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Table of Contents:

General Woodwind Information:


Body Alignment
Breathing
Diaphragm
Intercostals Muscles
Additional anatomy
Sticky pads
Causes
Pad paper

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Flute Information:
Parts of the Flute
Assembly
Proper alignment
Care
Tuning stick/head cork
Hand position
Left Hand
Right Hand
Balance Points
Embouchure and Tone Production
Troubleshooting including parallel relationships
Use of air
Articulation
Single tongue
Double tongue
Tripple tongue
Range of the flute and piccolo
How is piccolo different from flute?
Fingerings
Correct fingerings
Common errors
Use of Thumb Bb
Piccolo
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French vs Plateau Keys
Plated vs Solid Silver
Metal vs wood piccolos
Intonation tendencies
Range
Dynamic leve
Exterior Temperature

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Instructions to a beginning flutist in detail


Curved head joints
Advantages
Disadvantages
Vibrato
Teaching
Brands
High School
Professional
Method Books
Beginner
Intermediate
Advanced
Solos
Beginner
Intermediate
Advanced
Ensemble
Beginner
Intermediate
Advanced
Handouts
Flute Topics Study guide
Orchestration Handout
Flute Glossary
Flute Fingering Chart
Trill Chart
Flute Playing Requirements
Interval Exercise
Gariboli Etude
Flute Production Quiz
Flute Quiz
Flute Final

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Clarinet Information:
Assembly and parts
Register key
Bridge key
Care and Cleaning
Tone Production
Starting a beginner
Common problems and solutions
Embouchure
Reeds

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Tuning
Intonation tendencies
Articulation
Double tonguing
Fingerings
Registers of the clarinet
Clarinet Family
Members
Vibrato and its use
Methods
Beginner
Intermediate
Advanced
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Solos
Beginner
Intermediate
Advanced
Ensemble
Beginner
Intermediate
Advanced
Handouts
A New Register
Orchestration Handout (Two pages)
Clarinet Equipment Information
Tone Handout
Embouchure (Two pages)
Clarinet Fingering Chart
Clarinet Checklist
Common Clarinet Accessories
Clarinet Tone Production Quiz
Clarinet Playing Final
Clarinet Final

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Saxamaphone Information:
Saxophone Family
Members
Inventor
Boehm System
Care and maintenance
Assembly
Neck straps
Hand position
Basic

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Embouchure
Basic
Tone Production
Starting a Beginner
Common problems and solutions
Tonguing
Vibrato
Teaching
Intonation
Dynamics
Range
Temperature
Octave key
Thumb position
When to use
Range of the saxophone
Name of range above high F
Palm keys
Side keys
Fingering
Bb fingerings
Reeds
Jazz mouthpieces and reeds
Saxophone selection
Doubling
Methods
Solo
Ensemble
Handouts

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General Woodwind Information:


Body Alignment
have the students stand up and center their weight over the feet. They should
be able to push up on their toes without rocking forward or back at all.
then have the students sit as if they are still standing from the waist up.
Breathing
Inhalation s controlled by the diaphragm, a membrane like muscle that separates
your thorasic cavity from your abdominal cavity. The diaphragm is dome shape and
flattens upon inhalation. When your lungs fill with air your abdominal muscles push
forward to make room, this is what you see when your stomach sticks out when you
inhale. Your rib cage is moved by the intercostals muscles, which are attached to your
ribs, for the same reason your abdominals move, to make more room. When exhaling,
the majority of your air will come from the abdominal region when that runs out you
should most likely take another breath, while leaving the rib area for support if possible.

Diaphragm- diaphragm is a shelf of muscle extending across the bottom of the


ribcage. The diaphragm separates the thoracic cavity (with lung and heart) from
the abdominal cavity (with liver, stomach, intestines, etc.). In its relaxed state, the
diaphragm is shaped like a dome. It is controlled by the phrenic nerve.1
Intercostals Muscles- Intercostals muscles are several groups of muscles that run
between the ribs and help form and move the chest wall.
Additional anatomy2

Sticky pads
Causes
mineral build up on the pads
Pad paper
sticky pads can be fixed by replacing the pads
sticky pads can be fixed by using dollar bill to gently rub the pads
sticky pads can be fixed by using cigarette paper to gently rub the pads
o make sure you dont get the cigarette paper with the gummed
edges
sticky pads can be fixed by using pad paper to gently rub the pads

