Complex
Numbers
31
As we have seen in previous work, our number system grew in a very practical way.
Primitive man needed to be able to count, and for this purpose the present day symbols 1,
2, 3, . .. are used. We call these counting numbers, noturol numbers or positive integers.
The operations of addition and multiplication can be performed on these numbers and
the system is closed under these operations. If a and b are positive integers, then
a * b : p and ab : Q wherep and q arepositive integers. Within this system, simple
b:9and q = 5,thereis
no integer a. Man's imagination was extended to develop the system of rqtional numbers.
These are numbers of the form
a, c_ ad+bc
b aAC
b " d
bd
ac
bd
Addition
Multiplication
Rational numbers are sometimes now expressed as an ordered pair of integers (a, b),
+ 0, and, in this notation, addition and multiplication are defined by
(a,
Addition
Multiplication
+ b = 0where aandbare
The set of integers is a subset of the set of rational numbers. Integers are rational
numbers of the lorm
Ib where b :
l.
Furthermore, we cannot remain within the system of rational numbers to give meaning
to
such numbers
u" 1[2,
r,
e. They cannot be
expressed
in the fo.m f .
b
Rational
3t4
it
J2
1
Within this system we can solve equations of the form ax ) b : 0, and, in addition,
quadraticequations ax2 + bx i c: O,providedthatb2  4ac 2 0.
To solve quadratic equations in which b2  4ac < 0, it is necessary to go beyond the
real number system. Man again used his imagination to develop the system of complex
nurnbers into which we introduce the 'number'i with the special property that i2 :  1.
31
.2 Ouadratic equations
represent graphically, the x"values of the point (or points) of intersection of the parabola
bx t c with the Xaxis.
ax2
However, there are many parabolas which do not intersect the Xaxis, e.g. the
! :
ParabolaY: x2
+ l(Figure3l'l).
Figure
31 I
xz + l:0
x2  i2:0,wherei2:
l
:
(Difference
of two squares)
(x  i )(x + ,) 0
x:iori
It can be
EXAMPLE
Considerthequadraticequation x2
, : b+\/fi'z4(
2rY,where
_4
4x
13
0.
= l,b : 4andc :
t3
 s2
\fi6
2
L \F36
or completing the square, we have
(x24x+4)+9:0
_4 j.6t/l
(x 
4+6i 46i
:;or=:,wherei
:2 + 3ior2  3i
: J
2)2
] ,?.,r". i2 = r
x2:+3i
x:2l
3lor23i
y = x2  4x +
13 does
Figure 312
EXAMPLE 2
Solve the quadratic equations:
(r)xz + 4 :
(a)
i.e.
(x 
(b)r'+2x*3:0
x2 + 4:0
x2  4iz: 0, where i2 : l
2i)(x + 2i) : 0 (Difference of two squares)
x2ior2i
x2+2x+3:0
(b)
+
x: b 'J6'?= 4a; ,wherea:l,b:2andc:3
L
aa !
__2 t ,/4
2
tt
(x2+2x+1)+2:0
(x + 1)2
lo'r"rr*iz: l
x I I:rfii
x:ttOi
EXERCISES 31(a)
+9: 0
+ 2x + l7 :0
+ 2x + 10:0
(e\ *2x' t 2x  13 :
(b)x' + 25 :0
(d)x2 + 2x * 5 :
(a)x2
(c)x2
(e)x2
31
(f)x2:4x * 20
(h)x2 + 3 : 0
Imz : !.
Note that we have used a single letter z to denote the complex number x * yi to
emphasise the fact that x * yi is a single number.
Having invented a new number system, it remains to see how it reacts to the field laws.
We make the following definitions:
(a) Equality
a * bi: c l di,rf
and
onlyif
q: candb: d
(i)
Two complex numbers are equal if their real parts are equal and their imaginary parts
are equal.
andy: 3.
(b) Addition
This is defined by:
(a + bi) + (c + di)
(3 + 2i) + (:4  3')
e.g.
see
: (a + c) + (b + d)i
: (3 + 4) + (2  3)i
: 7i
(ii)
Putc: d = 0 in(ii);then
(a+bi)+(0+0i):a+bi
0+
Put
: a
and
: b in (ii); then
: (a  a) + (b :0+0i
:0
Thus (a  bi ) is the additive inverse of a t bi.
