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www.elsevier.com/locate/jfoodeng

during deep fat frying

Part I: model development

R. Yamsaengsung a, R.G. Moreira

b,*

a

b

Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Thailand 90110

Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-2117, USA

Received 4 May 2001; accepted 2 July 2001

Abstract

A fundamental 2-D model was developed to predict the heat and mass transfer that occur during the frying and cooling process

of tortilla chips. Semi-empirical correlations were included to account for structural changes, such as shrinkage and expansion due

to pung. All water present in the tortilla chip was considered bound and led to shrinkage when removed. The parameters that were

studied included water saturation, Sw , oil saturation, So , temperature, T, and pressure, P. Liquid ow results from convective ow

due to the gradient in total gas pressure and capillary ow due to the gradient of capillary force. Gas movement results from

convective ow due to the total gas pressure gradient and Knudsen diusion due to the concentration gradient. The only transport

phenomenon during cooling is oil absorption, which is assumed to be a function of the capillary pressure. 2002 Elsevier Science

Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

It is understood that fried products absorb oil during

frying and as they cool which contributes to a high fat

and high calorie product. Oil content in fried foods has

been related to initial moisture content (Gamble, Rice,

& Selman, 1987; Moreira, Palau, Sweat, & Sun, 1995b),

pre-frying treatment (Gamble et al., 1987; Moreira,

Castell-Perez, & Barrufet, 1999), structural changes

during baking (Lee, 1991; McDonough, Gomez, Waniska, & Rooney, 1993; Rock-Dudley, 1993), and cooling

time (Sun & Moreira, 1994). Moreira, Palau, and Sun

(1995a) showed that bulk density decreases, and porosity and oil uptake increase with frying time during

frying of tortilla chips.

Still, changes taking place during frying are dicult

to model since there are a number of inter-related factors that have to be taken into account. It is important

to identify the structural changes during the dierent

stages of the process to better understand the quality

changes that occur during frying. The porosity of the

product formed during frying plays an important role in

*

E-mail address: rmoreira@tamu.edu (R.G. Moreira).

at the surface of the tortilla chips, for example, there is

an excessive pressure buildup and the product expands

and pus. Therefore, a better understanding of the

transport processes and their relationship to various

parameters should provide ways to optimize the frying

process, and thus control oil pickup.

Mathematical models of various complexities have

been developed. These models deal with frying of individual products assuming constant physical properties.

A large number of models have been based on simple

diusion of energy and mass transfer, with various approximations accounting for evaporation or ignoring it

altogether (Ateba & Mittal, 1994; Dincer & Yildiz, 1996;

Moreira et al., 1995a; Rice & Gamble, 1989). These

models did not include the oil phase transport.

Farkas, Singh, and Rumsey (1996a,b) provided a more

detailed model of temperature and moisture transport in

deep fat frying of potato slices. Two separated equations

for two regions, the crust and the core with a moving

boundary were used in the model. It also included pressure driven ow in the crust for the vapor phase, but they

ignored diusion ow in the crust region as well as

pressure driven ow of liquid or vapor in the core region.

Moreover, the model did not include the oil phase or the

eect of changing porosity on the heat and mass transfer.

0260-8774/02/$ - see front matter 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

PII: S 0 2 6 0 - 8 7 7 4 ( 0 1 ) 0 0 1 3 4 - 0

Nomenclature

apparent diusivity coecient due to capillary force (kg/m s)

C

molar density of gas mixture kmol=m3

c

mass concentration kg=m3 total volume

Cp

specic heat (J/kg K)

Deff;g

eective gas diusivity in moist materials

m2 =s

d

diameter of tortilla chip (m)

Exfactor expansion factor (dimensionless)

h

heat transfer coecient on open boundary

W=m2 K

hmv

vapor transfer coecient on open boundary

(m/s)

