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the elcments of conrol sl stems which Jre rcsponsi

ble for transforming thc ourput ofr microprocessor or cotrtrol system into

Acturtion systems .rc

onrr"llinc.^riononan'achinc"r derin. I hu.. t"r.\Jmfh semishr hd\e


uutpur lrDm rhe (unrroller shich h.s ro be Datr'lormcd tnro a

linc.r motion to molc a lord- Anorher cxample might be where an clccffical
ourDur fron, rhr conrruller hJr ro be r.usformud inro u ac,ion shich
conirol' rhe amuunr of bquid pa"inS alonF a pipe.
In this chrpter t'luict powir systems, mrnelv Pneumatic and hvdraulic
re din16sed. Pneumdr ics is rhc r(rm u5eJ $hen com"cruauun s\5rms.
h\drauli.s then I liqu'd. rJ pn all) oil' ln
.'echanital acr u,r"r s\.rems e disru'\ed Jnd tn Chapr(r elec!nl


tion systcms.

Pneunatic signals e olten used to cotrtrol6nal control elments, elen when

the cotrtrol s!:stm is otherwisc This is bc@use such signals cm be
used to .cru;t large \alts ard other high-powcr control devices and so
mo\'e significant loads. The maitr drarvback sith pncum ic sv*cms is, howevcr. th; compressiulirr- of air Illdriulic s-vstcms ca. bc used for evcn higher
uru conrrul deric* bur c.e mor< e.pen,i'. rhan pnrumrtir .r*tcms and
ir.-. ." 1",".,1s as"n.'"red sifi utl leals $h,(h Jo nor o. (!r wirh air lenls'
The atnospheric pressure rarics with both loetion and time but in pneu
matics is gcnciilly taken to be 10j Pa, such a pressute hcing termed I bar'


Hydraulic aystems

With . hydraulic system, plcssurised oil is providcd bv

clectric notor. Thc purnp pumps oil fron

pump driven bv-an

sump through 1notr return valrc





Frsrrc 7.1 (a) Hldraulic poqer

supp\', (b) a.luDulator

md an accumulard ro the slstem! from lvh;ch it rerurns to rhe sunp_

figur( 7.1(.r)illusrrJe\rhurrrJnCemenr. { prej\urc reliefrat\c is inctu,lc;,
rhis b.rng ro r(h i:c rhe pr.
'",* lt ir ""*,lo,e " *te le\et. rJrc non-r(rurn
r"lve is to prvcnt the oil bcnrg bac[ drien
ro the pump mil th. *rcumutator

is to smooth out any short term fluctuarions in the output oit pressure_
Esscntially thc accumulator is iusr a container in which thtoil is h;ld utulcr
prcssure against an exLerDal force, Figurc 7. I (b) showing rhe most commo y
used form lvhich is $s pressurised and involves gas within a btadder in thc
chamber containing the hydrauiic fluid; an oider typc involved a spring
loaded piston. lfthc oil pressurc rises rien the bldder comacts, incieasis
the volume the oil cu occupy ud so reduccs the pressurc. Ifthe oil pr.ssure
falls, the bladder cxpands to reduce the yolune occupicd br rhe oil and so
incrcases its prcssure.

_ ComTonlt u-d h)draulk rump, are rh. ger. plmp,t e \rn( pump rnd
rlrpi.ron pump. lhegearpumpconr,{ me.hingtsur;heets
which rotate in opposire dircctions (Fisuc 7.2(a)). F-tuid is foi;d throush
thc pump as it bccomes trapped betwecn the rotating gear teeth and tlc
housing and su n rJn'ferr.,l rrom rhe inr,.r po,I ru o. dn, hr
u(d rhe our
I(r pofl. Such pumr\ Jre \r.lrh used. being lns ror md robu{ Thc\ gen
erdl) oFrrre Jr prc*ure, bclus Jbou, t5 \4pJ rnd ar 2{00 rohrion" ner
mmurc.Them.\imum flos upd(i,\ i.rbour 0.5 m'lmm. o$e\er, hit:se

occlrs tJetween thc teeth and thc casing and berween thc intertocking teerh,
and this limits thc ef6c;ency. The vane pump has spring-to lc.l stiding
vmes stotred itra driven rotor (Figu.e 7.2(b))_ As tne rotor rorares. the nnei
loliow the contours of rhe casing. Tbis results in fluid becomins trarued bc
twccn successivc vanes and thc cdsing ind trdnsportcd round from tjre inlct
port to oudet porr. The lcaka8e is less than wirh thc gear pumD. pistor

pumps u.ed m h!draulicsun riLe J numbrr^rtor m\ r\ irh rhe radialpisron

i cylinder block rotares round tbe stario.a;y cm
and rhis cruses hullow pi.ron'. $ irh sp, inE ri ru.n, ru mo\e in an.J oui. The
result is that fluid is dra$n in from rhe inlet port md transported roud tor
eiection from the dischatge port. The axial piston p*p o.isu." 7.2(c)

pump (Fjgure 7.2(c)),

ha' pstons shirh mure rri.rll) rarherrhrnraJiar\ Th,









(a) Gcar pumA (b)

Chxnbs lills siih Irid .n

dnsl n, onpcnc ou'ld





pumD, (c)


rdial piston pumE (d) dial piston pmp Nith swsh


ly in a rotating cllinder blocl and made ro move b] contict with the

'llis phte is at m ansle to the drive shaft and thus as the shft

swash plate.


es they move the pisrons so thrt air is sucked in s'hen a piston is opposite
the inlet port and expelled when it is opposite the discharge port. Piston
pumps have a high efficiencl and can be used rt higher hydriulic pressures
than gear or vme pumps.


