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UNIT-II

ROBOT HARDWARE
Objectives:
To Know the sensors usage in robots
To Understand the concept of Mechanism of robots
Robot sensors
1.Sensors and Transducers
Simple stand alone electronic circuits can be made to repeatedly flash a light
or play a musical note, but in order for an electronic circuit or system to
perform any useful task or function it needs to be able to communicate with
the "real world" whether this is by reading an input signal from an "ON/OFF"
switch or by activating some form of output device to illuminate a single light
and to do this we use Transducers.
Transducers can be used to sense a wide range of different energy forms
such as movement, electrical signals, radiant energy, thermal or magnetic
energy etc, and there are many different types of both analogue and digital
input and output devices available to choose from. The type of input or
output transducer being used, really depends upon the type of signal or
process being "Sensed" or "Controlled" but we can define a transducer as a
device that converts one physical quantity into another.
Devices which perform an input function are commonly called Sensors
because they "sense" a physical change in some characteristic that changes
in response to some excitation, for example heat or force and covert that
into an electrical signal. Devices which perform an output function are
generally called Actuators and are used to control some external device, for
example movement. Both sensors and actuators are collectively known as
Transducers because they are used to convert energy of one kind into
energy of another kind, for example, a microphone (input device) converts
sound waves into electrical signals for the amplifier to amplify, and a

loudspeaker (output device) converts the electrical signals back into sound
waves and an example of this is given below.
Simple Input/Output System using Sound Transducers

There are many different types of transducers available in the marketplace,


and the choice of which one to use really depends upon the quantity being
measured or controlled, with the more common types given in the table
below.
Common Transducers
Quantity beingInput
Measured

Light Level

DeviceOutput

(Sensor)
Light
Dependant

Device

(Actuator)
Resistor

(LDR)

Lights

&

Photodiode

LED's

Photo-transistor

Fibre Optics

&

Lamps
Displays

Solar Cell
Thermocouple
Thermistor
Temperature

Heater

Thermostat
Resistive

detectors (RTD)
Force/Pressure Strain

temperature

Fan

GaugeLifts

&

Jacks

Pressure

Position

SwitchElectromagnet

Load Cells
Potentiometer

Vibration

Encoders

Motor

Reflective/Slotted

Opto-Solenoid

switch

Panel Meters

LVDT
Tacho-generator
Speed

Reflective/Slotted

Opto-

coupler
Doppler Effect Sensors

Sound

Carbon

Microphone

Piezo-electric Crystal

AC and DC Motors
Stepper

Motor

Brake
Bell
Buzzer

Loudspeaker
Input type transducers or sensors, produce a proportional output voltage or
signal in response to changes in the quantity that they are measuring (the
stimulus) and the type or amount of the output signal depends upon the
type of sensor being used. Generally, all types of sensors can be classed as
two kinds, passive and active.
Active sensors require some form of external power to operate, called an
excitation signal which is used by the sensor to produce the output signal.
Active sensors are self-generating devices because their own properties
change in response to an external effect and produce an output voltage, for
example, 1 to 10v DC or an output current such as 4 to 20mA DC. For
example, a strain gauge is a pressure-sensitive resistor. It does not generate
any electrical signal, but by passing a current through it (excitation signal),
its resistance can be measured by detecting variations in the current and/or
voltage across it relating these changes to the amount of strain or force.
Unlike the active sensor, a passive sensor does not need any additional
energy source and directly generates an electric signal in response to an

external stimulus. For example, a thermocouple or photodiode. Passive


sensors are direct sensors which change their physical properties, such as
resistance, capacitance or inductance etc. As well as analogue sensors,
Digital Sensors produce a discrete output representing a binary number or
digit such as a logic level "0" or a logic level "1".
Analogue and Digital Sensors
1.1.Analogue Sensors
Analogue Sensors produce a continuous output signal or voltage which is
generally proportional to the quantity being measured. Physical quantities
such as Temperature, Speed, Pressure, Displacement, Strain etc are all
analogue quantities as they tend to be continuous in nature. For example,
the temperature of a liquid can be measured using a thermometer or
thermocouple which continuously responds to temperature changes as the
liquid is heated up or cooled down.
Thermocouple used to produce an Analogue Signal

Analogue sensors tend to produce output signals that are changing smoothly
and continuously which are very small in value so some form of amplification
is required. Then circuits which measure analogue signals usually have a
slow response and/or low accuracy. Also analogue signals can be easily
converted into digital type signals for use in microcontroller systems by the
use of analogue-to-digital converters, or ADC's.
1.1.2.Digital Sensors
As its name implies, Digital Sensors produce a discrete output signal or
voltage that is a digital representation of the quantity being measured.
Digital sensors produce a Binary output signal in the form of a logic "1" or a
logic "0", ("ON" or "OFF"). This means then that a digital signal only
produces discrete (non-continuous) values which may be outputted as a
single "bit", (serial transmission) or by combining the bits to produce a
single "byte" output (parallel transmission).
Light Sensor used to produce an Digital Signal

In our simple example above, the speed of the rotating shaft is measured by
using a digital LED/Opto-detector sensor. The disc which is fixed to a rotating
shaft (for example, from a motor or wheels), has a number of transparent
slots within its design. As the disc rotates with the speed of the shaft, each
slot passes by the sensor inturn producing an output pulse representing a
logic level "1". These pulses are sent to a register of counter and finally to
an output display to show the speed or revolutions of the shaft. By
increasing the number of slots or "windows" within the disc more output
pulses can be produced giving a greater resolution and accuracy as fractions
of a revolution can be detected. Then this type of sensor arrangement could
be used for positional control.
Compared to analogue signals, digital signals or quantities have very high
accuracies and can be both measured and "sampled" at a very high clock
speed. The accuracy of the digital signal is proportional to the number of bits
used to represent the measured quantity. For example, using a processor of
8 bits, will produce an accuracy of 0.195% (1 part in 512). While using a
processor of 16 bits gives an accuracy of 0.0015%, (1 part in 65,536) or 130
times more accurate. This accuracy can be maintained as digital quantities
are manipulated and processed very rapidly, millions of times faster than
analogue signals.

In most cases, sensors and more specifically analogue sensors generally


require an external power supply and some form of additional amplification
or filtering of the signal in order to produce a suitable electrical signal which
is capable of being measured or used. One very good way of achieving both
amplification and filtering within a single circuit is to use Operational
Amplifiers as seen before.
Signal Conditioning
As we saw in the Operational Amplifier tutorial, op-amps can be used to
provide amplification of signals when connected in either inverting or noninverting configurations. The very small analogue signal voltages produced
by a sensor such as a few milli-volts or even pico-volts can be amplified
many times over by a simple op-amp circuit to produce a much larger
voltage signal of say 5v or 5mA that can then be used as an input signal to a
microprocessor

or

analogue-to-digital

based

system.