K1 K32 coecients in dierential equations

k

thermal conductivity (W/m K)

ki

intrinsic permeability m2

kgr

gas relative permeability (dimensionless)

kwr

water relative permeability (dimensionless)

kor

oil relative permeability (dimensionless)

k10

constant in Eq. (38) (kg mol/kJ)

k20

constant in Eq. (38) (dimensionless)

M

molecular weight (kg/kmol)

m

mass of component (kg)

*

n

total ux kg=m2 s

P

total pressure (Pa)

p

partial pressure (Pa)

pc

capillary pressure (Pa)

ps

saturated pressure of pure water (Pa)

R

universal gas constant (J/kmol K)

Ra

air gas constant (J/kg K)

Rv

vapor gas constant (J/kg K)

am

media model to simulate the frying of potato slices.

Based on the approach of Whitaker (1977), their model

included the signicance of pressure driven ow for the

oil, vapor, and air phase in a non-hygroscopic porous

medium. Their model did not account for the changes in

the product porosity and its eect on the system energy

and mass transport. Oil absorption was considered to

happen during frying and the cooling process was

completely neglected. In rigid non-hygroscopic porous

media, the porosity is dened as volume fraction of

water plus gas, and is constant. However, food materials

are typically hygroscopic in which some water is tightly

bound to the solid matrix.

Asensio (1999) using the same approach of Whitaker

(1977) developed a model to describe the heat and mass

transfer in paper drying. Shrinkage was accounted by

including the bound water term. The removal of bound

water was considered to lead to shrinkage of the cellular

structures of the material.

S

Sg

So

Sw

Sfactor

T

t

V

W

w

x

gas saturation (decimal)

oil saturation (decimal)

water saturation (decimal)

shrinkage factor (dimensionless)

temperature (K), unless specied

time (s)

volume m3

moisture content (% w.b.), unless specied

chip thickness (m)

molar fraction (decimal)

Greek symbols

dT

coecient of Soret eect due to capillary

force (kg/m s K)

/

total porosity (dimensionless)

k

latent heat of vaporization (J/kg)

l

dynamic viscosity (Pa s)

q

intrinsic density (kg/m3 )

qCp eff eective heat capacity of the moist materials

J=m3

Subscripts

a

air

amb

ambient

c

capillary

g

gas

o

oil

s

solid matrix

w

water

v

vapor

e

eective

structure by the phenomenon of shrinkage or pung

(Kawas & Moreira, 2000; Lujan-Acosta & Moreira,

1996). These changes in structure aect the diusivity of

gases and liquids in the material (Xiong, Narsimhan, &

Okos, 1991).

Various approaches have been proposed to study the

structure changes during drying. Crapiste, Whitaker,

and Rotstein (1988a,b) studied the drying of potato

and apples considering the shrinkage of the material by

including a velocity term in the total water transport

equation assuming quasi-isothermal drying. Achanta,

Okos, Cushman, and Kessler (1995) studied the shrinkage of food gels using starch gluten gel by modifying

Darcys law to account for viscoelastic deformation.

The review of literature reveals that the frying models

developed so far did not address the combined relationship between raw materials and frying conditions on

the structural changes (shrinkage and thickness expansion) and subsequent oil absorption of the products.

crust formation, shrinkage, pung and to model the

porosity and textural changes during the frying process

of tortilla chips.

The objective of this study was to develop a multiphase porous media model considering shrinkage and

thickness expansion to predict the spatial and transient

prole of moisture content, oil content, temperature, and

pressure of the tortilla chip as a function of frying time.

2. Model development

The drying and frying processes are very similar

and many models have been developed to describe and

predict the two systems. The basic energy and mass

governing equations are very much the same. The differences in the models usually come in the system which

the model is describing. In each case, assumptions,

boundary conditions, transport mechanisms, and physical properties for each system will vary.

Food materials are considered hygroscopic and consist of bound water. During most conventional drying

processes, i.e., oven drying and frying, the removal of

bound water causes shrinkage of the material. Fig. 1

illustrates the dierences between hygroscopic and nonhygroscopic material.

