, already, now (II)
, , I am pleased with [+ dat.] (22)
, -[f.]pleasure(29)
, , sweet, pleasant (8 and 29)
=
= see ,
, - [m.] sun [sometimes personified as the sungod](23)
see
I sit (IV)
, [n.]day(38)
we [nom. pl. 1 pers. pron.] (32)
, -, - [ptc. of ] sitting, seated (85)
, -, - our (14)
[gen. pl. 1 pers. pron.] see (32)
I speak, I say [only in 3 sg. impf. ]
for us, to us [dat. pl. 1 pers. pron.] (32)
, - [m., f.] mule (III)
, (-), - half (30)
[conj.]when(73)
contraction of (35)
, - [n. pl.] reins (VI)
[also or ] [conj.] while, until [+ ind.
if purely factual; + purpose construction if
anticipatory, like ] (85)
, - [f.] the early-born (one) [epithet of ]
(73)
, [m.] warrior (XXI)
see
[n., indecl.]heart(88)
, [f.]dawn(73)
, (contraction of ) [f.] Eos, Dawn [the
personified goddess of the dawn] (73)

, - [m.] bed-room, store-room (II)


, -[f.]sea(8)
, -, - lusty, in prime of youth (V)
, -[m.]death(12)
fut. of
2 aor. of
, - [adj., comp. of , -, -] swifter (49)
, - [keeps throughout singular] [f.] goddess (II)
, , I bewitch, I enchant (XXV)
, [f.] a right, custom; it is
right, it is lawful [+ acc. and inf.] (36)

98

, - godlike (I)
, - [m., f.] god, goddess (11)
, -, - heavenly, divine (81)
, - divinely decreed; [n. as substantive]
divine decrees (XXX)
I run(XL)
see
see
, (), female (115)
, -[m.]treasure(15)
, [f.]beach(VII)
or , , , () I die
(17)
, -, - mortal (15)
, -, - swift (65)
, fut. and aor. of
, -[m.]seat, chair(XXI)
, or [f.] daughter (63)
, -[f.]blast, storm(XII)
, -[m.]heart, spirit(13)
, - [m.] door-stone (77)
, -[f.]door(53)
I run, I rush (XXXIX)
, , I arm (XXXIII)

, , I warm, I melt, I soften (the heart) (XI)


I shout, I hiss; I resound (107)
=
see
, -, - holy, sacred (25)
, , I send forth, I cast; I place (67)
, - [m.] physician (11)
, - [f.] Ithaca [island home of Odysseus] (XXIX)
, , I steer (a ship); I direct (XXVII)
[pres. syst. only] I come, I have arrived (19)
, - [m. pl. of ] suppliants (91)
, -[m.]suppliant(91)
, , I approach, I come (to) [+
acc.](91)
, - [n. pl.] deck-beams, deck (XXXIII)
[adv.] where; [conj.] in order that, that [+ purpose
construction](18)
, - [f. adj. and subst.] pouring arrows [epithet
of Artemis] (VIII)
, [f.] strength, sinew (XXXI)
, -, - equal (XVIII)
, , I put, I set, I halt [trans.]; ,
, I stand [intr.] (77)
, - [n.] sail [pl. often used for sg.] (XXX)
, -[m.]mast;loom [for weaving](98)
, -, - mighty (XLI)
, -, - fat, strong (XXIX)
, [m.]fish(XXXIV)
, , ptc. of (67)

Greek-English Vocabulary

= before (10)
, , I cleanse (VII)
-, , - I seat myself; I cause to be
seated(71)
[conj.]and; even; also(6)
, , I kindle, I burn (85)
, -, - bad, evil, cowardly (12)
, , () I call, I invite (IV)
, -, - [adj., supl. of , -, -] (49)
, - [adj., comp. of , -, -] (49)
, [n.] beauty (II)
, -, - beautiful; fine; noble (7)
, , I cover (XXXVI)
, - [m.] toil, weariness (I)
, , [intr.] I grow weary; [trans.]
I construct by toiling (XXXIII)
, -[m.]boar(VIII)
, () or ()[n.]head(VIII)
, - [n.] [only in pl.] heads, summits (IX)
, - swift, quick (82)
, -[m.]fruit(14)
, -[m.]brother(26)
[adv.]down(wards); thoroughly,
completely; [prep. + gen.] down (from); [prep.
+ acc.] down (along); throughout; according to
-, -, - I descend (XIX)
-, -, - I enumerate, I
narrate(XXV)
-, -, - I put down (87)
-, -, - or - I pour
down; [mid.] I fall down (XVI)
() untranslatable particle giving a theoretical, general,
expected or contrary-to-fact coloring to its clause.
(17)
, , () I shatter (XXXIX)
[adv.] there, in that place (XXVIII)
[pf. mid. syst.] I have been placed; I lie
(down)(47)
, -, - see (), -, -
[adv.]thither(XII)
, - [f., but frequently n. in pl. , -]
way, path, course (88)
, , I command [+ acc. or dat.
and inf.] (19)
, , I order [+ acc. or dat.
and inf.] (70)
=
, -[m.]thunderbolt(XXXIX)
[comp. adj.] more beneficial, more
profitable(52)
, , I hide (18)
, - [f.] head (II)
, [n.]care, woe(XII)
, [n.]heart(28)
, [f.] fate, death (II)
, -[m.]wax(XXXI)

, - [f.] Circe [enchantress, daughter of Helius


the sun-god] (XXIII)
, , or I come upon (by
chance); I reach (IV)
, , I go (VI)
, , I shriek (XXXIV)
, , I weep, I wail (70)
, [f.]bolt; oar-lock(71)
, , , , , I cause to
lean; [in m.-p.] I lean, I recline (XXI)
, -famous(97)
, , () I hear (the sound of), I attend to
[+ gen. or + acc.] (XIII)
, -[f.]fat; savor(XXXVIII)
, -, - hollow (XXVII)
, , I lull to sleep, I lay to rest;
I calm; [mid.] I lie down to sleep (II)
, -[f.]hair(XVI)
, , I minister to; [mid.] I pick up,
I rescue (XIX)
, - [f.] top of a mountain or rock;
head(XXVII)
, - [m.] an ornament, adornment; due order
or arrangement (39)
, - [f.] girl, daughter (II)
, -, - strong (15)
, [n.]strength, power(53)
, [n. pl.] [ nom. sg. ] flesh, meat (94)
, - [n.] veil (VIII)
, [m.]mixing-bowl(80)
, , I pick out, I separate; I judge (29)
, , I conceal (47)
, , or I kill (48)
, -, - dark (blue) (XXVII)
, - with dark-blue prow (XXVII)
, [m.] steersman, pilot,
helmsman(XXIX)
, [n.]honor, glory(XXXI)
, , I stir (up), I confuse (XXXIII)
, [m.]Cyclops(92)
, [n.]wave(XXIII)

, [m.] [acc. ] stone (XVIII)


see
, - [m.] son of Laertes [= Odysseus]
(XXXIX)
see
, [f.]tempest(XXXVI)
, [n.]gulf(89)
, , I take, I get (22)
or , , I elude, I escape the
notice of [+ acc.]; [mid.] I am forgetful of [+ gen.]
(36)
, - [m.] the people, the folk, the subjects; army,
host(33)
, , I say, I tell; I call (10)

