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CHAPTER 31

Complex
Numbers
31

.1 The real number system

As we have seen in previous work, our number system grew in a very practical way.
Primitive man needed to be able to count, and for this purpose the present day symbols 1,
2, 3, . .. are used. We call these counting numbers, noturol numbers or positive integers.
The operations of addition and multiplication can be performed on these numbers and
the system is closed under these operations. If a and b are positive integers, then
a * b : p and ab : Q wherep and q arepositive integers. Within this system, simple

algebraic equations can be solved, e.g. rf a + 5


9, then a
4.
However, we cannot find any positive integer a such that a + 9 = 5. [t is necessary to
go beyond the system of natural numbers. Man used his imagination and developed a
number system containing negative integers and zero to cope with this situation.
Furthermore, it is found that we cannot remain within the system of integers (positive

andnegative)tofind all.a,b andqsuchthatab: e,a.g.tf

b:9and q = 5,thereis

no integer a. Man's imagination was extended to develop the system of rqtional numbers.
These are numbers of the form

i O + 0) where a and b are integers with the operations

of addition and multiplication defrned by

a, c_ ad+bc

b- aAC

b " d-

bd
ac

bd

Addition
Multiplication

Rational numbers are sometimes now expressed as an ordered pair of integers (a, b),
+ 0, and, in this notation, addition and multiplication are defined by

b) + (r, d) : (ad + bc, bd)


(a, b) x (c, d) = (ac, bd)

(a,

Within this system we can solve equations of the form ax


rational numbers.

Addition
Multiplication

+ b = 0where aandbare

The set of integers is a subset of the set of rational numbers. Integers are rational
numbers of the lorm

Ib where b :

l.

Furthermore, we cannot remain within the system of rational numbers to give meaning

to

such numbers

u" 1[2,

r,

e. They cannot be

expressed

in the fo.m f .
b

Rational

approximations only can be given. Such numbers are said to be irrational.


The rational numbers together with the irrational numbers constitute the Real Nuntber
System. A11 such numbers can be represented on the real number line.

3t4

it

J2

-1

Within this system we can solve equations of the form ax )- b : 0, and, in addition,
quadraticequations ax2 + bx i c: O,providedthatb2 - 4ac 2 0.
To solve quadratic equations in which b2 - 4ac < 0, it is necessary to go beyond the
real number system. Man again used his imagination to develop the system of complex
nurnbers into which we introduce the 'number'i with the special property that i2 : - 1.

31

.2 Ouadratic equations

You have learnt that the solutions of a quadratic equation axz + bx

represent graphically, the x"values of the point (or points) of intersection of the parabola
bx -t c with the X-axis.
ax2
However, there are many parabolas which do not intersect the X-axis, e.g. the

! :

ParabolaY: x2

+ l(Figure3l'l).

Figure

31 I

The quadratic equation x2 + I : 0 has no solution in the real number system.


solved by means of the'imaginary'number l, defined by i2 : -1.

xz + l:0
x2 - i2:0,wherei2:

-l
:
(Difference
of two squares)
(x - i )(x + ,) 0
x:ior-i

It can be

EXAMPLE

Considerthequadraticequation x2

, : -b+\/fi'z-4(
2r---Y,where
_4

4x

13

0.

= l,b : -4andc :

t3

- s2

\fi6
2

L \F36
or completing the square, we have

(x2-4x+4)+9:0

_4 j.6t/l

(x -

4+6i 4-6i
:;or=:,wherei
:2 + 3ior2 - 3i

: J-

2)2

] ,?.,r". i2 = -r

x-2:+3i
x:2-l

3lor2-3i

You will observe that:


(a) bz

4ac is a negative number

(b) the graph of

y = x2 - 4x +

13 does

not cross the X-axis (Figure 3l-2).

Figure 31-2

t &i, where a and b are real numbers, is called a complex


number, e.g. 2 + 3i and 2 - 3i above are complex numbers.
Any number of the form a

EXAMPLE 2
Solve the quadratic equations:

(r)xz + 4 :

(a)
i.e.
(x -

(b)r'+2x*3:0

x2 + 4:0
x2 - 4iz: 0, where i2 : -l
2i)(x + 2i) : 0 (Difference of two squares)

x-2ior-2i

x2+2x+3:0

(b)

+
x: -b 'J6'?= 4a; ,wherea:l,b:2andc:3
-L

aa !

__2 t ,/4
2

=-2 i2J8i .Wnere/ =


_t r \/ri

tt-

or completing the square, we have

(x2+2x+1)+2:0
(x + 1)2

lo'r"rr*iz: -l
x I I:rfii
x:-ttOi

EXERCISES 31(a)

1. Solve the following equations:

+9: 0
+ 2x + l7 :0
+ 2x + 10:0
(e\ *2x' -t 2x - 13 :

(b)x' + 25 :0
(d)-x2 + 2x * 5 :

(a)x2
(c)x2
(e)x2

31

(f)x2:4x * 20
(h)x2 + 3 : 0

.3 The complex number system

Anynumber,z,of theformx * yi where x,! e Riscalled acomplexnumber;xisthe


real part of z, denoted by Re z : x and y is the imaginary part of z, denoted by

Imz : !.