Pneumatic systems

a pneumatic power supply (Figure 7.3) an electric motor drives u air

compressor The air inlet to the compressor is likel) to be filrered ud via a
sjlencer to redu.e the mise level. A plessure relief !rl!e providcs protcctiotr
againsr the pressure itr th. syst.m risins above a safe level. Sjnce the air com
pressor in.reases thc tcmpcrature of thc ait there is likely ro be a cooling sys
tem and to remore contimination md watcr from the r;r a filter with a watcr
rrap An a; receircr in rciscs thc volum ofair i. the system ind smoothcs
out my short rerm pressurc lluctuations.
Commonly used air compressors are ones in which succcssirc ldumes
ofair are isolned rnd then compressed- figu.e 7.4(a) shows thc basic form






Pncumdtic power



G) Sinsle a.tins, single stase! veriical, rcciprocatins compressor, (b)






of a sinsle acting, single-stage, vcrrical, ieciprocatins compressor. On thc

dr int*c stroke, the descerding piston causes air to be sucked into the

chamber through the spring-loadcd inlet \alve and whcn the pisron st ts ro
rise again, the trapped air forces thc inlet valve to closc md so becomcs
comprcssed. When the .ir pressue has risen sulEcient\,, the spring loaded
oudct mlve opens and the trrypcd air flows into the compressd-air system.
Aiicr the piston has reachcd th top dad centre it then begins to descend
md the cycle repeats itselii Such a compressor is termed sinsleactinA
bucause one pul,e ol au r{ produced per pi,r^n .rroke. doubtHctint
comprcssors are designcd to produce pulses of air on both rhe up and down
strokcs of the pisron. It is also tcrmed single-stage because the compressor
goes dircctly from atmospheric prcssure to rhe required pressLrre in a single
operation. For the pioduction of compressed air at more rhan r few b s,
two or morc stages ffe generally used. Normally two srages are uscd for




Relays arc elecrricall. operatcd sw;rches in whjch changing a current in one

cleclric circun switcles a currcnt on or off i. inother ciraun. For rhe rctav
.hosn In r,gu,e o.llar. *hrn rhere i. r currenr rhrough rhr.ntenoid ut rhe
relal a magnetic ficld is produced which atbacts rhe ;on mature. moves
rhe Dush rod..nd \o.]o,e, rl,e no,malt) nlten (\rr.rir(h ronr-(rs JnJ
olren\ th( nnrmdlv Llosed (NC) s$


i(h iuntu.c

(a)A rclay and

Rehys are ofren uscd in control s_vstems. Thc output from r controller is
relativciy shall currcnt and so it is often used in coniunction with , rran
.isror ru \sirch on rhc currenr rhroush fie rela\ .uhnnid anJ h(nr u\e rh(
rehJ to sxitch on the much larger currcnt needed ro slitch on or offd final
coftection clemenr suchas an elecrric heiter in a rempcraiure conrrol system
or a motor Figure 9.1(b) shows rhe tlpc of circuir that might bc used.
BecaLrse .claF are, they c?D senerllle a b..t rolrage whcn rhe
energising current is switched offor whcn thejr inpur slvirches trom a high
to low signal. As . rLsulr, damage catr occur in rhc connectins cir.un. T.J

olucome rhis problcn,

diode is onnecled across the rela!. Whcn the back

(.m.1 n.(ur.. rh( Lliode (onduLr",nd sho s ir uur. Such i. rermea .
fiee-wheelins or flyback diode.
As an illustration of rhe wals rela,! crn bc nsed in contlot sysrem$
Fiflre 9.2 shows how two relays might be used to conrot rh opcrarion of
pneumatic lihes whi.h in rum cotrtrol the movcmcnr of pistons in



BuJ (..The.equrnrt ,,loperrrion rr:

I ['hen the st.ur swirch


is closed, current is applied ro ihe A and ts soie

noids and results in both A and B cxtctrdiDg, i.e A+ and B+.
lhc limit slvitches a+ and b+ de then closed; th a+ closurc resuhs
in a current flowing through relay coil I rvhich the. closes its conrmrs
and so supplies .urrerr ro the C soleno;d and rcsulrs in it c\rendjng,
i.c. C+.
Its dtension causes limir ssitch c+ to close ud so current to swirch the
A ud B control !d!es xnd hencc rchacrion oa cylinders A md B, i.e. A


Closing limit s*itch a passes r currcnt through rctay coil 2i its contxcrs
clo\( and Jllos a (Lrrcnr lo\.rl\e( and.tlinJrr(',nrer,rcr.r(.('