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2

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thoracic_diaphragm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intercostal_muscles

Flute Information:
Parts of the Flute
Embouchure hole (Blow hole)
Embouchure plate
Head Joint
Middle Joint
Tone Holes
Foot Joint
Support and its correct usage:
Support is the equal opposing forces. it is not possible to under or over support
the air stream while playing the flute because there is no apposing force, but it is possible
to over or under blow.
Assembly:
1. Open your case right side up.
2. Put the head joint into the middle joint with a gentle twisting motion. Twist
both the head joint and the middle joint in the same direction.
a. Never place your hand on and twist the embouchure plate
b. Never place your hand on and twist the keys on the body.
3. Line up the embouchure hole with the center of the tone holes.
4. Hold the assemble head and middle joints and gently twist on the foot joint.
Twist both the head joint and the middle joint in the same direction.
a. Never place your hand on and twist the keys on the body.
b. It is best to hold the foot joint near the end where there are no keys.
c. You can hold the foot joint on the naturally closed keys, but be careful
not to apply too much pressure and cause damage.
5. Line up the foot joint so the rod is centered with the tone holes
a. This placement can be altered slightly depending on the students
hands.
Care:
Always swab instrument after playing
Key savers are acceptable, but should be stored outside the flute
Keeping moist key saver in the flute doesnt help
Sticky pads can be cleaned with pad paper
Sticky pads can be cleaned with a dollar bill
Sticky pads can be cleaned with alcohol, but is only recommended in
emergencies, and never prolonged usage. Prolonged usage can cause the pads
to dry out.
Sticky pads can be cleaned with cigarette paper, but make sure you get the
kind without the gummed edges. Gummed edges can cause the pads to stick
more.
Never make adjustments to the mechanism, professionals should be used for
such adjustments.
A non-treated cotton or silk mens handkerchief can be used in place of the
store bought swabs.
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Tuning stick/head cork


Tuning stick should be included with all instruments when purchases or
rented.
Most student models will come with a plastic tuning rod.
A wood tuning rod is recommended for the intermediate to professional
instruments.
The purpose of the tuning rod is to gauge proper placement of the head cork.
If the head cork is in the proper location then the line on the tuning rod should
be in the center of the blow hole.
Hand position
1. Hand position needs to be solid to make sure the player is not pressing
down the wrong keys
2. Good hand position will promote speed and dexterity as the player
progresses.
3. The player should bring the flute to them; they should not move their head
or upper body to meet the flute.
o Moving the body or the head can cause tension
o Moving the body or the head can cause long term muscle strain.
Left hand
1. Start by having the students lift up their hands and observe the natural
shape their hands make.
2. Have the students expand that shape, in their left hand and rest the
body of the flute on the bottom knuckle of their pointer finger.
a. The correct balance point should be somewhere between the
first key hole and the first finger key.
b. Left hand placement can be altered slightly to accommodate
the size of the players hands.
3. Finger key placement
a. The pointer finger should be placed on the first flat key on the
body
b. Skip one key and place the middle finger on the next key
c. the ring finger goes next key
d. and the pinky should be placed over long key protruding
between forth and fifth key
e. The thumb should be placed on the long thumb key which runs
parallel to the flute mechanisms
Right Hand
1. The end of the flute opposite the blow hole should be balanced on the
right hand thumb.
2. Finger key placement
a. The pointer finger should be placed two keys after the Right Hand.
b. The middle and ring finger should be placed on the two keys
immediately following the pointer.
c. The pinky key should be placed on the long keys on the foot joint.
3. Dont lean the flute on the rite index finger.
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Balance & Balance Points


