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CHAPTER

Reinforced Concrete Design

Fifth Edition

SHEAR IN BEAMS
A. J. Clark School of Engineering Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

Part I Concrete Design and Analysis

4b

FALL 2002

By

Dr . Ibrahim. Assakkaf

ENCE 355 - Introduction to Structural Design


Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
University of Maryland, College Park

CHAPTER 4b. SHEAR IN BEAMS

Shear Analysis Procedure


Q

Slide No. 1
ENCE 355 Assakkaf

The shear analysis procedure involves


the following:
Checking the shear strength in an existing
member
Verifying that the various ACI code
requirements have been satisfied and met.

Note that the member may reinforced or


plain.

Slide No. 2

CHAPTER 4b. SHEAR IN BEAMS

Shear Analysis Procedure


Q

ENCE 355 Assakkaf

Example 1
A reinforced concrete beam of rectangular
cross section shown is reinforced with
seven No. 6 bars in a single layer. Beam
width b = 18 in., d = 33 in., single-loop No.
3 stirrups are placed 12 in. on center, and
typical cover is 1 in. Find Vc, Vs, and the
maximum factored shear force permitted
on this member. Use = 4,000 psi and fy
= 60,000 psi.

Slide No. 3

CHAPTER 4b. SHEAR IN BEAMS

Shear Analysis Procedure


Q

ENCE 355 Assakkaf

Example 1 (contd)
18

#3 @ 12 stirrup

1
COV.
2

33

7#6 bars

Slide No. 4

CHAPTER 4b. SHEAR IN BEAMS

Shear Analysis Procedure


Q

ENCE 355 Assakkaf

Example 1 (contd)
The force that can be resisted by concrete
alone is
2 4,000 (18)(33)
Vc = 2 f cbw d =

1000

= 75.1 kips

The nominal shear force provided by the


steel is
A f d (2 0.11)(60)(33)
= 36.3 kips
V = v y =
s

12

The maximum factored shear force is


maximum Vu = Vc + Vs = 0.85(75.1 + 36.3)
= 94.7 kips

Slide No. 5

CHAPTER 4b. SHEAR IN BEAMS

Shear Reinforcement Design


Requirements
Q

ENCE 355 Assakkaf

ACI Code Provisions for Shear Design


According to the ACI Code, the design of
beams for shear is based on the following
relation:

Vn Vu

(1)

Where
= strength reduction factor (= 0.85 for shear)
Vn = Vc + Vs
Vs = nominal shear strength provided by reinforcement

Av f y d
s

for inclined stirrups

(2)

Slide No. 6

CHAPTER 4b. SHEAR IN BEAMS

Shear Reinforcement Design


Requirements
Q

ENCE 355 Assakkaf

ACI Code Provisions for Shear Design


Symbols

Av = total cross-sectional area of web reinforcement within


a distance s, for single loop stirrups, Av = 2As
As = cross-sectional area of the stirrup bar (in2)
bw = web width = b for rectangular section (in.)
s = center-to-center spacing of shear reinforcement in a
direction parallel to the longitudinal reinforcement (in.)
fy = yield strength of web reinforcement steel (psi)

Slide No. 7

CHAPTER 4b. SHEAR IN BEAMS

Shear Reinforcement Design


Requirements
Q

ENCE 355 Assakkaf

ACI Code Provisions for Shear Design


For inclined stirrups, the expression for
nominal shear strength provided by
reinforcement is
Av f y d (sin + cos )
(3)
Vs =
s
0
For = 45 , the expression takes the form

Vs =

1.414 Av f y d
s

(4)

Slide No. 8

CHAPTER 4b. SHEAR IN BEAMS

Shear Reinforcement Design


Requirements
Q

ENCE 355 Assakkaf

ACI Code Provisions for Shear Design


The design for stirrup spacing can be
determined from
Av f y d

required s =

Vs

(for vertical stirrups)

(5)

and
required s =

1.414 Av f y d

where

Vs

Vs =

(for 450 stirrups)

Vu Vc

(6)
(7)

CHAPTER 4b. SHEAR IN BEAMS

Shear Reinforcement Design


Requirements
Q

Slide No. 9
ENCE 355 Assakkaf

ACI Code Provisions for Shear Design


According to the ACI Code, the maximum
spacing of stirrups is the smallest value of
Av f y
smax =
50bw
(8)
d
smax =
2
smax = 24 in.
If Vs exceeds 4 f cbw d , the maximum spacing must
not exceed d/4 or 12 in.

