Birth Control Methods and STDs

Diana Ciuca Biology per. 3 May 31st

Implant (Norplant, Implanon, Jadelle)
Description Implants are contraceptives which are inserting into a female’s arm and slowly release a hormone which prevents ovulation. Norplant used to be a popular implant when it first was approved by the FDA in 1990, but has been withdrawn (2001) since the hormone it releases ran out. It consisted of 6 small silicon capsules that released Levonorgestrel. Implanon was introduced in 1999 and is the size of a thick matchstick which is implanted under the skin. Jadelle is a newer implant that hasn’t yet been introduced to the US, although it was FDA approved for five years in 2002. Mechanism Implants are inserted under your skin in the upper arm and steadily release a female hormone into your body that creates thick mucus and inhibits ovulation. Jadelle releases hormones which inhibit ovulation and the thickening of increase cervical mucus, making it impermeable to sperm. Norplant and Implanon work in the same way by preventing release of the egg and thickening uterine lining. Jadelle is Norplant’s successor beginning in 2007 and releases Levonorgestrel in a polymer matrix instead of capsules.

Pros and Cons PROS Reliable (doesn’t fall out or move in almost
all cases)

CONS The side effects: Weight gain Irregular bleeding It is not user-controlled (need doctor) Pain and complications from insertion and removal No protection against STDs

Effective(99% and more based on several studies) Long Duration (3-5 years, based on brand) Convenient (no worrying about it, or reminders) Reversibility (can be taken out any time) Safe

Effectiveness Implants are the most effective methods of birth control under abstinence and vasectomies/tubal ligation. Out of 100 couples, implants cause less then one pregnancy per year in each study.

Side Effects • • • • • • • • Menstrual disturbances and irregularities Headaches/migraines Increase in acne Weight gain Nausea Anxiety Mood Swings Headaches

Costs/Availability Depending on where you live, implants may cost less than 3 years of birth control pills/condoms. All an implant needs is to be inserted by a doctor and if not inserted by a certified doctor who knows what he is doing it may not work correctly.

Bibliography http://www.popcouncil.org/biomed/jadellefaqgeninfo.html http://www.implanonusa.com/consumer/whatisimplanon/howimplanonworks/index.asp? C=51665396011059953704&svarqvp2=0&componentid=186096&source pageid=68182 http://www.reproline.jhu.edu/english/1fp/1methods/1ni/niint1a.htm http://www.epigee.org/guide/norplant.html http://www.epigee.org/guide/implanon.html http://www.netdoctor.co.uk/sex_relationships/facts/contraceptiveimplant.h tm

Vasectomy
Description It is a simple procedure that can be preformed in a doctor’s office in which the vas deferens is severed. This causes sterilization since both ends of vas deferens are sealed with stitches, heat, or both. Hormones are still secreted into the bloodstream. It is permanent but can be reversed, although reversals may fail. Mechanism Sperm can no longer exit the body through the penis due to this procedure since the vas deferens which connects the sperm-created testes to the urethra (exit pathway) is cut. They can usually be preformed in a doctor’s office and are much simpler than tubal ligation for females. Pros and Cons Pros Permanent/Long-lasting No Mess No having to remember Allows spontaneous sex EXTREMELY EFFECTIVE Low cost Cons Doesn’t protect against STDs Isn’t instantly effective Requires surgery May not be reversible

Effectiveness Aside from abstinence, vasectomies are the most effective means of birth control with 99.6% effectiveness out of 100 couples. After the procedure, it may take a few weeks before it is fully effective. Failure rate is usually .01% Side Effect/Dangers

Complications are rare, but they may occur as with any surgery. Post Vasectomy Pain Syndrome may affect makes after a vasectomy (only 35%). Bruising, swelling, and infections are the most common side effects. Cost/Availability In the UK, the procedure is sometimes free. In the US, a simple trip to a clinic or doctors office can get you a vasectomy. Bibliography: • • • http://www.epigee.org/guide/vasectomy.html http://www.birth-control-comparison.info/vasectomy.htm http://www.netdoctor.co.uk/ate/pregnancyandchildbirth/205708.ht ml

