58 views

Uploaded by shyamsundarsr

Vibration.

- GEK-113535N
- Inverse Laplace Transform of a Constant
- K. Sankara Rao
- Lab 2
- Analysis and Probability
- Mathematical Physics Sample Exam 1
- BIOTECH III TO VIII.pdf
- [Yves Meyer, Ronald Coifman] Wavelets Calderón-Z
- 17724_Exp 1
- productFlyer_978-3-540-92953-6
- syl_se_ect
- Curriculum_2010_Descriptions_Aug19.doc
- Computer Basics
- CSE obe
- imageRUNNER+25452535+series+Service+Manual_en_9.0.pdf
- Final Syllabus-EE-3rd Semester4_5_6_7_8
- Applied Maths
- m.sc., Physics
- Four Tran
- DSP4 Fourier Series_unlocked

You are on page 1of 20

CHAPTER 5

MOTION IN A STABILITY REGION (PART II)

Fig. 5 1

This section begins by showing how to find the steady-state response of a one

degree-of-freedom system acted on by a periodic excitation. The periodic

2

excitation has a period T, or equivalently, a frequency

. The periodic

T

combination of harmonic functions is called a Fourier series. Once a periodic

excitation is expressed as a Fourier series, the steady-state response of a system

acted on by a periodic excitation is found. By the principle of linear superposition,

the response of the system to the periodic excitation is a linear combination of the

responses of the harmonic functions that make up the Fourier series.

After showing how to represent a periodic excitation by a Fourier series and how

to determine the associated response, its shown how to represent a periodic

excitation by a complex Fourier series. The complex Fourier series is used to

develop a method of finding the steady-state response to a non-periodic excitation.

Excitations are generally non-periodic. Earthquakes and wind produce nonperiodic excitations on buildings. Wind, road surfaces and guides produce nonperiodic excitations on vehicle systems. Like the periodic excitation, the nonperiodic excitation is represented as a linear combination of harmonic functions.

CONTROL OF DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS: AN INTRODUCTORY APPROACH

excitation, there is a continuous range of frequencies. The non-periodic excitation

is an integral of harmonic functions instead of a discrete sum of them. The integral

of harmonic functions is called the Fourier integral. The coefficients in the integral

are called the frequency response. The frequency response represents the

amplitude of the response as a function of the frequency of the harmonics that

make up the non-periodic excitation. Since any non-periodic excitation can be

expressed in terms of its frequency response and, conversely, a frequency response

can be found for any non-periodic excitation, the two expressions are also called

the Fourier transform and the inverse Fourier transform; together theyre called the

Fourier transform pair.

The Fourier transform pair is important in engineering. It applies not only to

excitations in vibrating systems but can be used to characterize how any physical

quantity changes in time. After the Fourier transform pair is developed, this section

develops the procedure for finding the transient and steady-state responses of

systems acted on by non-periodic excitations. The procedure uses a variation of the

Fourier transform called the Laplace transform.

1. Fourier Series

A periodic excitation f(t) is represented as a Fourier series of sine functions and

cosine functions as

(5 1)

f (t )

1

B0 ( B r cos r t C r sin r t ),

2

r 1

r r

2

T

in which Br and Cr are constants, called Fourier coefficients, and T is the period of

2

the excitation; the frequency of the excitation is

The periods

T

Tr

2 T

of the individual harmonics in Eq. (4 1) are integer fractions of the

r

r

period of the excitation. Therefore, the period of the series is T (See Fig. 5 1).

The Fourier coefficients are1.

T /2

T /2

one then notices that

T /2

T /2

T /2

T / 2 cos r t cos s tdt T / 2 sin r t sin s tdt 0 for any r and s that are

distinct

( r s ).

2

T

2

Cr

T

Br

(5 2)

T /2

T / 2 f (t ) cos r tdt

T /2

T / 2 f (t ) sin r tdt

r 0, 1, 2, ...

r 1, 2, ...

defined over the interval [-T/2 T/2] as

A0

A0

f (t )

0t T /2

T / 2 t 0

Br 0 r 0, 1, 2, ...

Cr

2 A0

(1 cos r ) r 1, 2, ...

r

Fig. 5 2

The Fourier series of the square wave excitation, truncated to n terms, is

f (t )

2 A0 n 1

2rt

(1 cos r ) sin T

r 1 r

Fig. 5 2 shows the Fourier series of the square wave truncated to n = 2 terms and

to n = 10 terms. The square wave itself was actually generated by truncating the

Fourier series to n = 500 terms.