Therefore,

an

amplification of a sensors output signal has to be made with a voltage gain


up to 10,000 and a current gain up to 1,000,000 with the amplification of
the signal being linear with the output signal being an exact reproduction of
the input, just changed in amplitude. Then amplification is part of signal
conditioning. So when using analogue sensors, generally some form of
amplification (Gain), impedance matching, isolation between the input and
output or perhaps filtering (frequency selection) may be required before the
signal can be used and this is conveniently performed by Operational
Amplifiers.
Also, when measuring very small physical changes the output signal of a
sensor can become "contaminated" with unwanted signals or voltages that
prevent the actual signal required from being measured correctly. These
unwanted signals are called "Noise". This Noise or Interference can be
either greatly reduced or even eliminated by using signal conditioning or
filtering techniques as we discussed in the Active Filter tutorial. By using

either a Low Pass, or a High Pass or even Band Pass filter the
"bandwidth" of the noise can be reduced to leave just the output signal
required. For example, many types of inputs from switches, keyboards or
manual controls are not capable of changing state rapidly and so low-pass
filter can be used. When the interference is at a particular frequency, for
example mains frequency, narrow band reject or Notch filters can be used
to produce frequency selective filters. Where some random noise still
remains after filtering it may be necessary to take several samples and then
average them to give the final value so increasing the signal-to-noise ratio.
Op-amp Filters

Either way, both amplification and filtering play an important role in


interfacing microprocessor and electronics based systems to "real world"
conditions. In the next tutorial about Sensors, we will look at Positional
Sensors which measure the position and/or displacement of physical objects
meaning the movement from one position to another for a specific distance
or angle.
1.2.Proximity Sensors
Proximity sensors may be of the contact or non-contact type. Contact
proximity sensors are the least expensive. Proximity sensors can have one
of

many technology types.

These

include

capacitive,

inductive, photoelectric, ultrasonic, and Hall effect.

eddy

current,

Capacitive proximity

sensors utilize the face or surface of the sensor as one plate of a capacitor,
and the surface of a conductive or dielectric target object as the other. The
capacitance varies inversely with the distance between capacitor plates in

this arrangement, and a certain value can be set to trigger target


detection.
generated

In an eddy current proximity sensor electrical currents are


in

conductive

material

by

an

induced

magnetic

field.

Interruptions in the flow of the electric currents (eddy currents), which are
caused by imperfections or changes in a material's conductive properties,
will cause changes in the induced magnetic field. These changes, when
detected, indicate the presence of change in the test object.

Magnetic

inductive devices are identical in configuration to the variable reluctance


type and generate the same type of signal. However, inductive pickoff coils
have no internal permanent magnet and rely on external magnetic field
fluctuations, such as a rotating permanent magnet, in order to generate
signal pulse. Photoelectric devices are used to detect various materials at
long range, using a beam of light. They detect either the presence or
absence of light and use this information to read the data from the output
transistor. An ultrasonic proximity sensor emits an ultrasonic pulse, which is
reflected by surface and returned to sensor. Speed can be determined by
measuring frequency difference (Doppler Effect).

The basic "Hall Effect"

sensing element is a semiconductor device which, when electrical current is


sent through it, will generate an electrical voltage proportional to the
magnitude of a magnetic field flowing perpendicular to the surface of the
semiconductor.
The most important parameter to consider when specifying proximity
sensors is the operating distance. This is the rated operating distance is the
distance at which switching takes place. Common body styles for proximity
sensors are barrel, limit switch, rectangular, slot style, and ring. Important
dimensions to consider when specifying proximity sensors include barrel
diameter,

length,

width,

and

height.

Proximity sensors can be a sensor element or chip, a sensor or transducer,


an instrument or meter, a gauge or indicator, a recorder or totalizer, and a
controller. A sensor element or chip denotes a "raw" device such as a strain
gage, or one with no integral signal conditioning or packaging. A sensor or
transducer is a more complex device with packaging and/or signal
conditioning that is powered and provides an output such a dc voltage, a 420mA current loop, etc. An instrument or meter is a self-contained unit that
provides an output such as a display locally at or near the device. Typically
also includes signal processing and/or conditioning. A gauge or indicator is a
device that has a (usually analog) display and no electronic output such as a
tension gage. A recorder or totalizer is an instrument that records, totalizes,
or tracks force measurement over time.

Includes simple datalogging

capability or advanced features such as mathematical functions, graphing,


etc.
Proximity

Sensors

- Proximity Sensors Overview


-

Capacitive

Proximity

Sensors

Inductive

Proximity

Sensors

- Magnetic Proximity Sensors


Capacitive Sensor Theory, Operation, and Optimization
1.2.1.Capacitance and Distance
Noncontact capacitive sensors work by measuring changes in an electrical
property called capacitance. Capacitance describes how two conductive
objects with a space between them respond to a voltage difference applied
to them. When a voltage is applied to the conductors, an electric field is
created between them causing positive and negative charges to collect on
each object (Fig. 1). If the polarity of the voltage is reversed, the charges
will also reverse.

Figure 2
Applying
the
between

an
charges
the

alternating
to
objects,

move

voltage
back

creating

causes
and

an

forth
alternating

current which is detected by the sensor.


Capacitive sensors use an alternating voltage which causes the charges to
continually reverse their positions. The moving of the charges creates an
alternating electric current which is detected by the sensor (Fig. 2). The
amount of current flow is determined by the capacitance, and the
capacitance is determined by the area and proximity of the conductive

objects. Larger and closer objects cause greater current than smaller and
more distant objects. The capacitance is also affected by the type of
nonconductive material in the gap between the objects.
Technically speaking, the capacitance is directly proportional to the surface
area of the objects and the dielectric constant of the material between them,
and inversely proportional to the distance between them (Fig. 3).
In typical capacitive sensing applications, the probe or sensor is one of the
conductive objects; the target object is the other. (Using capacitive sensors
to sense plastics and other insulators is discussed in the nonconductive
targets section.) The sizes of the sensor and the target are assumed to be
constant as is the material between them. Therefore, any change in
capacitance is a result of a change in the distance between the probe and
the target. The electronics are calibrated to generate specific voltage
changes for corresponding changes in capacitance. These voltages are scaled
to represent specific changes in distance. The amount of voltage change for
a given amount of distance change is called the sensitivity. A common
sensitivity setting is 1.0V/100m. That means that for every 100m change
in distance, the output voltage changes exactly 1.0V. With this calibration, a
+2V change in the output means that the target has moved 200m closer to
the probe.
Focusing the Electric Field