Tubal Ligation
Description It is a procedure often referred to as getting one’s “tubes tied.” It is a permanent form of sterilization which involves the oviducts, or fallopian tubes, being severed and sealed to prevent pregnancy. Hysterectomy is when the entire uterus (with eggs and ovaries) is removed. It is now reversible on 98% of women who have had it done. Mechanism There are multiple approaches: laparoscopy, mini-laparotomy, or laparotomy. The latter two are the most common. The whole procedure takes about 20-30 minutes and can be preformed under a local anesthetic. The incision is usually mad right above the pubic bone and can be preformed right after a cesarean. Pros and Cons Pros Permanent birth control Immediately effective No reminders/ daily attention Sexual spontaneity Cost-efficient Cons Surgery and anesthetic required Short Hospital treatment More complications than vasectomy No protection against STDs May not be reversible

Side Effects/Dangers

Since it is a surgery, more risks are involved. Some are infection and uterine perforation. Some women also experience irregular bleeding. Post Tubal Ligation Syndrome may also affect women after having this procedure preformed. Cost/Availability It usually costs around $2000 if with a private physician. In most cases, it is covered by insurance (either partly or fully). It is cost-effective in the long-run. It is available wherever there is a local anesthetic and doctor, but some cultures perform it on their own, which causes severe complications. Some countries may refuse to perform it, especially to females under 40. Bibliography http://www.epigee.org/guide/sterile.html http://www.birth-control-comparison.info/tubalig.htm http://tubal.org/symptoms_of_pts.htm

Withdrawal
Description Wittily referred to as “coitus interruptus,” withdrawal consists of removing the penis during sexual intercourse to prevent ejaculation into the vagina. The problem with this procedure is that sperm can leak out of the penis even when the male wont notice it, so he can’t stop it. Mechanism It requires great self control from the male’s part because withdrawal prevents pregnancy by not allowing sperm to enter the vagina. When a man feels close to ejaculation he must remove his penis away from the vagina and crotch. Pros and Cons Pros Free Can be used when no other methods available No prescription No side effects Partners become more aware of responsiveness Better than no birth control Cons Not very effective Doesn't protect against STDs Lessens sexual pleasure May not work if little experience or intoxicated Less effective than most methods May be messy

Effectiveness Out of every 100 women whose partner does it correctly every time, 4 will become pregnant and if not always done correctly, 27 will become pregnant. The average failure rate is 19%. Side Effects/Dangers Since it isn’t medical there are no side effects except for the lack of protection against STDs.

Bibliography: http://www.birth-control-comparison.info/withdrawal.htm#using

http://www.epigee.org/guide/withdrawal.html http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/birth-control/BI99999/PAGE=BI00038

Syphilis
Description Syphilis is a highly infectious yet curable STD caused by Treponema pallidum that can have devastating effects. There are several stages: primary stage, secondary stage, late (tertiary) and latent stage. Transmission It is transmitted mainly through sexual contact, but can be transmitted through birth. It is spread through vaginal, oral and anal sex during all stages of syphilis except for tertiary. Since it is a bacterial disease it can be transmitted from a woman to her unborn child. It can not be transmitted through bathing suits, shared utensils or bathrooms. It can be transmitted through contact with sores. Prevention It can be avoided through no sex or the use of a latex condom. Condoms lubricated with spermicide are more effective than those without. Also, being in a monogamous sexual relationship or with partners that are proven to not be infected prevents the spread of this disease. Prevalence In 1998 almost 80% of countries reported no new cases. According to the Center for Disease Control in 1990, it has declined to 2.5 cases for 100,000 people. Poverty and lack of education are associated with the rise of this disease. Signs/Symptoms Most people infected lack signs of the disease for years and the symptoms vary from stage to stage. Primary Stage symptoms are marked by a single sore (chancre) or multiple sores. This round flat sore lasts 3-6 weeks and goes away without treatment. Lymph nodes may also occur. Secondary Stage is marked by skin rashes and mucous membrane lesions. Fever, fatigue, soreness and aching also mark this stage.

Latent stage is the hidden stage when the previous symptoms disappear. Without treatment, the infection will remain in the body. In this period and the late period, Syphilis may damage the internal organs like the heart, brain, bones, blood vessels and liver. Numbness, paralysis, dementia and blindness may follow, and even death.

Treatment However, one the disease it contracted, it can be cured through a shot of Penicillin only if it is in its early stages. If allergic, there are other solutions and antibiotics. It can only be cured if caught early on, but the symptoms are obvious so it usually is. A blood test is used to determine whether someone is infected by the disease.

Complications Complications only occur if a person is allergic to penicillin or the antibiotic given to them or if Syphilis isn’t caught in its early stages and can’t be easily treated or detected.

Bibliography http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/syphilis/DS00374/DSECTION=2 http://www.cdc.gov/std/syphilis/STDFact-Syphilis.htm

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