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2.01

Rotation Kinematics

Robotics

2.02

Rotation Kinematics

Consider a rigid body with a fixed point Rotation about the fixed

point is the only possible motion of the body

Consider

- local coordinate frame

attaches to the rigid body

- global coordinate frame

Determine

- Transformation matrices for

point between two coordinates

Point of the body is fixed to the ground and is the origin of both

coordinate frames

HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Robotics

2.03

Rotation Kinematics

Rigid body rotates degrees about the -axis of the global coordinate

2

2

2 has local coordinate: 2 = 2 and global coordinate: 2 = 2

2

2

Relation between the two coordinates:

2

0 2

2 = 0 2

2

0

0

1 2

or

2 = , 2

(2.1)

,

HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

=

0

0

0

1

(2.3)

Robotics

2.04

Rotation Kinematics

Similarly, rotation degrees about the -axis, and degrees about the

-axis of the global frame relate the local and global coordinates of point

by the following equations

= ,

(2.4)

= ,

(2.5)

0

=

1

0

, = 0

0

0

1

0

0

(2.6)

(2.7)

Robotics

2.05

Rotation Kinematics

Example 3 (Successive rotation about global axes)

The corner (5,30,10) of the slab rotates 300 about

the -axis, then 300 about the -axis, and 900

about the -axis Find the final position of ?

The new global position of after first rotation

HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Robotics

2.06

Rotation Kinematics

The slab and the point in first, second, third, and fourth positions

Robotics

2.07

Rotation Kinematics

Example 4 (Time dependent global rotation)

A rigid body continuously turns about -axis of at a rate of 0.3/

Find the global position and global velocity of the body point ?

The rotation transformation matrix of the body is

0.3 0 0.3

=

0

1

0

0.3 0 0.3

Any point of will move on a circle with radius = 2 + 2 parallel

to (, )-plane

0.3 + 0.3

0.3 0 0.3

=

=

0

1

0

0.3 0 0.3

0.3 0.3

2 + 2 = (0.3 + 0.3)2 +(0.3 0.3)2

= 2 + 2 = 2

HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Robotics

2.08

Rotation Kinematics

After = 1, the point = 1 0 0 will be seen at

0.955

=

0

1

0

0 =

0

0.295

After = 2, the point = 1 0 0 will be seen at

0.825

=

0

1

0

0 =

0

0.564

Taking a time derivative of = , to get the global velocity

vector of any point

=

,

0.3 0.3

= 0.3

0

0.3 0.3

HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Robotics

2.09

Rotation Kinematics

Example 5 (Global rotation, local position)

A point moved to 2 = [4,3,2] after rotating 600 about -axis

Find local position of in the local coordinate?

1

= ,60

2

2

60

2 = 60

2

0

60

60

0

0

0

1

4

4.5981

3 = 1.9641

2

2.0

Phung Tri Cong

Robotics

2.10

Rotation Kinematics

The final global position of a point ( ) in a rigid body with position

vector , after a sequence of rotations 1 , 2 , 3 , , about the

global axes can be found by

(2.35)

= 3 2 1

(2.36)

= 1

(2.37)

Robotics

2.11

Rotation Kinematics

Example 6 (Successive global rotation matrix)

The global rotation matrix after a rotation , followed by , and

then , is

= , , ,

1

= 0

0

= +

(2.38)

0

1

0

0

0

0

1

Robotics

2.12

Rotation Kinematics

Example 7 (Successive global rotations, global position)

The end point of the arm is located at

1

0

0

0.00

1 = = 1750 = 0.26 (2.39)

1

1750

0.97

The rotation matrix to find the new position of

the end point : rotate 290 about -axis, then

300 about -axis, and 1320 about -axis is

0.87 0.44 0.24

=

(2.40)

0.37

0.89 0.27

2

0.87 0.44 0.24 0.00

0.3472

and 2 = 0.33 0.15 0.93 0.26 = 0.9411

(2.41)

2

0.37

0.89 0.27 0.97

0.0305

HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Robotics

2.13

Rotation Kinematics

Example 8 (Twelve independent triple global rotations)

There are 12 different independent combinations of triple rotations about

the global axes which transform a rigid body coordinate frame from the

coincident position with a global frame to any final orientation by only

three rotations about the global axes provided that no two

consequence rotations are about the same axis:

, , ,

, , ,

, , ,

, , ,

, , ,

, , ,

, , ,

, , ,

, , ,

, , ,

, , ,

, , ,

Robotics

2.14

Rotation Kinematics

Example 9 (Order of rotation, and order of matrix multiplication)