99

A Reading Course in Homeric Greek


, [m.]meadow(XX)
, , I leave (43)
, -, - white, bright (87)
, -white-armed(VIII)
I see, I look (XI)
, [m.]lion(X)
see
see
see
, -, - clear-sounding (XXV)
[adv.] exceedingly; truly(118)
[pres. syst. only] I long (for) [+ gen.]; I long
(to do something) [+ inf.] (52)
, [m.]harbor(XVIII)
see
, , I entreat, I beg (83)
, - [m.] word, speech; account, reason (11)
, , () I wash (VII)
, , I wash (XV)
, -, - woeful, pitiful, baleful
(or ), , , , ,
I loose, I release (16)
, -[m.]lotus(68)
, - [m. pl.] Lotus-eaters [a legendary
people](64)

see
, gen. [m., f. adj.] blessed (29)
, -, - long, large (in space or time) (39)
[adv.]very, quite, greatly(35)
[adv., supl. pf ] especially, most of
all(VII)
, , I learn (17)
, [m.]seer(XXXIV)
, , I seize (93)
or , , () I fight
(against) [+ dat.] (22)
see
, gen. [adj.] great-hearted,
great(95)
, - [n.] the chief room of a house; [in pl.]
house(V)
, , [m. acc. sg. , n. acc. sg. ,
rest of m. and n. is 2 decl., on stem -] great,
large, big (50)
, -, - [adj., supl. of , , ] (49)
, [n.] mead, wine (XXV)
, [adj., comp. of , , ] (49)
, -, - pleasing, winning, conciliatory (104)
see
, , [m. and n. gen. ] dark,
black(79)
, -honey-sweet(69)
, , I am about, I am going, I
intend, I am destined (to do something) [+ inf.]
(24)
, [n.] member (of the body), limb (51)

100

, , , I am a care to (V)
[correlative particles marking contrast]
indeed but; on the one hand on the other
hand; [alone as adv.] truly, indeed
, , I rage against [+ dat.]; I am
eager(XXII)
, [n.] might; courage; wrath (117)
, , I remain, I stay; I await (44)
(), -, - middle (of), midst (of) [modifying
noun in same case] (46)
[adv.] in company with others; afterwards; [prep.
+ dat.] between, among, with; [prep. + acc.] into the
midst, after (22)
- I speak among [+ dat.] (XV)
, - [n.] measure (27)
not; and not, nor, not even (17)
, , no one, none (30)
, , I contrive, I plan (68)
, [n.]length(28)
, -[n.]sheep; flock(38)
, [m.]month(XXXVII)
, - [m.] thigh (93)
, or [f.] mother (48)
, , I remind; [mid.] I remember
[+ gen.] (XXV)
[pres. system only] I remain, I await (73)
him, her, it [acc. sg. 3 pers. pron.] (34)
, , I mix (something [in acc.]) with
(something [in dat.]), I mingle with [+ dat.] (32)
I woo (III)
, , I toil, I suffer (XIII)
see
, - [f.] due measure; portion, fate;
properly(87)
, -, - alone, only (11)
, - [f.] Muse [a goddess of poetry and art]
, -[m.]bar, stake(99)
, , I relate, I say (XXX)
, - [m.] word, speech (II)
, -, - countless, myriad (XXVII)

I dwell, I inhabit; I am situated; I exist (XI)


, , I inhabit, I dwell (I)
, - [keeps throughout singular] [f.]
Nausicaa [daughter of King Alcinous] (II)
, , () I quarrel with [+ dat.];
I rebuke (XXXIX)
, [n.] a dispute, a quarrel; a
reproach(XLI)
, -[m.]corpse(XXIII)
, [n.] nectar [drink of the gods]
, [m.]corpse;[pl.]the dead(XXXIX)
(), (), () I am righteously
indignant (with) [+ dat.] (XIX)
, , I assign; I drive my flock; [mid.]
I possess, I feed on (85)
[pres. syst. only] I return (69)

Greek-English Vocabulary
, -, - young, fresh, new (XII)
see
, -[f.]cloud(XXVII)
, - [m.] the cloud-gatherer [epithet of
Zeus] (XXXVI)
, [n.]cloud(XXXVI)
(), - pitiless, ruthless (91)
, - unfailing; true, clear (XXVIII)
, -[m.]temple(25)
, -, - foolish, simple (11)
, - [f.] island (XII)
, or [f.] [dat. pl. also ] ship (53)
, , I think, I perceive (20)
, -[m.]mind(15)
, , I return (home) (XXV)
, -, - of ones home-coming (63)
, - [m.] return (home), home-coming (62)
, - [m.] the south wind (XXXV)
, -[m.]disease(15)
, - [f.] nymph [semi-divine female being,
inhabiting the sea, caves, islands, etc.] (XXIX)
() [enclitic adv.] now [usually not temporal] (III)
[adv.] now, at the present time (9)
, [f.]night(50)
, , I control; I distribute
(XXXII)
, -[n.]back(113)

, - [n.] guest-gift, gift of hospitality [given by


host to guest] (83)
, -[m.]guest, stranger(13)
, [n.]sword(94)

, , [demonstrative pron. and adj.] that (one),


the; [rel. pron.] who, which, that; [3 pers. pron.] he,
she, it (15)
, -[m.]spit(XXXVIII)
, -, - heavy, mighty (85)
, , [demonstrative pron. and adj.] this (one);
[3 pers. pron.] he, she, it (15)
, - [f.] way, road; journey (33)
(), () [m.] Odysseus (I)
[adv. conj.]where(95)
, [plpf. ] I know [pf. has pres. sense,
plpf. impf. sense] (70)
o[adv.]homewards(89)
o, , I dwell, I inhabit (50)
, -[m.]house; household(46)
, -, - pitiful, miserable (XXXIV)
, , I cry out in pain (107)
, -[m.]wine(33)
, wine-colored (epithet of the sea and of
cattle) (XII)
, -, - (such) as, (of) such a sort as (88)
, -, - alone (76)

, [m., f.] [dat. pl. also ; acc. pl.


]sheep(75)
see
or , , I think, I suppose,
I imagine (43)
, - [m.] happiness, prosperity (16)
, -[m.]destruction(68)
, -, - small, few (13)
, , (), [2 aor. mid. ]
I kill, I destroy, I lose; [in pf. act. and all tenses
mid.] I perish, I am lost (63)
, -, - destructive, deadly (64)
, - or , - Olympus (mountain in
Thessaly, home of the gods) (IV)
, -[m.]rain, storm(21)
, , () I swear (XXXVI)
, -, - like to, similar to [+ dat.] (12)
[adv.] together, at the same time (XXVI)
, - [m.] dream (IV)
or , [n.] name (100)
, , I name, I call (by
name)(XVIII)
, -, - sharp, keen (95)
, , () I send (with someone);
I present (67)
()[adv.]behind, afterward, hereafter(XXI)
()[adv.]hereafter, back, behind(XVIII)
, -[n.]tool; rope(XVIII)
() [adv. conj.] where, in what direction (91)
, -, - which of the two (XXVI)
[conj.] that, in order that [see for purpose
construction] (18)
, , , , , I see,
I look (at) 16
, -, - straight, true (23)
, -[m.]oath(XXXVI)
, , I ponder; I stir up (IX)
, , , , , I incite; [mid.
and pass.] I attack (XXVIII)
, [m., f.]bird(XXXVII)
, , , [aor. mid. also ()]
I incite, I raise; [mid.] I rush, I speed (XVIII)
, [n.]mountain(77)
, , [rel. pron.] who, which, that, what (26);
, , / [indef. rel. pron.] whoever,
whatever(31)
, , contraction of , ,
(), -, - as many as, as great as, as much as [see
()](86)
[nom. dual] (two) eyes (X)
, -[n.]bone(94)
, , / see , ,
[adv. conj.]when, whenever(35)
[conj.]that, because(18)
, , I urge on; I send (XVIII)
[ before smooth breathing; before rough
breathing]not, no(8)
, [dat. pl. also ] [n.] ear (XXV)