Note that we have used a single letter z to denote the complex number x * yi to
emphasise the fact that x * yi is a single number.
Having invented a new number system, it remains to see how it reacts to the field laws.
We make the following definitions:

(a) Equality

a * bi: c -l di,rf

and

onlyif

q: candb: d

(i)

Two complex numbers are equal if their real parts are equal and their imaginary parts
are equal.

e.g. x-t yi: 5 - 3iif andonlyif x:

andy: -3.

(b) Addition
This is defined by:

(a + bi) + (c + di)
(3 + 2i) + (:4 - 3')

e.g.

From our definition of addition, we

see

: (a + c) + (b + d)i
: (3 + 4) + (2 - 3)i
: 7-i

(ii)

that the sum of two complex numbers is itself

always a complex number.

Putc: d = 0 in(ii);then
(a+bi)+(0+0i):a+bi
0+

0i is the zero element. In practice 0 + 0i is usually just denoted by 0 but the


fact that it is a complex zero is important to remember.
so that

Put

: -a

and

: -b in (ii); then

: (a - a) + (b :0+0i
:0
Thus (-a - bi ) is the additive inverse of a t bi.
(a

+ bi) + (-a -

bi)

b)i

Regarding subtraction as the addition of the additive inverse, we get

{a + bi)

(c + di)

: (a + bi) + (-c :(a-c)+(b*d)i

di)

(c) Multiplication
This is defined by:
.(a

e.g.

: a(c + di) + bi(c + di)


: ac 1- udi + bci + bdiz
: (ac - bd) + (ad + bc)i
(3 + 2i)(4 - 3') : 3(4 - 3i) + 2i(4 - 3i)
:12-9i+8i-6i2
: l8 - i, since i2 : -l

+ bi) x

(c + di)

(iii)

From our definition of multiplication, we see that the product of two complex
numbers is itself a complex number.

Put

1 and

Oin (iii);then

(a+bi)(l +0,):a-tbi
so that

I + 0i is the multiplicative identity element. The complex

nurnbers

bi are called coniugates and

(a

bi)(a

- bi): (az + b2) + 0i from(iii)


:az1S2

bi

and

(3 + 4rX3 -

4i):9 - l2i + lzi -

l6i2

o,

_:tr.

We observe that the product of a conjugate pair of complex numbers is a real number.
Compare this with the fact that the product of a conjugate pair of surds (irrational
numbers) yields a rational number.

6/A-JOr'/i+JD:a-b
lf

z: x *

yi,thenitsconjugate2(read'z'bar') isgivenbyZ
zz

Conversely,

andx

: (x +

yi)(x

yi)

x2 +

y2

it follows that the factors of xz + yz (the sum of two squares)

are

yi.

EXAMPLE 3
Factorise x2 - 4x

x - yi

13.

x2-4x-l13
:(x2-4x+4)+9
:(x-2)z-9;z
:(x-2-3i)(x-2+3i)
M

= x - yi.

sum of two squares


difference of two squares

ultiplicative inverse

To find the multiplicative inverse of the non-zero complex number z


denote such an inverse, if it exists, by , ' : a * bi.
We require z.z | : I + Oibydefinition of inverse.
r.e.

i.e.

: x -F yi, let us

(x+yi)(a+bi):l+0i
(ax - by) + (ay + bx)i : I + 0i

Equating real and imaginary parts, we get

ax bY:
aY-fbx:0

Solving these equations for a and b yields

,=";
Hence

,'-

yrandb =

-y

?+V

-* ,- -'' , whichisoftheformX-Yi
x2+y2
x2+y-

_x-yt
-1
x'iy'
x - yi-Zandx2 + y2:
1

But
Hence

z-t:L:Z
ZZZ

12

EXAMPLE 4

Ifz:4+3i,then
1

--4-t,:q+3i^+-u

Similarly, the quotient

+4can
c+dt

4-3i

4-3i

4 3i
:25-x
25

be expressed in the form

x * yiif we 'realise' (make

real) the denominator by multiplying the numerator and denominator by


conjugate of c * dl, provided that c -f di is non-zero.

a-tbi a+bi
,1di-r.di',

di, the

c-di
di

_ (ac + bd) + (bc - ad)i


cz+d2
ac -t bd (bc - od)i
:c\drc2+dz
EXAMPLE 5
)+i
Express

the form

U,in

x t yi

2+i 2+i 3+2i 4+7i : 4 7i


13 13- 13
3- 2i: 3_ 2in3*r:
should be noted that, although the complex numbers form a field, it is not art
ordered field, and so in the field of complex numbers we cannot use the phrases 'greater

It

than'or

'less than'.

EXERCTSES 31(b)
Express each of the following in the form

1. (3

+ si) + ('t -

2i)

4i)

3. (:4 - 7i)

s. (5

(3

2i)(6 + i)

+ six4 - 5i)
e. (3 - 2i)(4 + 7i)
11. (8 + 5iX8 - 5,)
1. (4

13. (a

bi)(a

bi)

x + yi (1. to 26.)

