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A.

Distinguish between Anti virus versus Firewall


A) Firewalls are used to limit incoming transmissions to those that are least likely to
contain bad data, while antivirus programs actually look at the effect that the
incoming data has on the system.
B) Firewalls cannot be used to remove threats if they happen to get past the firewall.
Antivirus can be used to do the same.

B. Anti virus versus Internet Security.


1. Antivirus is a class of software that detects and cleans out virus infected files while
Internet Security is a suite of applications that aims to protect users against threats
from the internet
2. Internet Security suites usually include an antivirus application among other
programs.
3. Internet security suites commonly includes a firewall, anti malware, anti spyware,
and email protection.
4. Internet Security suites often cost more than stand-alone antivirus applications
5. Internet Security requires more resources to run and slows down old computers

C. System Software versus Application Software.


Actually, a system software is any computer software which manages and controls
computer hardware so that application software can perform a task. Operating
systems, such as Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X or Linux, are prominent examples of
system software. System software contrasts with application software, which are
programs that enable the end-user to perform specific, productive tasks, such as word
processing or image manipulation.
System software performs tasks like transferring data from memory to disk, or
rendering text onto a display device. Specific kinds of system software include loading
programs, operating systems, device drivers, programming tools, compilers,
assemblers, linkers, and utility software.
Software libraries that perform generic functions also tend to be regarded as system
software, although the dividing line is fuzzy; while a C runtime library is generally
agreed to be part of the system, an OpenGL or database library is less obviously so.
If system software is stored on non-volatile memory such as integrated circuits, it is
usually termed firmware while an application software is a subclass of computer
software that employs the capabilities of a computer directly and thoroughly to a task
that the user wishes to perform. This should be contrasted with system software which

is involved in integrating a computer's various capabilities, but typically does not


directly apply them in the performance of tasks that benefit the user. In this context the
term application refers to both the application software and its implementation.
A simple, if imperfect analogy in the world of hardware would be the relationship of an
electric light bulb (an application) to an electric power generation plant (a system). The
power plant merely generates electricity, not itself of any real use until harnessed to an
application like the electric light that performs a service that benefits the user.
Typical examples of software applications are word processors, spreadsheets, and media
players.
Multiple applications bundled together as a package are sometimes referred to as an
application suite. Microsoft Office and OpenOffice.org, which bundle together a word
processor, a spreadsheet, and several other discrete applications, are typical examples.
The separate applications in a suite usually have a user interface that has some
commonality making it easier for the user to learn and use each application. And often
they may have some capability to interact with each other in ways beneficial to the user.
For example, a spreadsheet might be able to be embedded in a word processor
document even though it had been created in the separate spreadsheet application.
User-written software tailors systems to meet the user's specific needs. User-written
software include spreadsheet templates, word processor macros, scientific simulations,
graphics and animation scripts. Even email filters are a kind of user software. Users
create this software themselves and often overlook how important it is.
In some types of embedded systems, the application software and the operating system
software may be indistinguishable to the user, as in the case of software used to control
a VCR, DVD player or Microwave Oven.

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D. Command Line Interface versus Graphical User Interface


Command Line Interface

Command line interface (CLI) enables users to type commands in a terminal or


console window to interact with an operating system. Users respond to a visual
prompt by typing a command on a specified line, and receive a response back
from the system. Users type a command or series of commands for each task
they want to perform.

Graphical User Interfaces


Graphical user interface (GUI) uses graphics, along with a keyboard and a
mouse, to provide an easy-to-use interface to a program. A GUI provides
windows, pull-down menus, buttons, scrollbars, iconic images, wizards, other
icons, and the mouse to enable users to interact with the operating system or
application.
The Solaris 9 operating environment supports two GUIs, the Common Desktop
Environment (CDE) and the GNOME desktop.

E. Windows versus MS-DOS.


MS-DOS
An Operating system is software that creates a relation between the User, Software and
Hardware. It is an interface between the all. All the computers need basic software
known as an Operating System (OS) to function. The OS acts as an interface between
the User, Application Programs, Hardware and the System Peripherals. The OS is the
first software to be loaded when a computers starts up.