Figure
Capacitive sensor probe components

Figure 5 Cutaway view showing an unguarded sensing area electric field

Figure

Cutaway showing the guard field shaping the sensing area electric field
When a voltage is applied to a conductor, the electric field emanates from
every surface. In a capacitive sensor, the sensing voltage is applied to the
Sensing Area of the probe (Figs. 4, 5).
For accurate measurements, the electric field from the sensing area needs to
be contained within the space between the probe and the target. If the
electric field is allowed to spread to other items or other areas on the target
then a change in the position of the other item will be measured as a change
in the position of the target.
A technique called guarding is used to prevent this from happening. To
create a guard, the back and sides of the sensing area are surrounded by
another conductor that is kept at the same voltage as the sensing area itself
(Fig. 4, 6).
When the voltage is applied to the sensing area, a separate circuit applies
the exact same voltage to the guard. Because there is no difference in

voltage between the sensing area and the guard, there is no electric field
between them. Any other conductors beside or behind the probe form an
electric field with the guard instead of the sensing area. Only the unguarded
front of the sensing area is allowed to form an electric field with the target.
Effects of Target Size
The target size is a primary consideration when selecting a probe for a
specific application. When the sensing electric field is focused by guarding, it
creates a slightly conical field that is a projection of the sensing area. The
minimum target diameter for standard calibration is 30% of the diameter of
the sensing area. The further the probe is from the target, the larger the
minimum target size.
Range of Measurement
In general, the maximum gap at which a probe is useful is approximately
40% of the sensor diameter. Standard calibrations usually keep the gap
considerably less than that.
The range in which a probe is useful is a function of the size of the sensing
area. The greater the area, the larger the range. The driver electronics are
designed for a certain amount of capacitance at the probe. Therefore, a
smaller probe must be considerably closer to the target to achieve the
desired amount of capacitance. The electronics are adjustable during
calibration

but

there

is

limit

to

the

range

of

adjustment.

In general, the maximum gap at which a probe is useful is approximately


40% of the sensing area diameter. Standard calibrations usually keep the
gap considerably less than that.
Multiple Channel Sensing
Using multiple probes on the same target requires that the excitation
voltages be synchronized. This is accomplished by configuring one driver as
a master and others as slaves.

Frequently, a target is measured simultaneously by multiple probes. Because


the system measures a changing electric field, the excitation voltage for
each probe must be synchronized or the probes would interfere with each
other. If they were not synchronized, one probe would be trying to increase
the electric field while another was trying to decrease it thereby giving a
false reading.
Driver electronics can be configured as masters or slaves. The master sets
the synchronization for the slaves in multiple channel systems.
Linear Variable Differential Transformer
One type of positional sensor that does not suffer from mechanical wear
problems is the "Linear Variable Differential Transformer" or LVDT for short.
This is an inductive type position sensor which works on the same principle
as the AC transformer that is used to measure movement. It is a very
accurate device for measuring linear displacement and whose output is
proportional to the position of its moveable core.
It basically consists of three coils wound on a hollow tube former, one
forming the primary coil and the other two coils forming identical
secondaries connected electrically together in series but 180 o out of phase
either side of the primary coil. A moveable soft iron ferromagnetic core
(sometimes called an "armature") which is connected to the object being
measured, slides or moves up and down inside the tube. A small AC
reference voltage called the "excitation signal" (2 - 20V rms, 2 - 20kHz) is
applied to the primary winding which inturn induces an EMF signal into the
two adjacent secondary windings (transformer principles).
If the soft iron magnetic core armature is exactly in the centre of the tube
and the windings, "null position", the two induced emf's in the two
secondary windings cancel each other out as they are 180 o out of phase, so
the resultant output voltage is zero. As the core is displaced slightly to one
side or the other from this null or zero position, the induced voltage in one of

the secondaries will be become greater than that of the other secondary and
an output will be produced. The polarity of the output signal depends upon
the direction and displacement of the moving core. The greater the
movement of the soft iron core from its central null position the greater will
be the resulting output signal. The result is a differential voltage output
which varies linearly with the cores position. Therefore, the output signal has
both an amplitude that is a linear function of the cores displacement and a
polarity that indicates direction of movement. The phase of the output signal
can be compared to the primary coil excitation phase enabling suitable
electronic circuits such as the AD592 LVDT Sensor Amplifier to know which
half of the coil the magnetic core is in and thereby know the direction of
travel.
The Linear Variable Differential Transformer

When the armature is moved from one end to the other through the centre
position the output voltages changes from maximum to zero and back to
maximum again but in the process changes its phase angle by 180 deg's.
This enables the LVDT to produce an output AC signal whose magnitude
represents the amount of movement from the centre position and whose
phase angle represents the direction of movement of the core. A typical
application of this type of sensor would be a pressure transducers, were the
pressure being measured pushes against a diaphragm to produce a force.
Advantages of the linear variable differential transformer, or LVDT compared
to a resistive potentiometer are that its linearity, that is its voltage output to

displacement is excellent, very good accuracy, good resolution, high


sensitivity as well as frictionless operation and is sealed against hostile
environments.
Inductive Proximity Sensors.
Another type of inductive sensor in common use is the Inductive
Proximity Sensor also called an Eddy current sensor. While they do not
actually measure displacement or angular rotation they are mainly used to
detect the presence of an object in front of them or within a close proximity,
hence the name proximity sensors.
Proximity sensors, are non-contact devices that use a magnetic field for
detection with the simplest magnetic sensor being the reed switch. In an
inductive

sensor, a

coil

is

wound

around

an

iron

core

within

an

electromagnetic field to form an inductive loop. When a ferromagnetic


material is placed within the eddy current field generated around the sensor,
such as a ferromagnetic metal plate or metal screw, the inductance of the
coil changes significantly. The proximity sensors detection circuit detects this
change producing an output voltage. Therefore, inductive proximity sensors
operate under the electrical principle of Faraday's Law of inductance.
Inductive Proximity Sensors

An inductive proximity sensor has four main components; The oscillator


which produces the electromagnetic field, the coil which generates the
magnetic field, the detection circuit which detects any change in the field
when an object enters it and the output circuit which produces the output
signal, either with normally closed (NC) or normally open (NO) contacts.
Inductive proximity sensors allow for the detection of metallic objects in
front of the sensor head without any physical contact of the object itself
being detected. This makes them ideal for use in dirty or wet environments.
The "sensing" range of proximity sensors is very small, typically 0.1mm to
12mm.

Proximity Sensor applications


As well as industrial applications, inductive proximity sensors are also used
to control the changing of traffic lights at junctions and cross roads.
Rectangular inductive loops of wire are buried into the tarmac road surface
and when a car or other road vehicle passes over the loop, the metallic body
of the vehicle changes the loops inductance and activates the sensor thereby
alerting the traffic lights controller that there is a vehicle waiting.
One main disadvantage of these types of sensors is that they are "Omnidirectional", that is they will sense a metallic object either above, below or to
the side of it. Also, they do not detect non-metallic objects although
Capacitive Proximity Sensors and Ultrasonic Proximity Sensors are
available. Other commonly available magnetic position sensor include: reed
switches, hall effect sensors and variable reluctance sensors.
Rotary Encoders.
Magnetic Transducers

The Sound Transducer


Sound is the general name given to "acoustic waves" that have frequencies
ranging from just 1Hz up to many tens of thousands of Hertz with the upper
limit of human hearing being around the 20 kHz, (20,000Hz) range. Sound is
basically made up from mechanical vibrations produced by a Sound
Transducer to generate the acoustic waves and for sound to be "heard" it
requires a medium for transmission either through the air, a liquid, or a
solid. Also, sound need not be a continuous frequency sound wave such as a
single tone or a musical note, but may be an acoustic wave made from a
mechanical vibration, noise or even a single pulse of sound such as a "bang".