2.(8-3')+(l-')
4.(2-i)-(-3-4i)
6. (7 + i)i
Q
r;\2
t t,
u. /1
\r

(s 12. (3 14. (4 +

L0.

15.

i3

16. is

17.

i6

18.

20.(o

11 8+5i

at
LL,

3i

6i)2
3i)2

(4')(-3')

ts.d3+2i)6/5-2i)
""4_

2i)2

7 +2i
)-l

5t1z

+ 3i
*
24.-? 3i -2
--'-2-4i
l-2i

3i ,
23. -"'2+5i
-2
2-5i
n
zs. (! ?'\'
\2-4il
27.\f z - 5 (a) z-t
(e) (z)3
28.

,u.a
--

(e)

2i,expressasacomplexnumberintheformx

@)z
(f) (z

- z2)2

- z)2

yi

zz

(d)

12

@f=
z-l

(h'S

z|+z

(c)

- 3i,findinx t yiform
(b)21.22
(c\ z1t z;t
2

(il'+
Z1 i

zr.zz

29. Find real numbers x and y such that


(a)(x + yi)(2 - 3i): -t3i
(c) (1 + i)x + (2 - 3i)y : 19
30. Find z,inthe form

x*

(b)22 + 25
(d){22 + 3)2 + 8
(f)22 + 4z + 20
(h)22 + z-t I

32. Show that for 21,22,23, where z


:22 * 21
(a)21 * 22
(b)21 + (22 * z): (zy-t zr)

7.

$);
{l\ ,, -

: x i li
+

z,

zz.zr

-'(2,22)zj

: ZtZz I

:
2t is an

+ yi)(t + 4i):6 + 7i

(U'-2-l*i
Z

31. Find linear factors of:


(a)22 + 9
(c)(, - 3)z + 16
(e)22 + 2z + 26
(e)rz - 3z + 6*

(i) 21.22
(d\z{z2zj)
(e) z(22 * z)

(b)(x

22

yi, such that

(a)22-1=14_ i)2

31

bi

e+fi

lf zy : 3 + iandz2
(a) (21

l-

z1z3

\;)

'imaginary'number

ti\

z1 -r

(k\

zizis

z,is areatnumber
a real number

.4 The complex number plane

It is obvious that,

since complex numbers do not possess the order properties of real


numbers, it is not possible to represent them as points on a line. There is certainly no
place for them on the real number line. However, since the complex number z
x
is composed of two parts and can be expressed as an ordered pair (x, y), perhaps

complex numbers can be represented as points

in a plane.

* li

Remember that complex

numbers were invented to cope with the number i, with the property that i2
- 1. Now,
the geometrical equivalent of multiplying a real number by - I is a rotation through l80o

about the origin. If we multiply a real number by i and then by i again we have
multiplied by - L It is reasonable to suggest, then, that the geometrical equivalent of
multiplying by i is a rotation through 90o about the origin. This suggests that we take
perpendicular axes such that one axis represents x, the real part of z, and the other axis
represents y, the irnaginary part of z.
Y

lmaginary axis

3i
2i

4-3-2-1
-i
-2i
-31

Figure

3l-3

Then the complex number z : x -l Yi


can be represented by the point P in the
plane with coordinates (*, y).
This cartesian representation of the
complex number field is called the
complex number plane or the Argand
diagram [named after J. R. Argand

lmaginary axis

(1768 1822)1, or the z-plane.

Real axis
Y

-3

+ 4i r-----"

-"'---

Figure

3l-4

4i

4-3-2-1
-i
-2i
-4 -3i l---- ----- ------- --- -sl

4i
Figure 31-5

Figure 31 5showsthecomplexnumbers 5
the complex number plane.

+ 2i,-3 + 4i,-4 - 3iand2 - 4ion

(a) Addition of complex numbers

EXAMPLE 6
If zt: 5 + 2iandz2:
(i) rt + z, (ii) z1 22.
-

I + 3l,illustrateonthecomplexplane

Figure 31

(i)

Figure 31,7

t z2:

+ 2i) + (t + 3i)
+ + 3)i
: [t** sD Q
Let P represent 5 -l- 2i and'Q represent I + 3i. Then the geometry
z1

(5

of the situation
shows (Figure 3l-6) that if we cor,nplete the parallelogram poeR. then the point R
represents the complex number 6 + 5i which is the sum of zl and 22.
(ii)

zr - Zz : z1 -f (-22)
: (5 + 2i) +

(-t :(5_t)+(2_3)i
:4-i

3i)

The additive inverse of zr:1 + 3i is -22: -1 - 3i and since subtraction is


definedastheadditionof theadditiveinverse,theninFigure 3l-T,Prepresents 5 + 2i,
Q represents - | - 3i and so by completion of the parallelogram poeR, R represents

Zr-Zz:4-i.

