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# Robotics

2.01

Rotation Kinematics

## Phung Tri Cong

Robotics

2.02

Rotation Kinematics

Consider a rigid body with a fixed point Rotation about the fixed
point is the only possible motion of the body

Consider
- local coordinate frame
attaches to the rigid body
- global coordinate frame
Determine
- Transformation matrices for
point between two coordinates

Point of the body is fixed to the ground and is the origin of both
coordinate frames
HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

## Phung Tri Cong

Robotics

2.03

Rotation Kinematics

## I. ROTATION ABOUT GLOBAL CARTESIAN AXES

Rigid body rotates degrees about the -axis of the global coordinate
2
2
2 has local coordinate: 2 = 2 and global coordinate: 2 = 2
2
2
Relation between the two coordinates:
2
0 2
2 = 0 2
2
0
0
1 2
or

2 = , 2

(2.1)

## where , is the -rotation matrix

,
HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

=
0

0
0
1

(2.3)

## Phung Tri Cong

Robotics

2.04

Rotation Kinematics

## I. ROTATION ABOUT GLOBAL CARTESIAN AXES

Similarly, rotation degrees about the -axis, and degrees about the
-axis of the global frame relate the local and global coordinates of point
by the following equations

= ,
(2.4)

= ,

(2.5)

0
=

1
0
, = 0
0

0
1
0
0

(2.6)

(2.7)

## Phung Tri Cong

Robotics

2.05

Rotation Kinematics

## I. ROTATION ABOUT GLOBAL CARTESIAN AXES

Example 3 (Successive rotation about global axes)
The corner (5,30,10) of the slab rotates 300 about
the -axis, then 300 about the -axis, and 900
about the -axis Find the final position of ?
The new global position of after first rotation

## And after the last rotation

HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

## Phung Tri Cong

Robotics

2.06

Rotation Kinematics

## I. ROTATION ABOUT GLOBAL CARTESIAN AXES

The slab and the point in first, second, third, and fourth positions

## Phung Tri Cong

Robotics

2.07

Rotation Kinematics

## I. ROTATION ABOUT GLOBAL CARTESIAN AXES

Example 4 (Time dependent global rotation)
A rigid body continuously turns about -axis of at a rate of 0.3/
Find the global position and global velocity of the body point ?
The rotation transformation matrix of the body is
0.3 0 0.3
=
0
1
0

0.3 0 0.3
Any point of will move on a circle with radius = 2 + 2 parallel
to (, )-plane
0.3 + 0.3

0.3 0 0.3
=

=
0
1
0

0.3 0 0.3
0.3 0.3
2 + 2 = (0.3 + 0.3)2 +(0.3 0.3)2
= 2 + 2 = 2
HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

## Phung Tri Cong

Robotics

2.08

Rotation Kinematics

## I. ROTATION ABOUT GLOBAL CARTESIAN AXES

After = 1, the point = 1 0 0 will be seen at

0.955
=
0
1
0
0 =
0

## sin 0.3 0 cos 0.3 0

0.295
After = 2, the point = 1 0 0 will be seen at

0.825
=
0
1
0
0 =
0

## sin 0.6 0 cos 0.6 0

0.564
Taking a time derivative of = , to get the global velocity
vector of any point
=

,
0.3 0.3
= 0.3
0
0.3 0.3
HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

## Phung Tri Cong

Robotics

2.09

Rotation Kinematics

## I. ROTATION ABOUT GLOBAL CARTESIAN AXES

Example 5 (Global rotation, local position)
A point moved to 2 = [4,3,2] after rotating 600 about -axis
Find local position of in the local coordinate?

