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JFS

E: Food Engineering and Physical Properties

Carbon Dioxide Evolution and Moisture


Evaporation During Roasting of Coffee Beans
RAPHAEL GEIGER, RAINER PERREN, ROLAND KUENZLI, AND FELIX ESCHER

ABSTRA
CT
volution of carbon dio
xide and water vvapor
apor dur
ing rroasting
oasting of coffee was follo
wed in an isother
mal
ABSTRACT
CT:: E
Ev
dioxide
during
follow
isothermal
atur
e shor
t-time and a lo
w-temper
atur
e long-time rroasting
oasting pr
ocess
n addition, C
O 2 rrelease
elease dur
ing stor
high-temperatur
ature
short-time
low-temper
w-temperatur
ature
process
ocess.. IIn
CO
during
stor-high-temper
age of rroasted
oasted beans was follo
wed. C
O2 and water vvapor
apor concentr
ation w
er
e assay
ed in the exhaust air b
y nondispersiv
e
follow
CO
concentration
wer
ere
assayed
by
nondispersive
infr
ar
ed gas analysis
O 2 ev
olution rrates
ates differ
ed in the 2 pr
ocesses
O 2 rreleased
eleased
infrar
ared
analysis.. Although C
CO
evolution
differed
processes
ocesses,, the final total amount of C
CO
after 63 d of stor
age rremained
emained equal. C
O 2 ev
olution and differ
entiation betw
een ev
apor
ation of initial water and
storage
CO
evolution
differentiation
between
evapor
aporation
chemically for
med water sho
wed that chemical rreactions
eactions leading to rrelev
elev
ant amounts of C
O 2 and water star
formed
show
elevant
CO
startt at approximately 180 C. A mass balance established on the present measurements was able to account fairly well for the
gr
avimetr
ically measur
ed rroast
oast loss
gravimetr
avimetrically
measured
loss..
Keywor
ds: coffee rroasting,
oasting, carbon dio
xide ev
olution, moistur
e ev
apor
ation
eywords:
dioxide
evolution,
moisture
evapor
aporation

Introduction

E: Food Engineering & Physical Properties

oasting presents 1 of the key steps in coffee technology that


leads to the desired flavor and color of the final product. During
the roasting process, the initial moisture content is dried off, and a
substantial part of dry matter is transformed by chemical reactions
into volatiles so that coffee beans loose between 14% and 20% of
their weight, depending on green coffee quality, roasting conditions,
and degree of roast (Clarke and Macrae 1987). Carbon dioxide and
chemical reaction water, which are generated by Strecker degradation, degradation of chlorogenic acid, degradation of sucrose, decarboxylation of amino acids, and Maillard reaction (Illy and Viani
1995), account for the major portion of the weight loss. In addition,
other gases evolve and silver chaffs as well as abrasive products are
removed (Clarke and Macrae 1987; Jansen and Lange 2001). In roasting trials by Meister and Puhlmann (1989), a roast loss of 13% was
composed of 6% moisture loss, 6% loss of volatiles, and 1% silver
skin. As for gases, Clarke and Macrae (1987) state that 87% is formed
as carbon dioxide.
Part of the carbon dioxide evolves directly during roasting, part
is either bound to polar sites of coffee bean polymers, dissolved in
the oil fraction, or dissolved in the residual moisture of roasted
beans. Labuza and others (2001) assume that an additional amount
is entrapped in amorphous collapsed zones of roasted beans. Sivetz
and Desrosier (1979) estimated an entrapped amount of carbon dioxide in the cell structure of 2%. During storage of roasted beans,
the entrapped carbon dioxide is slowly released from the beans. According to Illy and Viani (1995), carbon dioxide is released over a period of up to 6 wk. The degassing process is highly dependent on the
process conditions, structural changes, and roasting degree (Meister
and Puhlmann 1989; Massini and others 1990; Schenker 2000).
So far, the monitoring of roast loss and moisture decrease during
the roasting process has been based on intermittent sampling and
gravimetric analysis, while carbon dioxide evolution during storage
was followed by recording headspace pressure in closed containers
MS 20040485 Submitted 7/20/04, Revised 8/23/04, Accepted 9/24/04. Authors Geiger, Perren, and Escher are with Inst. of Food Science and Nutrition, Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology (ETH) Zurich, CH-8092 Zurich, Switzerland. Author Kuenzli is with DMP Ltd., Fehraltdorf, Switzerland. Direct
inquiries to author Escher (E-mail: felix.escher@ilw.agrl.ethz.ch).