2.1. Major assumptions

There are several assumptions that have been widely

used for drying processes. These include:

(1) the phases of solid, liquid, and gas are continuous;

(2) local thermal equilibrium is valid, which means

that the temperatures in the three phases are equal;

(3) sorption isotherm is valid in describing the vapor

pressure as a function of temperature and the moisture content;

vapor;

(5) Darcys law is valid in describing the convective

ow of liquid and gases;

(6) liquid transport is due to the capillary and convective ow and gas transport is due to convective ow

and molecular (Knudsen) diusion;

(7) heat conduction in the porous media is described

in terms of eective thermal conductivity and is proportional to the mass content of each phase.

For the frying of tortilla chips, the following assumptions are also included:

(8) the latent heat of vaporization cools the region

during evaporation keeping the local temperature

near the boiling point;

(9) local temperature remains at boiling point until

very low water saturation is reached (0.18);

(10) heat transfer coecient is a function of frying

temperature and temperature gradient between the

surface and the oil;

(11) shrinkage is due to bound water removal; and

(12) pung is due to air and vapor expansion.

In the frying of tortilla chips, since the material is

hygroscopic, six phases are considered. This includes

liquid water, bound water, vapor, air, oil, and the solid

matrix. Since the study assumes that all water present in

the system is bound (but perhaps not to the same degree), all water loss will lead to shrinkage of the system.

The subscript, w, represents all bound water in the

system. Based on the volume averaging approach of

Whitaker (1977), the multiphase energy and mass

transport equations for a porous media transport model

of deep fat frying can be developed. Porosity is dened

as the volume of pores occupied by the total volume.

and gas), porosity is

P3

DVi

;

1

/ i1

DV

where DV is the change in volume. Saturation is dened

as the volume of pores occupied by a component

DVi

Si

;

/DV

3

X

Si 1:

i1

v), Daltons law states that the total pressure is equal

to the sum of the partial pressure of air and vapor

P pv pa :

P

;

RT

is temperature. The mass concentrations of vapor, air,

water, and oil are given by:

p v M v Sg /

;

RT

p a M a Sg /

ca

;

RT

cw qw /Sw ;

co qo /So :

cv

6

7

During the frying of a porous media, the following

transport phenomena will take place: diusive transport

of vapor and air, capillarity driven transport of liquid

(water and oil), and total pressure driven ow of liquid,

vapor, and air. The following rate equations are derived

in similar fashion to Ni and Datta (1999). Combining

the diusive (Bird, Stewart, & Lightfoot, 1960) and

convective uxes (Bear, 1972), the total ux of air and

vapor becomes:

*

na

*

ki kgr

C2

qa

rP Ma Mv Deff;g rxa ;

lg

qg

10

ki kgr

C2

rP Ma Mv Deff;g rxv :

lg

qg

11

nv qv

12

13

ki kwr opc

;

lw oSw

ki kwr opc

;

dT qw

lw oT

ki kor opc

amo qo

;

lo oSo

ki kor opc

;

dTo qo

lo oT

am qw

14

15

16

17

2.4. Governing equations

C

ki kwr

rP am rSw dT rT ;

lw

ki kor

*

no qo

rP amo rSo dTo rT :

lo

*

nw qw

Fig. 2 illustrates only the top right section of the tortilla

chip viewed from the side. The tortilla chip is then divided into four sections. Only the upper right section

was considered for model development. Fig. 3 shows the

transport mechanisms involved in the frying process.

There is no mass or energy transfer from the bottom and

left sides, while there are diusional and convective

uxes occurring at the top and the right side of the

tortilla chip.

The governing equations for water (combining liquid

water and vapor), oil, air, and energy are shown in Eqs.