1
= ,60
2

2
60
2 = 60
2
0

60
60
0

0
0
1

## HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

4
4.5981
3 = 1.9641
2
2.0
Phung Tri Cong

Robotics

2.10

Rotation Kinematics

## II. SUCCESSIVE ROTATION ABOUT GLOBAL CARTESIAN AXES

The final global position of a point ( ) in a rigid body with position
vector , after a sequence of rotations 1 , 2 , 3 , , about the
global axes can be found by

(2.35)

= 3 2 1

(2.36)

= 1

(2.37)

## Phung Tri Cong

Robotics

2.11

Rotation Kinematics

## II. SUCCESSIVE ROTATION ABOUT GLOBAL CARTESIAN AXES

Example 6 (Successive global rotation matrix)
The global rotation matrix after a rotation , followed by , and
then , is

= , , ,
1
= 0
0

= +

(2.38)

0
1
0
0

0
0
1

## Phung Tri Cong

Robotics

2.12

Rotation Kinematics

## II. SUCCESSIVE ROTATION ABOUT GLOBAL CARTESIAN AXES

Example 7 (Successive global rotations, global position)
The end point of the arm is located at
1
0
0
0.00
1 = = 1750 = 0.26 (2.39)
1

1750
0.97
The rotation matrix to find the new position of
the end point : rotate 290 about -axis, then
300 about -axis, and 1320 about -axis is
0.87 0.44 0.24
=
(2.40)

## ,132 ,30 ,29 = 0.33 0.15 0.93

0.37
0.89 0.27
2
0.87 0.44 0.24 0.00
0.3472
and 2 = 0.33 0.15 0.93 0.26 = 0.9411
(2.41)
2
0.37
0.89 0.27 0.97
0.0305
HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

## Phung Tri Cong

Robotics

2.13

Rotation Kinematics

## II. SUCCESSIVE ROTATION ABOUT GLOBAL CARTESIAN AXES

Example 8 (Twelve independent triple global rotations)
There are 12 different independent combinations of triple rotations about
the global axes which transform a rigid body coordinate frame from the
coincident position with a global frame to any final orientation by only
three rotations about the global axes provided that no two
consequence rotations are about the same axis:
, , ,
, , ,
, , ,

, , ,
, , ,
, , ,

, , ,
, , ,
, , ,

, , ,
, , ,
, , ,

## Phung Tri Cong

Robotics

2.14

Rotation Kinematics

## II. SUCCESSIVE ROTATION ABOUT GLOBAL CARTESIAN AXES

Example 9 (Order of rotation, and order of matrix multiplication)
Changing the order of global rotation matrices is equivalent to
changing the order of rotations. The position of a point of a rigid
body is located at = 1 2 3
Its global position after rotation 300 about -axis and then 450 about axis is at
0.76
0.53 0.84 0.13 1

## 1 = ,45 ,30 = 0.0

0.15
0.99 2 = 3.27
1.64
0.85 0.52 0.081 3
And if we change the order of rotation then its position would be at:
3.08
0.53
0.0
0.85 1

0.15
0.52 2 = 1.02
2 = ,30 ,45 = 0.84
1.86
0.13 0.99 0.081 3
These two final positions of are = 1 2 = 4.456 apart
HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

## Phung Tri Cong

Robotics

2.15

Rotation Kinematics

## III. GLOBAL ROLL-PITCH-YAW ANGLES

The rotation about the -axis of the global coordinate frame is called a
roll, the rotation about the -axis of the global coordinate frame is called
a pitch, and the rotation about the -axis of the global coordinate frame is
called a yaw
This figure illustrates 450 roll, pitch, and yaw rotation about the axes of a
global coordinate frame

## Phung Tri Cong

Robotics

2.16

Rotation Kinematics

## III. GLOBAL ROLL-PITCH-YAW ANGLES

Given the roll, pitch, and yaw angles, we can compute the overall
rotation matrix

= , , ,

+
+

+
+

(2.55)

## Phung Tri Cong

Robotics

2.17

Rotation Kinematics

## III. GLOBAL ROLL-PITCH-YAW ANGLES

Also we are able to compute the equivalent roll, pitch, and yaw angles
when a rotation matrix is given. Suppose that indicates the element of
row and column of the roll-pitch-yaw rotation matrix (2.55)