(a
+ bi) + (a 
bi)
b)i
{a + bi)
(c + di)
di)
(c) Multiplication
This is defined by:
.(a
e.g.
+ bi) x
(c + di)
(iii)
From our definition of multiplication, we see that the product of two complex
numbers is itself a complex number.
Put
1 and
Oin (iii);then
(a+bi)(l +0,):atbi
so that
nurnbers
(a
bi)(a
bi
and
(3 + 4rX3 
l6i2
o,
_:tr.
We observe that the product of a conjugate pair of complex numbers is a real number.
Compare this with the fact that the product of a conjugate pair of surds (irrational
numbers) yields a rational number.
6/AJOr'/i+JD:ab
lf
z: x *
yi,thenitsconjugate2(read'z'bar') isgivenbyZ
zz
Conversely,
andx
: (x +
yi)(x
yi)
x2 +
y2
are
yi.
EXAMPLE 3
Factorise x2  4x
x  yi
13.
x24xl13
:(x24x+4)+9
:(x2)z9;z
:(x23i)(x2+3i)
M
= x  yi.
ultiplicative inverse
i.e.
: x F yi, let us
(x+yi)(a+bi):l+0i
(ax  by) + (ay + bx)i : I + 0i
ax bY:
aYfbx:0
,=";
Hence
,'
yrandb =
y
?+V
* , '' , whichisoftheformXYi
x2+y2
x2+y
_xyt
1
x'iy'
x  yiZandx2 + y2:
1
But
Hence
zt:L:Z
ZZZ
12
EXAMPLE 4
Ifz:4+3i,then
1
4t,:q+3i^+u
+4can
c+dt
43i
43i
4 3i
:25x
25
atbi a+bi
,1dir.di',
di, the
cdi
di
the form
U,in
x t yi
It
than'or
'less than'.
EXERCTSES 31(b)
Express each of the following in the form
1. (3
+ si) + ('t 
2i)
4i)
3. (:4  7i)
s. (5
(3
2i)(6 + i)
+ six4  5i)
e. (3  2i)(4 + 7i)
11. (8 + 5iX8  5,)
1. (4
13. (a
bi)(a
bi)
x + yi (1. to 26.)
2.(83')+(l')
4.(2i)(34i)
6. (7 + i)i
Q
r;\2
t t,
u. /1
\r
(s 12. (3 14. (4 +
L0.
15.
i3
16. is
17.
i6
18.
20.(o
11 8+5i
at
LL,
3i
6i)2
3i)2
(4')(3')
ts.d3+2i)6/52i)
""4_
2i)2
7 +2i
)l
5t1z
+ 3i
*
24.? 3i 2
'24i
l2i
3i ,
23. "'2+5i
2
25i
n
zs. (! ?'\'
\24il
27.\f z  5 (a) zt
(e) (z)3
28.
,u.a

(e)
2i,expressasacomplexnumberintheformx
@)z
(f) (z
 z2)2
 z)2
yi
zz
(d)
12
@f=
zl
(h'S
z+z
(c)
 3i,findinx t yiform
(b)21.22
(c\ z1t z;t
2
(il'+
Z1 i
zr.zz
x*
(b)22 + 25
(d){22 + 3)2 + 8
(f)22 + 4z + 20
(h)22 + zt I
7.
$);
{l\ ,, 
: x i li
+
z,
zz.zr
'(2,22)zj
: ZtZz I
:
2t is an
+ yi)(t + 4i):6 + 7i
(U'2l*i
Z
(i) 21.22
(d\z{z2zj)
(e) z(22 * z)
(b)(x
22
(a)221=14_ i)2
31
bi
e+fi
lf zy : 3 + iandz2
(a) (21
l
z1z3
\;)
'imaginary'number
ti\
z1 r
(k\
zizis
z,is areatnumber
a real number
It is obvious that,
in a plane.
* li
numbers were invented to cope with the number i, with the property that i2
 1. Now,
the geometrical equivalent of multiplying a real number by  I is a rotation through l80o
about the origin. If we multiply a real number by i and then by i again we have
multiplied by  L It is reasonable to suggest, then, that the geometrical equivalent of
multiplying by i is a rotation through 90o about the origin. This suggests that we take
perpendicular axes such that one axis represents x, the real part of z, and the other axis
represents y, the irnaginary part of z.