Multiplication of a complex number by i


EXAMPLE 7
If z : 4 + 3i, show on the complex plane iz, i2 z, i3 z, ia z.

z:4*3i
iz:i(4 + 3i) = -3 + 4i
i2z: i(-3 + 4i) : -4 - 3i
i3z:i(-4 - 3,): 3 - 4i
iaz: i(3 - 4i) : 4 + 3i : z

Multiptcation of a complex number by i is equivalent to a quarter turn about O and


this is consistent with our previous proposition in suggesting that the imaginary axis be
set at right angles to the real axis.

Figure 31-8
EXERCISES 31(c)

1. Represent each of the following complex numbers on the complex plane:


(a)1+,
(b)3 - 5'
(c\ -4 - 2i
(d) - 3,
(e)-l + 4l
(f) -s(1 + ,)

2.lf z:2 + i and w : -3 -

4i, represent each of the following on the complex

plane:

(a),

(b')z

(d)z+w

(")i

(g) Re

(h) Im

3. Given that z
(a)

G) J

g)z.w

(i)

zw

2i, plot each of the following on an Argand diagram:

-,

@)z

(c) t3r)

(d):

4. H w

4 + 3i, plot on the complex

plane the point symmetric to w with respect

to:
(a) the X-axis

(b) the Y-axis

(d) the line with equation

5. lf z

- -2 -

! :

(c) the origia

i, show on an Argand diagram the points represented by:

z. z. !,
z

z2

6.If z: I - iandw:5 -

2l,expresseachof thefollowing in cartesian form and

show each point on the complex plane:

(a\z'

(c)z+w

(b\z

(d)r'
7. If z :

(e) z2

+ iz *

7, where is z on the complex plane?


of z and Z on the complex plane?

31

lf

, *

2, what are the relative positions

.5 Polar form of a complex number

A point P in the plane with cartesian


coordinates (x, y) can be represented in
terms of polar coordinates [r, 0], and the
equations relating cartesian and polar
coordinates are:

(a)x: rcos0
(b)y: rsinp
(c) rz : x2 I y2, where here we define
r - Jx4 ,z,r 2 0. (Figure 3l-9)
Figure

3l-9
z=x+Yt

Figure 31-10

Similarly, the complex number

: x -f yi canbe expressed
z:
:

in polar form thus:

r(cos0 + isin0)

(l)

rcis0

where cis 0 is a common abbreviation for cos 0 + i sin 0.


We define the modulus of z or the absolute vqlue of z as the distance from the origin
to the point P representing the complex pumber z. We can express the modulus of

iin

several ways:

modz: lzl: lx + yil: \fxz + y = r

(2)

The polar angle 0 is called al argument of z or phase of z or amplitude of z or just


simply angle of z and is written thus:

argz

0+

2n7r

(3)

or

phz:

g + Znr

where n is a positive integer.


Observe that any non-zero complex number has many arguments since any integral
multiple of 2r can be added to 0, but the principal vslue of an argument of z, denoted
0 rr.
by Arg z, is usually defined to be the angle 0 where - zr

Argz:0rwhere-:r(.0{r
:

sin g) is called the modulus-argument form or the polar form of


complex number while z : x I yi is called the cartesianform.

r(cos 0

+i

EXAMPLE 8
Express

(a)r: -l - i (b)z:4 +

(a)r: "'F;l

3iinmodulus-argumentform.

Jl + I : O

- | - i is in the third quadrant

considered in an anticlockwise direction or in


the second quadrant considered in a clockwise direction, then

and since

-fi^"a"oro: -fi
Hence 0 : -+for -zr ( 0 ( z'
sing:

rhus-

| - i:.2("o,

-+.,t*

- ?)

: Jr"i, -T
lrl = Jlandarg z -

-3] + zno,, e

3r
ArEz: -,

(b),

Since 4

3i is in the first quadrant,

tanl:

?andso

0:36o

52'.

Thus

3i:

4+

52' + i sin 36' 52)

5(cos 36o

5 cis 36o 52'.

lrl

5 and arg

360

Arg z

z : 36" 52' + n.360o,n

52',

Figure

3l

12

EXAMPLE 9
Express

, : z("orT *

,rt,

?)in cartesian form.

')*
r : 2,0 ; and the point z is in the second quadrant.

x:rcos0
1*

: ^ZCOSLltr
J
1

-t

andy: rsin9
.\Llt
: ZS1II r
J

T.
: VJ

Hence, the cartesianformis

- -l + J5i.

Figure

31

13

Multiplication in modulus-argument forrn


By expressing complex numbers in modulus-argument form, we can obtain a simple
expression for the product of complex numbers.
Let

z, :

r1 cis 01 and z2

rzcis

02.