Special care should be made to balance the flute on the left pointer and
right thumb.
Incorrect balance can cause muscle pain.
Incorrect balance can reduce dexterity.
Embouchure and tone production:
Common Embouchure Problems:
1. The flute is too rolled out.
o The tone will be airy
o have the student think about using the poh syllable
o have the student think about focusing the air stream
2. The embouchure is not centered over the blow hole
o the tone will be airy
o it may be difficult to notice attack and articulation
o have the student center their embouchure over the blow hole
3. Overbite
o the student will have a hard time producing any tone
o have the student think about blowing up
o Have the student thing about bringing their lower jaw in if
possible.
4. The flute is not parallel to the ground
o the tone will be airy
o have the student bring end of the flute up and parallel to the floor.
o make sure the students embouchure is parrall to the flute as well
o have the students think about having a pencil in the end of their
flute that they dont want to fall out.
5. The flute is rolled in to far
o the tone will be airy
o have the student role the flute out
o have the student think about blowing across the blow hole, and not
into it.
6. The aperture too big or too open.
o the tone will be weak
o the student may have a difficult time sustaining their tone
o have the student use the poh syllable to help focus the
embouchure
7. The Corners of the mouth are pulled too far back
o the tone is thin sounding
o have the student try to relax the corners of the mouth
make sure they are not attempting to smile while they are
playing
8. The student is using slow air
o The student will have trouble playing high notes

o while playing in the higher register the student will need to


concentrate on using faster air.
9. the students embouchure is too wide
o the tone will be airy
o the student will have a difficult time maintaining their tone
o have the student focus on the poh syllable.
Troubleshooting including parallel relationships
There are two important parallel relationships
1. The flute should be parallel to the ground
2. the blow hole the should be parallel to the embouchure
Use of air
slow air speed should be used to produce notes in the lower registers
fast air speed should be used to produce notes in the higher registers
Too much air can cause a double buzz, or no tone at all
not enough air can cause low notes to be produced when higher notes are
desired, or in some cases no tone at all.
Articulation
Single tongue
During single tonguing the tip of the tongue should touch the top of
the teeth
think tee for two
Double tongue
Double tonguing is when the air stream is stopped by the tongue using
two different parts of the tongue.
The tah-kah or do-goh or da-gah syllable should be used. This
will allow the tip of the tongue and the middle of the tongue to stop
their air stream.
Have the student practice tonguing using only the kah syllable.
Once the student demonstrates proficiency using only the kah
syllable add the tah syllable.
Triple tonguing
Triple tonguing is when the air stream is stopped by the tongue three
times.
The tah-kah-tah syllable should be used. This will allow the tip of
the tongue and the middle of the tongue to stop the air stream three
times.
Range of the flute and piccolo
See flute orchestration hand out
How is piccolo different from flute?
The piccolo flute smaller
The piccolo flute sounds an octave higher than the flute
Fingerings
Correct fingerings
See fingering chart handout.
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Common errors
D2- first finger must be down
Eb2 make sure you press down the left hand pointer
F#s- ring finger only
D3 make sure you press down the Right Hand pinky keyF
G#3
Use of Thumb Bb
Thumb Bb sounds better than the normal Bb fingering.
Piccolo
fingerings are the same as the flute
French vs Plateau Keys
French keys are open hole
Plateau keys are closed hole
Inline g key vs offset g Keys
offset g keys the g key is not in line with the other keys
o this could be better for some players with shorter fingers.
inline g key the g key is in line with the other keys
o this could be more difficult to reach for some players
Plated vs Solid Silver
Silver and Nickel plated flutes are common in student model flutes
A good upgrade is to move to solid silver.
Metal vs wood piccolos
Most flutes are metal
some prefer wood flutes for a different tone.
Intonation tendencies
Range
Higher range tends to be sharp
lower range tends to be flat
Dynamic level
Louder dynamics tend to be sharp
softer dynamics tend to be flat
Exterior Temperature
cold tends to cause the instrument to go flat
flat tends to cause the instrument to go sharp
Instructions to a beginning flutist in detail
1. Start by teaching the proper posture the student should have while playing.
a. have the students stand up and center their weight over the feet. They
should be able to push up on their toes without rocking forward or back at
all.
b. then have the students sit as if they are still standing from the waist up.
2. Then go over proper breathing
3. Start by playing on the head joints
a. demonstrate and explain to the students the proper placement of the
head joints and the lips over the blowhole on the lip plate