= 1

32
33

## and the pitch angle is

= 1 31
and the yaw angle is
=

21
11

## Phung Tri Cong

Robotics

2.18

Rotation Kinematics

## III. GLOBAL ROLL-PITCH-YAW ANGLES

Example 11 (Determination of roll-pitch-yaw angles)
Determine the required roll-pitch-yaw angles to make the -axis of the
body coordinate parallel to = + 2 + 3, while -axis remains in
(, )-plane?
We have

1
2
3
=
=
+
+

14
14
14
= + = +

## The axes and must be orthogonal, therefore

1/ 14

2/ 14 = 0 = 26.560
0
3/ 14
HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

## Phung Tri Cong

Robotics

2.19

Rotation Kinematics

1/ 14
0.894
0.358

0
0.597
3/ 14

=

1/ 14 0.894

= 2/ 14 0.447

3/ 14
0

0.358
0.717
0.597

=
=
=

32
0
1
=
=0
33
0.597

31 =

3
14

0.93 rad

21
2/ 14
1
=
1.1071 rad
11
1/ 14

## Phung Tri Cong

Robotics

2.20

Rotation Kinematics

## IV. ROTATION ABOUT LOCAL CARTESIAN AXES

The rigid body undergoes a rotation about the -axis of its local
coordinate frame
Coordinates of any point of the rigid body in local and global
coordinates frame are related by the following equation
=

2
,
2
The vector 2 = 2 2 2 and

## 2 = 2 2 2 are the position

vectors of the point in local and
global frames respectively
, is -rotation matrix

0
HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

=
0

0
0
1

## Phung Tri Cong

Robotics

2.21

Rotation Kinematics

## IV. ROTATION ABOUT LOCAL CARTESIAN AXES

Similarly, rotation about the -axis and rotation about the -axis are
described by the -rotation matrix , and the -rotation matrix ,
respectively

= 0

1
= 0
0

0
1
0
0

## Phung Tri Cong

Robotics

2.22

Rotation Kinematics

## IV. ROTATION ABOUT LOCAL CARTESIAN AXES

Example 12 (Local rotation, local position)
If a local coordinate frame has been rotated 600 about the -axis
and a point in the global coordinate frame is at 4 3 2

## Its coordinates in the local coordinate frame are

60 60 0 4
4.60
= 60 60 0 3 = 1.97

0
0
1 2
2.0

## Phung Tri Cong

Robotics

2.23

Rotation Kinematics

## IV. ROTATION ABOUT LOCAL CARTESIAN AXES

Example 13 (Local rotation, global position)
If a local coordinate frame has been rotated 600 about the -axis
and a point in the local coordinate frame is at 4 3 2

60
= 60

60 0
60 0
0
1

4
0.60
3 = 4.96
2
2.0

## Phung Tri Cong

Robotics

2.24

Rotation Kinematics

## IV. ROTATION ABOUT LOCAL CARTESIAN AXES

Example 14 (Successive local rotation, global position)
The arm shown in Fig 2.11 has two actuators. The first actuator rotates
the arm 900 about -axis and then the second actuator rotates the arm
900 about -axis. If the end point is at
=

9.5
10.1
10.1

= ,90 ,90

1
= 1

,90 ,90

10.1
= ,90 ,90 = 10.1
9.5

## Phung Tri Cong

Robotics

2.25

Rotation Kinematics

## V. SUCCESSIVE ROTATION ABOUT LOCAL CARTESIAN AXES

The final global position of a point in a rigid body with position
vector , after some rotation 1 , 2 , 3 , , about the local axes, can
be found by
=

where

= 3 2 1

## is called the local rotation matrix and it maps the global

coordinates to their corresponding local coordinates
Rotation about the local coordinate axis is conceptually interesting
because in a sequence of rotations, each rotation is about one of the axes
of the local coordinate frame, which has been moved to its new global
position during the last rotation
HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

## Phung Tri Cong

Robotics

2.26

Rotation Kinematics

## V. SUCCESSIVE ROTATION ABOUT LOCAL CARTESIAN AXES

Example 15 (Successive local rotation, local position)
A local coordinate frame () that initially is coincident with a
global coordinate frame () undergoes a rotation = 300 about
the -axis, then = 300 about the -axis, and then = 300 about the
-axis.
The local rotation matrix is