E124 JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCEVol. 70, Nr. 2, 2005


Published on Web 2/14/2005

(Schenker 2000), manometric measurements (Radtke 1975), or


trapping carbon dioxide on columns (Shimoni and Labuza 2000).
Not much information is available on the direct measurement of
the evolution of water vapor and gases during the roasting of coffee. Yeretzian and others (2000) monitored evolving volatiles online by proton-transfer-reaction mass-spectrometry (PTR-MS).
Dutra and others (2001) collected the gas by condensation in 2
traps, both submerged in an ice bath, and analyzed the condensate by gas chromatography (GC). Perren and others (2002) used a
nondispersive infrared (IR) gas analyzer to monitor evolving carbon
dioxide and moisture during microscale roasting of hazelnuts with
differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Barbera (1967) described
a method to determine the non-odorous atmosphere in the roasted
coffee beans by displacing gases from the beans in the absence of
air by means of hot water. During thermal decomposition of fir
wood, which is similar to a food-roasting process, Samolada and
Vasalos (1991) determined evolved gases by gas chromatography
flame ionization detection (GC-FID) andgas chromatography thermal conductivity detection (GC-TCD).
The aim of this work was to apply the nondispersive IR gas analyzer method to follow the evolution of carbon dioxide and water
vapor in the air stream of the roasting process and to compare carbon dioxide and water vapor evolution with other changes over
roasting time. Because the release of carbon dioxide during storage
is directly linked to the roasting process, carbon dioxide evolution
during storage in closed containers was also analyzed.

Materials and Methods


Roasting process and process characterization
Roasting. Samples of 100 g of coffee beans per run were roasted. In
the main set of experiments, initial moisture of beans was 8.3 g/100 g
web basis (wb). In addition, coffee beans were roasted that had been
pre-dried in an air-dryer at 85C for 6 d to a residual moisture content
of 1.1 g/100 g wb. The roaster has been described in detail by Schenker (2000) and Schenker and others (2000) and allowed for coffee roasting under defined process conditions with accurate control of hot air
temperature and air velocity and recording of bean core temperature.
Roasting and cooling were performed in separate sections.
2005 Institute of Food Technologists
Further reproduction without permission is prohibited

Gas evolution during coffee roasting . . .

Measurement and adjustment of air flow rates


The system for adjusting and measuring air velocities during roast-

Table 1Calibration of the roasting system (Figure 1)a


Inlet air
Position A

Hot air
Position B

Exhaust air
Position C

TA
C)
(

vA
(m/s)

TB
C)
(

TC
C)
(

28
28
28
28
28
28
28
28
28
28
28
28
28
28
28

1.7
3.2
4.7
1.7
3.2
4.7
1.7
3.2
4.7
1.7
3.2
4.7
1.7
3.2
4.7

28
28
28
100
100
100
148
148
149
199
199
197
249
248
245

28
28
28
95
96
95
140
143
145
186.5
191
193
228.5
234
236.5

vC (m/s)
Calculated Measured
1.70
3.20
4.70
2.08
3.92
5.74
2.34
4.42
6.52
2.60
4.93
7.27
2.84
5.38
7.95

1.85
3.06
4.23
2.27
4.07
5.66
2.42
4.48
6.45
2.82
5.42
7.33
3.19
5.42
7.87

a Measured and calculated hot air velocities (position C) at different ambient


air velocities (position A) and hot air temperatures (position B).

ing is presented in Figure 1. Air flow rates in the exhaust had to be


known for calculating gas evolution rates but could not be measured
directly during roasting because of nonlaminar conditions above the
fluidized coffee bean bed. Therefore, the system was calibrated at
empty runs for different temperatures as summarized in Table 1. Air
velocities in the exhaust (position C in Figure 1) were measured by a
pitostatic tube (ManoAir 100, Schiltknecht Messtechnik AG, Gossau,
Switzerland) but also calculated (Eq. 1) from inlet air velocities (position A in Figure 1) measured by an anemometer (MiniAir 6, Schiltknecht Messtechnik AG) and inlet and exhaust temperatures. Air
velocity did not vary over the cross-section of the tube so that only
readings at the center of the tube were taken into account.