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b. Demonstrate and explain the poh syllable and how it relates to tone
production. Have the students start with their lips together and let the air
part at the center only.
c. it isnt necessary to introduce tonguing at this point.
4. Once sound production is consistent add the rest of the flute.
Curved head joints
Advantages
The students arms will not need to be extended as far as with normal
flutes. Allowing for more comfortable playing.
It also has possible uses on the marching field.
Disadvantages
The tone isnt quite as vibrant.
The curved head joint would have to be special ordered for each flute.
Vibrato
Vibrato is produced when the pitch of a given note is varied slightly sharp and
flat in a wave like manner
Teaching
Start by having the student variant the pitch slightly in quarter notes, then
eighths, and so on, by slightly slowing and speeding up the air stream.d
the student should avoid shaking the instrument to produce vibrato
the student should avoid using the throat to produce
Brands
High School
Miyazawa
Yamaha (up to 3000)
Geminhardt (up to open hole)
Professional
Powell
Haynes
Brannen-Cooper
Burkart(piccolos)
Jin Keefe(piccolos)
Method Books
Beginner
o Learn as You Play Flute (Learn as You Play) by Peter Wastall
o Beginner's Book For The Flute by Trevor Wye
o Rubank Elementary Method
o Progressive Flute Method Book 1 (Progressive) by Andrew Scott
Intermediate
o Rubank Intermediate
o Young Orchestral Flautist by Atarah Ben-Tovim
o Flute Technique by Gareth Morris
Advanced

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o Rubank Advanced Method


Solos
Beginner
o Academy Collection arr. Nicholas & Vallis-Davies
Intermediate
o

Advanced
o

Classical Favorites
Belwin Master Solos

Ensemble
Beginner
o Handel Menuet & Bouree, from Fireworks Music
Intermediate
o Arbeau & Kirkpatrick Ding Dong Merrily on High
Advanced
o Tchaikowsky Trepak, from Nutcracker Suite
Handouts
Flute Topics Study guide
Orchestration Handou
Flute Glossary
Flute Fingering Chart
Trill Chart
Flute Playing Requirements
Interval Exercise
Gariboli Etude
Flute Production Quiz
Flute Quiz
Flute Final

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Clarinet Information:
Assembly and parts
Assembly
1. Grease corks if necessary
2. Hold the lower section of the body in your right hand, and uppers section
of the body in your left hand.
press down the tone hole rings on the upper section
gently twist the section in the same direction aligning the bridge key
3. Hold the two connected sections in your right hand. Pressing down the
tone hole rings of the lower section gently twist with your left hand.
4. Hold the clarinet in your left hand, and twist the barrel and mouthpiece on
with your right hand. Remove the metal cap and ligature before putting on
the mouthpiece. Align the flat side of the mouthpiece with the register key
on the back of the clarinet.
5. Put on the ligature, and slide the reed behind it. Center your reed on the
lat part of the mouthpiece wt holy a hairline of mouthpieces visible above
the reed. Tighten the screw son the ligature only until snug. over
tighening can damage your ligature.
Register key
The register key is the open key on the back of the upper section of the
body of the clarinet
The register key should be pressed with the left hand thumb
The register key pops the sound of a fingering up a 12th.
Bridge key
The bridge key is the key that crosses the upper and lower body
sections on the clarinet.
The bridge key should be pressed while assembling the clarinet to
prevent damage.
Care and Cleaning
After playing you should always swab out the clarinet. Swabbing the clarinet
will help preserve the pads.
All clarinet players should have a reed case which will hold 4 reeds
Key savers are acceptable, but should be stored outside the flute
Keeping moist key saver in the flute doesnt help
Sticky pads can be cleaned with pad paper
Sticky pads can be cleaned with a dollar bill
Sticky pads can be cleaned with alcohol, but is only recommended in
emergencies, and never prolonged usage. Prolonged usage can cause the pads
to dry out.
Sticky pads can be cleaned with cigarette paper, but make sure you get the
kind without the gummed edges. Gummed edges can cause the pads to stick
more.

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Never make adjustments to the mechanism, professionals should be used for