Their product is given by


ZtZz

:
:
:

rr cis 0r .rzCis

0z

+ i sin 02)
11r2[(cos 0r cos 0z - sin 01 sin 0z) + i(sin 0y cos 02 *
r1r2[cos (0, + 0r) + i sin (01 + 0r)1
rrizcis (01 + 6)

,,r

r2(cos

0t + i sin 61)(cos

02

Zt22
Hence
and
Is

: rlr2cis (01 +

lztzrl: ttrz:

02)

lzrl.lzr.l
arg(2122): atgzl + argz2
Argzl22 - Argzl i Arg z2?

cos 01 sin

0)]

(4)

Figure 3l-14

EXAMPLE 10

Letzr:2
7.7^

-t?t

a Zt/5i
:

acis\and

cisl. 2cis+:

-q\/3 - +i

z2

8 cis

(Figure

: -.,/5 + f : Z"irt
6
7rr\
:
*(*'
+ /sm
?
?
6
J

31

15)

Figure 3l-15

Division in modulus-argument form


Let z, - r1 cis 01 and z2 : rz cis A2 and z2is anon-zero

complex number.

zt _rtcisAr

Z2

12 cis A2

.. ru cis (-02)
,, t:rt 0, ^ rxILS (-0)
rlr2cis (0, - 0r)
11

cis 01

r22 cis 0

But

cisO: cos0 * i sinO :

::

Hence

Zt

ft

22

12

_cls

*t(7):

and

_
12

lztl
lzrl

o2

or

Argl:
" z.

Is

t"or (0,

_ rr

t;

Hence

(0r

Arg z1

(s)

0z)

+ isin (0, -

or)

argzl

or)f

zrgz2

Argz2?

EXAMPLE 11

If
then

- -rA + iandz2 = 2sfi + 2i


zt:2.i, f and z2 : acisl
zt

JW

2
'"'"cisln

.,6,
a : 1^,. 2o - !l-^-2o +, /srnT)
1:
^,^2n\ :- -+*
-1 .,- q
21 4crs. . ; rcrs 3 r\cosT
,

31

.6 De Moivre's theorem

We have seen from (4) that tf

z, :

11

cis 01 arrd z2

Zrzz:
In particular,

:
z2 :
z3 :

if

Zt

then
Similarly,

rz cis 02, then

rlr2cis

(0

Zz

: z:

r2

cis 20

ne

z'

: r' cis ":u',"*


n0
: r' (cos n0 + i sin n0)

This is known as De Moivre's theorem.

cis 0

J,

then

Prooffor n

A2)

z2.z

I ;:H
In general, rf

J+

Suppose the theorem is true for

Multiply both sides by z

r cis 0.

k,i.e. zk

rk

cts

k0.

(6)

zk+t

Then
Hence, if the theorem is true for

rk

cis

(k?).r cis 0

rk+t cis (k

1)0

k, then it is also true for n =

k+

1.

: r cis 0.
Soitistrueforn: | + I :2andsoforn:2 + l:3andsoon.Henceitistrue
But it is true for

for alln e J+.


Furthermore,rf z

l,

since

A,

cis(-9) lcis(-0)
1*'i'1-9]
]
,:
-]
"
rcis0 = r
z rcis0 rcis0"cis(-0)
z-n

: (:)' = "" (- o)l : \


[]

cis

ne)

r-n [cos (-n0) * i sin (-n0)]


This is De Moivre's theorem for negative integers.

31

.7 Powers of a complex number

The modulus-argument form of a complex number, together with De Moivre's theorem,

provides us with a very convenient and simple method


negative integral powers of a complex number.

EXAMPLE 12
Express (1 + .vEr)6inx

Let

of calculating positive

yiform.

::t-J3i
:z("o,

Hence

z6

I*,",;)

: 26(cos2r -l i sin 2rr)


: 64(l + 0,)
:64

Figure

3l

16

EXAMPLE 13
Express

Let

(l - ;1-t in x -F yf form.
z:l-i

: o1.",(_i) * , '.({)]
t.z-i: tlit ,l ,or! * / stn t-7rf

:(J')-'(i:*(t -,

i)

_l

Figure

3l

17

and

EXAMPLE 14

Simpriry f-#
Let ,, : Ji - ,: ,l*, (-;) * isin (+l
Hence ,,' : rnl*' (-i) * i sin
Let

:2ecis

(-+)

zz:1 + i: rD(.or X* rr.;)

Hence

rhus

z,s

11fi1s[*'T

r I sin +1 : +O"ir!

#A:zuri"*(-+)
: *Jrl*'(-+)

Butcos(-+)
and sin

T!

+ isin

(-+)l

:"o,f :"o,f : #

(-+) : -sin (+) : -sin + : -#

: -64(r + ,)
rhus 22)
'4: uo'/l(-+
" \ r/Z - 4,)
r/z
I

EXERCTSES 31(d)

L. Express each of the following in modulus-argument form.

(t)2 - 2i
(d)-6 - 6'

(b)-l + \/3i
@)ai

(c)

5 + t2i

(f)4 -

3,

2. Plot the following points on the complex plane and hence convert to modulusargument form.

(a)2 +
(d)-3

(b)-6 - 8,

3. Express each of the following in polar form and

(c\

-2i

hence write down their modulus and

argument.