101

A Reading Course in Homeric Greek


[conj.] and not, nor, not even (21)
, , no one, none (30)
[adv.]no longer(31)
o, -, - whole, entire (52)
[adv.] therefore, then [not of time] (22)
o, -[m.]heaven, sky(26)
, - [m.] a (fair) wind (XXIX)
o [conj.] and not, nor [following a neg. clause] (8)
[conj.] neither nor (8)
, , this (XIV)
[adv.] thus, in this way, so (9)
, -[m.]eye(14)
[conj.] that, in order that, to [+ subj. or opt. in
purpose construction] (18); while, until [+ ind.
if purely factual, + purpose construction if
anticipatory](24)
, [f.]eyebrow(106)
, [f.]voice(XXV)

see
, [m., f.] child, boy, girl (27)
[adv.]back (again); again(46)
, -, - of all sorts (21)
, , I look about sharply (for)
(XXXIII)
[adv.] nearby, at hand; [prep. + gen.] from (the
side of); [prep. + dat.] at, beside; [prep. + acc.] to,
along(side)(20)
- I am present (21)
-, - [adv.] along past; close by; [prep. + acc.]
alongside of, past (XXV)
- I go past, I pass (26)
-I supply(18)
, - [f.] a young unmarried woman (III)
-, -, - I stand
by(98)
()[adv.]before(XII)
[adv.] before(XXII)
, , [m. / n. gen. ] all, every, the
whole(30)
, , I suffer, I experience (37)
, , () I partake of [+ gen.] (67)
, or [m.] father (48)
, [f.] fatherland; [as. f. adj.]
ancestral(30)
, , I stop; [mid.] I cease (XII)
, -, - thick, stout (104)
, , or [2 aor. mid. ]
I persuade, I win over; [pf. act.] I trust [+ dat.];
[mid.] I am persuaded by, I am obedient to, I obey
[+ dat.] (31)
, [n.] end, boundary; rope (93)
, , I make trial of [+ gen.];
I attempt, I try [+ gen. or + inf.] (30)
, , I pierce (through), I stick, I transfix
(XXXVIII)

102

, , () I bring near to [trans.]; I go


near to [intr.] (XXV)
, , or deponent form , ,
I come to be, I am (24)
, -, - gigantic, monstrous (76)
, , I send (24)
, [n.]sorrow, grief(XII)
see
[enclitic particle] surely, by far [adds force];
although, though [+ ptc.] (27)
, , I cross, I traverse, I pass
through(XVIII)
[adv.] round about; especially; over and
above (others); [prep. + gen.] about; excelling
(over); [prep. + dat. or acc.] about; for (41)
, - very beautiful (VII)
, - of great length, long (XXVII)
or see
, , () I spread out (IV)
, , I fly (XXXII)
, -[f.]rock(7)
, , I learn (by inquiry),
I inquire (from), I hear (of) [+ acc. of thing heard,
+ gen. of person heard] (25)
, , I plant (something) firmly, I
stick(XXIII)
, [n.]pain, bane(XXIV)
, (), I press, I squeeze; I
oppress(XXX)
, , I drink (23)
, , I fall (21)
, , I believe (in), I have faith
(in) [+ dat.] (38)
I make known (XXX)
, [adj.]fat, rich(82)
, , , , , I beat;
[pass.] I wander (XIX)
, -, - [adj., supl. of , -, -] most (49)
, - [adj., comp. of , -, -] (49)
, , I sail (over) (88)
, -, - near (to), neighbor(ing) (to) [+ gen. or
dat.](22)
, , I smite (XL)
, , I wash clothes (III)
[interr. adv.] from what source? whence? (33)
, , I long (to do something),
I yearn (to do something) [+ inf.]; I miss (a person
or thing) (43)
, , I make, I do, I produce (19)
, [m.]shepherd(40)
, -[m.]war(12)
, (-), - grayish, white (71)
, or [f.] city (27)
, -, - much; many (14)
, , much, many [alternative m. and n.
forms of , -, -] (83)

Greek-English Vocabulary
[m. adj. nom. only] much-enduring,
unflinching [epithet of Odysseus] (I)
, - [m.] Polyphemus [ a Cyclops, son of
Poseidon and the nymph Thosa] (109)
, - [f.] escort, arrangements for safe
conduct(XX)
, , I labor, I toil at, I am
busy about (37)
, , - worthless, base, wicked (15)
, -[m.]toil, trouble(14)
, - [m.] sea, the deep (62)
[2 aor. syst. only] I gave (41)
, [m.] Poseidon [brother of
Zeus and god of the sea] (93)
1, [f.]drink(XV)
2, [m.] husband (XVII)
, -[m.]river(14)
[enclitic adv.] ever, (at) some time, once (10)
= (XXI)
, - [f.] queen, lady [title of honor] (III)
[indefinite adv.] perhaps, I suppose; of course, no
doubt(21)
[ interr. adv., always with circumflex] where? (21)
, [m.] foot (III)
, [n.] deed; [in pl.] trouble;
deeds(28)
[adv.] before, sooner; [conj. + inf. or subj.] before,
until (I)
-, -, - I send forth, I cast (67)
[adv.] thereto, besides, in addition; [prep. + gen.]
from (the side of); [prep. + dat.] on, at; [prep. + acc.]
to, towards, against (10)
-I address(101)
- [2 aor.] I spoke to, I addressed [+ acc.] (89)
() [adv.] first, before, in front (104)
- speak to, address (II)
() = (XXVI)
, - willing, eager, ready (29)
, -, - first (25)
, -, - winged (29)
=
=
, , I fold (VIII)
see
(), -, - thick, close; shrewd (115)
, -[f.]gate, entrance(34)
, [n.]fire(28)
, - [m] turreted wall; tower built into a
wall(XVIII)
[+ neg.] [adv.] never yet, in no way, not at all (36)
[enclitic adv.] somehow, in any way (26)
[interr. adv.]how?(26)
, [n.] flock [of sheep] (XXIX)

see
, , I do (18)
[adv.]easily, at ease(VIII)

[pres. syst.]I flow(42)


, -[f.]breakers, surf(XXIII)
, , I smash, I break (XL)
, -, - easy (16)
[adv.]swiftly(XXXI)
, , I hurl (109)
, - rosy-fingered [epithet of Eos,
goddess of the dawn]
, - [m.] stream, current (VII)
, , () see under ()

, [f.]flesh(44)
[acc. sg. 2 pers. pron.] see
, [f.] a Siren [one of two singing
sisters who by their song lure seaman to their
death](XXV)
or or [gen. sg. 2 pers. pronoun] see
, , I set in motion, I drive; [mid.] I rush
(VII)
, -[m.]pen, fold(82)
, -, - shining (III)
, -, - of iron (XXXV)
I plunder; I do mischief to (XXVIII)
, -[m.]bread, food(26)
, [n.]shelter(XV)
, -[m.]crag(XXVII)
, - [f.] Scylla [a monster who lives in a cave
opposite Charybdis] (XXVII)
, -, - frightful, terrible (X)
to you, for you [dat. sg. 2 pers. pron.]
, -, -your[sg.](24)
, -, - wise (11)
, , I pour a libation (XXXVIII)
or , gen. or [n.] cave (75)
, , I hasten (21)
, -[m.]door-post;farm-yard(116)
, , I go, I proceed (110)
[pres. syst. only] I groan, I lament (75)
see
see
, -, - stout, strong (XXXI)
see
, [n.] mouth (XXXI)
, -, gloomy, dreadful, loathsome (XXXV)
[nom. sg. 2 pers. pron.] you (33)
[adv.]together, altogether;[prep. + dat.]with,
along with, accompanied by (6)
, , I cut the throat, I
slaughter(XXXVIII)
them [acc. pl. 3 pers. pron.] (34)
, -, - their(s) (46)
of them [gen. pl. 3 pers. pron.] (34)
() or () to them, for them [dat. pl. 3 pers.
pron.](34)
[adv.] close by, near; [prep. + gen. or dat.] near
(to)(92)
see

103

A Reading Course in Homeric Greek


, -, - cruel, pitiless, reckless (13)
see
see
, , I save (25)
, [n.]body, corpse(28)