Figure 1Diagram of the fluidized-bed hot air laboratory roaster. 1, 6, 10 = flow straightener; 2 = air flow
meter for inlet air velocity vA, thermocouple T 51
(Rotronic, CH-Bassersdorf) for air temperature TA;
3 = inlet air flap valve; 4 = inlet radial fan; 5 = electrical heaters; 7 = static air mixing element; 8 = temperature probe PT 100 for air temperature control TBC;
9 = thermocouple for air temperature TB; 11 = fluidized
bed roasting chamber and thermocouple for product
temperature TP; 12 = sample drawing of exhaust air,
thermocouple for air temperature TC, pitostatic air
velocity measurement vC. 13 = exhaust air; d = diameter of the tube.

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Vol. 70, Nr. 2, 2005JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE

E125

E: Food Engineering & Physical Properties

For the present experiments, a high-temperature-short-time


(HTST) and a low-temperature-long-time (LTLT) process was applied with air temperatures of 260  1C (500F, HTST) and 228 
1C (442F, LTLT) for 170 s (HTST) and 720 s (LTLT) at air velocities
as specified below. Roasting was always carried out to an equal
bean color, which corresponded to an L* value of 22 to 23. Bean core
temperature was recorded during roasting with thermocouples
(Type K, 0.25 mm, Thermocoax Ltd., Sursnes, France).
Roast loss and weight of silver chaff. Determination of total roast
loss was carried out gravimetrically. The weight of silver skins that
are removed was determined by weighing the skins of 5 beans and
then estimating the number of beans per batch.
Moisture content. Gravimetrical determination of water content
of beans was carried out using oven dehydration method according to the Swiss Food Manual (SWFOH 1973). Samples of roasted
beans were ground finely in a grinder (Typ Buehler-MIAG 4000,
Buehler Ltd., Milano, Italy, step 3). Ground coffee was dried at
103C for 5 h.
Bean core temperature. Fine holes were drilled into the bean
tissue using a hand drill of 0.3-mm dia. A thermocouple type K with
a 0.25-mm dia (Thermocoax, Ltd., Sursnes, France) was inserted
into the holes. Special attention was paid to ensure that the point of
measurement lay in the bean core tissue and not in the folding gap.
The bean with the mounted thermocouple was fixed with a wire to a
stick, which could be led into the cylindrical roasting chamber. The
batch of green beans was added to the chamber before transferring
the stick into the preheated laboratory roaster. This arrangement
allowed for partially free motion of the thermocouple-equipped
beans within the fluidized batch without losing them. The thermocouple was connected with the data acquisition system of the roaster
and the temperature was monitored and recorded online. The resulting bean core temperature was averaged from at least 3 separate runs.

Gas evolution during coffee roasting . . .

Monitoring of carbon dioxide and


water vapor during roasting

E: Food Engineering & Physical Properties

The concentration of carbon dioxide and water vapor was measured in the exhaust air by infrared absorption with a LI 6400 Portable Photosynthesis System (LI-COR Inc., Lincoln, Nebr., U.S.A.).
An aliquot of the air (approximately 0.2%) was led from the exhaust
air tube through a sampling tube (r = 0.0025 m) to the detector. The
sampling tube had a length of approx. 1.5 m so that the air could
cool down before entering the detector system. To compensate for
potential variations of air velocity over the exhaust tube cross-section (r = 0.05 m), the sampling tube was positioned in the exhaust
tube. Therefore, each roasting trial was repeated 5 times, and the
position of the sampling tube was moved from the peripherical
position at sampling tube entering (p1) to the tube center (c) and
to the opposite peripherical position (p2).
For the infrared absorption, the major absorption band for CO2
was centered on 4.26 m, whereas for water vapor, band pass filters
were centered on the 2.59-m band (Long and others 1996). The instrument reading was mol CO2/mol air and mmol H2O/mol air. Calibration of the instrument was carried out as recommended by the
LI-COR(LI-COR Inc., Lincoln, Nebr., U.S.A.) company. Before each
roasting run, the carbon dioxide and water vapor concentration of
the exhaust air were recorded for at least 2 min. Over the experiment
period, the average carbon dioxide concentration of the hot air was
around 540 mol/mol air (0.054%), whereas the water vapor concentration of the hot roasting air was between 6 and 8 mmol/mol air.
These baseline values were subtracted from the carbon dioxide and
water vapor readings during the roasting process itself.