CHAPTER 4b. SHEAR IN BEAMS

Shear Reinforcement Design


Requirements
Q

Slide No. 10
ENCE 355 Assakkaf

ACI Code Provisions for Shear Design


It is not usually good practice to space
vertical stirrups closer than 4 in.
It is generally economical and practical to
compute spacing required at several
sections and to place stirrups accordingly
in groups of varying spacing. Spacing
values should be made to not less than 1in. increments.

CHAPTER 4b. SHEAR IN BEAMS

Shear Reinforcement Design


Requirements
Q

Slide No. 11
ENCE 355 Assakkaf

ACI Code Provisions for Shear Design


Critical Section
The maximum shear usually occurs in this
section near the support.
For stirrup design, the section located a
distance d from the face of the support is called
the critical section
Sections located less than a distance d from
the face of the support may be designed for the
same Vu as that of the critical section.

Slide No. 12

CHAPTER 4b. SHEAR IN BEAMS

Shear Reinforcement Design


Requirements
Q

ENCE 355 Assakkaf

ACI Code Provisions for Shear Design


Critical Section
Critical Section
d
d

L
Figure 1

CHAPTER 4b. SHEAR IN BEAMS

Shear Reinforcement Design


Requirements
Q

Slide No. 13
ENCE 355 Assakkaf

ACI Code Provisions for Shear Design


Critical Section (contd)
The stirrup spacing should be constant from the
critical section back to the face of the support
based on the spacing requirements at the
critical section.
The first stirrup should be placed at a maximum
distance of s/2 from the face of the support,
where s equals the immediately adjacent
required spacing (a distance of 2 in. is
commonly used.

CHAPTER 4b. SHEAR IN BEAMS

Stirrup Design Procedure


Q

Slide No. 14
ENCE 355 Assakkaf

The design of stirrups for shear


reinforcement involves the
determination of stirrup size and
spacing pattern.
A general procedure is as follows:
1. Determine the shear values based on
clear span and draw a shear diagram for
Vu.
2. Determine if stirrups are required.

CHAPTER 4b. SHEAR IN BEAMS

Stirrup Design Procedure

Slide No. 15
ENCE 355 Assakkaf

3. Determine the length of span over which


stirrups are required.
4. On the Vu diagram, determine the area
representing required Vs. This will
display the required strength of the
stirrups to be provided.
5. Select the size of the stirrups. Find the
spacing required at the critical section ( a
distance d from the face of the support.

CHAPTER 4b. SHEAR IN BEAMS

Stirrup Design Procedure

Slide No. 16
ENCE 355 Assakkaf

6. Establish the ACI Code maximum


spacing requirements.
7. Determine the spacing requirements
based on shear strength to be furnished
by web reinforcing.
8. Establish the spacing pattern and show
detailed sketches.

CHAPTER 4b. SHEAR IN BEAMS

Stirrup Design Procedure


Q

Slide No. 17
ENCE 355 Assakkaf

Example 2
A continuous reinforced concrete beam
shown in the figure is 15 in. wide and has
an effective depth of 31 in. The factored
loads are shown, and the factored uniform
load includes the weight of the beam.
Design the web reinforcement if f c= 4000
psi and fy = 60,000 psi.

Slide No. 18

CHAPTER 4b. SHEAR IN BEAMS

ENCE 355 Assakkaf

Stirrup Design Procedure


Q

Example 2 (contd)
31
100 k

5 - 0

100 k

5 - 0

As

5 - 0

15

wu = 1.0 k/ft

Section A-A
A
15 0 clear span

Slide No. 19

CHAPTER 4b. SHEAR IN BEAMS

Stirrup Design Procedure


Q

Example 2 (contd)

R1 = R2 =

ENCE 355 Assakkaf

2(100) + 1(15)
= 107.5 k
2

Establish the shear force diagram for Vu:


100 k

5 - 0

100 k

5 - 0

5 - 0
wu = 1.0 k/ft

107.5 k

107.5 k

10

Slide No. 20

CHAPTER 4b. SHEAR IN BEAMS

100 k

Example 2 (contd)

5 - 0

ENCE 355 Assakkaf

100 k

5 - 0

5 - 0
wu = 1.0 k/ft

107.5 k

107.5

102.5

Vu (kips)

107.5 k

2.5
2.5

107.5

See Fig. 2 for enlargement

Slide No. 21

CHAPTER 4b. SHEAR IN BEAMS

100 k

Example 2 (contd)

