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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION
1.1 Research Background
In agriculture world, soil is the important element in the world besides
water, air, and fire. Based on the texture, soil defined has three particles (sand, silt,
and clay). All the particles such as sand, silt, and clay have a different grain size,
and that grain size have important factor for plant growth. To determines soil
particles, it shown on figure 1.1.

Figure 1.1. Soil texture


(Source : U.S Department of agriculture, 2007)

Based on grain size, sand diameter is 0.05 to 2.0 millimeters, silt diameter
is 0.002 to 0.05 millimeters and clay diameter is below 0.002 millimeters.
(Coloardo State University, 2011). The largest of grain size is sand. The largest
grain size make the plant hard to growth, because large grain size have a low
water holding capacity, so when water infiltrate the sand, water will infiltrate until
pass through plants root zone, and as we known plant need water to ion
exchangeable and adsorb nutrient. The large grain size also can be easily erosion

by wind, and can make plants root are out from the sand. So that why sandy soil
is classified have a low productivity level.

Figure 1.2. Granular size arrangement sand and clay


Sandy soil is an acidic soil type, which many plants prefer, but its general
lack of nutrients makes it a less than desirable growing medium on its own.
Adding organic matter, such as compost from your yard or manure, will provide
the nutrients plants need to thrive in this soil type. How much amendment you add
to your sandy soil should be determined by what plants you intend to grow in the
soil, and what those plants moisture and nutrient requirements are. (Sophia
Darby).
Soil electrical conductivity (SEC) is the key that make the plants grow
better, the ion that bring a lot of nutrient for the plant such as magnesium and
calcium. When the SEC is low exhibit the ion content is low and that what makes
the plant dont get nutrient.
The electrical conductivity of soils varies depending on the amount of
moisture held by soil particles. Sands have a low conductivity, silts have a
medium conductivity, and clays have a high conductivity. Consequently, EC
correlates strongly to soil particle size and texture. (Bobby Grisso, 2009).

Figure 1.3. Typical Electrical Conductivity Ranges for Basic Soil Types
(Source : Doug Koehler, 2014)

1.2. Problem Statement


Sandy soil have a low productivity level because amount of parameters such as
low water holding capacity, low electrical conductivity, so the plant difficult for
grow. Lots of plant that need a high nutrient and also need a soil with good
conductivity in order to growth optimum, if those things already conditioned then
the plant will grow faster, not easy to wilt or die.
1.3 Objective
The objective of this research is to increase electrical conductivity of sandy soil by
using fishmeal and rice bran.
1.4 Scopes
a. Sand basis used 250 gram for the various combination.
b.
c.
d.
e.

Fishmeal concentration used 0.5% ; 1% ; 2.5% from 250 gram sand.


Rice Bran concentration used 1% ; 2.5% ; 5% from 250 gram sand.
Every sample was conducted 5 days of testing.
The ranges of measurements were carried out for 24 hours.

CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1. Agriculture
Agriculture is an important sector that usually connected with plant and
food productivity, however there still a lot of problem that occure in this sector
such not enough production for domestic use or bad product from this sector, for
example the plant not having the right nutrition so the plant will wilt and die
because of this factor. In order to minimalize those problems we can improve the
soil content by using various ways such as giving the sand a nutrient booster.
2.2. Soil
Soil is part of earth surface with the mixture of liquid, gases, solid,
mineral, organic matter and myriad organism. Soil is important thing in the world
because soil can support a plant life, where plant can provide the food, oxygen,
nutrient, water and absorb carbon monoxide and nitrogen. So soil can make the
world balance.
Soil derived from the weathering of rocks with the help of the
microorganism, and then forming a unique texture that covers the rocks. The
process of soil formation is pedogenesis. Soil have characteristic that can be
determine the soil quality such as biology properties, physical properties and
chemical properties. The soil texture is determined by the compositions of sand,
silt, and clay in the soil. The addition of organic matter, water, gases causes the
soil of a certain texture to develop into a larger soil structure called an aggregate.
The mineral components of soil are sand, silt clay and their relative
proportions determine a soils texture. Properties that are influenced by soil texture
include porosity, permeability, infiltration, shrink-swell, water holding capacity. In
the figure 1.1 the only soil which neither sand, silt no clay predominates is called
loam, while even pure sand, silt, or clay may be considered a soil, from the
perspective of food production a loam soil with a small amount of organic
material is considered ideal. The mineral constituents of a loam soil might be 40%
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sand, 40% silt and the balance 20% clay by weight. Soil texture affects soil
behavior, in particular its retention capacity for nutrients and water.
2.2.1. Correlation between pH, Nutrient, and Cation for soil fertility
Soil is a natural growing medium that provide food (nutrient) for the
survival of plants. Some plants are able production if the quality of soil
maintained. The mistake in processing of the soil may result in damage to the soil
and the impact in lower plant productivity. Soil productivity in producing
agricultural product highly dependent with the ability of soil in provides the
balance nutrient according to requirements of the plant.
Fertility rate at each place for plant is not same. In acid soil and nutrient
poor, plant growth will be disturbed so as to reduce production significantly,
especially if water availability is not met properly. Acid soil is soil type with a low
pH value. Inhibition of plant growth because the acidic soil in general is closely
related to a variety of reactions to the low pH of the soil and can be a combination
of the toxicity of aluminum (Al), manganese (Mn), iron toxicity (Fe), and the
deficiency (deficiency) element of P (phosphorus), Ca (calcium), Mg
(magnesium), and deficiency of K (potassium). However, the most dominant
factor is the cause of poor plant growth deficiencies Al toxicity and P (phosphorus
deficiency). Besides inhibition of plant growth due to Al toxicity and nutrient
deficiency such, barriers to physical factors.
pH value of the soil is a soil chemical characteristics and also very
important in determining soil fertility because the availability of plant nutrients is
related to the pH value of the soil. The higher of pH value is equal the more acidic
the soil. Population and activity of microorganisms in the soil is also strongly
influenced by soil pH. Measurement of soil pH can be a variety of ways, using
litmus paper, pH meter and pH tester. In acidic soils (low pH), the soil is
dominated by ions of Al, Fe, and Mn. These ions will bind much needed nutrients
the plants, especially the elements of P (phosphorus), K(potassium), S (sulfur),
Mg (magnesium) and Mo (molybdenum) so that the plant cant absorb food
properly although the content of the element many nutrients in the soil. In this
condition, the acidity of the soil is worth <7. Besides ions of Al, Fe, and Mn

binding nutrients, those ions are also toxic to the plants. Value-neutral pH 7, in
this conditions most nutrients soluble in water so that the plant can easily absorb
nutrients. In alkaline soils with the highest degree of acidity (pH> 7) elements of
P (phosphorus) will be much bound by Ca (calcium), while micro elements
molybdenum (Mo) are in large quantities. Mo element on alkaline soils lead
poisoning plants.

Figure 2.1. Optimum pH range for variety plants


(Source : Pam Hazelton and Brian Murphy, 2007)

2.3. Sandy Soil


Sand is the one of the particle in soil, it granular materials, grain of sand
have form size between 0.05 millimeter until 2 millimeter. Constituent of sand is
silicon dioxide, and amount of tropical beach and subtropical usually formed by
limestone.(Wikipedia, Sand). Only a amount plants can grow in sand because sand
have a large grain size, sand easily get wet and dry by evaporation process, and
resistance to separation processes (cohesion) is low so easily eroded by wind.
2.4. Fishmeal
Fishmeal is the basic ingredient of a good feed composition for the manufacture
of shrimp, fish, chicken, etc. Fishmeal made from fish waste that is not consumed
by humans, or leftover fish food by processing industry, so the nutritional content
vary, but generally range between 50%-65%. Fishmeal is a brown powder or cake
obtained by drying the fish, fish trimmings, often after cooking, and then grinding.
Fishmeal is also pressed to get extract of the fish oil. Fishmeal have a nutritional
value of the protein relates directly to its amino acid composition. The amino acid
profile of fishmeal makes this feed ingredient attractive as a protein supplement.
High quality fishmeal normally contains between 60% - 72% crude by protein
weight. In general, soil need nutrient such as protein, calcium, phosphor for plant
growth. Therefore fishmeal is sought after as an ingredient in agriculture because
it has a good composition for nutrient soil to plant growth.
Table 2.1. Fishmeal Contents
Protein
Fiber
Calcium
Phosphor

50%-70%
1.0 %
5.0 %
3.0 %

Source: Arry Kurniawan ,2012)

2.5. Rice Bran


Rice bran is a byproduct of the rice milling process (the conversion of
brown rice to white rice), and it contains various antioxidants that impart
beneficial effects on human health. A major rice bran fraction contains 12%-13%
oil and highly unsaponifiable components (4.3%). This fraction contains
tocotrienols (a form of vitamin E), gamma-oryzanol and beta-sitosterol; all these

constituents may contribute to the lowering of the plasma levels of the various
parameters of the lipid profile. Rice bran also contains a high level of dietary
fibres (beta-glucan, pectin and gum). In addition, it also contains ferulic acid,
which is also a component of the structure of nonlignified cell walls. However,
some research suggests there are levels of inorganic arsenic (a toxin and
carcinogen) present in rice bran. One study found the levels to be 20% higher than
in drinking water. Other types of bran (derived from wheat, oat or barley) contain
less arsenic than rice bran, and are just as nutrient rich.
Table 2.1. Rice bran properties
Protein