Changing the order of global rotation matrices is equivalent to

changing the order of rotations. The position of a point of a rigid

body is located at = 1 2 3

Its global position after rotation 300 about -axis and then 450 about axis is at

0.76

0.53 0.84 0.13 1

0.15

0.99 2 = 3.27

1.64

0.85 0.52 0.081 3

And if we change the order of rotation then its position would be at:

3.08

0.53

0.0

0.85 1

0.15

0.52 2 = 1.02

2 = ,30 ,45 = 0.84

1.86

0.13 0.99 0.081 3

These two final positions of are = 1 2 = 4.456 apart

HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Robotics

2.15

Rotation Kinematics

The rotation about the -axis of the global coordinate frame is called a

roll, the rotation about the -axis of the global coordinate frame is called

a pitch, and the rotation about the -axis of the global coordinate frame is

called a yaw

This figure illustrates 450 roll, pitch, and yaw rotation about the axes of a

global coordinate frame

Robotics

2.16

Rotation Kinematics

Given the roll, pitch, and yaw angles, we can compute the overall

rotation matrix

= , , ,

+

+

+

+

(2.55)

Robotics

2.17

Rotation Kinematics

Also we are able to compute the equivalent roll, pitch, and yaw angles

when a rotation matrix is given. Suppose that indicates the element of

row and column of the roll-pitch-yaw rotation matrix (2.55)

= 1

32

33

= 1 31

and the yaw angle is

=

21

11

Robotics

2.18

Rotation Kinematics

Example 11 (Determination of roll-pitch-yaw angles)

Determine the required roll-pitch-yaw angles to make the -axis of the

body coordinate parallel to = + 2 + 3, while -axis remains in

(, )-plane?

We have

1

2

3

=

=

+

+

14

14

14

= + = +

1/ 14

2/ 14 = 0 = 26.560

0

3/ 14

HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Robotics

2.19

Rotation Kinematics

1/ 14

0.894

0.358

0

0.597

3/ 14

=

1/ 14 0.894

= 2/ 14 0.447

3/ 14

0

0.358

0.717

0.597

=

=

=

32

0

1

=

=0

33

0.597

31 =

3

14

0.93 rad

21

2/ 14

1

=

1.1071 rad

11

1/ 14

Robotics

2.20

Rotation Kinematics

The rigid body undergoes a rotation about the -axis of its local

coordinate frame

Coordinates of any point of the rigid body in local and global

coordinates frame are related by the following equation

=

2

,

2

The vector 2 = 2 2 2 and

vectors of the point in local and

global frames respectively

, is -rotation matrix

0

HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

=

0

0

0

1

Robotics

2.21

Rotation Kinematics

Similarly, rotation about the -axis and rotation about the -axis are

described by the -rotation matrix , and the -rotation matrix ,

respectively

= 0

1

= 0

0

0

1

0

0

Robotics

2.22

Rotation Kinematics

Example 12 (Local rotation, local position)

If a local coordinate frame has been rotated 600 about the -axis

and a point in the global coordinate frame is at 4 3 2

60 60 0 4

4.60

= 60 60 0 3 = 1.97

0

0

1 2

2.0

Robotics

2.23

Rotation Kinematics

Example 13 (Local rotation, global position)

If a local coordinate frame has been rotated 600 about the -axis

and a point in the local coordinate frame is at 4 3 2

60

= 60

60 0

60 0

0

1

4

0.60

3 = 4.96

2

2.0

Robotics

2.24

Rotation Kinematics

Example 14 (Successive local rotation, global position)

The arm shown in Fig 2.11 has two actuators. The first actuator rotates

the arm 900 about -axis and then the second actuator rotates the arm

900 about -axis. If the end point is at

=

9.5

10.1

10.1

= ,90 ,90

1

= 1

,90 ,90

10.1

= ,90 ,90 = 10.1

9.5

Robotics

2.25

Rotation Kinematics

The final global position of a point in a rigid body with position

vector , after some rotation 1 , 2 , 3 , , about the local axes, can

be found by

=

where

= 3 2 1

coordinates to their corresponding local coordinates

Rotation about the local coordinate axis is conceptually interesting

because in a sequence of rotations, each rotation is about one of the axes

of the local coordinate frame, which has been moved to its new global

position during the last rotation

HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Robotics

2.26

Rotation Kinematics

Example 15 (Successive local rotation, local position)

A local coordinate frame () that initially is coincident with a

global coordinate frame () undergoes a rotation = 300 about

the -axis, then = 300 about the -axis, and then = 300 about the

-axis.