such adjustments.
A non-treated cotton or silk mens handkerchief can be used in place of the
store bought swabs.
Tone Production
Starting a beginner
1. open the case and remove the bell
2. remove the lower part of the body
3. grease the cork if dry
4. place cork end into the bell
5. remove the upper section of the body from the case
6. grease the cork if dry
7. place the cork e of the upper section into the lower section,
8. align the open keys into a straight line while pressing the bridge key
9. place the barrel onto the top of the upper portion of the body
10. then place the mouth piece into the barrel
11. algin the open keys
12. align the reed so that the tip is even with the tip of the mouthpiece,
make sure that it completely covers the hole on each side
13. slide the ligature over the mouthpiece and reed and pit it down toward
the barrel. the top of the ligature should be just below the cut of the
reed
14. Tightening the ligature will vary depending on the brand and design,
but generally tighten the bottom screw first then the upper holding the
reed in place, but allowing it to vibrate
Common problems and solutions
The students reed is too hard
o stuffy sound, unable to produce tone, very resistant
o have the student try using a softer reed
The students reed is too soft
o the sound is bright, with a slight buzz, high notes choke off
o have the student try a harder reed
The student is using too much mouth piece
o high notes are difficult to play
o have the student try not putting so much mouthpiece into their
mouth
The students lower lip isnt covering the teeth
o the sound is bright and the lower notes dont sound good
o have the student use their lower lip to cover the bottom teeth
The student is using too little mouthpiece in mouth
o the sound is softer and the high notes are difficult to play
o have the student take more of the mouthpiece into their mouth
The student is puckering the lips to much
o the sound is muffled
o have the student not pucker as much
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o have the student think about not bunching up their embouchure


The students the clarinet is held to far up
o the sound is bright and sharp
o have the student bring the end of the clarinet closer to the body
o the ideal angle is between 30 and 40 degrees.
The corners of the students mouth is pulled to far back
o the sound is airy and air is leaking out of the embouchure
o have the student not pull back the corners of their mouth so
much
o tell the student not to smile while playing
The student is puffing the cheeks
o there is a delay in the initial sound production and a bright tone
o have the student concentrate on not puffing out their cheeks.
The clarinet is being held to close to the body by the student
o the sound is bright and sharp
o have the student bring the end of the clarinet away from the
body
o the ideal angle is between 30 and 40 degrees.
Reeds
Recommended Beginner Brands
Rico Royal (strength 2, 2 , or 3)
Vandoren (strength 1 or 1 )
Recommended Intermediate:
Vandoren (strength 2 or 2 )
Vandoren V-12 (strength 2 or 2 )
Recommended Advanced:
Vandoren (strength 3, 3 , or rarely 4)
Vandoren V-12 (strength 3, 3 , or rarely 4)
Rico Grand Concerts (strength 3 or 3 )
Tuning

Lengthen the tube by pulling out the barrel to tune throat tones.
lengthen the tube by pulling between the body joints to tune higher notes
Articulation
The tip of the toung shoud touch the tip of the reed.
Double tonguing
Often sloppy and not recommended
Fingerings
keep fingerings in the same hand if possible
Avoid sliding if possible.
Use alternate Bb/f# for chromatic passages
Use only one finger only if possible (low FEF)
Registers of the clarinet
clarimeau- lowest not to Bb
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clarion - from b in the staff to c above the staff


altissimo c# above the staff to the highest note possible
Clarinet Family
Members
Bb Clarinet transpose one whole step up
Bb Bass Clarinet - transpose one whole step up
Bb Contra Bass Clarinet - transpose one whole step lower
Eb Alto clarinet transpose up major 6th
Eb soprano transpose up major 6th
Vibrato and its use
Vibrato is not used in traditional classical clarinet playing.
Methods
Beginner
Rubank Elementary Method
Intermediate
Celebrated Method for the Clarinet by Klose
Advanced
Celebrated Method for the Clarinet by Klose
Solos
Beginner
Disney Solos - Bb Clarinet
Intermediate
C. Rose: 32 Etudes For Clarinet
Advanced
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart: Concerto For Clarinet, K. 622
Ensemble
Beginner
Mozart Ave Verum, from String Quintet, op 13/5
Intermediate
Bach Jesu, Joy of Man's Desiring
Advanced
Bach Air on the G String
Handouts
A New Register
Orchestration Handout (Two pages)
Clarinet Equipment Information
Tone Handout
Embouchure (Two pages)
Clarinet Fingering Chart
Clarinet Checklist
Common Clarinet Accessories
Altissimo Handout
Clarinet Tone Production Quiz
Clarinet Playing Final