[adv.]quickly, soon(105)
, -, - swift (49)
[postpositive enclitic conj.] and, also; both
and; both and; is often not to be
translated, rather giving subordinate or generalized
force to its clause, especially with relative pronouns
and adverbs. (115)
() see
[pres. syst. only] I wear out, I distress (115)
or see
, [n.] wall (I)
, -[n.]child(XXV)
, [n.] child, offspring (V)
, , I bring to pass,
I finish (XXXVI)
, , I fulfill, I accomplish, I complete
(41)
, [n.] land marked off (as private
property or dedicated to a god) (XX)
dat. pl. of , (31)
, -, - your [sg.] (103)
, , or () I cheer, I amuse,
I comfort; [mid.] I take pleasure (in) [+ dat.], I take
my fill of [+ gen.] (IV)
gen. sg. of , (31)
, , I build; I make ready; [pf. m.-p.
]I am(35)
gen. pl. of ,
[rel. adv.] where, there (28)
[adv.]here(28)
[adv.] far (away) (XXXVIII)
, , I put, I cause, I make (67)
, , I bear, I beget (offspring) (XXVIII)
or , [fut.] or , [aor] or I
pay; [in mid.] I take vengeance upon, I punish (97)
, [interrog. pron.] who? which? what? [interrog.
adv.] why? (31)
, [indef. pron.] some(one), some(thing), one, a
certain (one), any(one); [adv.] somehow, in some
respect
, , I endure (something) patiently; I
have the heart, I dare (to do something) [+ inf.] (42)
see
see , ,
[postpositive enclitic particle] surely, you see (24)
[pron.] 1. alternate nom. pl. of 2. =
, -, - such (XII)
, , such (as this); such (as
that)(XI)
, - [m.] wall; [pl.] sides [of a ship] (XL)
, [m., f.] parent (IV)

104

(), -, - so many, so great, so much; [often


correlative with (): so many () as
()](86)
[adv.]then(47)
see , ,
[adv.] (for) so long; meanwhile (XII)
, three(V)
, , I turn [trans.]; [in mid.] I turn
(myself) [intr.] (22)
, , I nourish, I feed, I rear (21)
[adv.]thrice; three times(100)
, -[f.]Troy, Ilion(61)
, [f.] the keel (of a ship) (XL)
, , I happen (upon); I obtain
[+ gen.] (XX)
, , I strike, I beat (71)
, -[m.]cheese(82)
or [adv., often used with conjunctive
force] therefore, in that case (117)

, -, - fluid, watery, moist (88)


, [n.]water(32)
, - or [m.] [dat. pl. ] son (34)
, - [f.] forest, wood(s); firewood (85)
you (all) [acc. pl. 2 pers. pron.]
you (all) [nom. pl. 2 pers. pron.] (33)
-, - [adv.] out of the reach of something; [prep.
+ gen.] away from (XXVIII)
or[prep. + gen. or acc.]over(88)
[adv.]from above(XXXIV)
, [m.]Hyperion(63)
, -overbearing(XVIII)
, -[m.]sleep(99)
[adv.] underneath, beneath; [prep. + gen.] from
under; under the influence of, by [personal agent];
[prep. + dat.] under [at rest]; [prep. + acc.] under
[motion towards] (6)
, -, - last (112)
, , I weave; I devise (111)
, -, - high, lofty (11)
[adv.]on high; upwards(79)

see
, -, - bright, shining (II)
I give light (XXXIX)
. shining, glorious (XXVII)
, [m. pl.] Phaeacians (I)
, , I show, I reveal; ,
, [pass. with act. sense] I show
myself, I appear (27)
, [n.]light(28)
, [n.]mantle, cloak(XV)
, , I bear, I bring (17)
, , I flee, I escape (20)
, , I say, I claim (88 and IV)

Greek-English Vocabulary
see
, -[m.]voice(88)
, , love (17)
, -, - dear (to), friendly (to) [+ dat.]; , -
or , - [m. or f. substantive] friend, dear one
, , I roam (back and forth) (19)
, , I bear (constantly), I bear
along(XXVI)
, [f.]mind, spirit(32)
, , I consider, I have
understanding(21)
see
, , I guard (XXIX)
, -[n.]leaf(IX)
, [f.] nature (27)
, , I lift up my voice, I utter
(XXII)
, -[f.]voice, sound(9)
, [m.]man(113)

, [m.]tunic(XV)
, -, - greenish-yellow, green (98)
, (), I anger; [mid.] I am angry
[+ dat. of person , + gen. of cause] (XI)
, - [m.] dancing, the dance; dancing place (V)
[+ inf. w. acc. subject] it is necessary (38)
, [n.] possession, property; [in pl.]
wealth(28)
, -, - worthy, good; useful, serviceable (29)
, , I anoint (VII)
, -[m.]time(16)
(), -, - of gold (VI)
, -[m.]gold(12)
, or [m.] body, flesh, skin (V)
, , I am angry
(with)(XXXVIII)
, -[m.]place, region(75)

, - [f.] soul, spirit; (breath of) life

, , [aor. pass. has act. sense]


I rejoice (in) (38)
, -, - difficult (15)
, -[m.]copper, bronze(XXXI)
, -, - graceful, pleasing (XVI)
, [f.] [acc. sg. ] grace, charm;
favor(37)
, f.] Charybdis [the whirlpool
opposite Scylla] (XXVIII)
, ()[f.]hand(51)
, - [f.] dry land, land (VII)
, , I pour (liquid), I shed (tears); I heap
up(81)
, [f.]earth(67)

O![in direct address](23)


, - [f.] Ogygia [a mythical island, residence of
the nymph Calypso] (XII)
[adv.]thus, so(107)
[adv.]quickly, swiftly(XV)
, - [m.] Ocean [river encircling the earth;
personified as a god] (XXIII)
, -, - swift, nimble (70)
, -[m.]shoulder(XV)
[adv.] as, how; [conj.] (in order) that [+ purpose
construction](17)
, [adv.] thus, so [always with pitch-mark] (62)

105

106

AppendixA
Appendix

Summary
Grammar
Summary
of of
Grammar
DECLENSION ENDINGS
1st DECL.

2nd DECL.

3rd DECL.

bi-

gai-

ye-

dvr-

nakt-

pe-

N
G
D
A
N
G
D
A

-h
-hw
-
-hn
-ai
-avn
-s(i)
-aw

-a
-hw
-
-an
-ai
-avn
-s(i)
-aw

-ow
-ou/oio
-
-on
-oi
-vn
-ois(i)
-ouw

-on
-ou/oio
-
-on
-a
-vn
-ois(i)
-a

----ow
-i
-a/-n
-ew
-vn
-(es)si
-aw

----ow
-i
----a
-vn
-(es)si
-a

GEND.

all f.

m.; a few f.

all n.

m., f., n.
(cp. Lesson 27
27)in Book 1)

ADJECTIVE AND PARTICIPLE TYPES


1.
2.

3.
4.

1st and 2nd decl.


1st and 3rd decl.

-ow, -h, -on


-vn, -ousa, -on (m./n. gen. -ont-ow) -uw, -eia, -u (m./n. gen. -e-ow)
-aw, -asa, -an (m./n. gen. -ant-ow)
-vw, -uia, -ow (m./n. ot-ow)
-eiw, -essa/-eisa, -en (m./n. gen. -ent-ow)
3rd decl. only
-hw, -ew (gen. -e-ow)
-vn, -on (gen. -on-ow)
Single termination (e.g., mkar)

COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES
1.
2.
3.
4.

Adj. in -ow w. last syllable of stem long:


Adj. in -ow w. last syllable of stem short:
Adj. in -vn:
Adj. in -hw, some in -uw:

add to stem
add to stem
add to stem
add to stem

-oterow, -otatow
-vterow, -vtatow
-esterow, -estatow
-terow, -tatow

IRREGULAR COMPARISON
gayw
kalw
mgaw
pollw
flow
taxw

revn
kallvn
mezvn
plevn
flterow
yssvn

ristow
kllistow
mgistow
plestow
fltatow
txistow

VOCATIVE
Same as nom. except: 1.
2.

2nd decl. m. sg. -e (fle)


3rd decl. -euw, -iw
drop -w (ze, pli)

3.
4.

3rd decl. long vowel of nom. shortens


if it also does in gen. (pter)
Special: yew, gnai
347

107

A Reading Course in Homeric Greek


A Reading Course in Homeric Greek
SPECIAL CASE ENDINGS
1.
2.
3.
4.