Piezo Sound Transducer


Sound Transducers include both sensors, that convert sound into and
electrical signal such as a microphone, and actuators that convert the
electrical signals back into sound such as a loudspeaker. We tend to think of
sound as only existing in the range of frequencies detectable by the human
ear, from 20Hz up to 20kHz (a typical loudspeaker frequency response) but
sound transducers can both detect and transmit sound from very low
frequencies called infra-sound up to very high frequencies called ultrasound.
But in order for a sound transducer to either detect or produce "sound" we
first need to understand what sound is?.
Sound is basically a waveform that is produced by some form of a
mechanical vibration such as a tuning fork, and which has a "frequency"
determined by the origin of the sound for example, a bass drum has a low
frequency sound while a cymbal has a higher frequency sound. A sound

waveform has the same characteristics as that of an electrical waveform


which are Wavelength (), Frequency () and Velocity (m/s). Both the
sounds frequency and wave shape are determined by the origin or vibration
that originally produced the sound but the velocity is dependent upon the
medium of transmission (air, water etc.) that carries the sound wave. The
relationship between wavelength, velocity and frequency is given below as:
Sound Wave Relationship

Where:

Wavelength is the time period of one complete cycle in Seconds.

Frequency is the number of wavelengths per second in Hertz.

Velocity is the speed of sound through a transmission medium in m/s -

1.2.3.The Microphone Transducer


The Microphone is a sound transducer that can be classed as a "sound
sensor" that produces an electrical analogue output signal which is
proportional to the "acoustic" sound wave acting upon its flexible diaphragm.
This signal is an "electrical image" representing the characteristics of the

acoustic waveform. Generally, the output signal from a microphone is an


analogue signal either in the form of a voltage or current which is
proportional to the actual sound wave.
The most common types of microphones available as sound transducers are
Dynamic, Electret Condenser, Ribbon and the newer Piezo-electric Crystal
types. Typical applications for microphones as a sound transducer include
audio recording, reproduction, broadcasting as well as telephones, television,
digital computer recording and body scanners, where ultrasound is used in
medical applications. An example of a simple "Dynamic" microphone is
shown below.
Dynamic Moving-coil Microphone Sound Transducer

The construction of a dynamic microphone resembles that of a loudspeaker,


but in reverse. It is a moving coil type microphone which has a very small
coil of thin wire suspended within the magnetic field of a permanent magnet.
As the sound wave hits the flexible diaphragm, the diaphragm moves back
and forth in response to the sound pressure acting upon it, and the attached
coil of wire also moves within the magnetic field of the magnet. The

resultant output voltage signal from the coil is proportional to the pressure
of the sound wave acting upon the diaphragm so the louder or stronger the
sound wave the larger the output signal will be, making this type of
microphone design pressure sensitive.
As the coil of wire is usually very small the range of movement of the coil
and attached diaphragm is also very small producing a very linear output
signal which is 90o out of phase to the sound signal. Also, because the coil is
a low impedance inductor, the output voltage signal is also very low so some
form of "pre-amplification" of the signal is required.
As the construction of this type of microphone resembles that of a
loudspeaker, it is also possible to use an actual loudspeaker as a
microphone. Obviously, the average quality of a loudspeaker will not be as
good as that for a studio type recording microphone but the frequency
response of a reasonable speaker is actually better than that of a cheap
"freebie" microphone. Also the coils impedance of a typical loudspeaker is
different at between 8 to 16. Common applications where speakers are
generally used as microphones are in intercoms and walki-talkie's.
The Loudspeaker Transducer
Sound can also be used as an output device to produce an alert noise or act
as an alarm, and loudspeakers, buzzers, horns and sounders are all types of
sound transducer that can be used for this purpose with the most commonly
used audible type actuator being the "Loudspeaker".

Loudspeaker Transducer
Loudspeakers are also sound transducers that are classed as "sound
actuators" and are the exact opposite of microphones. Their job is to convert
complex electrical analogue signals into sound waves being as close to the
original input signal as possible. Loudspeakers are available in all shapes,
sizes and frequency ranges with the more common types being moving coil,
electrostatic, isodynamic and piezo-electric. Moving coil type loudspeakers
are by far the most commonly used speaker in electronic circuits and kits,
and it is this type of sound transducer we will examine below.
The principle of operation of the Moving Coil Loudspeaker is the exact
opposite to that of the "Dynamic Microphone" we look at above. A coil of fine
wire, called the "speech or voice coil", is suspended within a very strong
magnetic field, and is attached to a paper or Mylar cone, called a
"diaphragm" which itself is suspended at its edges to a metal frame or
chassis. Then unlike the microphone which is pressure sensitive, this type of
sound transducer is a pressure generating device.
Moving Coil Loudspeaker

When an analogue signal passes through the voice coil of the speaker, an
electro-magnetic field is produced and whose strength is determined by the
current flowing through the "voice" coil, which inturn is determined by the
volume control setting of the driving amplifier. The electro-magnetic force
produced by this field opposes the main permanent magnetic field around it
and tries to push the coil in one direction or the other depending upon the
interaction between the north and south poles. As the voice coil is
permanently attached to the cone/diaphragm this also moves in tandem and
its movement causes a disturbance in the air around it thus producing a
sound or note. If the input signal is a continuous sine wave then the cone
will move in and out acting like a piston pushing and pulling the air as it
moves and a continuous single tone will be heard representing the frequency

of the signal. The strength and therefore its velocity, by which the cone
moves and pushes the surrounding air produces the loudness of the sound.
As the speech or voice coil is essentially a coil of wire it has, like an inductor
an impedance value. This value for most loudspeakers is between 4 and
16's and is called the "nominal impedance" value of the speaker measured
at 0Hz, or DC It is important to always match the output impedance of the
amplifier with the nominal impedance of the speaker to obtain maximum
power transfer between the amplifier and speaker with most amplifierspeaker combinations having and efficiency rating as low as 1 or 2%.
Although disputed by some, the selection of good speaker cable is also an
important factor in the efficiency of the speaker, as the internal capacitance
and magnetic flux characteristics of the cable change with the signal
frequency, thereby causing both frequency and phase distortion attenuating
the input signal. Also, with high power amplifiers large currents are flowing
through these cables so small thin bell wire type cables can overheat during
long periods of use.
The human ear can generally hear sounds from between 20Hz to 20kHz, and
the frequency response of modern loudspeakers called general purpose
speakers are tailored to operate within this frequency range as well as
headphones, earphones and other types of commercially available headsets
used as sound transducers. However, for high performance High Fidelity (HiFi) type audio systems, the frequency response of the sound is split up into
different smaller sub-frequencies thereby improving both the loudspeakers
efficiency and overall sound quality as follows:
Descriptive Unit
Sub-Woofer
Bass
Mid-Range
Tweeter