0.63
0.65
0.43

## = ,30 ,30 ,30 = 0.43

0.75
0.50
0.65 0.125 0.75
The global coordinate of is = 5, = 30, = 10, so the coordinate
of in the local frame is

0.63
0.65
0.43 5
18.35
= 0.43
0.75
0.50 30 = 25.35

## 0.65 0.125 0.75 10

7.0
HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

## Phung Tri Cong

Robotics

2.27

Rotation Kinematics

## V. SUCCESSIVE ROTATION ABOUT LOCAL CARTESIAN AXES

Example 16 (Successive local rotation)
The rotation matrix for a body point (, , ) after rotation ,
followed by , and , is

= , , ,

=
+

(2.97)

## Phung Tri Cong

Robotics

2.28

Rotation Kinematics

## V. SUCCESSIVE ROTATION ABOUT LOCAL CARTESIAN AXES

Example 17 (Twelve independent triple local rotations)
Any 2 independent orthogonal coordinate frames with a common origin
can be related by a sequence of three rotations about the local coordinate
axes, where no two successive rotations may be about the same axis. In
general, there are 12 different independent combinations of triple
rotation about local axes
1 , , ,

5 , , ,

9 , , ,

2 , , ,

6 , , ,

10 , , ,

3 , , ,

7 , , ,

11 , , ,

4 , , ,

8 , , ,

12 , , ,

## Phung Tri Cong

Robotics

2.29

Rotation Kinematics

## VI. EULER ANGLES

The rotation about the -axis of the global coordinate is called
precession, the rotation about the -axis of the local coordinate is called
nutation, and the rotation about the -axis of the local coordinate is
called spin
The precession-nutation-spin rotation angles are also called Euler angles
Euler angles rotation matrix has many application in rigid body
kinematics
To find Euler angles rotation matrix to go from the global frame
() to the final body frame (), we employ a body frame
( ) that shown in Fig 2.12 that before the first rotation coincides
with the global frame

## Phung Tri Cong

Robotics

2.30

Rotation Kinematics

## VI. EULER ANGLES

Let there be at first a rotation about the -axis. Because -axis and
-axis are coincident, we have

= ,

=
0

0
0
1

## Next we consider the ( ) frame as a new fixed global frame and

introduce a new body frame ( ). Before the second rotation,
the two frame coincide
HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

## Phung Tri Cong

Robotics

2.31

Rotation Kinematics

## VI. EULER ANGLES

Then, we execute a rotation about -axis as shown in Fig 2.13. The
transformation between ( ) and ( ) is

= ,

1
0
= 0
0

## Finally, we consider the ( ) frame as a new fixed global

frame and consider the final body frame () to coincide with
before the third rotation
HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

## Phung Tri Cong

Robotics

2.32

Rotation Kinematics

## VI. EULER ANGLES

We now execute a rotation about the -axis as shown in Fig 2.14. The
transformation between ( ) and () is

= , = 0
0
0
1
By the rule of composition of rotation, the
transformation from () to () is

= , , ,

+
+

## Phung Tri Cong

Robotics

2.33

Rotation Kinematics

## VI. EULER ANGLES

Example 18 (Euler angle rotation matrix)
The Euler or precession-nutation-spin rotation matrix for = 79.150 ,
= 41.410 , and = 40.70 would be found by substituting , and
in equation (2.106)

0.63
0.65
0.43
= 0.43
0.75
0.50
0.65 0.125 0.75

## Phung Tri Cong

Robotics

2.34

Rotation Kinematics

## VI. EULER ANGLES

Example 19 (Euler angles of a local rotation matrix)
The local rotation matrix after rotation 300 about the -axis, then rotation
300 about the -axis, and then 300 about the -axis is
=

