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General purpose: to inform

Specific purpose: to inform my audience about black holes and how it is related to time travel
Central idea: black holes are a very interesting phenomena that have many fascinating properties and
scientists believe that it is related to time travel

1. Attention material:

2. Orienting material:

Have you ever had to vacuum your bedroom? When you do, watch closely because you will
see the dirt and crumbs start to move towards the vacuum cleaner. A black hole is similar to
a vacuum cleaner, cleaning up debris left behind in outer space.
Anything could become a black hole if you were to compress it into a small enough space.
Thats right, you, me, this computer, everything in the universe has what is known as
Schwarzschild radius : a very tiny amount of space that, were you to collapse the entire
mass of the object into, its density would be so great that its gravitational pull would be so
great that not even light could escape from it. You would have a black hole.
If you were to compress Mount Everest into something smaller than a nanometer, you would
have a black hole.(show pic of mount Everest)
And if you were to compress the entire earth down to the size of a peanut, you would have a
black hole.(show pic of earth and peanut)
But, fortunately for us, there is no known way to compress Everest or earth in that fashion.
But a star, many, many, many times larger than our sun, has a much larger Schwarzschild
radius, and when it runs out of fuel and cannot longer keep itself hot enough, it collapses to a
single, infinitesimally-small point known as a singularity, with an infinite density.

(Transition: but enough about ways black holes form, lets jump into one)

1. Black holes have many interesting properties.

Black holes have the capacity to distort space itself. It can even distort light, here is a fun
demonstration: What if earth were to orbit around a black hole? Looking from the outside, the
earth would look normal at first, but as soon as it passed behind the black hole, the black holes
gravitational field would wrap the light reflecting off the earth, producing this. (Show video of
earth spinning around a black hole.)
Now to the most interesting part, what do you think would happen if you fall into a black
hole? (Wait for answers.)

Near a black hole, gravity would be so strong that an observer watching you jump into the hole,
would see something quite strange. They wouldnt see you get sucked quickly into the hole,
instead they would see your approach become slower, and slower, and slower, until you reached
a point known as the event-horizon. (Show pic of event-horizon.)
This is a point in space where, once crossed, theres no going back. It is at that point that light
can no longer escape. And, so, to a person watching you fall into the hole that would be where
your journey ended. You would seem almost frozen in space, the light coming off your body
becoming increasingly red-shifted until you simply fade into nothingness. They would never see
you cross the event-horizon. (Show video of person falling into a black hole.)
But for you, of course, everything would seem fine. You would continue passed that horizon to
your now, inevitable death. You will know that you are never going to escape and that your life
is pretty much over, but it might take you hours before things start to hurt.
Why would they hurt? Well, the closer you get to the singularity, the more significant the
difference in gravitational pull is across space. And, so, parts of you that are closer to the
singularity would be pulled more strongly than parts that were facing away, and your entire body
would be stretched toward the singularity. Your molecules will be violently ripped and stretched
apart, and when they get to the singularity, well, we dont really know what would happen.
Perhaps they would completely disappear in violation of all the laws of physics, or, maybe, they
would reappear elsewhere in the universe.

(Transition: and thats the next point that I want to talk about.)

2. Black holes are related to time travel.

Scientists think that black holes could instead be wormholes leading to other universes. But it is not

yet discovered.
Wormholes are warps in the fabric of space-time that connect one place to another.

There is a theory called the theory of relativity which states that as the velocity of an
object nears the speed of light, time slows down.
Scientists have discovered that even at the speeds of the space shuttle, astronauts can travel a
few nanoseconds into the future.
To understand this, picture two people, person A and person B. Person A stays on Earth,
while person B takes off in a spacecraft.
At takeoff, their watches are in perfect sync. The closer person B's spacecraft travels to the
speed of light, the slower time will pass for person B (relative to person A). If person B
travels for just a few hours at 50 percent the speed of light and returns to Earth, it will be
obvious to both people that person A has aged much faster than person B.
This difference in aging is because time passed much faster for person A than person B, who
was traveling closer to the speed of light. Many years might have passed for person A, while
person B experienced a time lapse of just a few hours.
If wormholes could be discovered, it might allow us to travel to the past as well as the
future. Here's how it would work: Let's say the mouth of the wormhole is portable. Then
person B in the example above, who traveled at 50 percent of light speed into space for a
few hours, could carry one wormhole mouth into space, while the mouth at the opposite end
of the wormhole would stay with person A on Earth.
The two people would continue to see one another as person B traveled into space. When
person B returned to Earth a few hours later, a few years may have passed for person A.

Now, when person A looks through the wormhole that traveled into space, that person will
see him or herself at a younger age, the age he or she was when person B launched into
The cool thing about it is that the older person A would be able to step into the past by
entering the wormhole, while the younger person B could step into the future.



Black holes are a very fascinating phenomena, if we learn how to benefit from it in the future, we will
indeed achieve great benefits.
They are also our way to finally be able to know if we are able to travel in time and space.
Now imagine if we achieved the technology of time travel, would you like to travel to past, or to the