Frequency Range
10Hz to 100Hz
20Hz to 3kHz
1kHz to 10kHz
3kHz to 30kHz

In multi speaker enclosures with the woofer, tweeter and mid-range


speakers together within a single enclosure, a passive or active "crossover"
network is used to ensure that the audio signal is accurately split and
reproduced by all the different sub-speakers. This crossover network
consists of Resistors, Inductors, Capacitors, RLC type passive filters or opamp active filters whose crossover or cut-off frequency point is finely tuned
to that of the individual loudspeakers characteristics and an example of a
multi-speaker "Hi-fi" type design is given below.
Multi-speaker (Hi-Fi) Design

1.2.4.Position Sensors
In this tutorial we will look at a variety of devices which are classed as
Input Devices and are therefore called "Sensors" and in particular those
sensors which are Positional in nature which means that they are
referenced either to or from some fixed point or position. As their name
implies, these types of sensors provide a "position" feedback. One method of
determining a position, is to use either "distance", which could be the
distance between two points such as the distance travelled or moved away
from some fixed point, or by "rotation" (angular movement). For example,
the rotation of a robots wheel to determine its distance travelled along the
ground. Either way, Position Sensors can detect the movement of an
object in a straight line using Linear Sensors or by its angular movement
using Rotational Sensors.

The Potentiometer.
The most commonly used of all the "Position Sensors", is the potentiometer
because it is an inexpensive and easy to use position sensor. It has a wiper
contact linked to a mechanical shaft that can be either angular (rotational)
or linear (slider type) in its movement, and which causes the resistance
value between the wiper/slider and the two end connections to change
giving an electrical signal output that has a proportional relationship
between the actual wiper position on the resistive track and its resistance
value. In other words, resistance is proportional to position.

Potentiometer
Potentiometers come in a wide range of designs and sizes such as the
commonly available round rotational type or the longer and flat linear slider
types. When used as a positional sensor the moveable object is connected
directly to the shaft or slider of the potentiometer and a DC reference
voltage is applied across the two outer fixed connections forming the
resistive element while the output signal is taken from the wiper terminal of
the sliding contact as shown below thus producing a potential or voltage
divider type circuit output. Then for example, if you apply a voltage of say
10v across the resistive element of the potentiometer the maximum output
voltage would be 10 volts and the wiper will vary the output signal from 0 to
10 volts, with 5 volts indicating that the wiper or slider is at the half-way
centre position.
Potentiometer Construction

The output signal (Vout) from the potentiometer is taken from the centre
wiper connection as it moves along the resistive track, and is proportional to
the angular position of the shaft.
Example of a simple Positional Sensing Circuit

While resistive potentiometer position sensors have many advantages: low


cost, low tech, easy to use etc, as a position sensor they also have many
disadvantages: wear due to moving parts, low accuracy, low repeatability,
and limited frequency response. But one main disadvantage of using the
potentiometer as a positional sensor is that the range of movement of its
wiper or slide (and hence the output signal obtained) is limited to the
physical size of the potentiometer being used. For example a single turn
rotational potentiometer generally only has a fixed electrical rotation
between about 240 to 330o however, multi-turn pots of up to 3600 o of
electrical rotation are also available. Most types of potentiometers use

carbon film for their resistive track, but these types are electrically noisy
(the crackle on a radio volume control), and also have a short mechanical
life. Wire-wound pots also known as rheostats, in the form of either a
straight wire or wound coil resistive wire can also be used, but wire wound
pots suffer from resolution problems as their wiper jumps from one wire
segment to the next producing a logarithmic (LOG) output resulting in errors
in the output signal. These too suffer from electrical noise.
For high precision low noise applications conductive plastic resistance
element type polymer film or cermet type potentiometers are now available.
These pots have a smooth low friction electrically linear (LIN) resistive track
giving them a low noise, long life and excellent resolution and are available
as both multi-turn and single turn devices. Typical applications for this type
of high accuracy position sensor is in computer game joysticks, steering
wheels, industrial and robot applications.
1.2.5. Inductive Position Sensors.
1.2.6.Rotary Encoders resemble potentiometers mentioned earlier but are
non-contact optical devices used for converting the angular position of a
rotating shaft into an analogue or digital data code. In other words, they
convert mechanical movement into an electrical signal (preferably digital).
All optical encoders work on the same basic principle. Light from an LED or
infra-red light source is passed through a rotating high-resolution encoded
disk that contains the required code patterns, either binary, grey code or
BCD. Photo detectors scan the disk as it rotates and an electronic circuit
processes the information into a digital form as a stream of binary output
pulses that are fed to counters or controllers which determine the actual
angular position of the shaft.
There are two basic types of rotary optical encoders, Incremental
Encoders and Absolute Position Encoders.
Incremental Encoder

Incremental Encoders, also known as quadrature encoders or relative


rotary encoder, are the simplest of the two position sensors. Their output is
a series of square wave pulses generated by a photocell arrangement as the
coded disk, with evenly spaced transparent and dark lines called segments
on its surface, moves or rotates past the light source. The encoder produces
a stream of square wave pulses which, when counted, indicates the angular
position of the rotating shaft. Incremental encoders have two outputs called
quadrature outputs that are 90 o out of phase and the direction of rotation
can be determined from output sequence. The number of transparent and
dark segments or slots on the disk determines the resolution of the device
and increasing the number of lines in the pattern increases the resolution
per degree of rotation. Typical encoded discs have a resolution of up to 256
pulses or 8-bits per rotation.
The simplest incremental encoder is called a tachometer. It has one single
square wave output and is often used in unidirectional applications where
basic position or speed information only is required. The "Quadrature" or
"Sine wave" encoder is the more common and has two output square waves
commonly called channel A and channel B. This device uses two photo
detectors, slightly offset from each other by 90 o thereby producing two
separate sine and cosine output signals.
Simple Incremental Encoder

By using the Arc Tangent mathematical function the angle of the shaft in
radians can be calculated. Generally, the optical disk used in rotary position
encoders is circular, then the resolution of the output will be given as:
= 360/n, where n equals the number of segments on coded disk. Then for
example, the number of segments required to give an incremental encoder a
resolution of 1o will be: 1o = 360/n, therefore, n = 360 windows, etc. Also
the direction of rotation is determined by noting which channel produces an
output first, either channel A or channel B giving two directions of rotation, A
leads B or B leads A. This arrangement is shown below.
Incremental Encoder Output

