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The National Teachers College

Quiapo, Manila
GC 501 Theories and Techniques of
Cesar Chester O. Relleve, Ed D, RGC

Course Description
This course provides the idea and
knowledge of counseling and
psychotherapy. It is concerned with the
understanding of the individual and the
principles, techniques, methods and
strategies of counseling and
psychotherapy. To assist the individuals
in making intelligent choices and
adjustment to his/her environment and
society is also a major concern of the

Course Objective
It is expected at the end of the course, the
students should be able to have a clear
concept of counseling and psychotherapy.
Likewise students should have the
understanding of the working principles,
techniques, methods and strategies
behind counseling and psychotherapy. It
is also expected that students gain rich
experience on psychological counseling
and psychotherapy through actual actual
application or simulation

Philosophical Foundation of Theories

Theoretical models for counseling have
their origins in the values and beliefs of
person who in turn, have converted these
into a philosophy and a theoretical model
for counseling. These values and beliefs
form a rationale for what one does, how
one does it, and under what
circumstance. It predicts probable
outcomes for different sets of conditions.


Theory summarizes the information base

on philosophy and draws conclusion.
theories provide guidelines that have
been tested by experienced counselors.
They explain behaviors. They may
predict desirable or undesirable
outcomes in given
circumstances(Gibson & Mitchell, 2003).


Philosophy has asked significant

questions that led to the understanding
of what a human being is and how
he/she must be handled. This is why
Philosophy is a very important
foundation of Guidance Counseling
Materialism believed that humans
were entirely physical.
Determinist asserted that all human choices
were determined by the laws of nature.


Rationalism emphazised that reasons,

innate ideas, and deductions guide
Empiricism underscored that experience
was the source of knowledge.
Positivism concentrated on natural phenoma
or facts that were objectively observable.
Existentialism focused on the uniqueness of
human beings and highlighted this as the
only reality.


Every counseling practitioner should have a

philosophy of human beings and how their
problems evolve in order to establish a
philosophy of helping. The goals that
should be pursued, the role that the
counselors should play, the techniques
that could be employed, and the steps that
must be taken must be based on such a
philosophy and must then be a part of
ones Counseling Philosophy (Villar, 2009)

Counseling versus Psychotherapy

RA 9258, Article I Sec. 3 (a):
Guidance and Counseling
-is a profession that involves the use of an
integrated approach to the development of a
well-functioning individual primarily by helping
him/her potentials to the fullest and plan him/her
to utilize his/her potentials to the fullest and plan
his/her future in accordance with his/her abilities,
interests and needs.It includes functions such as
counseling subjects, particularly subjects given
in the licensure examinations, and other human
development services.

Counseling versus Psychotherapy

REPUBLIC ACT No. 10029, Article III (b):
Practice of Psychology
- consists of the delivery of psychological services
that involve application of psychological
principles and procedures for the purpose of
describing, understanding, predicting and
influencing the behavior of individuals or groups,
in order to assist in the attainment of optimal
human growth and functioning. The delivery of
psychological services includes, but is not
limited to:

Counseling versus Psychotherapy

REPUBLIC ACT No. 10029, Article III (b):
Practice of Psychology
(1) psychological interventions: psychological
counseling, psychotherapy, psychosocial
support, coaching, psychological debriefing,
group processes and all other psychological
interventions that involve the application of
psychological principles to improve
psychological functioning of individuals, families,
groups and organizations;

Counseling versus

(American Psychological Association)

- is

a collaborative treatment based on the

relationship between an individual and a
psychologist. Grounded in dialogue, it
provides a supportive environment that
allows you to talk openly with someone
whos objective, neutral and

Counseling versus
(Engler and Goleman, 1992)
- Is the general name for a variety of
psychological interventions designed
to help people resolve, emotional,
behavioral, or interpersonal problems
of various kinds and improve the
quality of their lives.

Counseling versus
Guidance, Counseling,and Psychotherapy: Variations on
the same Theme? (Neukrug, 2012)

Counseling is a professional relationships

that empowers diverse individuals,
families, and group to accomplish mental
health, wellness, education, and career
goals. (ACA, 2010)

counseling vs psychotherapy

Over the years there have plethora of definitions of

counseling that suggest it could be anything from
a problem-solving, directive, and rational
approach to helping normal people
an approach that is distinguishable from
psychotherapy (Williamson, 1950, 1958);
- to a process that is similar to but less intensive
than psychotherapy (Nugent & Jones, 2005);
- to an approach that suggests that there is no
essential difference between the two (Neukrug:
Patterson, 1986).