Y
lmaginary axis
3i
2i
4321
i
2i
31
Figure
3l3
lmaginary axis
Real axis
Y
3
+ 4i r"
"'
Figure
3l4
4i
4321
i
2i
4 3i l    sl
4i
Figure 315
Figure 31 5showsthecomplexnumbers 5
the complex number plane.
EXAMPLE 6
If zt: 5 + 2iandz2:
(i) rt + z, (ii) z1 22.

I + 3l,illustrateonthecomplexplane
Figure 31
(i)
Figure 31,7
t z2:
+ 2i) + (t + 3i)
+ + 3)i
: [t** sD Q
Let P represent 5 l 2i and'Q represent I + 3i. Then the geometry
z1
(5
of the situation
shows (Figure 3l6) that if we cor,nplete the parallelogram poeR. then the point R
represents the complex number 6 + 5i which is the sum of zl and 22.
(ii)
zr  Zz : z1 f (22)
: (5 + 2i) +
(t :(5_t)+(2_3)i
:4i
3i)
ZrZz:4i.
z:4*3i
iz:i(4 + 3i) = 3 + 4i
i2z: i(3 + 4i) : 4  3i
i3z:i(4  3,): 3  4i
iaz: i(3  4i) : 4 + 3i : z
Figure 318
EXERCISES 31(c)
plane:
(a),
(b')z
(d)z+w
(")i
(g) Re
(h) Im
3. Given that z
(a)
G) J
g)z.w
(i)
zw
,
@)z
(c) t3r)
(d):
4. H w
to:
(a) the Xaxis
5. lf z
 2 
! :
z. z. !,
z
z2
6.If z: I  iandw:5 
(a\z'
(c)z+w
(b\z
(d)r'
7. If z :
(e) z2
+ iz *
31
lf
, *
(a)x: rcos0
(b)y: rsinp
(c) rz : x2 I y2, where here we define
r  Jx4 ,z,r 2 0. (Figure 3l9)
Figure
3l9
z=x+Yt
Figure 3110
: x f yi canbe expressed
z:
:
r(cos0 + isin0)
(l)
rcis0
iin
several ways:
(2)
argz
0+
2n7r
(3)
or
phz:
g + Znr
Argz:0rwhere:r(.0{r
:
r(cos 0
+i
EXAMPLE 8
Express
(a)r: l  i (b)z:4 +
(a)r: "'F;l
3iinmodulusargumentform.
Jl + I : O
and since
fi^"a"oro: fi
Hence 0 : +for zr ( 0 ( z'
sing:
rhus
  i:.2("o,
+.,t*
 ?)
: Jr"i, T
lrl = Jlandarg z 
3] + zno,, e
3r
ArEz: ,
(b),
Since 4
tanl:
?andso
0:36o
52'.
Thus
3i:
4+
5(cos 36o
lrl
5 and arg
360
Arg z
52',
Figure
3l
12
EXAMPLE 9
Express
, : z("orT *
,rt,
')*
r : 2,0 ; and the point z is in the second quadrant.
x:rcos0
1*
: ^ZCOSLltr
J
1
t
andy: rsin9
.\Llt
: ZS1II r
J
T.
: VJ
 l + J5i.
Figure
31
13
z, :
r1 cis 01 and z2
rzcis
02.
:
:
:
rr cis 0r .rzCis
0z
+ i sin 02)
11r2[(cos 0r cos 0z  sin 01 sin 0z) + i(sin 0y cos 02 *
r1r2[cos (0, + 0r) + i sin (01 + 0r)1
rrizcis (01 + 6)
,,r
r2(cos
0t + i sin 61)(cos
02
Zt22
Hence
and
Is
: rlr2cis (01 +
lztzrl: ttrz:
02)
lzrl.lzr.l
arg(2122): atgzl + argz2
Argzl22  Argzl i Arg z2?
cos 01 sin
0)]
(4)
Figure 3l14
EXAMPLE 10
Letzr:2
7.7^
t?t
a Zt/5i
:
acis\and
cisl. 2cis+:
q\/3  +i
z2
8 cis
(Figure
: .,/5 + f : Z"irt
6
7rr\
:
*(*'
+ /sm
?
?
6
J
31
15)
Figure 3l15
complex number.
zt _rtcisAr
Z2
12 cis A2
.. ru cis (02)
,, t:rt 0, ^ rxILS (0)
rlr2cis (0,  0r)
11
cis 01
r22 cis 0
But
::
Hence
Zt
ft
22
12
_cls
*t(7):
and
_
12
lztl
lzrl
o2
or
Argl:
" z.