One main disadvantage of incremental encoders when used as a position


sensor, is that they require external counters to determine the absolute
angle of the shaft within a given rotation. If the power is momentarily shut
off, or if the encoder misses a pulse due to noise or a dirty disc, the resulting
angular information will produce an error. One way of overcoming this
disadvantage is to use absolute position encoders.
Absolute Position Encoder
Absolute Position Encoders are more complex than quadrature encoders.
They provide a unique output code for every single position of rotation
indicating both position and direction. Their coded disk consists of multiple
concentric "tracks" of light and dark segments. Each track is independent
with its own photo detector to simultaneously read a unique coded position
value for each angle of movement. The number of tracks on the disk
corresponds to the binary "bit"-resolution of the encoder so a 12-bit absolute
encoder would have 12 tracks and the same coded value only appears once
per revolution.
4-bit Binary Coded Disc

One main advantage of an absolute encoder is its non-volatile memory which


retains the exact position of the encoder without the need to return to a
"home" position if the power fails. Most rotary encoders are defined as
"single-turn" devices, but absolute multi-turn devices are available, which
obtain feedback over several revolutions by adding extra code disks.
Typical application of absolute position encoders are in computer hard drives
and CD/DVD drives were the absolute position of the drives read/write heads
are monitored or in printers/plotters to accurately position the printing heads
over the paper.
In this tutorial about Position Sensors, we have looked at several
examples of sensors that can be used to measure the position or presence of
objects. In the next tutorial we will look at sensors that are used to measure
temperature such as thermistors, thermostats and thermocouples.
1.3.Range sensors
The Sharp IR Range Finder is probably the most powerful sensor available
to the everyday robot hobbyist. It is extremely effective, easy to use, very

affordable ($10-$20), very small, good range (inches to meters), and has
low power consumption.
How

it

Works

The Sharp IR Range Finder works by the process of triangulation. A pulse


of light (wavelength range of 850nm +/-70nm) is emitted and then reflected
back (or not reflected at all). When the light returns it comes back at an
angle that is dependent on the distance of the reflecting object. Triangulation
works by detecting this reflected beam angle - by knowing the angle,
distance

can

then

be

determined.

The IR range finder reciever has a special precision lens that transmits the
reflected light onto an enclosed linear CCD array based on the triangulation
angle. The CCD array then determines the angle and causes the rangefinder
to

then

give

corresponding

*analog

value

to

be

read

by

your

microcontroller. Additional to this, the Sharp IR Range Finder circuitry


applies a modulated frequency to the emitted IR beam. This ranging method
is almost immune to interference from ambient light, and offers amazing
indifference to the color of the object being detected. In other words, the
sensor is capable of detecting a black wall in full sunlight with almost zero
noise.

(UPDATE: despite popular belief, it is quite possible for both direct and
indirect sunlight to significantly affect results. I learned this the hard way!)
Beam

Width

A major problem/advantage you may have with the Sharp IR rangefinder is


beam width. Unlike sonar, its fairly thin - meaning to detect an object your
sensor must basically point directly at that object. Beware of chair legs!
hehe . . .
So just how thin is the emitted IR beam? Well getting out my trusty IR
detector thingy, its about this big:

The detector changes IR light into orange-ish light. Ok so that image is


partly faked because my digital camera for some reason couldnt see the
orange light, so I re-drew it in for you to see. The beam width is the same
diameter as the lens on the left of the Sharp IR rangefinder. As the IR
detector was moved away, the beam fades and the diameter expands.
Non-Linear

Ouput

The Sharp IR has a non-linear output. This means that as the distance
increases

linearly

(by

set

increments),

the

analog

output

increases/decreases non-linearly. The image above is a typical expected

output from your range finder. Notice the strange kink in the beginning of
the graph. This is because the range finder is not capable of detecting very
short distances. Refer to the particular range finder you are using to
determine the range that your range finder is capable of.

To effectively use your Sharp IR Range Finder, you must have a voltage
output versus distance chart to reference from. The manuals now come with
a 'typical response curve' graph for you to use, but you should check just to
make sure it is accurate. If you do not have a chart, or you would like to
verify the chart, run an experiment that measures distance versus the
output analog value. To do this, place an object in front of your sensor,
measure the distance, then look at the printf output reading. Graph your
data. I recommend reading my article on advanced sensor interpretation
to help you make better sense of the data. Typically people either create a
lookup table or create a representative equation of the distance function.
To minimize any noise, do this experiment in the environment you wish your
robot to operate in. For example, if you want your robot to operate on a
factory floor, run this experiment on a factory floor - this will make sure all
ambient conditions are the same for highest accuracy. This should be a good
rule of thumb for calibrating any sensor.
Disadvantages/Issues
One major issue with the Sharp IR Range Finder and that is going below
the minimum sensor range. This is when an object is so close the sensor
cannot get an accurate reading, and it tells your robot that a really close

object is really far. This is bad, as your robot then procedes to ramp up in
speed for a messy collision. Sonar also has this minimum range problem.
The solution to this problem is to NOT put your sensor flush with the front of
your robot, but to instead back the sensor into the robot so that the front of
the robot is located before the minimum sensor range (refer to image).

This below image is a good CAD example of this concept. Check out this
forum post for more info.

Another issue is the narrowness of the IR beam. In reading sharp details


and getting high accuracy, a thin beam is ideal. But the problem with a thin
beam is that if it is not pointed exactly at the object, the object is therefore
invisible. A common joke in robotics is that a chair is the arch-rival of a small
robot. Why? Because chair legs are really thin and easy to miss by a sensor.

In contrast to the IR Range Finder would be the sonar. Sonar has really poor
accuracy, but since it has a wide beam it can easily detect chair legs.
Unfortunately you cannot tell the size or shape of an object with a cheap
hobby sonar. Sonar also has a cone shaped beam (spreading out from the
point of origin) and the Sharp IR Range Finder beam is more football
shaped (the widest portion in the middle being about 16 cm wide).
An issue that these range finders have in common with sonar is cross
interference. This means that the signal emitted by one sensor can
potentially be read by another sensor and therefore give you bad readings.
However, unlike sonar which have sound signals that can bounce off of
multiple walls, you just need to make sure your IR beams do not cross in
parallel (the wide parts of the football shaped beam not overlapping). This
makes sense because you have over redundant sensors if the two beams
cross.
Techniques With the Sharp IR Range Finder

Bumper

Switch

The sharp IR can be used as a quick and easy front non-contact robot bumper
on your robot. Just place two IR devices in front of your robot and cross beams as
shown. Ideally you would perfer to use rangers that have wider beams. Note: A
single sonar can do this job just as well.

1.4.Robot Control
Introduction
An important area of application of neural networks is in the field of robotics.
Usually, these networks are designed to direct a manipulator, which is the
most important form of the industrial robot, to grasp objects, based on
sensor data. Another applications include the steering and path-planning of
autonomous robot vehicles. In robotics, the major task involves making
movements dependent on sensor data. There are four, related, problems to
be distinguished:
Forward

kinematics.