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Clarinet Final

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Saxamaphone Information:
Saxophone Family
Members
Alto Sax Eb up major 6th
Tennor Sax Bb up whole step
Bari Sax Eb up a major 6th
contrabass sax C no transposition
soprano sax Bb up whole step
c melody sax C up a major 6th
o Invented by Adolf Sax
Boehm System
Is in its original sense a system of keywork for the flute, created by
inventor and flautist Theobald Boehm in the 1830s and 1840s. A key system
inspired by Boehm's for the clarinet family also is known as "Boehm system"
although it was not developed by Boehm himself.
The basic premise behind the Boehm system is that the tone holes, the
openings where the various notes are emitted from a musical instrument, should
be located at the proper points on the body of the instrument, rather than where
they can conveniently be covered by the player's fingers. From the advent of
simple wind instruments, these openings could be so inconvenient that some
needed to be covered by portions of the hands other than the fingers. And, on
instruments not yet adapted to the Boehm system, elaborate work-arounds, such
as the lengthy tone holes in the upper, or wing, joint of the bassoon, have to be
provided.
While such workarounds can enable an in tune instrument in the case of
smaller instruments, large instruments (such as bass clarinets, contrabassoons and
saxophones) cannot be so accommodated. Either the tone holes are too large to be
covered by the fingers or the operation of the keywork becomes so cumbersome
than the instrument is awkward to operate. Generally, the larger the instrument the
greater the need for compromise on intonation.
Theobald Boehm felt that a musical instrument would best benefit from a
rational approach that would first consider the regularity of the fundamental scale
of the instrument, and only once that had been determined were the measures
taken to close those holes. He chose the traverse flute as the instrument to test his
theory.
In the case of the Boehm flute, Boehm adapted a system of axle mounted
keys with a series of "open rings" (called brille in German, as they resembled the
type of eyeglass frames common during the nineteenth century) that were fit
around other tone holes, such that the closure of one tone hole by a finger would
also close a key placed over a second hole.
Through careful experimentation over a number of years, Boehm
perfected his take on the flute, with the instrument gradually displacing virtually
all other flutes during the second half of the nineteenth century. While non-Boehm
flutes are still made in limited numbers, they are primarily restricted to non-

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ensemble situations such as folk music, where tuning and regularity of tone are
not considered as critical.
Boehm did work on a system for the bassoon, and Boehm-inspired oboes
have been made, but non-Boehm systems remain predominant for these
instruments. 3

Figure 1. eattle musician Jay C. Easton with 10 members of the saxophone family (from largest to
smallest: contrabass, bass, baritone, tenor, C tenor, alto, F mezzo-soprano, soprano, C soprano,
sopranino)4

3
4

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boehm_System
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saxophone

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Care and maintenance


After playing you should always swab out the saxophone. Swabbing the
saxophone will help preserve the pads.
All saxophone players should have a reed case which will hold 4 reeds
Key savers are acceptable, but should be stored outside the flute
Keeping moist key saver in the flute doesnt help
Sticky pads can be cleaned with pad paper
Sticky pads can be cleaned with a dollar bill
Sticky pads can be cleaned with alcohol, but is only recommended in
emergencies, and never prolonged usage. Prolonged usage can cause the pads
to dry out.
Sticky pads can be cleaned with cigarette paper, but make sure you get the
kind without the gummed edges. Gummed edges can cause the pads to stick
more.
Never make adjustments to the mechanism, professionals should be used for
such adjustments.
A non-treated cotton or silk mens handkerchief can be used in place of the
store bought swabs
Assembly
1. Open your case right side up. Put the thin end of the reed inside your mouth
to moisten it. Grease the cork on the neck if necessary
2. Put the neck strap around your neck. Hook the body of the instrument to neck
strap. Remove the end plug.
3. Put the mouthpiece on the necks so that half of the cork is exposed. The flat
side of the mouthpiece should be on the bottom side.
4. Put on the ligature, and slide the reed behind it. Center your red on the flat
part of the mouthpiece with only a hairline of mouthpiece visible above the
reed. Tighten the screws on ligature only until snug. Over tightening can
damage your ligature.
5. Put the neck onto the body carefully aligning the connecting lever. Tighten
the neck screw.
Neck straps
Neck straps are important to help promote proper posture
Neck straps are important to help promote proper hand position
Neck straps help prevent long term physical damage to joints
Hand position
Basic
Both hands should be kept in a natural arched position.
Place the left hand pointer, ring, and middle fingers on the indented keys on
the top of the saxophone
Place the right had pointer, ring, and middle fingers on the indented keys on
the bottom of the saxophone.
Embouchure
Basic

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Similar to clarinet embouchure, think ooo or more forward