6-9%

Fat

23-30%

Total dietary fiber

0-20%

Carbohydrate

27-66%

Ash

3-7%

Moisture

2-7%

Color & Texture

Pale yellow amorphous solid

Source : Reddy Sastry V. Cherukuri, Rukmini Cheruvanky 2009

2.6. Soil Electrical Conductivity (SEC)


Soil electrical conductivity is composed of the word soil and electrical
conductivity. Soil is composed of the elements of sand, clay, silt and salinity.
Where the elements have a different electrical conductivity values and electrical
conductivity is the ability of material to transmit (conduct) an electrical current.
So, Soil electrical conductivity defined as measurement that correlates with soil
physical and chemical properties. The electrical conductivity of soils varies
depending on the amount of moisture held by the soil particles and it commonly
expressed in units of milliSiemens per meter (mS/m). Alternatively, electrical
conductivity measurements can be expressed in deciSiemens per meter (dS/m).
Sands have a low conductivity, silts have a medium conductivity, and clays have a

high conductivity. Consequently electrical conductivity correlates strongly to soil


particle contents.
2.7. How Soil Electrical Conductivity Help in Agricultural
A good illustration of how this technology is being used is its application
in the management of nematode problems in cotton. The Southern root-knot
nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) seems to prefer coarse-textured, sandier soils.
In addition, the greatest damage occurs in soils with the greatest percentage of
sand and from the only a few nematodes. As the percentage of sand decreases, it
takes more nematodes to cause problems. Increasing clay content also can reduce
nematode injury.
Table 2.3. Different uses of electrical conductivity measurements
Potential use of electrical

Soil properties estimated

conductivity maps
Delineation of management zones

Soil texture, organic matter,


Celectrical conductivity,
plant-available water content

Directed soil sampling within more


accurate soil boundaries

Soil texture, organic matter,


Celectrical conductivity,
drainage issues

Variable rate seeding

Celectrical conductivity, topsoil


depth

Variable rate nutrient application

Soil texture, depth to claypan

based on soil productivity


Variable rate herbicide application

Soil texture, organic matter,


Celectrical conductivity

Yield map interpretation

Soil factors influencing crop


yield

Site specific application of nematicide

Soil texture

in cotton
Source : Roberto N. Barbosa, Ph.D. and Charles Overstreet, Ph. D.

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Since many fields have variable soil texture and Southern root-knot
nematode occurring in only parts of the field, these fields can be divided up into
management zones based on using electrical conductivity data. Figure 4 shows a
field that has been divided into a number of zones based on electrical conductivity
collected in the fall. This same field was also extensively sampled for nematodes
and shows the relative population levels of Southern root-knot nematodes
throughout the field. Southern root-knot nematodes were found at high
populations in the electrical conductivity zones that had the lowest readings.
Based on where the nematodes occurred in the field, management zones could be
created for site-specific application of nematicides. The field could then be
divided into the area requiring treatment (colored red) and area where nematicides
would not be needed (colored green). (Roberto N. Barbosa, Ph.D. and Charles
Overstreet, Ph. D.)

Figure 2.2. Field divided into six electrical conductivity zones with populations of
Southern root-knot nematodes present in the field. Since high levels of these
nematodes are present in only the two zones with the lowest electrical
conductivity readings, only these two areas would be included for treatment with
a nematicide.
(Source : Roberto N. Barbosa, Ph.D. and Charles Overstreet, Ph. D.)

CHAPTER 3
METHODOLOGY RESEARCH
3.1. Materials and Equipments
3.1.1. Materials
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)
i)

Sand
Fishmeal
Rice Bran
Ammonium Acetate
Water
Deionised Water
Reagent Ca 1K
Reagent Ca 2K
Reagent Mg 1 K

j) Reagent Mg 2K
3.1.2. Equipments
a) Siever (1000 m, 710 m, 500 m, 250 m)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)
i)
j)
k)
l)
m)
n)

Vibrator
Portable Conductivity (Camlab CW6220)
Oven ( Ediis Binder )
Moisture Analyzer
pH Meter (Mettler Toledo)
Photometer Spectroquant NOVA 60
Vortex Mixer (Heidolph)
Electronic Balance (GF3000)
Funnel
Micropipette
Erlenmeyer
Filter paper
Tupperware

