You are on page 1of 2

UNIT :2

Ill Gotten Never Prosper.

Fighting Corruption.

Providing (that) Provided (that) As long as


= If +Present simple Future
Ex: We will eradicate corruption, providing that we act now.
Providing that we act now, we will eradicate corruption
If
we act now, we will eradicate corruption.

As long as
we act now, we will eradicate corruption
We will eradicate corruption as long as we act now.

I wish
a) I wish + conditional (would) Future wish === I wish I could
Ex: I am going to Chra and Its cloudy. I wish it would not rain.

b) I wish + past perfect (had taken) past wish


(to express a regret, or that we want a situation in the past to be different.)
Ex: I wish I hadn't eaten so much. (I ate a lot and I feel sick.)
I wish they'd come on holiday with us. (They didn't come on holiday with us.)
I wish I had studied harder at school. (I was lazy at school.)
If only I had attended the lesson (but I didnt) = I wish I had attended the lesson

c) I wish + past simple present wish.


Ex: I dont speak English. I wish I spoke English.
She is not at home. I wish she were at home
The dog next door is making too much noise. I wish it were quiet.

It is (high/about) time

The expression "It is (high/about) time + past verb test" is used to complain about or criticise
something or someone.
Advice about what to do although it is already a little bit late.
The government should take action. It is high time the government took action.
It is about time the government took action.
It's high time you changed your habits.

Had better/ had better not

Verb without TO

Express strong advice / recommendation and its the equivalent of [ ought to/should ]
We use had better plus the infinitive without to to give advice.
Had here is an unreal past; the meaning is present or future
Ex: ought to = should = had better
You ought to / should do it now = You had better do it now.
You look sick. Its advisable for you not to go to school.Youd better not go to school.
If I were you, I would tell her the truth. You'd better tell her everything.
Ex: I'd better get back to work.
We'd better not meet tomorrow.

So + adjective + that .
so

Such a + noun phrase+that .

that

They express consequence.

Ex: I was tired. I went to bed earlier. I was so tired that I went to bed earlier.
Ex: He made many mistakes. He got a bad score. He made so many mistakes that he ...
1a. It was a lovely weather. We spent all day on the beach.
b. It was such a lovely weather that we spent all day on the beach.
adj
noun
I fell asleep while I was watching the film because it was boring
It was such a boring film that I fell asleep while I was watching it.

Present Continuous Passive.

They are infringing our copyright. Our copyright are being infring ed
Ex: - He is building a house . A house is being built.
- They are exporting oranges to Nigeria. Oranges are being exported.
- They are writing a new constitution. A new constitution is being written...

Expressing Certainty: They will certainly come tomorrow. Isure / certain that
There is no doubt that they will come tomorrow.
Expressing probability: Its probable that they will come tomorrow.
Its likely that

.
They will probably come tomorrow.
Expressing possibility: Its possible that they will come.
They can -------- They may come
Expressing remote possibility. They might come * They might not come.

Words ending in IC, ICAL, ICS Stress on penultimate syllable.

ecoNOmic - ecoNOmical - ecoNOmics

Cause and Consequence (result)

Cause: Because, since, as, for. --- Because of, due to, owing to, thanks to
Consequence: as a result, as a consequence, consequently, so, thus, therefore.
Ex: There was flooding because of the heavy rain.
The flooding was caused by the heavy rain.
Since It was raining heavily, there was flooding
night.

Due to the heavy rain, there was flooding.


There was flooding because heavy rain fell all