## ,30 ,30 ,30

0.63
0.65
0.43
= 0.43
0.75
0.50
0.65 0.125 0.75
The Euler angles of the corresponding rotation matrix are
= 1 33 = 1 0.75 = 41.410
31
0.65
1
1
=
=
= 79.150
32
0.125
=

13
0.43
1
=
= 40.70
23
0.50

## Phung Tri Cong

Robotics

2.35

Rotation Kinematics

## VI. EULER ANGLES

Example 20 (Relative rotation matrix of two bodies)
Consider a rigid body 1 with an orientation matrix 1 made by Euler
angles = 300 , = 450 , = 600 , and another rigid body 2 having
= 100 , = 250 , = 150 , the individual rotation matrices are
1

## = ,15 ,25 ,10

0.127
0.78
0.612
0.992 0.0633 0.109
= 0.927 0.127 0.354
= 0.103
0.907
0.408
0.354 0.612
0.707
0.0734 0.416
0.906
The relative rotation matrix to map 2 to 1 may be found by
1
2

0.992
0.103 0.0734
= 0.0633 0.907 0.416
0.109 0.408 0.906

## Phung Tri Cong

Robotics

2.36

Rotation Kinematics

## VII. LOCAL ROLL-PITCH-YAW ANGLES

Rotation about the -axis of the local frame is called roll or bank, rotation
about -axis of the local frame is called pitch or attitude, and rotation about
the -axis of the local frame is called yaw, spin or heading

= , , , =

## Note the difference between roll-pitch-yaw

and Euler angles, although we show both
utilizing , and

## Phung Tri Cong

Robotics

2.37

Rotation Kinematics

## VII. LOCAL ROLL-PITCH-YAW ANGLES

Example 28 (Angular velocity and local roll-pitch-yaw rate)
Using the roll-pitch-yaw frequencies, the angular velocity of a body
with respect to the global reference frame is

= + +
= + +

## The roll unit vector = 1 0 0 transforms to the body frame after

rotation and then rotation

1
=

, , 0 =
0

## The pitch unit vector = 0 1

after rotation
HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

## Phung Tri Cong

Robotics

2.38

Rotation Kinematics

## VII. LOCAL ROLL-PITCH-YAW ANGLES

0
=

, 1 =
0
0
The yaw unit vector = 0 0 1 is already along the local -axis
Hence, can be expressed in body frame as
0

= 0

0
1
And therefore, in global frame is
1
0

= 0
0

## Phung Tri Cong

Robotics

2.39

Rotation Kinematics

## VIII. LOCAL AXES VERSUS GLOBAL AXES ROTATION

The global rotation matrix is equal to the inverse of the local
rotation matrix and vice versa

= 1

= 1

where
= 1 1 1 1

1
2
3
= 1 1 1 1

1
2
3

Also, pre-multiplication of the global rotation matrix is equal to postmultiplication of the local rotation matrix

## Phung Tri Cong

Robotics

2.40

Rotation Kinematics

## VIII. LOCAL AXES VERSUS GLOBAL AXES ROTATION

Example 29 (Global position and post-multiplication of rotation matrix)
The local position of a point after rotation is at =
the local rotation matrix to transform to is given as
0
30 30

, = 0 = 30 30
0
0
0
0
1

2 3 . If

0
0
1

## Then we may find the global position vector by post-multiplication

, by the local position vector
30 30 0
=
, = 1 2 3 30 30 0
0
0
1
= 0.13 2.23 3.0

## Phung Tri Cong

Robotics

2.41

Rotation Kinematics

## VIII. LOCAL AXES VERSUS GLOBAL AXES ROTATION

Example 29 (Global position and post-multiplication of rotation matrix)

Instead of pre-multiplication of 1
by
,

1
,

30 30
= 30 30
0
0

0 1
0.13
0 2 = 2.23
1 3
3

## Phung Tri Cong

Robotics

2.42

Rotation Kinematics

## IX. GENERAL TRANSFORMATION

Consider a general situation in which two coordinate frames, ()
and () with a common origin , are employed to express the
components of a vector . There is always a transformation matrix
to map the components of from the reference frame () to the
other reference frame ()
=