-de added to acc. = place to which (oknde); -de blends with w into -ze (yurze)
-yen added to gen minus w or u = place from which (oranyen)
-fi(n) added to gen. minus w or u = by, at, from, with, on, in (bhfi, yrhfi)
DUAL: 2nd decl. -v, 3rd decl. -e (xere m)

VERB ENDINGS: ACTIVE AND AORIST PASSIVE


PRES.
SYSTEM

FUT.
SYSTEM

1 AOR.
SYSTEM

2 AOR.
SYSTEM

3 AOR.
SYSTEM

PF. ACT.
SYSTEM

AOR. PASS.
SYSTEM

lu-

lus-

lus-

id-

bh-

leluk-

luy-

IND.
-v
-eiw
-ei
-omen
-ete
-ousi(n

-v
-eiw
-ei
-omen
-ete
-ousi(n)

-a
-aw
-e(n)
-amen
-ate
-asi(n)

(impf.)

(plpf.)

-on
-ew
-e(n)
-omen
-ete
-on

-a
-aw
-e(n)
-amen
-ate
-an

-on
-ew
-e(n)
-omen
-ete
-on

-n
-w
--men
-te
-san

-ea, -h
-hw
-ei
-emen
-ete
-esan

-hn
-hw
-h
-hmen
-hte
-hsan

-v
-w
-
-vmen
-hte
-vsi(n)

-v
-w
-
-vmen
-hte
-vsi(n)

-v
-w
-
-vmen
-hte
-vsi(n)

-v
-w
-
-vmen
-hte
-vsi(n)

-v
-w
-
-vmen
-hte
-vsi(n)

-aimi
-eiaw
-eie(n)
-aimen
-aite
-eian

-oimi
-oiw
-oi
-oimen
-oite
-oien

-aihn*
-aihw
-aih
-aimen
-aite
-aien

-oimi
-oiw
-oi
-oimen
-oite
-oien

-eihn
-eihw
-eih
-eimen
-eite
-eien

-on
-ate

-e
-ete

-yi
-te

-e
-ete

-hyi
-hte

-ein
-(e)men
-(e)menai

-ai

-(e)ein
-(e)men
-(e)menai

-nai

-enai
-emen(ai)

-hnai
-hmenai

-vn
-ousa
-on

-aw
-asa
-an

-vn
-ousa
-on

-vw
-uia
-ow

-eiw
-eisa
-en

SUBJ.
-v
-w
-
-vmen
-hte
-vsi(n)
OPT.
-oimi
-oiw
-oi
-oimen
-oite
-oien
IMPT.
-e
-ete
INF.
-ein
-(e)men
-(e)menai
PTC.
-vn
-ousa
-0n

the stem
stemvowel
vowel(See
(SeeLesson
Lesson4343)
*Incorporating the
in Book 1)

108
348

b-aw
-asa
-an

Note: the Subj. 3 sg. ending is sometimes -si, the 2 sg. sometimes -hsya.

gn-*
-ouw
-ousa
-on

Appendix A
Appendix A
VERB ENDINGS: MIDDLE AND PASSIVE
PRES.
SYSTEM

FUT.
SYSTEM

1 AOR.
SYSTEM

2 AOR.
SYSTEM

PF. M-P
SYSTEM

lu-

lus-

lus-

id-

lelu-

IND.
-omai
-eai
-etai
-omeya
-esye
-ontai

-omai
-eai
-etai
-omeya
-esye
-ontai

-mai
-sai
-tai
-meya
-sye
-atai/ntai

(impf.)

(plpf.)

-omhn
-eo
-eto
-omeya
-esye
-onto

-amhn
-ao
-ato
-ameya
-asye
-anto

-omhn
-eo
-eto
-omeya
-esye
-onto

-mhn
-so
-to
-meya
-sye
-ato/nto

-vmai
-hai
-htai
-vmeya
-hsye
-vntai

-vmai
-hai
-htai
-vmeya
-hsye
-vntai

-aimhn
-aio
-aito
-aimeya
-aisye
-aiato
/-ainto

-oimhn
-oio
-oito
-oimeya
-oisye
-oiato
/-ointo

-ai
-asye

-eo/eu
-esye

-so
-sye

-esyai

-asyai

-esyai

-syai

-omenow
-h
-on

-amenow
-h
-on

-omenow
-h
-on

-menow
-h
-on

SUBJ.
-vmai
-hai
-htai
-vmeya
-hsye
-vntai
OPT.
-oimhn
-oio
-oito
-oimeya
-oisye
-oiato
/ointo
IMPT.
-eo/ -eu
-esye
INF.
-esyai
PTC.
-omenow
-h
-on

Notes:
1. In the 1 pl., -mesya may be used for -meya.
2. The Subj. 2 sg. -hai may contract to -.

109

349

A Reading Course in Homeric Greek


A Reading Course in Homeric Greek
SPECIAL VERB FORMS
em
I am

oda
I know

IND. PRES.
em
ss/ew
st(n)

emn
st
es(n)

[PF. ENDINGS]
oda
osya
ode

dmen
ste
sasi

men
te
san/san

[PLPF. ENDINGS]
dea
dhw
dh

dmen
ste
san

IND. IMPF.
a
sya
en/n/hn
IND. FUT.
s(somai
s(s)eai
s(s)etai/stai

s(s)omeya
s(s)esye
s(s)ontai

SUBJ. PRES.

edsv, etc.

men
te
si(n)

[PF. ENDINGS]
[ed
edw
ed

edomen
edete
edsi]

emen
ete
een

[edehn
edehw
edeh

edemen
edete
edeen]

ste]

syi

ste

OPT. PRES.
ehn
ehw
eh
IMPT. PRES.
[syi
INF. PRES.
enai/ mmen(ai)

dmen(ai)

INF. FUT.
sesyai

[edhsmen]

PTC. PRES.
n, osa, n
PTC. FUT.
smenow, -h, -on

110
350

edw, -ua, -w

Appendix A
Appendix A
-
ININ
BOOK
1 (for
more
complete
paradigms,
see Lesson
-mi VERBS:
VERBS:FORMS
FORMSUSED
USED
THIS
TEXT
(for
more complete
paradigms,
see67.)
Lesson 65.)

hmi
I send forth

ddvmi
I give

tyhmi
I put

IND. PRES.
-[tyhsya]
--

----

--tyei

----

----

--ysan

yehn
yehw
yeh

yemen
yete
yeen

IND. IMPF.
ein/ hn
eiw
ei

----

2 AOR. IND.
----

--[dsan]

[d]
-d

----

dohn
dohw
doh

domen
dote
doen

dw

dte

SUBJ. 2 AOR.

OPT. 2 AOR.

IMPT. 2 AOR.
PTC. 2 AOR.
MID.
[ymenow, -h, -on]
fhm
I speak
IND. IMPF.
ACT.
fn
fw(ya)
f

MID.
fmen
fte
fsan/fn

fmhn
fo
fto

fmeya
fsye
fnto

111

351

A Reading Course in Homeric Greek


A Reading Course in Homeric Greek
PRONOUNS
I.

Relative
Intensive
Demonstrative

w (), , (t) who, which, that


atw, -, - who, which, that
()kenow, -h, -o that (one)
, , t that (one), the
de, de, tde this (one)
For complete paradigms, see Lessons 14 and 15.

Paradigm of , , t

that (one), the

to, too
t
tn

tw
t
tn

t
to, too
t
t

o (to)
tn
tosi, tow
tow

a (ta)
tvn
tsi, tw
tw

t
tn
tosi, tow
t

Use:

1.
2.
3.

Demonstrative when modifying a noun.


Relative when following a definite antecedent.
Third person personal pronoun when standing
in place of a noun already mentioned.