When the steady-state responses xr(t) to individual excitations fr(t) are known, then

the steady-state response to any linear combination of the excitations fr(t) can be

found by the principle of linear superposition. Let a system be acted on by the

excitation

f (t ) A1 f1 (t ) A2 f 2 (t ) A3 f 3 (t ) ...

x s (t ) A1 x1 (t ) A2 x 2 (t ) A3 x 3 (t ) ...

Notice that the coefficients in the linear combination of the excitation are the same

as the coefficients in the linear combination of the steady-state responses.

Consider the damped system described by Eq. (5 2). Its steady-state response to a

constant force of F0 was found to be x = F0/k. Its steady-state response to

f F0 cos t is x = X 0 cos(t ) and its steady-state response to

f F0 sin t is x = X 0 sin(t ) . It follows from the principle of linear

superposition that the steady-state response to the period excitation in Eq. (5 1) is

x s (t )

(5 3)

1

1

B0 B r x 0r cos( r t r ) C r x 0r sin( r t r )

2

k

r 1

1 B0

x 0r [ B r cos( r t r ) C r sin( r t r )]

2 k

r 1

(5 4)

1

X 0r

k

r

n

2 2

r tan

[2

r

1

n

r 2

]

n

r

n

For example, look again at the square wave excitation illustrated after Eq. (5 2).

Assume now that it acts on an undamped system that has mass m and stiffness k.

From Eq. (5 4) its steady-state response is

x s (t )

2 A0 n 1

r 1 r

1 cos r

2r

k m

2r

t

T

sin

The response xs is shown in Fig. 5 3 for the Fourier series truncated to n = 1 term

and n = 10 terms. Notice that xs is dominated by the first harmonic. The higher

harmonics contribute to the response only slightly.

Fig. 5 3

The complex Fourier series is developed below as an intermediate step that will be

used in the next section to represent a non-periodic excitation by harmonic

functions. We begin by expressing the cosine and sine functions that appear in Eq.

(5 1) in terms of complex exponentials. Solving for the cosine and sine functions

in Eq. (4 6)

(5 5)

cos r t

1 i r t

(e

e i r t )

2

sin r t

1 i r t

(e

e i r t )

2i

Substituting Eq. (5 5) into Eq. (5 1), yields the complex Fourier series

(5 6)

f (t )

Fr e i t

r

r r

2

T

(5 7)

Fr

1 T /2

f (t )e ir t dt

T T / 2

r 0, 1, 2, ...

complex Fourier series per Eq. (5 7) although the real Fourier series is generally

preferred over the complex Fourier series.

CONTROL OF DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS: AN INTRODUCTORY APPROACH

A non-periodic excitation can be thought of as a periodic function whose period T

is infinite. Following this reasoning, the non-periodic excitation is represented in

terms of harmonic functions by a Fourier integral obtained from the complex

Fourier series by letting its period T approach infinity. Substitute

(5 8)

2

T

F ( ) T Fr

f (t )

Fr e i t

r

1

T Fr e ir t

2

f(t)

(5 9)

f (t )

1

F ( )e i t d

2

Similarly, substitute Eq. (5 8) into Eq. (5 6), drop the index r, multiply the

result by T, and let T approach infinity to get the frequency response of f(t)

(5 10)

F ( )

f (t )e i t dt

a time-domain function and Eq. (5 10) as doing the opposite. Thus F() is also

called the Fourier transform of f(t) and Eq. (5 9) and (5 10) are called a Fourier

transform pair.

As an example, the unit pulse shown in Fig. 5 4 is

5 t 5

1

0 t 5 or t 5

f (t )

From Eq. (5 10), the frequency response of the pulse is (See fig. 5 5)

F ( ) 2

sin 5

Instead, it can be simpler to use a discrete Fourier transform in which the

calculations are performed by sums. When using the discrete Fourier transform,

the excitation f(t) is represented as sampled data. The sampled data is the

excitation evaluated at the times t0, t1, t2, tN-1 in which N is the number of

samples. The sampled data of f(t) is f0, f1, f2, . fN-1. The sampled data of f(t) is

expressed in terms of complex exponentials as

(5 11)

2rs

N ,

i

1 N 1

fs

Fr e

N r 0

( s 0, 1, 2... , N 1)

2rs

that is present in the sampled data. The frequency data are also called

(5 12)

Fr

N 1

fse

2rs

N ,

( r 0, 1, 2... , N 1)

s 0

Fig. 5 6

2rs

e N

i

(r, s = 0, 1, , N 1) in the

complex plane. Notice they represent a set of unit vectors that are equally spaced

around a circle.