(18)(21), respectively:

Mass conservation of water (liquid and vapor). Rate of

water accumulation within the system rate of

change of water within the system due to convective

and diusive uxes rate of evaporated water

K5

oSw

oT

rK1 rSw rK3 rT rK4 rP :

K7

ot

ot

18

within the system rate of change of oil within

the system due to convective and diusive uxes

K14

oSo

rK10 rSo rK11 rT rK12 rP :

ot

19

within the system rate of change of air within the

system due to diusive uxes

oSw

oT

oP

K24

K23

ot

ot

ot

rK17 rSw rK19 rT rK20 rP :

K21

The liquid ux of water and oil based on the total crosssectional area can be derived as:

20

Fig. 2. Schematic of the 2-D model of the tortilla chip (gure not drawn to scale).

due to each phase within the system + the heat ux

for each phase within the system heat ux due to

conduction for each phase within the system

oSw

oSo

oT

K29

K30

K31

ot

ot

ot

rK25 rSw rK26 rSo rK27 rT

rK28 rP cpv~

nv cpo~

no cpa~

na

nw rT :

cpw~

21

details of derivations of Eqs. (18)(21) refer to

Yamsaengsung (2000).

2.5. Initial and boundary conditions

The product is assumed to be at equilibrium prior to

frying and has uniform Sw , So , T, and P. The initial

conditions include: Sw Swi , So 0; T Ti , P Pamb .

The boundary conditions are given below:

2.5.1. Closed boundary

Assuming symmetric geometry, the closed boundary

yields the following mass and energy equations:

*

K17 rSw K18 rSo K19 rT K20 rP

keff rT 0:

*

na

0;

23

24

25

Mass transfer on the surface is assumed to be in

equilibrium with the surrounding. Regardless of volumetric evaporation present inside, surface evaporation

occurs simultaneously which means that there is liquid

ux crossing the boundary and vaporizing instantly (Ni

& Datta, 1999). Therefore, the surface evaporation

only aects the boundary mass and heat ux. At the

surface, oil saturation is assumed to be constant. For the

open boundary, the following mass and energy equations are:

K1 rSw K2 rSo K3 rT K4 rP

pv

/Sg Sw

qv0 hmv ;

Rv T

26

So So1 ;

27

P Pamb ;

28

22

29

expansion. The empirical equations for shrinkage and

expansion are given in Eqs. (34) and (37), respectively.

The majority of the fat content in tortilla chips results

from the absorption of oil during the cooling process

(Moreira & Barrufet, 1998). The only transport phenomenon during cooling is oil absorption, which is assumed to be a function of the capillary pressure.

In solving the sets of partial dierential equations for

the cooling process, Eqs. (18)(25) are followed with

several additional assumptions. First, there is no moisture transfer and second, there is rapid oil transfer due

to the capillary pressure dierence. The initial conditions during cooling are: Sw 0, So S1 ; T Tamb , P

Pamb . The closed boundary conditions are the same as

Eqs. (30)(33) and the open boundary conditions include:

0:90396;

34

dt

do

35

where

Sfactor

do is the initial diameter.

Exfactor 239:47Sw3 120:74Sw2 21:914Sw

3:3107

ki kor opc

;

lo oSo

wt

wo

37

30

Exfactor

31

and wo is the initial thickness. Fig. 4 shows the model

of thickness expansion due to pung.

32

P Pamb ;

36

where

nv ~

nw 0;

~

no qo

Sw < 0:20;

33

The input parameters are vital in yielding an accurate

predictive model. For dierent products, the input parameters will vary, thus reliable experiments must be

conducted. For food products, relatively little data, such

as the permeability of liquids and gases, the sorption

isotherms, and the capillary pressure curve, are available.

Eq. (38) gives the sorption isotherm used in this

model. The equation is taken from Kawas (2000) who

tted experimental data for the frying of tortilla chips

with the Chung and Pfost (1967) model. The k1 and k2

values are 8:11 106 kg mol=kJ and 17.91, T is in

Kelvin, and W is moisture content (d.b.).