3.2. Procedure
3.2.1. Sample preparation for rice bran
After take rice bran from UTM storage, rice bran must be cleaned from
flea because it is an impurities it contains protein. If the flea doesnt remove we
cant measure pure rice bran (not including fleas protein). First of all we put the
rice bran into the beaker glass and add deionised water after that we stir that
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mixture until the flea floats. Then we separate rice bran from the flea. Next we
must dry the wet rice bran into the oven 24 hours with temperature 50oC.
3.2.2. Determination of fishmeal, rice bran, and sand size
Before use the sample and media for experiment, fishmeal, rice bran, and
sand size must be decrease using siever. Size for fishmeal and rice bran must be
250-500 micrometer and for sand below 500 micrometer.
3.2.3. Measurement of fishmeal, rice bran, and sand moisture content
Measure the moisture content 0.2 gram of fishmeal, rice bran, and sand
each of them before used. If the moisture in the fishmeal and sand has high value,
fishmeal and sand should be drying into the oven.
3.2.4. Measurement the electrical conductivity, pH, Resistance, Turbidity,
Salinity of sand, fishmeal, rice bran.
First of all we have to make a comparison between sand and deionized
water 1: 5 in universal bottle, after that vibrate the sample in bottle with vortex
that aims to mix or homogenize the mixture, then the mixture was allowed to
stand 24 hours for the solution equilibrium. After preparing the sample, we can
measure using a portable conductivity meter (Camlab CW6220). Then measure
the value of conductivity, resistance, turbidity, salinity after getting results for the
measurement of sand, wash the equipments and do the same thing on the
measurement of the fishmeal and rice bran. After the samples have been measured
using a pH meter to be tested again and then measure the acidity. Do the same
treatment for pure fishmeal and pure rice bran.

3.2.5. Measurement the electrical conductivity, pH, Resistance, Turbidity,


Salinity of fishmeal, rice bran and its combination
For the combination we used fishmeal and sand combination 0.5%, 1%,
and 2.5% of sand weight (250 gram) and rice bran and sand combination 1%,
2.5%, and 5% of sand weight (250 gram) so we have 6 sample (fishmeal + sand
0.5%, 1% and 2.5% rice bran + sand 1%, 2.5% and 5%). Put 250 gram sand and
fishmeal 0.5 % into the Tupperware and adding deionised water until its moisture

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reach 30% - 40% after that stir it for homogenize solutions then put the sample on
Tupperware to universal bottle and add deionised water with comparison
1:5(sample on Tupperware: deionised water), mix it with vortex and stand it until
24 hours for equilibrium solution. After that measure the electrical conductivity,
resistance, salinity, turbidity with EC meter and pH using pH meter. Do the same
treatment for fishmeal 1%, 2.5% and rice bran 1%, 2.5%, and 5%.
3.2.6. Measurement magnesium content and calcium content of fishmeal
and rice bran
Prepare materials (fishmeal, rice bran, ammonium acetate, reagent Ca
1K, reagent Ca 2K, reagent, reagent Mg 1 K, reagent Mg 2K, deionised
water). After that prepare equipments (funnel, filter paper, micropipette,
erlenmeyer, Spectroquant Nova 60). Weigh 10 gram fishmeal and pack into
leaching funnel, place 100 ml of 1 M ammonium acetate in a plastic funnel and
invert. Leach it smoothly until the flask is empty (5-6 hour). Then collect the
leachate in 100 ml volume flask, make up the volume and set aside for
determination of Calcium and Magnesium. And for measuring the Ca in fishmeal
first we pipette 1.0 ml of leachate into a reaction cell, close the cell and mix, add
reagent Ca-1K (measure calcium content) 1.0 ml with pipette and mix then leave
the sample stand for exactly 3 min (reaction time), add reagent Ca-2K (measure
calcium content) 0.50 ml with pipette, close the cell and mix. Last measure the
calcium content of sample in the photometer (Spectroquant Nova 60). For the Mg
measurement we use the same steps but what differ it is the reagent we used (Mg1k and Mg-2K) and also the Mg-2K dosage we used is 3 drops not like the Ca-2K
0.50 ml. Do the same treatment for rice bran.
3.2.7. Measurement the electrical conductivity, pH, Resistance, Turbidity,
Salinity of sand with a mixture of fishmeal and rice bran
Put 250 gram sand into Tupperware A, Tupperware B, Tupperware C, after
that add fishmeal concentration 0.5 % and rice bran 1% from 250 gram sand
weight and put those materials into the Tupperware A, then mix fishmeal
concentration 1% and rice bran 2.5% from 250 gram sand weight and put those
materials into the Tupperware B, And the last mix fishmeal concentration 2.5%