Kinematics is the science of motion which treats motion without regard to


the forces which cause it. Within this science one studies the position,
velocity, acceleration, and all higher order derivatives of the position
variables. A very basic problem in the study of mechanical manipulation is
that of forward kinematics. This is the static geometrical problem of
computing the position and orientation of the end-efector ('hand') of the
manipulator. Specifi- cally, given a set of joint angles, the forward kinematic
problem is to compute the position and orientation of the tool frame relative
to

the

base

frame.

An exemplar robot manipulator.


Inverse

kinematics.

This problem is posed as follows: given the position and orientation of the
end-efector of the manipulator, calculate all possible sets of joint angles
which could be used to attain this given position and orientation. This is a
fundamental problem in the practical use of manipulators. The inverse
kinematic problem is not as simple as the forward one. Because the
kinematic equations are nonlinear, their solution is not always easy or even
possible in a closed form. Also, the questions of existence of a solution, and
of multiple solutions, arise. Solving this problem is a least requirement for
most robot control systems.
Dynamics.
Dynamics is a field of study devoted to studying the forces required to cause
motion. In order to accelerate a manipulator from rest, glide at a constant
end-efector velocity, and finally decelerate to a stop, a complex set of torque
functions must be applied by the joint actuators. In dynamics not only the
geometrical

properties

(kinematics)

are

used,

but

also

the

physical

properties of the robot are taken into account. Take for instance the weight
(inertia) of the robotarm, which determines the force required to change the
motion of the arm. The dynamics introduces two extra problems to the

kinematic

problems.

1. The robot arm has a 'memory'. Its responds to a control signal depends
also

on

its

history

(e.g.

previous

positions,

speed,

acceleration).

2. If a robot grabs an object then the dynamics change but the kinematics
don't. This is because the weight of the object has to be added to the weight
of the arm (that's why robot arms are so heavy, making the relative weight
change very small).
Trajectory

generation.

To move a manipulator from here to there in a smooth, controlled fashion


each joint must be moved via a smooth function of time. Exactly how to
compute these motion functions is the problem of trajectory generation. In
the rst section of this chapter we will discuss the problems associated with
the positioning of the end-efector (in efect, representing the inverse
kinematics in combination with sensory transformation).
End-efector positioning
The final goal in robot manipulator control is often the positioning of the
hand or end-effector in order to be able to, e.g., pick up an object. With the
accurate robot arm that are manufactured, this task is often relatively
simple, involving the following steps:
1. determine the target coordinates relative to the base of the robot.
Typically, when this position is not always the same, this is done with a
number of fixed cameras or other sensors which observe the work
scene, from the image frame determine the position of the object in
that frame, and perform a pre-determined coordinate transformation;
2. with a precise model of the robot (supplied by the manufacturer),
calculate the joint angles to reach the target (i.e., the inverse
kinematics). This is a relatively simple problem;
3. move the arm (dynamics control) and close the gripper.

Involvement of neural networks. So if these parts are relatively simple


to solve with a high accuracy, why involve neural networks? The reason is
the applicability of robots. When 'traditional' methods are used to control a
robot arm, accurate models of the sensors and manipulators (in some cases
with unknown parameters which have to be estimated from the system's
behaviour; yet still with accurate models as starting point) are required and
the system must be calibrated. Also, systems which suffer from wear-andtear (and which mechanical systems don't?) need frequent recalibration or
parameter

determination.

Finally, the

development

of

more

complex

(adaptive!) control methods allows the design and use of more exible (i.e.,
less rigid) robot systems, both on the sensory and motory side.
1.5.Wrists
The kinematic structure of the robot arm allows to postion its end point at
any (x,y,z) location in the 3D space (. within the robot's working space)
In order to provide for the proper orientation of the hand/end-effector the
robot arm should have a wrist. Typically a robot wrist provides the same 3D
rotations as a human hand: roll, pitch, and yaw. A wrist where the three
axes of rotation intersect is called a spherical wrist. These have the
advantage that the mathematical model used to calculate the wrist joint
angles from their position and orientation in space is soluble.One problem in
achieving spherical wrist design is the physical difficulty of fitting all the
components into the available space. The size of the human wrist is small
because the muscles which power it are located in the forearm, not in the
wrist. Wrist design is a complex task, involving conflicting goals. Desirable
features of a wrist include :
- small size
- axes close together to increase mechanical efficiency
- tool plate close to the axes to increase strength and precision
- soluble mathematical model

- no singularities in the work volume


- back-driving to allow programming by teach and playback
- decoupling between motions around the three axes
- actuators mounted away from the wrist to allow size reduction
- paths for end effector control and power through the wrist
- power proportionate to the proposed task
- rugged housing.

Although robots have a certain amount of dexterity, it does not


compare to human dexterity. The movements of the human hand are
controlled by 35 muscles. Fifteen of these muscles are located in the

forearm. The arrangement of muscles in the hand provides great strength to


the fingers and thumb for grasping objects. Each finger can act alone or
together with the thumb. This enables the hand to do many intricate and
delicate tasks. In addition, the human hand has 27 bones. Figure 2-9
shows the bones found in the hand and wrist. This bone, joint, and muscle
arrangement gives the hand its dexterity.
Degrees of freedom (DOF) is a term used to describe a robots freedom
of motion in three dimensional spacespecifically, the ability to move
forward and backward, up and down, and to the left and to the right. For
each degree of freedom, a joint is required. A robot requires six degrees of
Figure 2-9. The arrangement of bones and joints found in the human hand
provides dexterity. Each joint represents a degree of freedom; there are 22
joints, and thus, 22 degrees of freedom in the human hand.

freedom to be completely versatile. Its movements are clumsier than those

of a human hand, which has 22 degrees of freedom. The number of degrees


of freedom defines the robots configuration. For example, many simple
applications require movement along three axes: X, Y, and Z. See Figure 210. These tasks require three joints, or three degrees of freedom. The three
degrees of freedom in the robot arm are the rotational traverse, the radial
traverse, and the vertical traverse. The rotational traverse is movement
on a vertical axis. This is the side-to-side swivel of the robots arm on its
base. The radial traverse is the extension and retraction of the arm,
creating in-and-out motion relative to the base. The vertical traverse
provides up-and-down motion.
For applications that require more freedom, additional degrees can be
obtained from the wrist, which gives the end effector its flexibility. The three
degrees of freedom in the wrist have aeronautical names: pitch, yaw, and
roll. See Figure 2-11. The pitch, or bend, is the up-and-down movement of
the wrist. The yaw is the side-to-side movement, and the roll, or swivel,
involves rotation.