5 - 0

ENCE 355 Assakkaf

100 k

5 - 0

5 - 0
wu = 1.0 k/ft

107.5 k

107.5 k

Vu = 107.5 x for 0 x 5

d = 31 = 2.58

V
107.5 k

M
x

107.5 k

Vu* = Vu (2.58) = 107.5 2.58 = 104.9 k

100 k

Vu = 107.5 100 x for 5 x 10

11

Slide No. 22

CHAPTER 4b. SHEAR IN BEAMS

ENCE 355 Assakkaf

Stirrup Design Procedure


Q

Example 2 (contd)
Because of the symmetry, we will focus on
the left half of the shear diagram as shown
in Fig. 2.
Determine if stirrups required:
Vc = 2 f cbw d =

0.85(2) 4,000 (15)(31)


= 50 kips
100

1
1
Vc = (50) = 25 kips
2
2

Since ( Vu* =104.9 k) > (1/2 Vc = 25 k), stirrups are required.

Slide No. 23

CHAPTER 4b. SHEAR IN BEAMS

Stirrup Design Procedure


Q

Example 2 (contd)
107.5
Vu*

Figure 2

ENCE 355 Assakkaf

Sym.
CL

104.9
102.5

required Vs

Vu
(kips)

Vc

50

1
Vc
2

25

*
0

d = 31 = 2.58
5.0

2.5

12

Slide No. 24

CHAPTER 4b. SHEAR IN BEAMS

Stirrup Design Procedure


Q

ENCE 355 Assakkaf

Example 2 (contd)
Stirrups are required to the point where
1
Vu = Vc = 25 kips
2

From Fig. 2, this point is located at the first


concentrated load and it is at distance 5 ft from
the face of the support.
Determine the required Vs on the Vu diagram:
required Vs = max Vu Vc wx
= 107.5 50 x
required Vs = 57.5 x for 2.58 x 5

Slide No. 25

CHAPTER 4b. SHEAR IN BEAMS

Stirrup Design Procedure


Q

ENCE 355 Assakkaf

Example 2 (contd)
Assume No. 3 vertical stirrups (Av = 0.22 in2):
Ay f y d
0.85(0.22 )(60 )(31)
required s * =
=
= 6.3 in.
required Vs*

104.9 50

use 6 in.

Establish ACI Code maximum spacing


requirements:
4 4000 (15)(31)
= 117.6 kips
1000
V * 104.9 50
Vs* = s =
= 64.6 kips

0.85
4 f cbw d =

13

Slide No. 26

CHAPTER 4b. SHEAR IN BEAMS

ENCE 355 Assakkaf

Stirrup Design Procedure


Q

Example 2 (contd)
Since 64.6 kips < 117.6 kips, the maximum
spacing shall be the smallest of the
following values (see Eq. 8):
smax =

Av f y
50bw

0.22(60,000 )
= 17.6 in.
50(15)

d 31
=
= 15.5 in.
2 2
= 24 in.

smax =
smax

controls

Therefore, use a maximum spacing of 15 in.

Slide No. 27

CHAPTER 4b. SHEAR IN BEAMS

ENCE 355 Assakkaf

Stirrup Design Procedure


Q

Example 2 (contd)
Determine the spacing requirements
between the critical section and the first
concentrated load:
Ay f y d
0.85(0.22 )(60 )(31)
=
required s =
required Vs

57.5 x

The results of applying above equation for


values of x range from 3 to 5 are tabulated
as shown
x (ft)

Required s (in)

6.4

6.5

6.6

14

Slide No. 28

CHAPTER 4b. SHEAR IN BEAMS

ENCE 355 Assakkaf

Stirrup Design Procedure


Q

Example 2 (contd)
Since no stirrups are required in the
distance between the first concentrated
load , it is clear that the maximum spacing
of 15 in. need not be used in that distance.
A spacing of 6 in. will be used between the
face of the support and the concentrated
load.
The center part of the beam will be
reinforced with stirrups at a spacing slightly
less than the maximum spacing of 15 in.

Slide No. 29

CHAPTER 4b. SHEAR IN BEAMS

ENCE 355 Assakkaf

Stirrup Design Procedure


Q

Example 2 (contd)
Final Sketch for Shear Reinforcement:

Sym.
CL

7 6

10 spaces @ 6 = 5
3

1
1 1
2

1 1

1
2

15