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and rice bran 5% from 250 gram sand weight and put those materials into the
Tupperware C.
Add deionised water on sample in Tupperware A, Tupperware B, and
Tupperware C until moisture content of all samples reached 30%-40%. Stir each
sample on all Tupperware for homogenize solution then put the sample on
Tupperware A to universal bottle and add deionised water with comparison
1:5( sample on Tupperware A : deionised water), mix it with vortex and stand the
sample until 24 hours for equilibrium solution. After that measure the electrical
conductivity, resistance, salinity, turbidity with conductivity meter and pH using
pH meter. Do the same treatment for sample on Tupperware B and Tupperware C.

3.3. Research Flow Diagram (RFD)


SAMPLE PREPARATION

FISHMEAL & RICE

(Sieving, Drying,

BRAN ANALYSIS OF

Weighing)

CONDUCTIVITY,
RESISTANCE,
TURBIDITY, SALINITY,
AND pH

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SAND + FISHMEAL

SAND ANALYSIS OF

MIXTURE ANALYSIS OF

CONDUCTIVITY,

CONDUCTIVITY,

RESISTANCE,

RESISTANCE,

TURBIDITY, SALINITY,

TURBIDITY, SALINITY,

AND pH

AND pH
ANALYSIS OF
SAND + RICE BRAN
MIXTURE ANALYSIS OF
CONDUCTIVITY,
RESISTANCE,

EXCHANGEBALE
CATIONS IN FISHMEAL
AND RICE STRAW
(Mg2+ and Ca+)

TURBIDITY, SALINITY,
AND pH

SAND + RICE BRAN,


FISHMEAL MIXTURE
ANALYSIS OF
CONDUCTIVITY,

RESULT

RESISTANCE,
TURBIDITY, SALINITY,
AND pH

Figure 3.1. RFD for increasing sand electrical conductivity (EC)

CHAPTER 4
RESULT AND DISCUSSION
4.1. Sample Preparation
This Research done at the Soil, Fertility and Water Analysis Laboratory at
University of Technology Malaysia. In sample preparation step, first of all sandy
soil taken around University of Technology Malaysia field and fishmeal (Sunshine
brand) and rice bran taken in University of Technology Malaysia storage. After
that fishmeal, rice bran, and sand size must be determined. Determination of
fishmeal size and sand size use sieve size 1000 m, 710 m, 500 m, 250 m
and in this research the selected for fishmeal, rice bran, and sand size after sifted
are 250-500 m. The election of the size is needed because small size particle
have effect in surface contact. So when fishmeal, rice bran and sand reacted with
another chemical while experiment, reaction rate more fast because sand, rice
bran, and fishmeal have wide surface contact, that cause all particle in sand and
fishmeal or rice bran are easy to dissolved and homogenous (every part of the
solution have the same concentration).
After the size selection, the measurement of moisture content in fishmeal,
rice bran, and sand with using moisture analyzer. Moisture content has an
important role for fishmeal, rice bran and sand, especially for experiment. A
property of material such as fishmeal, rice bran and sand are sensitive with
moisture content. A physic property of fishmeal, rice bran and sand can be change
if water content of them are excessive, even some microorganism can grow in the
sample such fungi and bacteria if we dont maintain the moisture. To get
maximize function of materials, moisture content must be measured, to identify
water percent in fishmeal and sand (actual sample weight and % water in sample)
and with that data it can determine if fishmeal, rice bran or sand are ready or not,
if too wet the sample need a further treatment like ovening and also if too dry we
can adding water until its optimum moisture. In this research fishmeal, rice bran,

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and sand moisture content shown table (Apendix C). The moisture content result
in this research is already optimum because for weight 0.2 gram of fishmeal, rice
bran and sand have a low water content.
4.2. Analysis the electrical conductivity and pH of Fishmeal and Sand
Experiment methods for measurement electrical conductivity and pH were
adapted from Piper CS 1942; Rayment, GE & Hingginson, FR 1992 with slight
modification. In measurement step, prepared 1:5 fishmeal or rice bran:deionized
water and sand:deionized water by weighing 3.7 gram. Rate ratio 1:5 is general
guidelines on the number of samples required to produce a reliable map (reid
1988), after that leave the sample for exactly 24 hours to get equilibrium solution.
The result of fishmeal, rice bran and sand during five days shown table 4.1 and
table A.1(Appendix A).
Table 4.1. Fishmeal properties
DAY
1
2
3
4
5