Quantification of carbon dioxide and


water vapor content in the exhaust air
Quantities of carbon dioxide and moisture evolved were calculated from the molar concentration value according to the following
procedure:

n& CO2 ,H2O = c CO2 ,H2O n& air


n&

air

p V& C
=
R TC

(2)

JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCEVol. 70, Nr. 2, 2005

The whole roasted batch of initially 100 g green coffee was placed
in a 500-mL septum flask immediately after roasting. The flask was
closed tight with a special rubber septum of 12-mm thickness. The
existing pressure in the flask after the sample preparation was measured by placing the flasks in a headspace sampling device
equipped with a pressure transducer as described in detail by Gntensperger and Escher (1994). The flasks were stored at room temperature (23  1C, 73.4F) while bean gas release took place. The
headspace pressure was determined periodically. After each measurement, the rubber septum was opened and the flask was vented. After closing the flask again, the existing headspace pressure
was remeasured and the gas release could restart for the next time
period. A release rate was calculated. The gas release of 3 batches
was measured.

Results and Discussion


Process characterization and reproducibility
of on-line measurements of evolved gas
Figure 2 shows the development of coffee bean core tempera-

20

HTST

250

Hot air temp.

16

200

12
150
8
100
4
50

0
water content
0

20

LTLT

0
200

250

Hot air temp.

16

200

12
150
8
100
4
50

(3)

roast loss

50
100
150
Roasting time (s)

water content

where nair = molar air flow rate (mol/s); p = ambient atmospheric


pressure (98000  1000 Pa); vc = volumetric air flow rate (m3/s); R =
E126

Release of carbon dioxide during storage

Temperature (C)

where vC = exhaust air velocity at the sample drawing position


(m/s); vA = air velocity of the suction air, measured by anemometer
(m/s); TC =temperature of the exhaust air at sample drawing position
(K); TA =temperature of the suction air (ambient temperature) (K).
The data in Table 1 show that measured and calculated values
were sufficiently near to claim that the system did not have appreciable amounts of leakage.
Exhaust air flow rates vC (m3/s) were then calculated as the product of the exhaust air velocity vC and the cross-section of the exhaust
tube (0.0079 m2).
Roasting trials were carried out with vA = 2.037 m/s for LTLT and
vA = 3.007 m/s for HTST roasting. These values were recorded after
fluidization of the coffee bean bed started so that pressure drop due
to product was taken into account.

gas constant (8.314 J/mol K); TC = air temperature at sample drawing


position (K); nCO2,H2O = moisture and carbon dioxide evolution rate
(mol/s); cCO2,H2O = carbon dioxide and moisture concentration, readings corrected for baseline values [mol/mol (CO2), mmol/mol
(H2O)].

Temperature (C)

(1)

Roast loss (g/100g wb)


Water content (g/100g wb)

TC
TA

Roast loss (g/100g wb)


Water content (g/100g wb)

vC = v A

200

roast loss

400

600

0
800

Roasting time (s)

Figure 2Bean core temperature, water content changes


and roast loss changes depending on roasting time for hightemperature-short-time (HTST) and low-temperature-longtime (LTLT) roasting
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Gas evolution during coffee roasting . . .

run 1 (c)
run 2 (p2)
run 3 (c)
run 4 (p1)
run 5 (p2)

800
700

Weight (g)
Step

600

Initial beans
Total solids
Moisture
Sum
Roasting loss (on-line)
Carbon dioxide
Total water
Silver chaff
Sum
Cooling loss (calculated)
Carbon dioxide
Water
Sum
Total weight loss
(on-line/calculated)
Roast loss (gravimetric)
Storage loss
Carbon dioxide

LTLT

91.7
8.3  0.2
100.0

91.7
8.3  0.2
100.0

0.4  0.0
10.2  1.2
1.0
11.6  1.2

0.50  0.3
11.4  1.4
1.0
12.9  1.7

0.1  0.0
1.6  0.2
1.7  0.2
13.3  1.4

0.0  0.0
0.1  0.0
0.1  0.0
13.0  1.7

15.38  0.05

15.86  0.02

0.99  0.02

0.83  0.01

Evolution of carbon dioxide


during roasting and storage
The data illustrated in Figure 3 and 4 for carbon dioxide were
averaged and converted into evolution rate and cumulative
evolved carbon dioxide as shown in Figure 5 for the HTST and LTLT
process. The evolution rate again follows the pattern already seen
in Figure 3 and 4. In contrast, the cumulative value show that more
carbon dioxide evolves in the LTLT process than in the HTST process due to the much longer roasting time.
One has to bear in mind that cumulative values in Figure 5 do not