A robot requires a total of six degrees of freedom to locate and orient its
hand at any point in its work envelope, Figure 2-12. Although six degrees
of freedom are required for maximum flexibility, most applications require
only three to five. When more degrees of freedom are required, the robots
motions and controller design become more complex. Some industrial robots
have seven or eight degrees of freedom. These additional degrees are
achieved by mounting the robot on a track or moving base, as shown in
igure 2-13. The track-mounted robot shown in Figure 2-14 has a total of
seven degrees of freedom. This addition also increases the robots reach.
Although the robots freedom of motion is limited in comparison with
that of a human, the range of movement in each of its joints is considerably
greater. For example, the human hand has a bending range of only about
165 degrees. The illustrations in Figure 2-15 show the six major degrees of
freedom by comparing those of a robot to a person using a spray gun.

1.6.Robot end effector


In robotics, an end effector is the device at the end of a robotic arm,
designed to interact with the environment. The exact nature of this device
depends on the application of the robot.
In the strict definition, which originates from serial robotic manipulators, the
end effector means the last link (or end) of the robot. At this endpoint the
tools are attached. In a wider sense, an end effector can be seen as the part
of a robot that interacts with the work environment. This does not refer to
the wheels of a mobile robot or the feet of a humanoid robot which are also
not end effectorsthey are part of the robot's mobility.
End effectors may consist of a gripper or a tool. The gripper can be of two
fingers, three fingers or even five fingers.
The end effectors that can be used as tools serves various purposes. Such
as, Spot welding in an assembly, spray painting where uniformity of painting
is necessary and for other purposes where the working conditions are
dangerous for human beings.
Mechanism of gripping
Generally, the gripping mechanism is done by the grippers or mechanical
fingers. The number of fingers can be two, three or even as high as five.
Though in the industrial robotics due to less complications, two finger
grippers are used. The fingers are also replaceable. Due to gradual wearing,
the fingers can be replaced without actually replacing the grippers. There are
two mechanisms of gripping the object in between the fingers (due to
simplicity in the two finger grippers, in the following explanations, two finger
grippers are considered).
Shape of the gripping surface
The shape of the gripping surface on the fingers can be chosen according to
the shape of the objects that are lifted by the grippers. For example, if the
robot is designated a task to lift a round object, the gripper surface shape

can be a negative impression of the object to make the grip efficient, or for a
square shape the surface can be plane.
Force required to grip the object
Though there are numerous forces acting over the body that has been lifted
by the robotic arm, the main force acting there is the frictional force. The
gripping surface can be made of a soft material with high coefficient of
friction so that the surface of the object is not damaged. The robotic gripper
must withstand not only the weight of the object but also acceleration and
the motion that is caused due to frequent movement of the object. To find
out the force required to grip the object, the following formula is used
F = Wn
where:
is the force required to grip the object,
is the coeffecient of friction,
is the number of fingers in the gripper and
is the weight of the object.
But the above equation is incomplete. The direction of the movement
also plays an important role over the gripping of the object. For
example, when the body is moved upwards, against the gravitational
force, the force required will be more than towards the gravitational
force. Hence, another term is introduced and the formula becomes:
F = Wng
Here, the value of

should not be taken as the acceleration due to

gravity. In fact, here

stands for multiplication factor. The value of

ranges from 1 to 3. When the body is moved in the horizontal


direction then the value is taken to be 2, when moved against the
gravitational force then 3 and along the gravitational force, i.e.,
downwards, 1.
The end effector of an assembly line robot would typically be a welding head,
or a paint spray gun. A surgical robot's end effector could be a scalpel or
others tools used in surgery. Other possible end effectors are machine tools,

like a drill or milling cutters. The end effector on the space shuttles robotic
arm uses a pattern of wires which close like the aperture of a camera around
a handle or other grasping point.
When referring to robotic prehension there are four general categories of
robot grippers, these are[1]:
1. Impactive jaws or claws which physically grasp by direct impact upon
the object.
2. Ingressive pins, needles or hackles which physically penetrate the
surface of the object (used in textile, carbon and glass fibre handling).
3. Astrictive suction forces applied to the objects surface (whether by
vacuum, magneto or electroadhesion).
4. Contigutive requiring direct contact for adhesion to take place (such
as glue, surface tension or freezing).
1.7.Robot gripperss

of Artificial Gripper Mechanisms

Gripper Mechanisms can be classified into following major categories:


1) Mechanical finger Grippers- sub-classification is based on method of
actuation.
2) Vacuum and Magnetic Grippers- sub-classification is based on type of
the force-exerting elements.
3) Universal Grippers- sub-classification is inflatable fingers, soft fingers &
three fingered grippers.
Mechanical Finger Grippers
Linkage Grippers: there is no cam, screw, gear. There is movement only
because of links attached to input and output. There must be perfect design
of mechanism such that input actuators motion is transformed into the
gripping action at the output.

Fig 1: Linkage Grippers


Gear and Rack Grippers: movement of input due to gear motion which
makes connecting links to go in motion to make gripping action at the output
link.

Fig 3 Cam-actuated Grippersb

Cam-actuated Grippers: reciprocating motion of the cam imparts motion


to the follower, thus causing fingers to produce a grabbing action. A variety
of cam profiles can be employed

Screw-driven Grippers: operated by turning screw, in turn giving motion


to connecting links and thus giving griping motion to output. Screw motion
can be controlled by motor attached.
Rope & Pulley Grippers: motor attached to the pulley makes the winding
and unwinding motion of rope in turn it set gripper action into motion via
connecting link.

Vacuum & Magnetic Grippers


Vacuum Grippers: for non-ferrous components with flat and smooth
surfaces, grippers can be built using standard vacuum cups or pads made of
rubber-like materials. Not suitable for components with curved surfaces or
with holes.

Magnetic Gripper: used to grip ferrous materials. Magnetic gripper uses a


magnetic head to attract ferrous materials like steel plates. The magnetic
head is simply constructed with a ferromagnetic core and conducting coils.

Versatile or universal Grippers


Inflatable grippers- used for picking up irregular and fragile objects
without concentrated loading. In the initial position before gripping, the lever
1, are opened up, the bellows are in a compressed condition because the gas
pressure in the bags,3, with the spheres is close, even a slight pressure of

the object on a bag is sufficient enough to cause the bag wall to be deeply
depressed and surround the object. When the degree of the surrounding is
adequate the lever motion ceases, and pressure in the bags is reduced by
bellows, diaphragm device pr vacuum pump, causing bags to harden without
changing shape and hence gripping the object. To release the object
operation is done in reverse.

Fig 8: Inflatable Grippers


Soft Grippers: consists of multi-links and a series of pulleys actuated by a
pair of wires. The soft gripper can actively conform to the periphery of
objects of any shape and hold them with uniform pressure.

Three Fingered Grippers: the clamping movement of two-fingered type


normally executes (a) beat movement (b) bite movement (c) parallel
movement of the jaw. They are capable only of grasping or releasing
movement.