Conductivity
(S)
24925
21610
19795
25900
27150
23876

Resistance
(kOhm)
0.0435
0.0655
0.0505
0.041
0.037
0.0475

Turbidity
( mg/L)
-

Salinity
(%)
15.4
14.35
11.1
14.95
15.2
14.2

pH
6.9
6.5
6.48
6.49
6.535
6.581

Table 4.2. Rice Bran properties


DAY

Conductivity
(S)

Resistance
(kOhm)

Turbidity (
mg/L)

Salinity
( %)

pH

1
2
3
4
5

493.00
1085.00
1159.00
1189.00
937.00

1.95
0.93
0.87
0.85
1.16

363.50
736.00
783.00
807.00
540.50

0.30
0.55
0.60
0.60
0.30

4.95
4.46
4.48
4.22
4.11

972.60

1.15

646.00

0.47

4.44

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Figure 4.1. Fishmeal and rice bran electrical conductivity in water (1:5 ratio)
Fishmeal and rice bran size selected 250 m and 500 m. In this size the
portable conductivity (Camlab CW6220) can show the accurate electrical
conductivity value, because the system of portable conductivity (Camlab
CW6220) show electrical conductivity value with detecting concentration ion
fishmeal and rice bran in water, to get the optimum concentration ion in fishmeal
and rice bran is reduce the size of fishmeal and the optimum for experiment in this
research are 250 m until 500 m. . From figure 1 obtained impact of day for
electrical conductivity value, the lowest electrical conductivity value of fishmeal
at 3rd day and the optimum of fishmeal in at 5 th day, and the lowest electrical
conductivity value of rice bran at 1st day and the optimum of fishmeal in at 4th day.
Figure 1 that obtained is unstable and tend to up and down, based on
reference (Friedrich Kohlrausch, 1875), the factor decreases of electrical
conductivity value because the concentration ion fishmeal and ion rice bran water
increasing. To identifying ion in fishmeal and ion rice bran, it can be seen from
salinity percent on table 4.1 and table 4.2, ion have relation with salinity, the
conductive ion come from dissolve salts and inorganic materials such as calcium,
magnesium, and carbonate compound, Compounds that dissolve into ions are also
known as electrolytes. The more ions that are present exhibit the higher the

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conductivity in water. Table 4.1 and table 4.2 showing relation between salinity
and ion, when salinity decrease (ion decrease) exhibit the electrical conductivity
value decrease.
Table A.1 (Appendix A) show data of sand. Electrical conductivity lower if
compared with fishmeal and rice bran. The highest electrical conductivity of sand
at 5th day is 90S and the lowest electrical conductivity of sand at 4 th day is 58S.
Ideal electrical conductivity for plant growth above 200 S/cm and 1200 S/cm
(Martin Capewel). It means prove; if sand have a low productivity level because
in that range sandy soil have a low ion and exhibit sand have not enough nutrients
for plant growth. So in this case sandy soil must be increases.
There are several parameters that have impact to electrical conductivity
except salinity such as salinity; resistance and turbidity it shown on appendix A.
The relation between electrical conductivity and resistance are opposite. The high
electrical conductivity exhibit low resistance (Ohms Law) with formula:
Resistance = Voltage / Electrical Current

(1)

The relation between electrical conductivity and resistance of fishmeal or rice


bran and sand shown on appendix A, and also there are relation between electrical
conductivity and turbidity. The relation between electrical conductivity and
turbidity are equal. Turbidity describing how much material is suspended in the
water. Common types of suspended solids include small pieces of soil, plant
material, industrial waste, and microorganisms. Any natural or artificial process
that places suspended matter in water causes turbidity. The presence of these
dissolved solids affects the waters ability to pass an electrical current. In this
research, when electrical conductivity increases exhibit turbidity increases too.
(Appendix A) show comparison electrical conductivity between fishmeal and
sand. Electrical conductivity of fishmeal is higher than sand, because ion in
fishmeal is higher than sand.
After electrical conductivity fishmeal, rice bran and sand measured. The
next step is measure pH of fishmeal use pH meter (Mettler Toledo). pH measured
during five days. Figure 4.2 show ratio measurement pH of fishmeal, rice bran
and sand.