The local rotation matrix is

0.63

0.65

0.43

0.75

0.50

0.65 0.125 0.75

The global coordinate of is = 5, = 30, = 10, so the coordinate

of in the local frame is

0.63

0.65

0.43 5

18.35

= 0.43

0.75

0.50 30 = 25.35

7.0

HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Robotics

2.27

Rotation Kinematics

Example 16 (Successive local rotation)

The rotation matrix for a body point (, , ) after rotation ,

followed by , and , is

= , , ,

=

+

(2.97)

Robotics

2.28

Rotation Kinematics

Example 17 (Twelve independent triple local rotations)

Any 2 independent orthogonal coordinate frames with a common origin

can be related by a sequence of three rotations about the local coordinate

axes, where no two successive rotations may be about the same axis. In

general, there are 12 different independent combinations of triple

rotation about local axes

1 , , ,

5 , , ,

9 , , ,

2 , , ,

6 , , ,

10 , , ,

3 , , ,

7 , , ,

11 , , ,

4 , , ,

8 , , ,

12 , , ,

Robotics

2.29

Rotation Kinematics

The rotation about the -axis of the global coordinate is called

precession, the rotation about the -axis of the local coordinate is called

nutation, and the rotation about the -axis of the local coordinate is

called spin

The precession-nutation-spin rotation angles are also called Euler angles

Euler angles rotation matrix has many application in rigid body

kinematics

To find Euler angles rotation matrix to go from the global frame

() to the final body frame (), we employ a body frame

( ) that shown in Fig 2.12 that before the first rotation coincides

with the global frame

Robotics

2.30

Rotation Kinematics

Let there be at first a rotation about the -axis. Because -axis and

-axis are coincident, we have

= ,

=

0

0

0

1

introduce a new body frame ( ). Before the second rotation,

the two frame coincide

HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Robotics

2.31

Rotation Kinematics

Then, we execute a rotation about -axis as shown in Fig 2.13. The

transformation between ( ) and ( ) is

= ,

1

0

= 0

0

frame and consider the final body frame () to coincide with

before the third rotation

HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Robotics

2.32

Rotation Kinematics

We now execute a rotation about the -axis as shown in Fig 2.14. The

transformation between ( ) and () is

= , = 0

0

0

1

By the rule of composition of rotation, the

transformation from () to () is

= , , ,

+

+

Robotics

2.33

Rotation Kinematics

Example 18 (Euler angle rotation matrix)

The Euler or precession-nutation-spin rotation matrix for = 79.150 ,

= 41.410 , and = 40.70 would be found by substituting , and

in equation (2.106)

0.63

0.65

0.43

= 0.43

0.75

0.50

0.65 0.125 0.75

Robotics

2.34

Rotation Kinematics

Example 19 (Euler angles of a local rotation matrix)

The local rotation matrix after rotation 300 about the -axis, then rotation

300 about the -axis, and then 300 about the -axis is

=

0.63

0.65

0.43

= 0.43

0.75

0.50

0.65 0.125 0.75

The Euler angles of the corresponding rotation matrix are

= 1 33 = 1 0.75 = 41.410

31

0.65

1

1

=

=

= 79.150

32

0.125

=

13

0.43

1

=

= 40.70

23

0.50

Robotics

2.35

Rotation Kinematics

Example 20 (Relative rotation matrix of two bodies)

Consider a rigid body 1 with an orientation matrix 1 made by Euler

angles = 300 , = 450 , = 600 , and another rigid body 2 having

= 100 , = 250 , = 150 , the individual rotation matrices are

1

0.127

0.78

0.612

0.992 0.0633 0.109

= 0.927 0.127 0.354

= 0.103

0.907

0.408

0.354 0.612

0.707

0.0734 0.416

0.906

The relative rotation matrix to map 2 to 1 may be found by

1

2

0.992

0.103 0.0734

= 0.0633 0.907 0.416

0.109 0.408 0.906

Robotics

2.36

Rotation Kinematics

Rotation about the -axis of the local frame is called roll or bank, rotation

about -axis of the local frame is called pitch or attitude, and rotation about

the -axis of the local frame is called yaw, spin or heading

= , , , =

and Euler angles, although we show both

utilizing , and

Robotics

2.37

Rotation Kinematics

Example 28 (Angular velocity and local roll-pitch-yaw rate)