The basis of this research is to account for the

structural changes during the frying process. Experimental data on shrinkage and expansion (Table 1) from

Kawas (2000) were used to develop empirical equations

of shrinkage and expansion factors as a function of the

average water saturation of the tortilla chip. Following

Achantas pung algorithm (Achanta et al., 1995),

more thickness expansion was assigned towards the

center of the chip and progressively less expansion was

assigned moving towards the edges. This is to account

for a higher gas pressure expansion towards the center

of the product. Realistically, a microscopic model may

ln

pv

ps

k10

exp k20 W :

RT

Table 1

Heat capacity values used in this model

Parameter

Values (J/kg K)

Reference

2

Solid

Water

Cpw 4180 at 15 C

Oil

Cpo 2223

O2 (J/mol K)

Lewis (1987)

N2 (J/mol K)

1

Cpa 0:21CpO2 0:79CpN2 103

Ma

1

Cpv av bv T cv T 2 dv T 3 103

Mv

Lewis (1987)

Air

Water vapor

Lewis (1987)

Lewis (1987)

38

Fig. 4. Model of thickness expansion due to pung. Upper slice of the tortilla chip, gure is not drawn to scale.

for T 6 100 C

collected, values for the intrinsic and relative permeabilities follow those used by Ni and Datta (1999). To

account for the convective ow of liquid and gas due to

capillary pressure, several correlations were studied. In

this model, the Spolek and Plumb (1981) equation was

modied (Eq. (39)) and gave good results. The equation

gives the capillary pressure as a function of water saturation. In further research, experiments must be conducted to obtain true capillary pressure curves for

tortilla chips.

pc 0:45 106 Sw0:23 :

for T > 100 C

ks 0:06938 9:997 105 T 6:327 108 T 2 ;

The eective heat capacity, which includes the contribution of all the components in the tortilla chip, is given

in Eq. (40)

qCp eff qs Cps 1 / qw Cpw /Sw qo Cpo /So

40

temperature were small compared to changes with

moisture content (Chen, 1996). The heat capacities of

the tortilla chip solid fraction along with the rest of its

components are shown in Tables 1 and 2. The unit of

specic heat is J/kg K. From Table 1, M is the moisture

content in decimal (d.b.), Ma is the molecular weight

(m.w.) of air (28.85 g/gmol), and Mv is the m.w. of vapor

(18.02 g/gmol).

The eective thermal conductivity (in W/m K), which

includes the contribution of all the components in the

tortilla chip, is given in Eq (41)

Table 3

Thermal conductivity values used in this model

41

The thermal conductivity of solid fraction of the tortilla

chip is taken from the following correlations (Chen,

1996):

Parameter

Values (W/m K)

Reference

Water

Gas

Oil

kw 0:64

kg 0:026

ko 0:17

Choi and Okos (1986)

Lewis (1987) for corn oil

Table 2

Coecients for determining CpO2 , CpN2 , and Cpv (Lewis, 1987) from Table 1

Component

O2

N2

Water vapor

a

25.46

27.32

32.22

43

of the thermal conductivity values are shown in Table 3.

In addition, the heat and mass transfer coecients

are important parameters that are also very hard to

determine for food materials. Farkas and Hubbard

(2000) found the convective heat transfer coecients, h,

to be a dynamic property ranging from 300 to

1100 W=m2 K and to be coupled with the movement of

oil. For this study, it was assumed that the temperature

of the product does not increase until very low-moisture content due to large latent heat of vaporization

compared to the rate of heat transfer from the oil to the

surface. Thus, the convective heat transfer term is neglected during this period. Once the water saturation of

the product has dropped below 0.20, the convective heat

transfer term is added back on. This water saturation

limit is used based on experimental observations.

Furthermore, the mass transfer coecient is assumed

to be a function of the moisture gradient and the frying

temperature. As the water saturation decreases, hmv

decreases, and as the frying temperature increases the

initial hmv increases.