Is
t"or (0,
_ rr
t;
Hence
(0r
Arg z1
(s)
0z)
+ isin (0, 
or)
argzl
or)f
zrgz2
Argz2?
EXAMPLE 11
If
then
JW
2
'"'"cisln
.,6,
a : 1^,. 2o  !l^2o +, /srnT)
1:
^,^2n\ : +*
1 ., q
21 4crs. . ; rcrs 3 r\cosT
,
31
.6 De Moivre's theorem
z, :
11
cis 01 arrd z2
Zrzz:
In particular,
:
z2 :
z3 :
if
Zt
then
Similarly,
rlr2cis
(0
Zz
: z:
r2
cis 20
ne
z'
cis 0
J,
then
Prooffor n
A2)
z2.z
I ;:H
In general, rf
J+
r cis 0.
k,i.e. zk
rk
cts
k0.
(6)
zk+t
Then
Hence, if the theorem is true for
rk
cis
(k?).r cis 0
rk+t cis (k
1)0
k+
1.
: r cis 0.
Soitistrueforn:  + I :2andsoforn:2 + l:3andsoon.Henceitistrue
But it is true for
l,
since
A,
cis(9) lcis(0)
1*'i'19]
]
,:
]
"
rcis0 = r
z rcis0 rcis0"cis(0)
zn
cis
ne)
31
EXAMPLE 12
Express (1 + .vEr)6inx
Let
of calculating positive
yiform.
::tJ3i
:z("o,
Hence
z6
I*,",;)
Figure
3l
16
EXAMPLE 13
Express
Let
(l  ;1t in x F yf form.
z:li
: o1.",(_i) * , '.({)]
t.zi: tlit ,l ,or! * / stn t7rf
:(J')'(i:*(t ,
i)
_l
Figure
3l
17
and
EXAMPLE 14
Simpriry f#
Let ,, : Ji  ,: ,l*, (;) * isin (+l
Hence ,,' : rnl*' (i) * i sin
Let
:2ecis
(+)
Hence
rhus
z,s
11fi1s[*'T
r I sin +1 : +O"ir!
#A:zuri"*(+)
: *Jrl*'(+)
Butcos(+)
and sin
T!
+ isin
(+)l
:"o,f :"o,f : #
: 64(r + ,)
rhus 22)
'4: uo'/l(+
" \ r/Z  4,)
r/z
I
EXERCTSES 31(d)
(t)2  2i
(d)6  6'
(b)l + \/3i
@)ai
(c)
5 + t2i
(f)4 
3,
2. Plot the following points on the complex plane and hence convert to modulusargument form.
(a)2 +
(d)3
(b)6  8,
(c\
2i
argument.
 3i
(d)3  tt/tt
(a)3
(r)v6 +;
@)4 +
4i
ar
ta)
, sin
1)
{u) s cis
'i * ,'* +)
(i) ' ,'* (t)
"r (f
1c) 6(cos
ral a
(e) cos
(r) 2 cis
5. Find in x
(i)z: o(*'t
+ isin
i),*:
" ,:3cisI
(u);  5crs;.u
(a,)
+(.o,
zw
f,
@\
(?)
for each of the following:
* ,,,";)
',, i)
and
following:
tal
rf z, w are
z1z2 $\':
(b)
(c) arg z t
1 :,1
Ep
ll. If z : x l yiandw : u * vishowthat
lz + wl2  1zl2 t lrl2 + 2Re (zw).
argz
12. Show that the conjugate of the sum, product and quotient of two complex numbers
is equal to the sum, product and quotient respectively of their conjugatei.
13.lf
z:
yi,show thar.z +
ry:2Ftez.
x*
yl form:
O) (r  ,),
(e) ( I + i)6
(h) (l + 404
G) Q : i)s
15. Simplify and express in
(.) ,D["o,
x f yi form:
5o)]6
r#)*
(t + i\fro
(f) (3  4i1z
(c)
i sin
Ol [z("", #
(u)
+
(+)],
(*,*
* ,r*#)]'
,,i,T)*
16. Simplify:
(b) (1 +
x*
,)6
@)
(l
i)r(2
+ 2i14
z = 4
4i)5
(r) rr + i)4(2 
2i)3
yiform:
(b) 5(sin0  lcos0)
(d) cos 20 + i sin 20
 qlaiandw:
z("o,
I *,rir{)nra
(r)
lrl
(b)
(d)
zaw2
(e) ztra,z
31.8
G)ffi
(3
(v3*#
19. Given
2i)3
7i form:
er/3 +
(c)
Arg z
,3
$t+
w'
If
then
z:
gSven z.
