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You are on page 1of 15

Fifth Edition

SHEAR IN BEAMS

A. J. Clark School of Engineering Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

4b

FALL 2002

By

Dr . Ibrahim. Assakkaf

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

University of Maryland, College Park

Q

Slide No. 1

ENCE 355 Assakkaf

the following:

Checking the shear strength in an existing

member

Verifying that the various ACI code

requirements have been satisfied and met.

plain.

Slide No. 2

Q

Example 1

A reinforced concrete beam of rectangular

cross section shown is reinforced with

seven No. 6 bars in a single layer. Beam

width b = 18 in., d = 33 in., single-loop No.

3 stirrups are placed 12 in. on center, and

typical cover is 1 in. Find Vc, Vs, and the

maximum factored shear force permitted

on this member. Use = 4,000 psi and fy

= 60,000 psi.

Slide No. 3

Q

Example 1 (contd)

18

#3 @ 12 stirrup

1

COV.

2

33

7#6 bars

Slide No. 4

Q

Example 1 (contd)

The force that can be resisted by concrete

alone is

2 4,000 (18)(33)

Vc = 2 f cbw d =

1000

= 75.1 kips

steel is

A f d (2 0.11)(60)(33)

= 36.3 kips

V = v y =

s

12

maximum Vu = Vc + Vs = 0.85(75.1 + 36.3)

= 94.7 kips

Slide No. 5

Requirements

Q

According to the ACI Code, the design of

beams for shear is based on the following

relation:

Vn Vu

(1)

Where

= strength reduction factor (= 0.85 for shear)

Vn = Vc + Vs

Vs = nominal shear strength provided by reinforcement

Av f y d

s

(2)

Slide No. 6

Requirements

Q

Symbols

a distance s, for single loop stirrups, Av = 2As

As = cross-sectional area of the stirrup bar (in2)

bw = web width = b for rectangular section (in.)

s = center-to-center spacing of shear reinforcement in a

direction parallel to the longitudinal reinforcement (in.)

fy = yield strength of web reinforcement steel (psi)

Slide No. 7

Requirements

Q

For inclined stirrups, the expression for

nominal shear strength provided by

reinforcement is

Av f y d (sin + cos )

(3)

Vs =

s

0

For = 45 , the expression takes the form

Vs =

1.414 Av f y d

s

(4)

Slide No. 8

Requirements

Q

The design for stirrup spacing can be

determined from

Av f y d

required s =

Vs

(5)

and

required s =

1.414 Av f y d

where

Vs

Vs =

Vu Vc

(6)

(7)

Requirements

Q

Slide No. 9

ENCE 355 Assakkaf

According to the ACI Code, the maximum

spacing of stirrups is the smallest value of

Av f y

smax =

50bw

(8)

d

smax =

2

smax = 24 in.

If Vs exceeds 4 f cbw d , the maximum spacing must

not exceed d/4 or 12 in.

Requirements

Q

Slide No. 10

ENCE 355 Assakkaf

It is not usually good practice to space

vertical stirrups closer than 4 in.

It is generally economical and practical to

compute spacing required at several

sections and to place stirrups accordingly

in groups of varying spacing. Spacing

values should be made to not less than 1in. increments.

Requirements

Q

Slide No. 11

ENCE 355 Assakkaf

Critical Section

The maximum shear usually occurs in this

section near the support.

For stirrup design, the section located a

distance d from the face of the support is called

the critical section

Sections located less than a distance d from

the face of the support may be designed for the

same Vu as that of the critical section.

Slide No. 12

Requirements

Q

Critical Section

Critical Section

d

d

L

Figure 1

Requirements

Q

Slide No. 13

ENCE 355 Assakkaf

Critical Section (contd)

The stirrup spacing should be constant from the

critical section back to the face of the support

based on the spacing requirements at the

critical section.

The first stirrup should be placed at a maximum

distance of s/2 from the face of the support,

where s equals the immediately adjacent

required spacing (a distance of 2 in. is

commonly used.

Q

Slide No. 14

ENCE 355 Assakkaf

reinforcement involves the

determination of stirrup size and

spacing pattern.

A general procedure is as follows:

1. Determine the shear values based on

clear span and draw a shear diagram for

Vu.

2. Determine if stirrups are required.

Slide No. 15

ENCE 355 Assakkaf

stirrups are required.

4. On the Vu diagram, determine the area

representing required Vs. This will

display the required strength of the

stirrups to be provided.