39

qg Cpg /1 Sw So :

42

c

2

1.5190 10

0.6226 10 2

0.1920 102

)0.7150 10

0.0950 105

1.0540 105

5

1.311 109

0

)3.594 109

3. Discussion

During the drying of food materials, water is removed from the system causing signicant shrinkage.

For tortilla chips, Kawas and Moreira (2000) observed

up to 9.6% shrinkage in the chip diameter for the control

sample and up to 7.6% and 11.6% shrinkage for the ne

and coarse masa particles, respectively. Also, they noticed signicant increase in the thickness of the chip due

to pung (gas pressure buildup). They recorded up to

100% increase in puness around the center of the chip

(taking into account gas bubble expansion) and about a

7% increase in the thickness of the chip (disregarding the

gas bubble expansion). This study includes these changes in the model in order to obtain a more accurate

prediction of the moisture and temperature prole.

Fennema (1985) presented an idea of water interaction within a food system that was useful in developing

the structure model. Fig. 5 illustrates three dierent

zones of water using a moisture sorption isotherm.

Water presented in zone I is the most strongly absorbed

and most immobile water in food and the enthalpy of

vaporization of this water is much greater than that of

pure water. This water forms a monolayer over the hydrophilic region of the solid material by either waterion

or waterdipole interaction. It is the most tenaciously

bound water and is thought of as constitutional

water. Water in zone II consists of zone I water and a

multilayer water that associates with neighboring molecules mainly by waterwater and watersolute hydrogen bonding. This bound water is called vicinal water.

The enthalpy of vaporization for the multilayer water is

slightly to moderately greater than that of pure water.

Water in zone III of the isotherm includes water in zones

within the connes of zone III. Water in zone III is the

least bound and most mobile water and is designated

bulk water. Fennema (1985) noted that in the presence

of gels or cellular structures, this water is designated as

entrapped water. Its enthalpy of vaporization is essentially the same as that of pure water. Thus, in this

study, bound water includes the tightly bound constitutional water, the slight less bound, vicinal water,

and the least bound, entrapped water.

From the experimental data shown in Table 4,

shrinkage of the tortilla chip occurred within the rst

5 s of frying (1.27 mm thickness at 190 C). This corresponds to a moisture reduction from 42.2 to 28.5%

w.b. and a water activity reduction from 0.987 to 0.978.

Thus, it is likely that most of the shrinkage of the material occurs due to the removal of the water from zone

III, which consists mostly of the entrapped water.

With further drying and sucient energy input, the

water from zone II can be removed. The monolayer

bound water that constitutes the zone I water probably represents the water that remains at the equilibrium

moisture content (2% w.b.).

At low-moisture contents (during removal of zone II

water) when shrinkage begins to stop, pung will

commence. Crust formation at the outer layer of the

tortilla chip restricts the amount of pressure that can be

released from the core region (limited water diusion).

From experimental data from Table 4, pung begins

after about 20 s of frying (at 190 C), or at about 10%

moisture content (w.b.). Pung continues until about

2% moisture content (w.b.) at which point the equilibrium is reached. Thus, incorporating the structural

changes during the frying process into the model is vital

Fig. 5. Generalized moisture sorption isotherm for the low-moisture range of food 20 C (Fennema, 1985).

Table 4

Percentage of shrinkage, thickness, and puness of the tortilla as a function of frying time for tortilla with 1.27 mm initial thickness fried at 190 C

(Kawas, 2000)

Time (s)

Shrinkage (%)

Thickness (%)

Puness (%)

Moisture (% w.b.)

0

5

10

20

30

40

60

0.0

7.8

8.0

8.0

8.1

8.3

9.4

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

7.0

7.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

70.0

90.0

100.0

100.0

42.0

28.0

22.0

10.0

5.5

3.8

3.8

and the nal oil content of the tortilla chip.