- 3i
(d)-3 - tt/tt

(a)3

(r)-v6 +;

@)-4 +

4i

4. Convert each of the following into cartesian form.


I
*
rr\
a(cos

ar

ta)

, sin

1)

{u) s cis

'i * ,'* +)
(-i) -' ,'* (-t)

"r (-f

1c) 6(cos

ral a

(e) cos

(r) 2 cis

5. Find in x

yi form an expressio n for

(i)z: o(*'t

+ isin

i),*:

" ,:3cisI
(u); - 5crs;.u

(a,)

+(.o,

zw

f,

@\

(-?)
for each of the following:

* ,,,";)

r;l 31 r,srn 3n\ * = l,D(.o'


Jr(r*X,r'r;)
4
4 /,
(iv\z:2-2i,w:
I +i
(v)z - -2i,w - $ - i
6. If z - -1
iandw : .,/3 f ifind
(a) lrl
(b) lrl,l
(c) lzwl
(d) Arg z
(e) Arg w
(f) Arg (zw)
7.If z: x * yi,showthat
(t) lzl - lzl
(\ z.z : lrl,
Verifyinthecase, z:3 + 4i
(iii) z

8. with the aid of an Argand diagram, show that lz


complex numbers.

e.tf z1: +("o, I * ,

',, i)

and

+ wl < lzl + lwl

z2: z(.o, X * ,,,,;)

argument form (b) cartesian form each of the

following:

find in (a) modulus(i\

10. Simplify the following, where z is a non-zero complex number


13 - il
z2

tal

rf z, w are

z1z2 $\':

(b)
(c) arg z t
1 :,1
Ep
ll. If z : x l yiandw : u * vishowthat
lz + wl2 - 1zl2 t lrl2 + 2Re (zw).

argz

12. Show that the conjugate of the sum, product and quotient of two complex numbers
is equal to the sum, product and quotient respectively of their conjugatei.

13.lf

z:

yi,show thar.z +

ry:2Ftez.

14. Express in the

x*

(a) 116 + ;;6


(d) (2 + 2i)3

yl form:

O) (r - ,),
(e) (- I + i)6
(h) (l + 404

G) Q : i)s
15. Simplify and express in

(a) [2(cos 5o + isin

(.) ,D["o,

x f yi form:

5o)]6

r#)*

(t + i\fro
(f) (3 - 4i1z
(c)

i sin

Ol [z("", #
(u)
+

(+)],

(*,*

* ,r*#)]'
,,i,T)*

16. Simplify:

(") (.uE - D-o


(b) (-4 - at/ti1-t

(b) (1 +

17. Find each of the following in

x*

,)-6

@)

(l

i)r(2

+ 2i14

z = -4

4i)5

(r) rr + i)4(2 -

2i)3

yiform:
(b) 5(sin0 - lcos0)
(d) cos 20 + i sin 20

- qlaiandw:

z("o,

I *,rir{)nra

(r)

lrl

(b)

(d)

zaw2

(e) z-tra,-z

31.8

G)ffi
(3

(v3*#

(a) 25(cos 20 + i sin 20)


(c) 5(cos0 - i sin0)

19. Given

2i)-3

7i form:

(b) (l=* "'


(f *
(- I
(d)
(")
ror
:+
'J'
li - ,')8
,1 * ,yr,,
l&.lf z: 3 - 4i: 5(cos0 + isin0)findinx *
(a)

er/3 +

(c)

Arg z

,3

$t+
w'

Roots of complex numbers

De Moivre's theorem provided an easy means of finding zn,

If
then

z:

gSven z.

0 + i sin A): rcis?


zn = rn(cos n0 + i sin n0) : r" cis n0.
with the reverse problem, namely, gjven zr,fttd
r(cos

We are now faced


Actually, we will see from a few worked examples that there are

z, the nth root of 2".


re such roots.

EXAMPLE 15

Solvetheequation: z3: I wherez : x * )ti.


Let
z:r(cosO + i sin0): rcis6
and
l: I + 0i - l(cos0 + isin0): lcis0

By De Moivre's theorem, the equation


z3

becomes

r3cis30: lcis0
It follows that
and
ie
Hence
i.e.

13:l,i.e.r: l,
cis 30 : cis 0
cos30 -r i sin30:cos0 + isin0.
cos 30 : cos 0 and sin 30 : sin 0
30 : 0 -l 2kr wherek : 0,t1,+2,

...

0:1.'kr
J
z: | cls2kr
3

Hence

k:0,2t

: t.zz : "or'l+ isin + : -+* t+


k - -t,Zt:*'(-?) + isin (-?) : -;-,+
k

It might appear that there

are many more values of z obtained by putting


3, . . . . Check and you will find that the above values of z repeat themselves.

e.g.rfk

: 2,2- I cis ! :

"^

(-+) :

rr.

There are, then, three cube roots of unity,


and their representation on the complex
plane reveals an interesting pattern. Each
has a modulus of I and hence lies on the
circumference of the unit circle. Furthermore they occur in conjugate pairs

zt:Ztandzr:2,
and are evenly spaced around the circle,
each being separated by an angle equal to

')-

f3'. fney form the vertices of an equilateral


Figure 3l-18

triangle.

Alternatively
-3

Q 1)(22+z+
Hence,z:lorz:

-t+lE-n

1:0
t) : 0

l.$

-iil

(Difference of two cubes)

asaDove.

k : !2,

EXAMPLE 16

: *64 where z : x -t !i.


z : r(cos0 -l isin 0) : rcis9
*64 : 64(-l + 0r) : 64(cos r * isinz-) : 64crsr.