II. Interrogative
Indefinite

tw, t
tiw, ti

who? which? what?


some(one), some(thing), any, a certain

Paradigms
tw
te
t, t
tna

t
te
t, t
t

tiw
te
t, te
tina

ti
te
t, te
ti

tnew
tvn
toisi
tnaw

tna
tvn
toisi
tna

tinew
tevn
teoisi
tinew

tina
tevn
teoisi
tina

Notes:
1. For the use of the indefinite and interrogative pronouns
and adjectives, see Lesson 31.
2. For the declension of the indefinite relative and the indirect
interrogative pronouns/adjectives, see Lesson 31.

III. Personal
Paradigms
1st person I
g(n)
meu /meo
mo, moi
m/me

2nd person you


mew/mmew
mvn
mn/mmin
maw/mme

s
se/seo
so/toi
s

3rd person he, she, it


mew
mvn
mn
maw

-o
o
min/

-sfevn
sf(n)/sfisi
sfeaw

For use of the personal pronouns and more complete paradigms, see Lessons 32, 33, and 34.

112
352

Appendix A
Appendix A
PREPOSITIONS
+ Genitive
near gxi Trohw

gxi
ma
mf
n

on(to) n nen

pneuye

away from pneuye okou


apart from pneuye pnou
far from pneuye flvn
away from p ptrhw
from p cuxw

+ Dative
at same time ma nukt
together with ma taroiw
on both sides mf ok
around mf nh
concerning mf droiw
on [at rest] n nh

ggw
eneka

among [motion] di
tarouw
on account of di xrusn

near ggw yalsshw


on account of eneka polmou
for the sake of eneka se

into ew gaan
to ew ylassan

ew
out of k ptrhw
from j rxw

k, j
n
p

upon p ptrhw

kat

down from kat ptrhw

met
par

from par flvn

per
prw

about per boulw


excelling per pntvn
from prw naktow

sn
pr

over pr yrhw

from under p ptrhw

on both sides mf okon


around mf nhn
concerning mf dra
on(to) n na
over n gaan

through di pr

through di purw

di

+ Accusative

in n cux
on n ptrsi
among n floiw
on p ptr
at, beside p yalss

among met dendroisi


with met gp
at, beside par potam
about per smati
for per droiw
on prw ga
at prw yalss
with sn sofosi
under [at rest] p ptr

to(wards) p ptraw
after [in search] p djan
down (along) kat potamn
according to kat dkhn
throughout kat gaan
into the midst met jenouw
after met plemon
to par ylassan
along(side) par potamn
about per sma
for per dra
to(ward) prw ylassan
over pr pnton
under [motion to] p
ptrhn

by [agent] p cuxw
Position of preposition:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Ordinarily, before its object or object's modifier (prw me, sn pollow taroiw)
For poetic purposes, after its object, or between modifier and object (xeirw po, pollow sn taroiw)
In compound words, directly joined (prosfrv)
As adverb (mf =a pntew sthsan).

113
353

A Reading Course in Homeric Greek


A Reading Course in Homeric Greek
VARIA
NU MOVABLE
n may
end
a sentence,occasionally
occasionallybefore
beforeaaconsonant,
consonant, to
tothe
the
may be
be added
addedbefore
beforeaavowel,
vowel,atatend
the at
end
ofof
a sentence,
final -si of the 3rd pl. or dat. pl. and to the final -e of the 3rd. sg.; also in a few other words ending
in -si or -e.
ELISION
For easier pronunciation, a short final vowel (except u), and sometimes a final -ai or
-oi may drop out before an initial vowel or diphthong and in compounds (p' rxw, pr-hn).
Elision does not occur in the dat. pl. of the 3rd decl., or in per, pr, ti, ti, or in words which
take n movable.
When elision brings p, t, or k before a rough breathing, they change to f, y, x
(f-airv).
DISTINCTION OF o and m
o negates statements of concrete fact, m statements of possibility, condition, general, wish,
suppositions.
ADVERBS
Formation
1.
2.
3.
4.

By adding -vw to neuter stem (kal-w, tax-vw)


Simple n. acc., sg. or pl. (prton)
Special (nn, tte etc.)
Prepositions used adverbially

Comparison
1.
2.

n. acc. sg. of the comp. adj. (ysson)


n. acc. pl. of the supl. adj. (txista)

DEPONENT VERBS
Have mid. or pass. endings only, but w. active force (mxomai)
The mid. of deponent and of many act. verbs often is intransitive (trpomai I turn).
-mi VERBS
Irregular only in pres. and 2 aor. systems, where they lack the thematic vowel and have some special
endings.
Subj. mid. retains the usual long thematic vowel, which absorbs the final a or e of the stem and
contracts with final o to v.
AUGMENT IN PAST INDICATIVE
1.
2.

3.

114
354

Stems beginning w. consonant(s) prefix (e.g., aor. lsa becomes lusa). Initial r often
doubles (rree).
Stems beginning w. a short vowel or a diphthong that is not the reduplication lengthen the
initial vowel (e.g., okeon becomes keon). Initial e lengthens to h usually; but e lengthens to
ei in the following verbs: xv, v, pomai, lkv, rpv, rpzv, lon.
Stems beginning w. a long vowel (e.g., smhn) or a vowel-reduplication (e.g., gnvsmai)
take no augment.

Appendix A
Appendix A
CONSONANT CHANGES
In dat. pl. :
k, g, x + s = j
p, b, f + s = c
t, d, y, n drop before s (When both nt drop, the preceding e lengthens to ei,
o lengthens to ou.)
In pf. mid. of consonant stems, principal part ending in
m+s =c
m + t = pt
m + sy = fy
m + nt = fat

g+s=j
g + t = kt
g + sy = xy
g + nt = xat

s+s=s
s + t = st
s + sy = sy
s + nt = yat

VOWEL CONTRACTIONS
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

ae becomes a. aei becomes &


ao, av, aou become v
ee, eei become ei
eo, eou become eu/ou
oe, oo become ou.

REDUPLICATION IN PF. STEM


1.
2.
3.
4.

5.

Stems beginning w. single consonant prefix initial consonant and e


(e.g., lu- becomes lluk-).
Stems beginning w. two consonants simply prefix e (e.g., stll- becomes stalk-).
Stems beginning w. short vowel or w. diphthong lengthen initial vowel (e.g., martnbecomes mrthk-; ar- becomes rhk-).
Stems beginning w. mute plus liquid (p, b, f, k, g, x, t, d, y plus l, m, n
or r) prefix the mute with e (e.g., grf- becomes g-graf-).
a. but initial gn follows rule 2, above.
b. Initial f, x, y become p, k, t in reduplicating (e.g., file- becomes pe-flhk-).
Some reduplications are irregular.

SYNTAX OF THE NOUN


1.
2.
3.
4.

5.

NOMINATIVE: case of subject of a finite verb.


GENITIVE: possession, partitive (whole), contents, material, separation;
w. certain verbs, adjectives, prepositions.
DATIVE: indirect object, reference, possession; instrumental (means, manner); locative (where,
when); w. certain verbs, adjectives, prepositions.
ACCUSATIVE: case of object of action, motion, thought (direct object, place to which, subject
of infinitive in indirect discourse, w. certain prepositions). Special uses: a) cognate, governed by
intransitive verb of related meaning, e.g., makrn dn lyomen. We came a long journey. b)
specification, specifying in what respect the idea contained in an accompanying word is true,
e.g., non sylw Noble in mind.
VOCATIVE: case of direct address.

115

355

A Reading Course in Homeric Greek


A Reading Course in Homeric Greek
SYNTAX OF THE VERB BY MOODS
1.

INDICATIVE (tenses indicate time, as well as aspect of action):


a.

Statements of fact: past, present, future time; simple, continuous, completed aspect. Negative o.
rxetai. He comes. (He is coming.)
rxeto. He was coming.
lyen. He came.
ratai. He has been seen.
o ljv. I shall not say.

b.

Past and present contrary-to-fact: impf. or aor. ind. in both clauses, n or ke(n) in
conclusion (apodosis). Negative m in if- clause (protasis), o in conclusion (apodosis).
e m tde pnen, ok n ynen.
If he had not drunk this, he would not have died.

2.

SUBJUNCTIVE (tenses indicate aspect, not time):


a.