For a hygroscopic material, bound water resides in

the solid matrix and leads to shrinkage of the structure

when it is removed. Shrinkage in this study is dened as

a decrease in the radius of the product (Kawas, 2000).

Two methods were investigated and one was implemented into the model. First, Crapiste et al. (1988a)

introduced the shrinkage velocity term, which depends

on experimental data of dimensional changes as a

function of moisture content. A second method, which is

similar to the shrinkage velocity method, used the experimental data to produce an empirical correlation of

shrinkage as a function of moisture content. The dimension of the tortilla chip was then adjusted as a

function of the moisture content to obtain a more accurate drying curve and temperature prole.

After all the bound water has been removed and the

moisture content of the tortilla chip has decreased, the

material will begin to pu due to the gas pressure

buildup inside the tortilla. Pung or pillowing is dened

as an increase in the thickness of the tortilla chips due to

the formation of the gas bubbles at the surface. The

crust region provides a high resistance to gas diusion;

thus, causing the pressure build up and formation of gas

pockets. To describe the expansion due to pung an

empirical relationship similar to that for shrinkage was

considered in this study.

4. Conclusions

The frying process, including cooling, of tortilla chips

was simulated based on the fundamental approach of

multiphase porous media. The parameters that were

studied included water saturation, Sw , oil saturation, So ,

temperature, T, and pressure, P. Liquid ow results from

convective ow due to the gradient in total gas pressure

and capillary ow due to the gradient of capillary force.

Gas movement results from convective ow due to the

total gas pressure gradient and Knudsen diusion due

to the concentration gradient. The only transport phenomenon during cooling is oil absorption, which is assumed to be a function of the capillary pressure.

some water is tightly bound to the solid matrix. To

address that issue, semi-empirical correlations were

included to account for structural changes, such as

shrinkage and expansion due to pung. These correlations were based on experimental data. All water present

in the tortilla chip was considered bound and led to

shrinkage when removed. When shrinkage begins to

stop, pung commences. Crust formation at the outer

layer of the tortilla chip restricts the amount of pressure

than can be released from the core region (limited water

diusion). Pung begins at about 10% moisture content

(w.b.). Pung continues until about 2% moisture content (w.b.) at which point the equilibrium is reached.

The incorporation of the structural changes during the

frying process into the model is vital to predicting the

drying rate, the temperature prole, and the nal oil

content of the tortilla chip.

Appendix A

Ma Mv Deff;g

opv

P

;

RT P pv Ma Pv Mv

oSw

Ma Mv Deff;g

opv

P

;

K3v

RT P pv Ma Pv Mv

oT

pv kkgr

Ma Mv Deff;g

opv

K4v

P

;

Rv T lg RT P pv Ma Pv Mv

oT

pv

/1 Sw So opv

K5v /

;

Rv T oSw

Rv T

/1 Sw So o Pv

K7v

;

Rv

oT T

K1 K1v am ;

K3 K3v dT ;

kkwr

K4 K4v qw

;

lw

K5 K5v /qw ;

K7 K7v ;

K10 amo ;

K11 dTo ;

kkor

K12 qo

;

lo

K14 /qo ;

K1v

10

Ma Mv Deff;g

opv

P

;

RT P pv Ma pv Mv

oSw

Ma Mv Deff;g

opv

P

;

RT P pv Ma pv Mv

oT

P pv kkgr

Ma Mv Deff;g

pv ;

Ra T lg RT P pv Ma pv Mv

/ P pv 1 Sw So opv

;

Ra

T

T

oSw

/ P

PSw 1 Sw So o opv

2

;

Ra T 2

T

oT oT

T

/1 Sw So

;

Ra T

am k;

K17

K19

K20

K21

K23

K24

K25

K26 amo k;

K27 Keff dTo dT ;

kkwr

kkor

q

q k;

K28

lw w

lo o

K29 k/qw ;

K30 k/qo ;

K31 qCp eff :

References

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