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Figure 4.2. The sand, fishmeal, and rice bran pH vs day


Figure 4.2 show comparation between fishmeal, rice bran and sand pH during five
days. On figure 4.2 also showing sand pH in the middle of fishmeal and rice bran,
sand pH more acid from fishmeal pH but rice bran pH more acid than all. In this
result that can average sand have pH is 5.816 (moderately acid), average fishmeal
pH is 6.581 (slightly acid) and average rice bran is 4.44 (strongly acid) . Ideal pH
for best plant growth range for 6.5-7 because in that range most of the important
nutrients are available (Sartoretto, 1991). But if soil pH is very strongly acid or
very strongly alkaline, soil need further treatment such as calcification or added
sulfur, But all of it depend on soil quality and soil condition.
4.3. Analysis the electrical conductivity and pH of Fishmeal combined with
sand
Experiment for measurement electrical conductivity and pH not different
with experiment before we are just add slight modification preparation about
identify influence concentration variability of fishmeal (0.5%; 1%; 2.5%) in 250
gram weight of sandy soil and concentration variability of rice bran (1%; 2.5%;
5%) in 250 gram weight of sandy soil shown on figure 4.3 and figure 4.4.

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Figure 4.3. Comparison mixture of sand combined with fishmeal and rice bran in
vary concentration
Figure 4.3 show sand electrical conductivity increased by mixture of
varies concentration of fishmeal and rice bran before mix with rice bran or
fishmeal average of sand electrical conductivity is 68.26 S. For figure 4.3 The
highest sand electrical conductivity when mixed with concentrate 2.5% of
fishmeal at 4th day (1349.5S) and the lowest when mixed concentrate 0.5% of
fishmeal at 4th day (368.5S) and for figure 4.4 The highest sandy soil electrical
conductivity when mixed concentrate 1% of rice bran at 4th day (339.5S) and the
lowest when mixed concentrate 5% of rice bran at 2th day (111S). Figure 4.3 that
obtained is unstable and tend to up and down because is affected by composition
weight in sample, weight of the sample are 3.5 gram, because at the time the sand
is mixed with water, sand becomes sticky so that when the moving sand into the
bottle is very difficult that the desired base is not reaches 100%, there is a little
excessive, and there is a little less. so that the ion content in which there are high
and some are low too. In this research the main objective are focus in increasing
sandy soil EC before and after adding organic matter. This data can be used for
identifying when to use precise organic matters such as fishmeal for enhance

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sandy soil electrical conductivity, for example we need electrical conductivity for
sand is 1300S, so we can add fishmeal with concentration 2.5% on 4th day.
Sand electrical conductivity able to increase because there are minerals
transfers from fishmeal to sand or rice bran to sand and it can be proved by pH
result.

Figure 4.4. Comparison between sand pH mixed fishmeal and rice bran pH in
vary concentration
From Figure 4.4 able compared with Figure 4.2, if sand pH (figure 4.4)
increases from before (figure 4.2), because fishmeal mineral such as calcium and
magnesium, as nutrient for plant growth transferred to sand, in this condition pH
meter detecting more ion alkaline in mixture of fishmeal with sand so that why pH
increases toward to 8 (alkaline), and for rice bran pH meter detecting more ion
hydrogen in concentration 2.5% and 5% so the pH toward to 4 (acid) then pH
meter detecting ion alkaline in concentration 1% and it proving if adding organic
matter able to enhance sandy soil. When the graph tend to up or alkaline exhibit
ion in fishmeal or rice bran is bonding with hydrogen and ion hydrogen is
decreasing then pH meter cant detect more ion hydrogen (acid). For graph ted to
down (acid) because ion in fishmeal or rice bran bonding with hydroxide and ion

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hydroxide is decreasing then pH meter cant detect more ion hydroxide (alkaline).
This figure proving if adding organic matter such as fishmeal or rice bran are able
to enhance sandy soil.
4.4. Analysis electrical conductivity and pH of sand mixed with fishmeal and
rice bran
Measurement in this stage same like experiment before, we are just combine
fishmeal with rice straw and fishmeal with rice bran for identifying influence of
two different materials to sandy soil. There are three samples with varies
concentrations that should be prepared, it shown on table 4.2
Table 4.3. Rice bran (RB) and fishmeal (FM) combination in varies
concentrations
Combination

Concentration

RB + FM + sand

1% + 0.5% + 98.5%

RB + FM + sand

2.5% + 1% + 96.5%

RB + FM + sand

5% + 2.5% + 92.5%

Measurement did during five days, and the ratio between fishmeal combined rice
bran results shown in figure 4.5 that have influence to sand.