Find the values of z for which z6


Let
and
Hence the equation

z6

-64

becomes 16 cis 60

64 cis

It follows that

r :2sincer ) 0
and
crs 60 : cis r
i.e.
cos 60 * i sin 60 : cos zr * i sin zr.
Hence
60 : r * 2kr,k : 0, +. l, + 2,...
T *2kr
o:
66
:Jz*i
k : 0- z, : 2cisL
16

64 andso

:r/z_i

k: -l,zz:zcis -[

k: l.z,:2cis!

,2

k : -2,2q :

k'-

2.zs

-3.20

2cis

: _2i

-\

:2cis*

: -"',6 *

-? : -t/t -

2"i,

2i

Figure 3l-19

of -64

(Figure 3l-19).
Observe that, since each root has a modulus of 2, the roots lie on the circumference of a
circle of radius 2 units and are evenly spaced around the circle, each being separated by
These are the srx sixth roots

an angle equal to

2r

. The roots also occur in conjugate pairs. They form the vertices of a

regular hexagon.

EXAMPLE 17
Find the four fourth roots of

za:t+iJa:Zcts\.

Let

Hence

ra

cis

40

2 cis

lJ sir,ce z : r cis 0

2andso

r: {1
40: +3 i 2kr,k:0, + l, + 2,...
ra

and

I + i $.

H-_+_
"-rrkr

i.e.

12

Z:

k:0,2t:

dicis
4t;

VZ

{;. T)
tt

CrS

t il
4/^
k: 1,zz: vrcrs
- 12
5r
4r;
k: l,zt: vzcls
-T

k:-2,20:l/1"ir-ll'

Figure

3l-20

t2

These are the fourth roots of + iJa and the answers may be left in the cis form. The
units, evenly spaced and separated
roots lie on the circumference of a circle of radius

by an angle equal to

{.2 ff,.

{2

roots do not occur in conjugate pairs.

In general,

zn: rncisn|: pcisa,


L ott2kr
z _ rasA : p"cLs

if
then

Square roots
It is frequently more satisfactory to find tbe square roots of complex numbers by
working in the cartesian form.

EXAMPLE 18

- l2i.
Letz2:5 - l2iwherez : x *
Find the square roots of 5

yi,

(x+Yi)z:5-l2i
*'-y2+2xyi:5-l2i

then
i.e.

Equating real and imaginary parts, we get

x2-y2-5
x! : -6
x2+yz:13

and
also

From

(2)

.: from (1)

!.
.'.

-]r: -:

(1)

(2)
(3)

6
and

^36 ,:5
Xzx'

xa-5x2 36:0
(x2-9)(x2*4):g
v2-9:0orx2+4:0(norealvaluesforx)
x:+3andv:12.

Alternatively, adding (1) and (3), we get2xz


Hence the square roots of

l2i

are

x : -t
2i and -3 + 2i.
18, i.e.

3 as before.

EXERCISES 31(e)

1. Find and plot on the complex plane the values of z for which

(r)zs:l
t^\-2-:
1!,' -

(b)ro*l:0
(d')13+81

-t

(e)ro+16:0
l+i
(e) ,3 : -

(f) ,o:
(h) z'o :

:0

S(.rG

+ ;)

2. Find:

(a)
(c)
(e)

(b) the square roots of 3 + 4i


(d) the fourth roots of 8

the fifth roots of 32


the square roots of
the

24i

(f)

lifth roots of I

(g) thesixthrootsof 27 (cos

I * rr*t)

the cube roots of 8 cis

I
*
(h) the square roots of 8

6,

3. Threepoints,of which t + iy5isonepoint,lieonthecircumferenceof acircleof


radius 2 units and centre at the origin. If these three points form the vertices of an
equilateral triangle, find the other two points.
4.

lf

1, w1 and w2zre the cube roots of unity prove that

(t) wr: wz: wz2


31

(b)

,, -t wr: -1

(c) w, wz: I

.9 Subsets of the complex plane

So far in our study of complex numbers, we have considered only particular points in the

complex plane. If we consider rrow z as a complex variable, and express z in the


modulus-argument form, or the cartesian form, certain subsets of the complex plane can
be illustrated very simply.

EXAMPLE 19
Sketch and describe the following subsets of the
complex plane in which

(i\ lzl
(iii) lzl

:
:

(ii) lz

lz

- (l + ,)l <

1-r./61 gv)z+z>2

Figure 3l-21

Figure 31 22

lz-(l+i)l<4

(i) Since lzl, i.e. the modulus of z, is defined as the distance from the origin to the
points representing z, then the locus is the set of all points in the plane distant 2 units
from the origin, i.e. all points on the circumference of a circld, centre at the origin
and radius length 2 units (Figure 3l-21).
Alternatively:

Let

z:x+iandso
lzl = v/*4 P

"'

lzl:2becomes

\F *V :2

ie

y2
.ttr

+ v2 =

which is a circle centre (0, 0) and radius 2 units.