5. Select the size of the stirrups. Find the

spacing required at the critical section ( a

distance d from the face of the support.

Slide No. 16

ENCE 355 Assakkaf

spacing requirements.

7. Determine the spacing requirements

based on shear strength to be furnished

by web reinforcing.

8. Establish the spacing pattern and show

detailed sketches.

Q

Slide No. 17

ENCE 355 Assakkaf

Example 2

A continuous reinforced concrete beam

shown in the figure is 15 in. wide and has

an effective depth of 31 in. The factored

loads are shown, and the factored uniform

load includes the weight of the beam.

Design the web reinforcement if f c= 4000

psi and fy = 60,000 psi.

Slide No. 18

Q

Example 2 (contd)

31

100 k

5 - 0

100 k

5 - 0

As

5 - 0

15

wu = 1.0 k/ft

Section A-A

A

15 0 clear span

Slide No. 19

Q

Example 2 (contd)

R1 = R2 =

2(100) + 1(15)

= 107.5 k

2

100 k

5 - 0

100 k

5 - 0

5 - 0

wu = 1.0 k/ft

107.5 k

107.5 k

10

Slide No. 20

100 k

Example 2 (contd)

5 - 0

100 k

5 - 0

5 - 0

wu = 1.0 k/ft

107.5 k

107.5

102.5

Vu (kips)

107.5 k

2.5

2.5

107.5

Slide No. 21

100 k

Example 2 (contd)

5 - 0

100 k

5 - 0

5 - 0

wu = 1.0 k/ft

107.5 k

107.5 k

Vu = 107.5 x for 0 x 5

d = 31 = 2.58

V

107.5 k

M

x

107.5 k

100 k

11

Slide No. 22

Q

Example 2 (contd)

Because of the symmetry, we will focus on

the left half of the shear diagram as shown

in Fig. 2.

Determine if stirrups required:

Vc = 2 f cbw d =

= 50 kips

100

1

1

Vc = (50) = 25 kips

2

2

Slide No. 23

Q

Example 2 (contd)

107.5

Vu*

Figure 2

Sym.

CL

104.9

102.5

required Vs

Vu

(kips)

Vc

50

1

Vc

2

25

*

0

d = 31 = 2.58

5.0

2.5

12

Slide No. 24

Q

Example 2 (contd)

Stirrups are required to the point where

1

Vu = Vc = 25 kips

2

concentrated load and it is at distance 5 ft from

the face of the support.

Determine the required Vs on the Vu diagram:

required Vs = max Vu Vc wx

= 107.5 50 x

required Vs = 57.5 x for 2.58 x 5

Slide No. 25

Q

Example 2 (contd)

Assume No. 3 vertical stirrups (Av = 0.22 in2):

Ay f y d

0.85(0.22 )(60 )(31)

required s * =

=

= 6.3 in.

required Vs*

104.9 50

use 6 in.

requirements:

4 4000 (15)(31)

= 117.6 kips

1000

V * 104.9 50

Vs* = s =

= 64.6 kips

0.85

4 f cbw d =

13

Slide No. 26

Q

Example 2 (contd)

Since 64.6 kips < 117.6 kips, the maximum

spacing shall be the smallest of the

following values (see Eq. 8):

smax =

Av f y

50bw

0.22(60,000 )

= 17.6 in.

50(15)

d 31

=

= 15.5 in.

2 2

= 24 in.

smax =

smax

controls

Slide No. 27

Q

Example 2 (contd)

Determine the spacing requirements

between the critical section and the first

concentrated load:

Ay f y d

0.85(0.22 )(60 )(31)

=

required s =

required Vs

57.5 x

values of x range from 3 to 5 are tabulated

as shown

x (ft)

Required s (in)

6.4

6.5

6.6

14

Slide No. 28

Q

Example 2 (contd)

Since no stirrups are required in the

distance between the first concentrated

load , it is clear that the maximum spacing

of 15 in. need not be used in that distance.

A spacing of 6 in. will be used between the

face of the support and the concentrated

load.

The center part of the beam will be

reinforced with stirrups at a spacing slightly

less than the maximum spacing of 15 in.

Slide No. 29

Q

Example 2 (contd)

Final Sketch for Shear Reinforcement:

Sym.

CL

7 6

10 spaces @ 6 = 5

3

1

1 1

2

1 1

1

2

15

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