counseling vs psychotherapy

The word Guidance appeared around 1600 and

was defined as the process of guiding an
individual. Early Guidance work involved
individuals giving moralistic and direct advice.
This definition continued until the twentieth
century, when the vocational guidance
counselors used the word to describe the act of
guiding an individual into a profession and
offering suggestion for life skills.
With the development of psychoanalysis near the
end of the nineteenth century came the word
psychotherapy. Meaning caring for the soul,
the world derived from the Greek words psyche

counseling vs psychotherapy

meaning spirit or soul, and therapeutikos,

meaning caring for another (Kleinke, 1994)
During the early part of 20th century, vocational
guidance counselors became increasingly
dissatisfied with the word guidance and its heavy
emphasis on advice giving and morality.
Consequently, the word counseling was adopted
to indicate that vocational counselors, like the
psychoanalysts who practiced psychotherapy,
dealt with social and emotional issues.

counseling vs psychotherapy

As mental health workers became more prevalent

during the mid-1900, they too adopted the word
counseling, rather used the word guidance with
its moralistic implications, or psychotherapy,
which was associated with psychoanalysis.
In the training of counselors today, the word
guidance has tended to take a back seat to the
word counseling, while the worlds counseling
and psychotherapy are generally used
interchangeably in textbooks (e.i. Theory and
Practice of Counseling and Psychotherpy,

counseling vs psychotherapy

Despite the lack of distinction made in most texts, a

differentiation between counseling and
psychotherapy is likely to be made by the
average person, perhaps by many counseling
students, and even by professors of counseling.
Acknowledging this common usage, one model of
understanding these terms would place guidance
and psychotherapy on opposite extremes, with
counseling falling somewhere midway on the

counseling vs psychotherapy









Here and now

There and then







counseling vs psychotherapy

Comparison of Mental Health Professionals

(Neukrug, 2012)
Whether we call it guidance, counseling, or
psychoterapy, in todays world we find a number
of professionals practicing it. In fact, although
difference in the training of mental health
professionals exist, over the years their
professional duties have begun to overlap (Todd
& Bohart, 2006).

Six Stages
Stage One: Relationship building
Stage Two: Assessment and diagnosis
Stage Three: Formulation of counseling
Stage Four: Intervention and problem
Stage Five: Termination and Follow Up
Stage Six: Research and evaluation

5 General Categories of Counseling and

Psychotherapy Approaches
(Corey, 2009)

1. Psychodynamic Approaches
2. Experiential and RelationshipOriented Approaches
3. Action-Oriented Therapies
4. Systems-Oriented Approaches
5. Postmodern Approaches

Psychodynamic Approaches
a. Psychoanalytic therapy is based largely on
insight, unconscious motivation, and
reconstruction of personality
b. Adlerian therapy differs from psychoanalytic
theory in many respects but it can broadly be
considered an analytic perspective. It focus on
meaning, goals, purposeful behavior, conscious
action, belonging and social interest.

Experiential and Relationship Oriented-Approaches

a. Existential approach stress the concern for what it
means to be fully human. It suggests certain themes
that are part of the human condition such as freedom
and responsibility, anxiety, guilt, awareness of being
finite, creating meaning in the world and shaping ones
future by making active choices.
b. Person-centered approach which is rooted in
humanistic philosophy, places emphasis on the basic
attitudes of the therapist. It maintains the quality of the
client-therapist relationship.
c. Gestalt therapy which offers range of experiment to
help clients gain awareness of what they are
experiencing in the here and now that, is the present.

Action-Oriented Therapies

a. Reality Therapy focuses on clients current

behavior and stresses developing clear plans
for new behavior.
b. Behavior Therapy puts a premium on doing
and taking steps to make concrete changes
c. Rational Emotive Behavior therapy and
Cognitive therapy highlight the necessity of
learning how to challenge dysfunctional beliefs
and automatic thoughts that lead to behavioral

Systems Perspective

The system orientation stresses the

importance of understanding
individuals in the context of the
surroundings that influence their
a. Feminist Therapy
b. Family Therapy

Post Modern Approaches

Challenges the basic assumptions of

most of the traditional approaches by
assuming that there is no single truth
and reality is socially constructed
through human interaction.
a. social constructionism
b. solution-focused brief therapy
c. narrative therapy

Note: Discussant of Counseling

Framework of discussions:
View of Human/Theory of Personality
Sources/Nature of Difficulty/Maladjustment
Goal of Counseling
Role of Counselor
Counseling Strategies
Steps in Counseling

Corey, Gerald (2009). Theory and Practice of
Counseling and Psychotheraphy. Brooks/Cole
Cengage Learning
De Jesus, Evangeline M. (2006) Counseling
Psychology. Educational Publishing House
Engler, Jack and Goleman, Daniel (1992). The
Consumers Guide to Psychotherapy. Simon &
Gibson, Robert L and Mitchell, Mariannne H.
(2003). Introduction to Counseling and
Guidance. Pearson Education Inc.

Neukrug, Ed (2012) An Introduction to Counseling
Profession. The World of the Counselor.
Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning
Nytsul, Michael S. (2010) Introduction to
Counseling An Art and Science Perspective.
Pearson Higher Ed USA
Villar, Imelda Virginia G. (2007) Implementing
Comprehensive Guidance Counseling Program
in the Philippines. Aligned Transformatioon