Hortatory: requested or proposed actions referring to the speaker himself; in first person,
sg. or pl. Negative m.
m tde mnvmen, taroi, ll fgvmen.
Let us not remain here, comrades, but let us flee.

b.

Present purpose: to express intended action, after primary main verb; introduced by na,
w, pvw, fra. Negative na m, sometimes m alone.
peyomai na gignskvmen.
I inquire in order that we may know.
peyomai fra m npiow .
I inquire in order that I may not be foolish.

c.

Vivid future (future general) construction: to express a probable future supposition; often
with n or ke(n). Negative m.
e (ken) ly, djoma min prfrvn.
If he comes, I shall receive him eagerly.

d.

Present general: to indicate repeated occurrence in the present; may take n or ke(n).
Negative m.
te (n) bolhtai, p ylassan rxetai.
Whenever he wishes, he goes to the sea.
N.B. The main verb is regularly pres. ind., negative o.

3.

OPTATIVE (tenses indicate aspect, not time):


a.

Wishes: to express possible and impossible wishes (often equivalent to a polite imperative);
may be introduced by e, eye, e gr (if only, would that), especially if an impossible
wish.
poll ge manynoimi.
At least, may I learn many things!
eye m xalepn eh.
If only it were not difficult!

b.

Past purpose: to express intended action after secondary main verb; introduced by na, w,
pvw, fra. Negative na m, sometimes m alone.
yne atw fra szoi maw.
He himself died in order to save us.
yne atw na m polomeya.
He himself died in order that we might not perish.

116
356

Appendix A
Appendix A
c.

d.

Future contrary to fact (should-would) construction: to indicate a less likely future


supposition and its assumed consequence; both clauses may take n or ke(n). Negative of
supposition (protasis) is m, of conclusion (apodosis) is o.
N.B. The apodosis may sometimes be more definite, using an impt. or
hortatory subj.
Potential: to express an opinion as to what might, could, or would happen if certain
unstated circumstances should prevail; usually takes n or ke(n). Negative o. (This
construction is equal to the apodosis of a should-would construction.)
m bte: kteneie gr ken maw pntaw.
Do not go, for he might kill all of you!

e.

Expectation: a potential optative with special force, indicating what one desires or expects
to happen under assumed circumstances, and equivalent to English can, will rather than
could, would, might. Same rule as potential optative.
ervmn tina w n mn dn fanoi.
Let's find someone who can show us the way.

f.

Past general: to indicate repeated occurrence in the past. Negative m.


te boloito, p ylassan rxeto.
Whenever he wished, he came to the sea.

g.

N.B. The main verb is ordinarily impf. ind., rarely aor.; negative o.
Indirect questions: the verb within a question depending on a secondary main verb of
asking, knowing, etc., ordinarily shifts from the ind. (or subj.) of the direct question into
the corresponding tense of the opt., though it may stay unchanged. Negative as in direct
question form.
reto tw maw pmceien (pmcen).
She asked who sent us.

4.

IMPERATIVE (tenses indicate aspect, not time):


a.

Commands: to express what one desires or orders another to do.


Negative m.
m edete: manynein ge peirete.
Don't sleep; at least try to learn!

5.

INFINITIVE (tenses indicate aspect, except in indirect discourse, where time


is indicated):
a.

Complementary: after certain verbs (wishing, planning, attempting, etc.)


to complete the sense. Negative m.
sofo manynein peirousin.
The wise attempt to learn.

b.

Explanatory: to explain the sense of another word and fill out its meaning. Negative m.
xalepn mn rdein, asxrn d m rjai.
To act is indeed difficult, but not to act is shameful.

c.

Purpose: to explain why an action is done; usually follows a verb meaning send. Negative
m.
pmce sfaw dvr zhtein.
She sent them to seek water.

d.

As noun: subject or object of another verb. Negative m.


fagmenai ka ngkh st ka don.
Eating (to eat) is both a necessity and a pleasure.

117
357

A Reading Course in Homeric Greek


A Reading Course in Homeric Greek
e.

As imperative: to express command. Negative m.


t gignskeiw, lgein.
Say what you know!

f.

Indirect discourse: to express an action depending on a main verb of saying, thinking,


perceiving, etc. Subject is in accusative case; tenses are in relation to the main verb (pres.
inf. for action contemporaneous with main verb; aor. inf. for action prior to main verb;
future for action subsequent to main verb). Negative o.
fh patra n xrmata pote sxyein poll, nn d ok xein od aca
sxsein.
He said that his father once had many possessions, but that he did not now have nor would
quickly have many.

6.

PARTICIPLE (tenses indicate time):


a.

Circumstantial: to indicate cause, condition, manner, or circumstances attending the action


of the main verb. Negative o if fact, otherwise m.
edvn p gaan pse ka pleto.
While sleeping, he fell to the ground and was killed.

b.

Adjectival: modifying a noun or pronoun. Negative o.


tn mn fegonta rv, nakta d dikonta.
I see that man fleeing, but I see
seeing
in pursuit
(pursuing).
the the
kingking
in pursuit
(pursuing).

SYNTAX OF THE VERB BY CONSTRUCTIONS


1.

CIRCUMSTANTIAL: ptc. indicates the circumstances under which the main action takes
place. Negative o if fact, otherwise m.
maxemenow ynen.
While fighting, he died.

2.

COMMANDS: expressed by impt., inf., opt. when less forceful. Negative m.


t gignskeiw, lge (lgeiw, lgoiw).
Say what you know!

3.

CONTRARY-TO-FACT IN PAST: impf. or aor. ind. in both clauses, n or ke(n) in


conclusion (apodosis). Negative m in if- clause (protasis), o in conclusion (apodosis).
e m tde pnen, ok n ynen.
If he had not drunk this, he would not have died.

4.

EXPECTATION: indicating what one desires or expects to happen under assumed


circumstances, and equivalent to English can, will rather than could, would, might.
Optative, usually with n or ke(n). Negative o.
ervmn tina w n mn dn fanoi.
Let's find someone who can show us the way.

5.

EXPLANATORY: inf. explaining sense of another word. Negative m. Also, by pe or ti


with ind. Negative o.
xalepn nosai.
It is difficult to perceive (To perceive is difficult.)
ti se fil, luyon.
Because I love you, I came.

118
358

Appendix A
Appendix A
6.

FACT: ind. and proper tense to indicate both time and aspect of action. Negative o.
rxetai.
He comes. (He is coming.)
rxeto.
He was coming.
lyen.
He came.
o ljv.
I shall not say.

7.

FUTURE SUPPOSITIONS
a.

Vivid future (future general) construction: to express a probable future supposition; subj.,
often with n or ke(n). Main verb in fut. ind. or impt. Negative of subj. and impt. is m, of
ind. o.
e ken ly. djoma min.
If he comes, I shall receive him.
e d m xrusn x, pre o s.
If, however, he has no gold, give him (some gold).

b.

Future contrary to fact (should-would) construction: to indicate a less likely future


supposition and its assumed consequence; optative in both supposition (protasis) and
conclusion (apodosis), and both clauses may take n or ke(n). Negative of protasis is m, of
apodosis is o.
e m lyoiw, ok n yloimi rxesyai atw.
If you should not go, I would not wish to go myself.

8.

GENERAL (repeated occurrence)


a.

Present: subj., may take n or ke(n). Negative m. Main verb is regularly pres. ind., negative o.
te n bolhtai, p ylassan rxetai.
Whenever she wishes, she goes to the sea.

b.

Past: opt. Negative m. Main verb is ordinarily impf. ind. rarely aor.; negative o.
te boloito, p ylassan rxeto.
Whenever she wished, she went (would go) to the sea.

9.

HORTATORY: subj., first person (sg. or pl.) only. Negative m.


m tde mnvmen, taroi, ll fgvmen.
Let us not remain here, comrades, but let us flee.

10.