750
run
run
run
run
run

700
650

1
2
3
4
5

(c)
(p2)
(c)
(p1)
(p2)

600
550
500
14

H2O conc. (mmol/mol air)

500
14
H2O conc. (mmol/mol air)

HTST

12
10
8
6
0

40

80
120
Roasting time (s)

160

200

Figure 3Development of carbon dioxide and water vapor concentration in the exhaust air during high-temperature-short-time (HTST) roasting. Positions p1, p2, and c as
explained in the Materials and Methods section.
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12
10
8
6
0

200

400

600

800

Roasting time (s)


Figure 4Development of carbon dioxide and water vapor concentration in the exhaust air during low-temperature-long-time (LTLT) roasting. Positions p1, p2, and c as
explained in the Materials and Methods section.
Vol. 70, Nr. 2, 2005JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE

E127

E: Food Engineering & Physical Properties

900

Table 2Mass balance for the roasting and storage of coffee beans and comparison with overall roast loss

CO2 conc. (mol/mol air)

CO2 conc. (mol/mol air)

ture, roast loss, and moisture content of beans during the isothermal HTST and LTLT roasting process to equal roast loss (15.38% and
15.86%, respectively). In both processes, the bean core temperature
did not reach the pre-set air temperatures of 260C and 228C, respectively, because of excessive heat transfer by radiation. This is
a typical phenomenon in small-scale roasting equipment with a
large air-to-bean ratio. The increase of roast loss and the decrease
of moisture content were almost linear at HTST conditions. Only
toward the end, the curve for moisture content started to level off.
In contrast, exponential curves over the roasting time were observed
at LTLT conditions for both roast loss and moisture content. These
results confirm earlier results (Schenker 2000; Schenker and others
2000, 2002) that showed roasting temperature is the most decisive
parameter in controlling overall changes in coffee beans.
eroasting. In both figures, the concentration data measured at 3
locations of the cross-section of the exhaust are plotted. In general, there was good agreement of all concentration curves. Part of the
differences within 1 set probably originated from the differences in
air velocity. Nevertheless, one can see that the distribution of carbon dioxide and water vapor concentration over the cross-section
of the exhaust tube was fairly homogeneous.
When comparing the HTST (Figure 3) and LTLT processes (Figure
4), clear differences were observed in the development of evolved
gas concentration over roasting time. The carbon dioxide concentration increased sharply in the end phase of HTST roasting,
whereas the concentration in LTLT roasting stayed much lower and
leveled off in the end phase. One could imagine that HTST roasting moved toward pyrolytic conditions at the end of the process. As
far as the formation of water vapor is concerned, a maximum concentration and a subsequent decline were observed. The peak concentration in the HTST roasting was higher than in the LTLT roasting.
It is concluded that the on-line measuring system can be applied to monitor gas evolution over the roasting process.

Gas evolution during coffee roasting . . .

Evaporation of water vapor


from nonpre-dried beans

1.4
1.2
Cumulative evolved CO2
(g/100g initial green beans)

reflect the quantity of carbon dioxide formed. A substantial part of


this quantity is trapped in the coffee beans and is released only
during storage. Therefore, cumulative evolved carbon dioxide for
the roasting process and the storage period were combined in Figure 6. Roast loss and storage time, respectively, were chosen as independent variables for the 2 steps. The lower gas evolution during HTST roasting is more than compensated for during storage by
a much higher cumulative gas release. Assuming that both the
HTST and LTLT curves level off after a storage period of 63 d, HTST
and LTLT roasting result in an almost equal total formation and
evolution of carbon dioxide. Total carbon dioxide formation and
evolution seem to be dependent on only the degree of roast and
not on roasting temperature.

1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2

Figure 7 presents the data for water evaporation averaged from


the data represented in the curves in Figure 3 and 4 and again converted into evaporation rates and cumulative evaporated water,
respectively. As stated earlier, both roasting processes lead to a
peak evaporation rate and a subsequent decrease. The HTST and
LTLT processes differ primarily in the extent of the peak rate. Moisture evaporation rate depends on the roasting temperature.