=

where

= 1

and

= 1
=

## Phung Tri Cong

Robotics

2.43

Rotation Kinematics

## IX. GENERAL TRANSFORMATION

Example 30 (Elements of transformation matrix)
The position vector of a point may be expressed in terms of its
components with respect to either () or () frames. If
= 100 50 + 150 Find components of in the frame?
The -axis lie in the plane at 400 from
the -axis, and the angle between and is
600 . Therefore
40
0
40
=

60

0.766
0
0.5
=

HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

0.643

## Phung Tri Cong

Robotics

2.44

Rotation Kinematics

## IX. GENERAL TRANSFORMATION

And by using = =
0.766 0 0.643 0.766 21 31
1 0
21
0.5
23
0
0.5 32 = 0 1
31
32
33
0.643 23 33
0 0

0
0
1

## We obtain a set of equations to find the missing elements. Solving these

equations provides the following transformation matrix
0.766
0
0.643

= 0.557
0.5
0.663
0.322 0.866 0.383
Then we can find the components of
0.766
0
0.643 100
173.05
= =
0.557
0.5
0.663 50 = 68.75

## 0.322 0.866 0.383 150

18.05
HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

## Phung Tri Cong

Robotics

2.45

Rotation Kinematics

## IX. GENERAL TRANSFORMATION

Example 31 (Global position, using and )
The position vector of a point in local frame is

= 100 50 + 150

0.766
0
0.643
=
0.557
0.5
0.663

## 0.322 0.866 0.383

Then the components of in () would be

= =
0.766 0.557 0.322 100
0.45
=
0
0.5
0.866 50 = 104.9
0.643 0.663 0.383 150
154.9

## Phung Tri Cong

Robotics

2.46

Rotation Kinematics

## IX. GENERAL TRANSFORMATION

Example 32 (Two points transformation matrix)
The global position vector of two points, 1 and 2 , of a rigid body are
1.077
0.473

=
1.365
1
2 = 2.239
2.666
0.959
The origin of the body () is fixed on the origin of (), and
the points 1 and 2 are lying on the local -axis and -axis respectively.
To find , we use the local unit vectors and

0.338
= 0.429
0.838

0.191
= 0.902
0.387

## Phung Tri Cong

Robotics

2.47

Rotation Kinematics

## IX. GENERAL TRANSFORMATION

Example 32 (Two points transformation matrix)
We can calculate as follow
0.922

= = 0.029
0.387
Hence, the transformation matrix using the coordinates of two points
and would be
1
2

=
0.338 0.191 0.922
= 0.429 0.902 0.029
0.838 0.387 0.387

## Phung Tri Cong

Robotics

2.48

Rotation Kinematics

## X. ACTIVE AND PASSIVE TRANSFORMATION

Rotation of a local frame when the position vector of a point is
fixed in global frame and does not rotate with the local frame, is called
passive transformation

## Rotation of a local frame when the position vector of a point is

fixed in the local frame and rotate with the local frame, is called active
transformation
The passive and active transformation are mathematically equivalent
The rotation matrix for a rotated frame and rotated vector (active
transformation) is the same as the rotation matrix for a rotated frame and
fixed vector (passive transformation)

## Phung Tri Cong

Robotics

2.49

Rotation Kinematics

## X. ACTIVE AND PASSIVE TRANSFORMATION

Example 39 (Active and passive rotation about -axis)
Consider a local and global frames and that are coincident. A body
point is at
1
=
2
1
A rotation of 900 about -axis will move the point to
=

,90
1
0

= 0 2

0
2

1
1
2 = 1
1
2

## Phung Tri Cong

Robotics

2.50

Rotation Kinematics

## X. ACTIVE AND PASSIVE TRANSFORMATION

Example 39 (Active and passive rotation about -axis)
Now assume that is fixed in . When rotates 900 about -axis, the
coordinates of in the local frame will change such that

= ,90
1
0

=
2

0
2

1
1
2 = 1
1
2