Tone Production
Starting a beginner
15. open the case and remove the bell
16. remove the lower part of the body
17. grease the cork if dry
18. place cork end into the bell
19. remove the upper section of the body from the case
20. grease the cork if dry
21. place the cork e of the upper section into the lower section,
22. align the open keys into a straight line while pressing the bridge key
23. place the barrel onto the top of the upper portion of the body
24. then place the mouth piece into the barrel
25. algin the open keys
26. align the reed so that the tip is even with the tip of the mouthpiece,
make sure that it completely covers the hole on each side
27. slide the ligature over the mouthpiece and reed and pit it down toward
the barrel. the top of the ligature should be just below the cut of the
reed
28. Tightening the ligature will vary depending on the brand and design,
but generally tighten the bottom screw first then the upper holding the
reed in place, but allowing it to vibrate
Common problems and solutions
The students reed is too hard
o stuffy sound, unable to produce tone, very resistant
o have the student try using a softer reed
The students reed is too soft
o the sound is bright, with a slight buzz, high notes choke off
o have the student try a harder reed
The student is using too much mouth piece
o high notes are difficult to play
o have the student try not putting so much mouthpiece into their
mouth
The students lower lip isnt covering the teeth
o the sound is bright and the lower notes dont sound good
o have the student use their lower lip to cover the bottom teeth
The student is using too little mouthpiece in mouth
o the sound is softer and the high notes are difficult to play
o have the student take more of the mouthpiece into their mouth
The student is puckering the lips to much
o the sound is muffled
o have the student not pucker as much
o have the student think about not bunching up their embouchure
The corners of the students mouth is pulled to far back

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o the sound is airy and air is leaking out of the embouchure


o have the student not pull back the corners of their mouth so
much
o tell the student not to smile while playing
The student is puffing the cheeks
o there is a delay in the initial sound production and a bright tone
o have the student concentrate on not puffing out their cheeks.

Tonguing
The tip of the tongue should touch the tip of the teeth
Anchor tonguing is also acceptable, but probably shouldnt be taught
Double tonguing
Double tonguing is possible, but not recommended
Vibrato
Vibrato is produced when the pitch of a given note is varied slightly sharp and
flat in a wave like manner
Teaching
Start by having the student variant the pitch slightly in quarter notes, then
eighths, and so on, by slightly slowing and speeding up the air stream.
the student should avoid shaking the instrument to produce vibrato
the student should avoid using the throat to produce
Intonation
Dynamics
Louder dynamics goes flat
softer dynamics goes sharp
Range
low register goes flat
thigh register is flat
Temperature
cold goes flat
hot goes sharp
Octave key
Thumb position
The thumb should be held at 2 oclock
When to use
The thumb key should only be pressed for fingerings above D in the
staff.
Range of the saxophone
Low Bb to G above for high school
much higher for professional
Name of range above high F
Altisimo
Palm keys
The palm keys are the flat keys in the right hands.
Side keys

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the side keys are the flat keys in the left hand
Fingering
f#/Gb R1, R2, R3, L1, fork, should be used chromatic passages including f and
f#
side c R1, side 2, should be used
Top f key
High f#
High g on soprano
Bb fingerings
2 best
3 alternates
bis key locations and use
Reeds
Recommended Beginner Brands
Rico Royal (strength 2, 2 , or 3)
Vandoren (strength 1 or 1 )
Recommended Intermediate:
Vandoren (strength 2 or 2 )
Recommended Advanced:
Vandoren (strength 3, 3 , or rarely 4)
Rico Grand Concerts (strength 3 or 3 )
Jazz mouthpieces and reeds
Mouthpiece
Myer
Reeds
Vandoren Java
Doubling
Doubling is recommending for all saxophone players
Saxophone isnt commonly used in classical situations so being flexable will
help long term work
Methods
Beginner
Rubank Elementary Method
Intermediate
Rubank Intermediate Method
Advanced
Rubank Advanced Method
Solo
Beginner
Bach Menuet in G, from the Anna Magdelena Notebook
Intermediate
Beethoven Beloved from Afar, op 98/6
Advanced
Desenclos Prelude Cadence et Final

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Ensemble
Beginner
Niehaus Rapid Transit
Advanced
Mozart Eine Kleine Nachtmusik
Handouts

Saxophone playing test requirements (10 pages)


Saxophone Intonation
Pitch and Intonation (2 pages)
Alternate Fingering Exercises (3 pages)
Saxophone Range
Career Management
Saxophone study Guide

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