Evaporation of water vapor from pre-dried beans

HTST
LTLT

0.0
0
6
12
Roast loss (g/100g wb)

10 20 30 40 50 60 70
Storage time (d)

Figure 6Cumulative evolved carbon dioxide during roasting and storage for high-temperature-short-time (HTST) and
low-temperature-long-time (LTLT) roasting. Storage time was
63 d at room temperature (23  1 C).

0.4

0.3
0.2

4
2

0.1

0.0
0

40

80

120

0.10
0.08

HTST

10
8

0.06
6
0.04

0.02

0.00

0
0

160

40
80
120
Roasting time (s)

Roasting time (s)

CO 2 evolution rate
Cumulative evolved CO 2

1.2
1.0

0.5
0.4

0.8
0.3
0.6
0.2

0.4

0.1

0.2

Cumulative evolved CO2


(g/100g green beans)

0.6

LTLT

0.0

0.0
0

200

400

600

800

Roasting time (s)

Figure 5Carbon dioxide evolution rate and cumulative


evolved carbon dioxide per 100 g of green beans for hightemperature-short-time (HTST) and low-temperature-longtime (LTLT) roasting
E128

JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCEVol. 70, Nr. 2, 2005

H2O evaporation rate (g/s)

0.12

1.4

12

160

14
H 2O evaporation rate
Cumulative evaporated water

0.10
0.08

Cumulative evaporated H2O


(g/100g green beans)

0.5

14

H2O evaporation rate


Cumulative evaporated water

12
10

LTLT

8
0.06
6
0.04

0.02

0.00

0
0

200

400

600

Cumulative evaporated H2O


(g/100g green beans)

CO 2 evolution rate
Cumulative evolved CO 2

10

Cumulative evolved CO2


(g/100g green beans)

CO2 evolution rate (mg/s)

0.6

HTST

H2O evaporation rate (g/s)

0.12

12

CO2 evolution rate (mg/s)

E: Food Engineering & Physical Properties

The cumulative evaporated quantity of water is composed of

800

Roasting time (s)

Figure 7Water evaporation rate and cumulative


evaporated water per 100 g of green beans for hightemperature-short-time (HTST) and low-temperaturelong-time (LTLT) roasting
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Gas evolution during coffee roasting . . .

0.10

substrate, or the generated chemical reaction water is used up in


the cells for other chemical reactions and therefore does not appear
in the exhaust air. It seems in Figure 8 that chemical reaction water
was already produced from the beginning of the process. In fact,
most of the residual moisture of 1.1 g/100 g wb in the pre-dried
green beans had to be removed before the effective chemical reaction water could be detected.
As illustrated in Figure 9, the required product temperature to
start the chemical reactions was 180C to 200C. Below these temperatures, no significant increase of chemical reaction water evaporation or carbon dioxide evolution was observed. The calculation
of the evolved gases per degree Celsius considers the dynamic process conditions, which were different for HTST and LTLT roasting.
Figure 10 shows the cumulative evaporated water for nonpredried HTST and LTLT roasting (initial water content: 8.3 g/100 g wb)
and for the cumulative moisture evaporation because of chemical
reactions as calculated from the difference between total moisture
evaporated and loss of initial moisture content. The chemical reaction water amounted to 41% for HTST roasting and 36% for LTLT
roasting. The area between the curves represents the evaporation
of initial moisture.

Mass balance
In Table 2, a mass balance over the roasting and storage is presented on the basis of evolved carbon dioxide, evaporated water,
and losses of solids in the form of silver chaffs. An estimation of the
loss of gases during the cooling step was done by linear extension
of the cumulative carbon dioxide and moisture evaporation values
for another 20 s after the end of roasting. A standard deviation of the
evolved carbon dioxide and moisture was calculated from the deviation of air velocity and gas concentration measurements.
Taking the variations of the data in Table 2 into account, approx-

HTST

0.06

0.04

0.02

0.00
0

80

120

160

200

Total moisture evaporation rate (online determined in exhaust air)


from beans (moisture content 8.3 g/100g)
Total moisture evaporation rate (online determined in exhaust air)
from pre-dried beans (moisture content 1.1 g/100g)
Initial water evaporation rate (calculated by subtracting total
moisture evaporation rate of pre-dried beans of the total
moisture evaporation rate of non-pre-dried beans)
Rate of initial moisture loss, gravimetrically determined
Rate of chemical reaction water evaporation (calculated by subtracting the rate of initial moisture loss (gravimetrically determined) from total moisture evaporation rate of non-pre-dried beans)