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Figure 4.5 Electrical conductivity result in mixture of sand and fishmeal


combined with rice bran in vary concentration
We can compare that electrical conductivity fishmeal combined with rice
bran higher more than mixture of fishmeal and sand or rice bran and sand only
(figure 4.3), because minerals in fishmeal and rice bran transfer more high to sand
and it can be seen in pH measurement and shown on figure 4.6.

Figure 4.6. pH result in mixture of sand and fishmeal combined with rice
bran in vary concentration
The pH seemed acidic but as we can see it begins to constant at the 3rd
and 4th day, this is a good thing that the pH is not decreasing too much, and as we
can see this combination have a higher pH than rice bran or fishmeal it self. And
also pH in this figure exhibit much minerals transferred by fishmeal and rice bran
to sand. It means sand receive the nutrient from fishmeal and rice bran.
4.5. Analysis Exchangeable calcium and magnesium in sandy soil, fishmeal
and rice bran
Experiment methods for measurement exchangeable Calcium and
Magnesium were adapted from SOP/SFL105/03/11, Soil Standard Operating
Procedure for sample preparation, pretreatment and storage. 10 gram of fishmeal

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leached use ammonium acetate. Leachate is collected for further treatment. The
next step is determination of Calcium and Magnesium use Photometer
Spectroquant NOVA 60. Table 4.4 and table 4.5 show result Calcium content and
Magnesium content and influence to electrical conductivity.
Table 4.4. Magnesium and calcium content in sample
Average
Sample

Sand (100%)
Ricebran (100%)
Fishmeal (100%)

Electrical
Conductivity

Calcium

Magnesium

(S)
68.26
972.6
132.47

(%)
0.00145
0.0033
0.0143

(%)
0.00005
0.00257
0.0053

Electrical

Calcium

Magnesium

Conductivity

(%)

(%)

2031.5

0.0018638

0.0003073

886.3

0.0016248

0.0001655

511.7

0.0015328

0.0001015

Table 4.5. Magnesium and calcium content in sample


Average
Sample

(S)
Sand + fishmeal (2.5%) combine
ricebran (5%)
Sand + fishmeal (1%) combine
ricebran (2.5%)
Sand + fishmeal (0.5%) combine
ricebran (1%)

Table 4.4 and table 4.5 show that when electrical conductivity of sand
increases exhibit calcium content and magnesium content in sand increases too
and also the highest of average electrical conductivity exhibit the highest of
magnesium and calcium content too. This data can be use for reliable map. In this
table we are just use ratio 1:5 sand combined with fishmeal: deionized water. For
reliable map we can increase the scale with the ratio such as 1:5000 or 1:50000

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depend on what kind of soil and plant we want, after that we can predict how
much electrical conductivity value for the best plant growth.

CHAPTER 5
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1. Conclusions
1) Sand electrical conductivity can be increased by using fishmeal, rice bran and
mixture of fishmeal with rice bran. It proved sandy soil before mixed fishmeal
have EC 90S but after mixed fishmeal with concentration 0.5%; 1.% and
2.5% are average 430 S; 806 S and 1244.125 S. and after mixed rice bran
1%, 2.5%, and 5 % are average 181. 74 S; 134.06 S; and 114.88 S then
when sand mixed fishmeal + rice bran are average 551.7 S (0.5%+1%);
886.3 S (1%+2.5%) and 2031.5 S (2.5%+5%).
2) Soil pH are the important parameter to agricultural sector especially sandy
soil, because pH describe has such a strong influence on how well plants will
grow, it influences how much mineral transfer (Exchangeable Cation) and
availability of nutrients in soil. Also soil pH result can be good indicator for
using precise organic matter. The highest sand electrical conductivity when
mixed fishmeal 2.5% combine rice bran 5% is 2031.5 S with pH 5.56
(mildly acid) and the lowest sand electrical conductivity when mixed rice bran
1% is 181.74 S with pH 5.81 (midly acid). This data can be used for using
organic matter in right conditions such as fishmeal or fishmeal combine rice
bran to soil in right condition for example using of alkaline organic matter in
acid soil and using acid organic matter in alkaline soil. So Electrical
conductivity has a important role in agricultural sector.
5.2. Recommendation
Since this project was carried out in limited time, there are many critical
things that are needed to be revised in order to obtain a consistent and more
accurate result which is the enhancement of sandy soil should be carried out at
least in triplicate or more. Future works also should using other methods other
such as determination microbial activity, measurement exchangeable cation of

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Potassium, Nitrogen, Molybdenum, Sulfur, Iron, Boron, Copper and Zinc and also
water holding capacity experiment. For the result we have do the result for the
sandy soil to plant growth.