EXAMPLE 15
becomes
r3cis30: lcis0
It follows that
and
ie
Hence
i.e.
13:l,i.e.r: l,
cis 30 : cis 0
cos30 r i sin30:cos0 + isin0.
cos 30 : cos 0 and sin 30 : sin 0
30 : 0 l 2kr wherek : 0,t1,+2,
...
0:1.'kr
J
z:  cls2kr
3
Hence
k:0,2t
e.g.rfk
: 2,2 I cis ! :
"^
(+) :
rr.
zt:Ztandzr:2,
and are evenly spaced around the circle,
each being separated by an angle equal to
')
triangle.
Alternatively
3
Q 1)(22+z+
Hence,z:lorz:
t+lEn
1:0
t) : 0
l.$
iil
asaDove.
k : !2,
EXAMPLE 16
z6
64
becomes 16 cis 60
64 cis
It follows that
r :2sincer ) 0
and
crs 60 : cis r
i.e.
cos 60 * i sin 60 : cos zr * i sin zr.
Hence
60 : r * 2kr,k : 0, +. l, + 2,...
T *2kr
o:
66
:Jz*i
k : 0 z, : 2cisL
16
64 andso
:r/z_i
k: l,zz:zcis [
k: l.z,:2cis!
,2
k : 2,2q :
k'
2.zs
3.20
2cis
: _2i
\
:2cis*
: "',6 *
? : t/t 
2"i,
2i
Figure 3l19
of 64
(Figure 3l19).
Observe that, since each root has a modulus of 2, the roots lie on the circumference of a
circle of radius 2 units and are evenly spaced around the circle, each being separated by
These are the srx sixth roots
an angle equal to
2r
. The roots also occur in conjugate pairs. They form the vertices of a
regular hexagon.
EXAMPLE 17
Find the four fourth roots of
za:t+iJa:Zcts\.
Let
Hence
ra
cis
40
2 cis
lJ sir,ce z : r cis 0
2andso
r: {1
40: +3 i 2kr,k:0, + l, + 2,...
ra
and
I + i $.
H_+_
"rrkr
i.e.
12
Z:
k:0,2t:
dicis
4t;
VZ
{;. T)
tt
CrS
t il
4/^
k: 1,zz: vrcrs
 12
5r
4r;
k: l,zt: vzcls
T
k:2,20:l/1"irll'
Figure
3l20
t2
These are the fourth roots of + iJa and the answers may be left in the cis form. The
units, evenly spaced and separated
roots lie on the circumference of a circle of radius
by an angle equal to
{.2 ff,.
{2
In general,
if
then
Square roots
It is frequently more satisfactory to find tbe square roots of complex numbers by
working in the cartesian form.
EXAMPLE 18
 l2i.
Letz2:5  l2iwherez : x *
Find the square roots of 5
yi,
(x+Yi)z:5l2i
*'y2+2xyi:5l2i
then
i.e.
x2y25
x! : 6
x2+yz:13
and
also
From
(2)
.: from (1)
!.
.'.
]r: :
(1)
(2)
(3)
6
and
^36 ,:5
Xzx'
xa5x2 36:0
(x29)(x2*4):g
v29:0orx2+4:0(norealvaluesforx)
x:+3andv:12.
l2i
are
x : t
2i and 3 + 2i.
18, i.e.
3 as before.
EXERCISES 31(e)
1. Find and plot on the complex plane the values of z for which
(r)zs:l
t^\2:
1!,' 
(b)ro*l:0
(d')13+81
t
(e)ro+16:0
l+i
(e) ,3 : 
(f) ,o:
(h) z'o :
:0
S(.rG
+ ;)
2. Find:
(a)
(c)
(e)
24i
(f)
lifth roots of I
I * rr*t)
I
*
(h) the square roots of 8
6,
lf
(b)
,, t wr: 1
(c) w, wz: I
So far in our study of complex numbers, we have considered only particular points in the
EXAMPLE 19
Sketch and describe the following subsets of the
complex plane in which
(i\ lzl
(iii) lzl
:
:
(ii) lz
lz
 (l + ,)l <
1r./61 gv)z+z>2
Figure 3l21
Figure 31 22
lz(l+i)l<4
(i) Since lzl, i.e. the modulus of z, is defined as the distance from the origin to the
points representing z, then the locus is the set of all points in the plane distant 2 units
from the origin, i.e. all points on the circumference of a circld, centre at the origin
and radius length 2 units (Figure 3l21).