INDIRECT DISCOURSE: after a main verb of saying, thinking, perceiving, etc. Verb is inf.,
with subject in acc. case; tenses are in relation to the main verb (pres. inf. for action
contemporaneous with main verb; aor. inf. for action prior to main verb; future for action
subsequent to main verb). Negative o.
fh sfaw djasyai tde dra p naktow.
He said that they had received these gifts from the king.

119
359

A Reading Course in Homeric Greek


A Reading Course in Homeric Greek
11.

INDIRECT QUESTIONS: after primary tense main verb of asking, wondering, etc., the verb
within the subordinate clause (the question itself ) remains unchanged in mood.; however, the
verb within a question depending on a secondary main verb ordinarily shifts from the ind. (or
subj.) of the direct question into the corresponding tense of the opt., though it may stay
unchanged. Negative as in direct question form.
eretai tw maw pmcen.
He asks who sent us.
reto tw maw pmceien (pmcen).
He asked who sent us.

12.

POTENTIAL: to express an opinion as to what might, could, or would happen if certain


unstated circumstances should prevail; usually takes n or ke(n). Negative o. (This
construction is equal to the apodosis of a should-would construction.)
m bte: kteneie gr ken maw pntaw.
Don't go, for he might kill you all!

13.

PURPOSE (introduced by na, w, pvw, fra. Negative na m, sometimes m alone)


a.

Present purpose: to express intended action, after primary main verb; verb in subj., introduced by na, w, pvw, fra. Negative na m, sometimes m alone.
peyomai na gignskvmen.
I inquire in order that we may know.
peyomai fra m npiow .
I inquire in order that I may not be foolish.

b.

Past purpose: to express intended action after secondary main verb; verb in opt., introduced
by na, w, pvw, fra. Negative na m, sometimes m alone.
yne atw fra szoi maw.
He himself died in order to save us.
yne atw na m polomeya.
He himself died in order that we might not perish.

14.

SHOULD-WOULD: see above, 7b.

15.

WISHES, both possible and impossible of fulfillment: opt.; may be introduced by e, eye, e:
gr (if only, would that), especially if an impossible wish.
poll ge manynoimi.
At least, may I learn many things!
eye m xalepn eh.
If only it were not difficult!

120
360

regard to travelers. Besides, he is curious to see who lives in the vast cave.
89. Odysseus allows that it would have been better not to have awaited the strangers
return. It need not be interpreted to imply that they should have taken anything with
them in leavingthough in Homeric ethics that would not have been considered a
grave wrong under the circumstances.

Appendix B

90. Odysseus is characteristically eager to find out about things.


91. A somber foreshadowing of tragedy to come. But why the emphasis on
companions? What will happen
to their
leader?Rhythmically
Reading
Homer
565. READING HOMER RHYTHMICALLY
1.

Quantity. The rhythm of Greek and Latin verse is not built on a pattern of
stressed and unstressed syllables (as in English poetry), but on one of long and
short syllableson their quantity or time-length when naturally pronounced.
The rhythm of classical poetry, then, is built on the same principles as the
rhythm of music.
a. A syllable is long: (1) by nature, when it contains a long vowel or a
diphthong: e.g., at, where both syllables are long (2) by position, when
its vowel (even though naturally short) is followed by two or more
consonants or by one of the double consonants z, j, c. E.g., ndon (first
syllable long), ndra (first syllable long), d stenonto (first and third
syllables long by position, the second by nature), c.
b. A syllable is otherwise short i.e., when it has a short vowel, alone or
followed by only one simple consonant: e.g., de, min

248

2.

Note: Sometimes the poet treats a mute followed by a liquid as a single


consonant, so that the preceding vowel remains short (e.g., sxtliow,
where e is short); but ordinarily this combination makes the syllable long by
position (e.g., tlh, where e is long).
c. Special: a long vowel or diphthong is often treated as though short when it
occurs in the last half of the foot and is followed by another vowel in the
same or following word. This is really half-elision. For example, ll' g
o, where v is short.
A short vowel may be treated as long when it is in the first syllable of a foot,
since it is there strengthened by the metrical stress. A short vowel may be
treated as long for a different reasonbecause of a lost W (digamma) whose
influence remains and combines with a second consonant to make the vowel Lesson 83
long by position in the regular way (e.g., mn pow, where the final
syllable of mn is long because of the digamma with which pow once
began [Wepow]).
d. Synizesis. Sometimes two adjacent vowels that would ordinarily be
pronounced separately have to be forced into one syllable to fit the meter.
This is done by pronouncing the first as y, combined with the second into
one long syllable. This is called synizesis (settling
together as
as one).
one).
(settling down
down together
E.g., yeoi, dh outvw
Pattern. Each line has six measures or feet, corresponding to six bars in a phrase
of music. The time-value of each foot is four beats. A short syllable gets one
beat, a long syllable two.
Every foot begins with a long syllable; the second half of the foot may be either
two short syllables or another long, in either case taking the same total time to
pronounce: two beats.
)
)

a. The combination of a long syllable with two short ( ) is called a dactyl;


two longs ( ) make a spondee.
b. Any foot except the last may be either a dactyl or a spondee; the last foot is
generally a spondee, sometimes a half-dactyl with anceps, which is a space
for long or short (), but never a full dactyl. When the fifth foot is a

121

began [Wepow]).

d. Synizesis. Sometimes two adjacent vowels that would ordinarily be


pronounced separately have to be forced into one syllable to fit the meter.
This is done by pronouncing the first as y, combined with the second into
A Reading Course in Homeric Greek
one long syllable. This is called synizesis (settling down together as one).
E.g., yeoi, dh outvw
2.
Pattern. Each line has six measures or feet, corresponding to six bars in a phrase
of music. The time-value of each foot is four beats. A short syllable gets one
beat, a long syllable two.
Every foot begins with a long syllable; the second half of the foot may be either
two short syllables or another long, in either case taking the same total time to
pronounce: two beats.
)
)

a. The combination of a long syllable with two short ( ) is called a dactyl;


two longs ( ) make a spondee.
b. Any foot except the last may be either a dactyl or a spondee; the last foot is
generally a spondee, sometimes a half-dactyl with anceps, which is a space
for long or short (), but never a full dactyl. When the fifth foot is a
spondee, the line is called a spondaic line, and the slow movement is quite
noticeable.
c. The first syllable of every foot is stressed, i.e., receives the rhythmic accent,
a swelling in volume. This is called the ictus (Latin for
for stroke).
stroke).
d. Pattern of the dactylic hexameter in general:
)
)

)
)

)
)

)
)

)
)

/ / / / /
e. Rhythmic technique: regularity is secured in this pattern by the fact that
every line has twenty-four beats, broken up into six bars of four beats apiece
and each beginning with a perceptible ictus; variety is obtained by changing
the distribution and frequency of spondees in the basically dactylic scheme,
by letting the pauses in thought and phrasing fall in different sections of the
line, by altering the number of words in a verse, and by varying the
frequency and position in the line where the end of a word coincides with
the end of a foot. Homer uses practically every possible combination of all
these factors, to give his hexameters their unrivaled variety, life, and interest.
f. Practical hints for reading the hexameter: (1) Remember that every line, and
each new foot within the line, begins with a long, stressed syllable.
(2) Dont hurry over long syllables, as though they were short, as we do in
English poetry. (3) Get the rhythm into your head, like the melody of a
song, by memorizing several lines according to exact meter and going over
them frequently, until the rhythmic pattern is fixed firmly in your mind and
flexible enough to fit any arrangement of long and short syllables as they
come up. With a little attentive practice and repetition, all will quickly
become natural and easy.

249

122

Reading Course in Homeric Greek, Book 2, Third Edition presents the Odysseys
Books 6 and 12 in their entirety. Each lesson is a passage consisting of ten
to twenty-five lines of text. Each lesson also includes a memorization list
of frequently found words, thematic commentary in shaded boxes, and
expanded and revised grammatical notes. The text also includes a GreekEnglish vocabulary list, an appendix of a summary of grammar, and an
appendix on reading Homer rhythmically.

Focus Publishing
R. Pullins Company
www.pullins.com