(ii) lz - (1 + ,) | is the distance from the fixed point (l + ,) to the points representing
z and hence the locus is the set of all points inside the circle whose centre is the
point (1 * i)and radius length 4 units (Figure 3l-22).
Altematively:
Let

i.e.

@<+

z: x.* lyandso
z-l-i:x-l+(y-l)i
=@
lz-t-il
lz - (1 + ,)l < 4becomes

(* - l)2 + (y - l)2 <

16

which represents the region inside a circle centre (1, 1) and radius 4 units.

(iii) lzl

: lz + I -

i\/l]andhenceisthesetof allpointsintheplane-whosedistance
from the origin is equal to their distance from the point (- I + i/3; and hence is
the set of all points on the straight line which is the perpendicular.bisector of the line
segment joining the origin to the point - I + ,V3 (Figure 31 23).

Ahernatively:

Let

z: x * ivandso
z-t t - i\/1 : x + I + (y - t/1)i

lzl:lz+l-ifl

:ffi
'tr+f
x2+y2:(x*

becomes

l),+(y_ Jr,
:x2+2x-tl-ry'-2J3y+3
tfty - x :2
Hence the locus is the set of points on the line v6;, x :

1.e.

2.

-\\-'--,

=lz*t-.r6il
Figure 31 23

(iv) Let
By addition, z

z:x I
Z:x I Z :2x

zyandso
iy

+ Z > 2isequivalentto

2x>2
x) I
which represents the region to the right
of the line x : I as shown in Figure 3l-24.
Figure

EXAMPLE 20
Sketch and describe the locus specified by

(i)Arg

,:

f,

(ii)Re z * lmz:3
(iii) the intersection of (i) and (ii).
(i) Since Arg z

= [,*"locus

is the set of all

points on the halfJine having one end at


O and making an angle

X-axis.

Iwitnthe
x and Im z : y, then

(ii) Since Re z :
Re z * lm z : 3 is the equation of a
straight line with cartesian equation

x*Y=J.

(iii) The intersection of (i) and (ii) is the point A


atwhich x: y: llFigure 3l-25).

Figure 3l-25

3l-24

EXAMPLE 21
Sketch and describe the following subsets of the complex plane in which

(i)l<lzl<2

(ii) I < Imz

(i)

(ii)

2r

( 3,[ < xs,

1,.

Fisure 3l

Figure 3l-27

(i) All points are on or inside the circle, cente O, and radius 2 units but also outside the
circle, centre O, and radius I unit. All these points are more than I unit from the
origin but equal to or less than 2 units from the origin (Figure 3l-26).
(ii) All the points are on three sides of and the inside of a trapezium bounded by the
lines

y : I and y :

3and the lines which are inclined at angles of

and

with the X-axis (Figure 31 27).


EXERCTSES 31(f

1. Illustrate on the complex plane the following.


(b)
(i1 lzl > t

l, - (l - i\/3)l :
(d)lz+3+4,1<5
(f)l<lzl <3

- il : lzl
(e)lz-2+il:4
@)2<lz-il<5

(c) lz

(h\lz+21 <2

2. Sketch and describe the following

(a)lz-rl:lz-3il

(c)lz+21:lz+41
(e)

11

- zl:

lz

3. Illustrate the following

; = Argz {

1l

subsets

subsets of the complex plane.

(b\lz-il:lz-ll
(d)lr-1-il:lz+1+,1
$llr-zil>lz+21
of C on the z-plane.

a*

(b)Arer:;

(a)Argr:[
G)

.l*
1
J

(d)-o(Argzlr

,adiu.rs

2):+
(e) Are lz - (t - it/lll :2]
(e) Arg (z +

(f) Arg (z -

i):0

4. Illustrate each of the following on the z-plane.


(a) Re z : 2
(b) Im z
(c) Re z : | - lmz
(d) Re z

: -1
* Imz 2 2
(f) Rez(Imz

(e) 3Rez-4lmz:12

5. Using one set of axes, sketch aqd describe the following subsets of the complex
plane.

(a) (i)lr- 1l<1

(ii)Imz>0

(iii) the intersection of (i) and (ii)

(b) (i)2<lzl <3

(ii)0<Argz<L

2'

(iii) the intersection of (i) and (ii)

(c) (i) -:.Arez<[

(ii)Rezl-2

(iii) the intersection of (i) and (ii)

(d) (i) lrl < 3

(ii)

Re

z r Imz 13

(iii) the intersection of (i) and (ii)

(e) theintersection oflz

- ll < I and.lz + ,l < I

: x * ry, sketch and describe the following subsets of the complex plane
(b) lr2 - (z)21 <4
(a) 2lzl: z + z + 4

6. If z

(c)

l, -2il:lz-al

(d)

the region common to

(i) l< lrl<2ano-\4 (Argz.T


- "'o- -

(ii)zz(4andz*222i
(e) 1, - ztl : 2lz - z2lwherezl : -2 + 4iandz2 - 4 + i
(f) lz - zrl2 - lz - zzl2 : 5where zr : 2 + 3iand z2 : -2 -