Alternatively:
Let
z:x+iandso
lzl = v/*4 P
"'
lzl:2becomes
\F *V :2
ie
y2
.ttr
+ v2 =
(ii) lz  (1 + ,)  is the distance from the fixed point (l + ,) to the points representing
z and hence the locus is the set of all points inside the circle whose centre is the
point (1 * i)and radius length 4 units (Figure 3l22).
Altematively:
Let
i.e.
@<+
z: x.* lyandso
zli:xl+(yl)i
=@
lztil
lz  (1 + ,)l < 4becomes
16
which represents the region inside a circle centre (1, 1) and radius 4 units.
(iii) lzl
: lz + I 
i\/l]andhenceisthesetof allpointsintheplanewhosedistance
from the origin is equal to their distance from the point ( I + i/3; and hence is
the set of all points on the straight line which is the perpendicular.bisector of the line
segment joining the origin to the point  I + ,V3 (Figure 31 23).
Ahernatively:
Let
z: x * ivandso
zt t  i\/1 : x + I + (y  t/1)i
lzl:lz+lifl
:ffi
'tr+f
x2+y2:(x*
becomes
l),+(y_ Jr,
:x2+2xtlry'2J3y+3
tfty  x :2
Hence the locus is the set of points on the line v6;, x :
1.e.
2.
\\',
=lz*t.r6il
Figure 31 23
(iv) Let
By addition, z
z:x I
Z:x I Z :2x
zyandso
iy
+ Z > 2isequivalentto
2x>2
x) I
which represents the region to the right
of the line x : I as shown in Figure 3l24.
Figure
EXAMPLE 20
Sketch and describe the locus specified by
(i)Arg
,:
f,
(ii)Re z * lmz:3
(iii) the intersection of (i) and (ii).
(i) Since Arg z
= [,*"locus
Xaxis.
Iwitnthe
x and Im z : y, then
(ii) Since Re z :
Re z * lm z : 3 is the equation of a
straight line with cartesian equation
x*Y=J.
Figure 3l25
3l24
EXAMPLE 21
Sketch and describe the following subsets of the complex plane in which
(i)l<lzl<2
(i)
(ii)
2r
1,.
Fisure 3l
Figure 3l27
(i) All points are on or inside the circle, cente O, and radius 2 units but also outside the
circle, centre O, and radius I unit. All these points are more than I unit from the
origin but equal to or less than 2 units from the origin (Figure 3l26).
(ii) All the points are on three sides of and the inside of a trapezium bounded by the
lines
y : I and y :
and
l,  (l  i\/3)l :
(d)lz+3+4,1<5
(f)l<lzl <3
 il : lzl
(e)lz2+il:4
@)2<lzil<5
(c) lz
(h\lz+21 <2
(a)lzrl:lz3il
(c)lz+21:lz+41
(e)
11
 zl:
lz
; = Argz {
1l
subsets
(b\lzil:lzll
(d)lr1il:lz+1+,1
$llrzil>lz+21
of C on the zplane.
a*
(b)Arer:;
(a)Argr:[
G)
.l*
1
J
(d)o(Argzlr
,adiu.rs
2):+
(e) Are lz  (t  it/lll :2]
(e) Arg (z +
(f) Arg (z 
i):0
: 1
* Imz 2 2
(f) Rez(Imz
(e) 3Rez4lmz:12
5. Using one set of axes, sketch aqd describe the following subsets of the complex
plane.
(ii)Imz>0
(ii)0<Argz<L
2'
(ii)Rezl2
(ii)
Re
z r Imz 13
: x * ry, sketch and describe the following subsets of the complex plane
(b) lr2  (z)21 <4
(a) 2lzl: z + z + 4
6. If z
(c)
l, 2il:lzal
(d)
(ii)zz(4andz*222i
(e) 1,  ztl : 2lz  z2lwherezl : 2 + 4iandz2  4 + i
(f) lz  zrl2  lz  zzl2 : 5where zr : 2 + 3iand z2 : 2 
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