Using the roll-pitch-yaw frequencies, the angular velocity of a body

with respect to the global reference frame is

= + +

= + +

rotation and then rotation

1

=

, , 0 =

0

after rotation

HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Robotics

2.38

Rotation Kinematics

0

=

, 1 =

0

0

The yaw unit vector = 0 0 1 is already along the local -axis

Hence, can be expressed in body frame as

0

= 0

0

1

And therefore, in global frame is

1

0

= 0

0

Robotics

2.39

Rotation Kinematics

The global rotation matrix is equal to the inverse of the local

rotation matrix and vice versa

= 1

= 1

where

= 1 1 1 1

1

2

3

= 1 1 1 1

1

2

3

Also, pre-multiplication of the global rotation matrix is equal to postmultiplication of the local rotation matrix

Robotics

2.40

Rotation Kinematics

Example 29 (Global position and post-multiplication of rotation matrix)

The local position of a point after rotation is at =

the local rotation matrix to transform to is given as

0

30 30

, = 0 = 30 30

0

0

0

0

1

2 3 . If

0

0

1

, by the local position vector

30 30 0

=

, = 1 2 3 30 30 0

0

0

1

= 0.13 2.23 3.0

Robotics

2.41

Rotation Kinematics

Example 29 (Global position and post-multiplication of rotation matrix)

Instead of pre-multiplication of 1

by

,

1

,

30 30

= 30 30

0

0

0 1

0.13

0 2 = 2.23

1 3

3

Robotics

2.42

Rotation Kinematics

Consider a general situation in which two coordinate frames, ()

and () with a common origin , are employed to express the

components of a vector . There is always a transformation matrix

to map the components of from the reference frame () to the

other reference frame ()

=

=

where

= 1

and

= 1

=

Robotics

2.43

Rotation Kinematics

Example 30 (Elements of transformation matrix)

The position vector of a point may be expressed in terms of its

components with respect to either () or () frames. If

= 100 50 + 150 Find components of in the frame?

The -axis lie in the plane at 400 from

the -axis, and the angle between and is

600 . Therefore

40

0

40

=

60

0.766

0

0.5

=

HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

0.643

Robotics

2.44

Rotation Kinematics

And by using = =

0.766 0 0.643 0.766 21 31

1 0

21

0.5

23

0

0.5 32 = 0 1

31

32

33

0.643 23 33

0 0

0

0

1

equations provides the following transformation matrix

0.766

0

0.643

= 0.557

0.5

0.663

0.322 0.866 0.383

Then we can find the components of

0.766

0

0.643 100

173.05

= =

0.557

0.5

0.663 50 = 68.75

18.05

HCM City Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Robotics

2.45

Rotation Kinematics

Example 31 (Global position, using and )

The position vector of a point in local frame is

= 100 50 + 150

0.766

0

0.643

=

0.557

0.5

0.663

Then the components of in () would be

= =

0.766 0.557 0.322 100

0.45

=

0

0.5

0.866 50 = 104.9

0.643 0.663 0.383 150

154.9

Robotics

2.46

Rotation Kinematics

Example 32 (Two points transformation matrix)

The global position vector of two points, 1 and 2 , of a rigid body are

1.077

0.473

=

1.365

1

2 = 2.239

2.666

0.959

The origin of the body () is fixed on the origin of (), and

the points 1 and 2 are lying on the local -axis and -axis respectively.

To find , we use the local unit vectors and

0.338

= 0.429

0.838

0.191

= 0.902

0.387

Robotics

2.47

Rotation Kinematics

Example 32 (Two points transformation matrix)

We can calculate as follow

0.922

= = 0.029

0.387

Hence, the transformation matrix using the coordinates of two points

and would be

1

2

=

0.338 0.191 0.922

= 0.429 0.902 0.029

0.838 0.387 0.387

Robotics

2.48

Rotation Kinematics

Rotation of a local frame when the position vector of a point is

fixed in global frame and does not rotate with the local frame, is called

passive transformation

fixed in the local frame and rotate with the local frame, is called active

transformation

The passive and active transformation are mathematically equivalent

The rotation matrix for a rotated frame and rotated vector (active

transformation) is the same as the rotation matrix for a rotated frame and

fixed vector (passive transformation)

Robotics

2.49

Rotation Kinematics

Example 39 (Active and passive rotation about -axis)

Consider a local and global frames and that are coincident. A body

point is at

1

=

2

1

A rotation of 900 about -axis will move the point to

=

,90

1

0

= 0 2

0

2

1

1

2 = 1

1

2

Robotics

2.50

Rotation Kinematics

Example 39 (Active and passive rotation about -axis)

Now assume that is fixed in . When rotates 900 about -axis, the

coordinates of in the local frame will change such that

= ,90

1

0

=

2

0

2

1

1

2 = 1

1

2

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