The entire application

programs are loaded after the OS. Whenever an application needs information it
requests the OS which in turn queries the System clock on the motherboard. User
interacts with the computer through the OS then OS interprets inputs given by a user
through the Keyboard, Mouse or other input device and takes appropriate actions.
An Operating System can be of Three Types:
Single User

MS-Dos, MS-Win 95-98, Win-ME

Multi User

UNIX, Linux, XENIX

Network

Novel Netware, Win-NT, Win-2000-2003

1. Single User:

If the single user os is loaded in computers memory; the

computer would be able to handle one user at a time.


2. Multi user:

If the multi-user os is loaded in computers memory; the

computer would be able to handle more than one user at a time.

3. Network: If the network os is loaded in computers memory; the computer


would be able to handle more than one computer at time.
Command Prompt Interface:
Operating System provides a text based interface called command prompt. From
the command prompt commands can be issued to perform file and disk management
and to run program. Results of these commands are presented to the user as text
message.
C:\>The command prompt can be an alphabet followed by one colon (:), one back slash (\),
one greater than sign (>) and one blinking element called cursor (_).
Where C: represents the Drive letter (Current Drive)
\

represents the current folder / Directory

>

represents the end of the Prompt and

blinking element (represents the Cursor)

Always a cursor position decides that the current typed letter from the keyboard will
appear on that position.

The operating system (OS) is the first program that must be loaded into the memory of
your PC before you can use it for any application. You can start your computer with
disk operating system (DOS) or some other operating system such as Windows 95, 97,
98 or Windows NT that might be installed in the Hard disk. In this chapter, we shall
discuss the basic facilities available in DOS. Switch to MS-DOS and go through most of
the text given in this and the next two chapters. If your computer is running under
windows 95/98 or Windows NT, perform the following steps to switch to MS-DOS,
otherwise move to section 2.1.

Click the start button in the taskbar and press the windows logo key to open the
start menu then click programs in the start menu.

Windows displays the program submenu.

In the program menu click MS-DOS Prompt and your screen displays a window
that contains MS-DOS Prompt, such as C:\windows>_.

If you like you can also restart your computer in MS-DOS mode by using the
following steps:
o Close any open programs
o Click the Start Button in the TaskBar or Press the Windows Logo Key to
open the Start Menu.
o Click restart in MS-DOS Mode and then click OK.
Wait for some time and your PC restarts in MS-DOS Mode.

After your PC starts in MS-DOS Mode or window, skip the next section and move to
section .

F. Single User- Single Tasking versus Single User- Multi


Tasking.
A single-user operating system is a type of operating system (OS) that is developed
and intended for use on a computer or similar machine that will only have a single
user at any given time. This is the most common type of OS used on a home
computer, as well as on computers in offices and other work environments. There
are two general types of single-user systems: single task and multitasking systems.
Though this OS can be connected to other systems through a network, it is still truly
only used by a single person and is different than a multi-user OS.
The operating system is responsible for handling a number of different tasks and is
typically one of the most important programs used on a computer. It manages
memory usage and other resources, as well as hardware connectivity and the proper
execution of other applications. There are several different types of operating
systems, but the single-user product is typically the most common.
A single-user operating system that is a single task system is developed for use with a
computer or electronic device that will only run one application at a time. This type
of OS is typically used on devices like wireless phones and two-way messaging
devices. A single task operating system can only run one program or application at a

time, and so it is not as useful for a computer or other device intended to run
multiple programs at once.
This is where a multitasking single-user operating system is used instead. A
multitasking OS can run multiple applications and programs at once. This is often
used on computers where someone may wish to navigate the Internet, run a
graphics editing program, play music through a media playing program, and type in
notes in a simple word processing program all at the same time. A single task OS
could not do this, but the multitasking systems are able to handle all of these
processes.
Even though this type of operating system can connect to other computers through a
network, it is still only being used by a single user. As long as the computer only has
one monitor, keyboard and other input devices, then it is a single-user system. Other
computers may be able to access data on the computer, but unless the users of those
computers can also run applications on the computer that they see on monitors on
their own end, it is still a single-user system.