0.08

0.06

0.04

40

0.5
HTST
LTLT

0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.0
0.020

HTST
LTLT

CO2 evolution (g/C)

H2O evaporation rate (g/s)

0.10

Chemical reaction water (g/C)

H2O evaporation rate (g/s)

0.08

LTLT

0.02

0.015

0.010

0.005

0.000
0.00
0

200

400
Roasting time (s)

600

800

Figure 8Evaporation rate of total moisture, initial water,


and chemical reaction water during high-temperature-shorttime (HTST) and low-temperature-long-time (LTLT) roasting
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50

100

150

200

250

Bean core temperature (C)

Figure 9Influence of bean core temperature on the formation and evaporation of chemical reaction water and
carbon dioxide per degree Celsius and 100 g of green beans
Vol. 70, Nr. 2, 2005JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE

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E: Food Engineering & Physical Properties

water that evaporates because of dehydration of initial moisture of


coffee beans and of water that is generated by chemical reactions
mentioned in the Introduction. To evaluate the formation of moisture in chemical reactions, HTST and LTLT roasting trials with predried beans (1.1 g/100 g wb) were carried out. It was assumed that
in this case, the detected moisture in the exhaust air was exclusively formed by chemical reactions because of a negligible initial water
content of the green coffee. In Figure 8, the chemical reaction water and the initial water evaporation rates are shown. The evaporation rate of initial water was calculated from the difference between
the evaporation rate of total moisture during roasting of nonpredried coffee (water content: 8.30 g/100 g wb) and the evaporation
rate of total moisture during roasting of pre-dried coffee.
As already mentioned, water evaporation is temperature-dependent. The peak rate for HTST roasting was higher than the
peak rate under LTLT roasting conditions, whereas more moisture
evaporates during LTLT roasting because of the much longer roasting time. In an early roasting phase of both roasting processes, only
initial water has been released from the beans. With increasing
roasting time, in particular in the case of LTLT roasting, total moisture evaporation mainly consists of evaporating chemical reaction
water. Initial water evaporation became almost negligible after
approximately 300 s, and the formation and evaporation of chemical reaction water were equaled. The maximum in the total moisture evaporation curve is caused by the overlapping effect of initial
and chemical reaction water. The decrease of chemical reaction
water evaporation could be the consequence of a depletion of the

Gas evolution during coffee roasting . . .


imately 93% (LTLT) and 96% (HTST) of the gravimetrically determined roast loss could be explained by measuring gas evolution and
determination of silver chaff. It must be pointed out that the balance
values in Table 2 still do not account for all of the roast loss. Material
from abrasion, for example, tippings, and evolving gases other than
CO2 and water vapor also contribute to the total roast loss. The remaining difference for both roasting processes could be explained
by inaccuracies of air velocity and gas concentration measurements, as well as by inaccuracies of the raw material.

Conclusions

he results of the present investigation show that the methodol


ogy that has been developed for measuring gas evolution during
roasting of coffee provides a valuable tool for analyzing complex
roasting processes. It is clear that to receive a more conclusive picture of gas evolution, these measurements have to be expanded
over other coffee varieties and coffees of different origin and handling as well as to other roasting conditions. With the necessary

E: Food Engineering & Physical Properties


Figure 10Cumulative values of evaporated total moisture
and chemical reaction water during high-temperature-shorttime (HTST) and low-temperature-long-time (LTLT) roasting

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JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCEVol. 70, Nr. 2, 2005

technical adaptations, the measuring system may also be applied


to larger roasting equipments.
Then, as a next step in the investigations on coffee roasting processes, it will be interesting to relate the evolution of carbon dioxide and water vapor during roasting to the development of coffee
been structure and to the aroma retention and release during roasting and storage.

Acknowledgments
The authors gratefully acknowledge the funding of this work by G.
W. Barth Ltd., Freiberg/Neckar, Germany, as well as technical support by Keme Food Engineering Ltd., Haco Swiss Ltd., and Migros
Betriebe Birsfelden Ltd, Birsfelden, Switzerland. Special thank are
due to Dr. Jrg Leipner, Inst. of Plant Science at ETH Zurich, for
support with the instrumentation for IR gas analysis.

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