2

2ns

N 1 i

s 0

2s

N 1 i

( r n)

N

equal to N when ( r n).

( n 0, 1, ... N 1) .

On the right

s 0

s 0, 1,... n 1

A0

0 s n, n 1,... N 1

fs

Fr A0

n 1

2rs

s 0

( r 0, 1, 2... , N 1)

coefficients are complex. The discrete

Fourier transform is used to analyze

and even alter the frequency content

of sampled data. Sampled data is also

called a digital signal. The methods

and techniques of analyzing and

altering sampled data are called

digital signal processing. Digital

signal processing is used in many

engineering fields. Digital signal

processing is used to analyze and alter

signals in acoustics, electronics, and

imaging, to name a few.

Part 1

Part 2

Part 3

Fig. 5 6

6. Laplace Transform

The Laplace transform is used in a general procedure to solve constant-coefficient

linear differential equations. The procedure draws from the method in Chapter 4

and the previous sections in this Chapter of finding transient solutions and steadystate solutions to systems acted on by non-periodic excitations obtained using a

Fourier transform. The Laplace transform of f(t) is defined as

CONTROL OF DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS: AN INTRODUCTORY APPROACH

(5 13)

F (s)

f (t )e s t dt

Notice that the Laplace transform of f(t) is similar to the Fourier transform of f(t)

(See Eq. (5 10)). There are two differences, though. First, the lower limit in the

Laplace transform is 0 instead of . This change was made because, when

computing time responses of systems, its convenient to let the excitation f and the

response x start at time t = 0. Secondly, notice that s is used in the Laplace

transform instead of .

To develop the Laplace transform procedure in a general way, we start with the nth-order constant-coefficient linear differential equation

(5 14)

an

d nx

dt

a n 1

d n 1 x

dt

n 1

...a 2

d 2x

dt

a1

dx

a0 x f

dt

(1) Take the Laplace transform of both sides of Eq. (5 14). This converts a

linear differential equation into a linear algebraic equation in terms of X (s ) .

(2) Solve for X (s ) and express it as a linear combination of the Laplace

transforms that appear in the Table of Laplace transforms.

(3) Take the inverse Laplace Transform of

Transforms to obtain x(t).

X (s ) using

To perform the first step, we will need to take the Laplace transform of the left side

of Eq. (5 14) which contains derivatives of x(t). From Eq. (5 13) and by

employing integration by parts, the Laplace transform of x (t ) is

X (1) ( s )

st

(t )e s t dt x (t )e s t |

x

dt sX ( s ) x 0

0 s 0 x (t )e

(t )e s t dt

X (1) ( s ) x(t )e s t dt x (t )e s t |

0 s x

0

s[ sX ( s ) x 0 ] v 0 s X ( s ) [ sx 0 v 0 ]

By repeating this procedure for higher derivative of x(t), the Laplace transform of

the n-th derivative of x(t) is expressed in terms of the Laplace transform of x(t) as

(5 15)

d n 1 x 0

X ( n) ( s ) s n X ( s )

dt n 1

d n2 x 0

dt n 2

... s n 2

dx 0

s n 1 x 0

dt

Equation (5 15) is used to take the Laplace transform of the left side of Eq. (5

14). The Laplace transform of the right side of Eq. (5 14) is performed using the

Table of Laplace transforms.

The second step in the Laplace transform procedure is to solve for X (s ) . When

this is done, you will find that X (s ) is a ratio of polynomials in s. The Table of

Laplace transforms contains simple ratios; certainly not every possibility.

Therefore, X (s ) needs to be expressed in terms of the Laplace transforms that

appear in the Table. This is done by performing a partial fraction expansion of

X (s ) .

Examples at the end of this section illustrate the Laplace transform procedure.

Function x(t)

dnx

dt

Laplace transform X (s )

d n 1 x 0

s n X ( s)

dt

n 1

d n2 x 0

dt

n2

... s n 2

dx 0

s n 1 x 0

dt

1

s

n!

tn

s n 1

1

s

n!

e t

t n e t

( s ) n 1

cos t

s

2

s 2

sin t

cos t e

s2 2

s

(s ) 2 2

sin t e t

(s ) 2 2

in terms of its harmonics and a procedure for finding the time response of an n-th

order constant-coefficient linear differential equation. Figure 5 8 shows the

notation that was used in this chapter.

Fig. 5 8

time response

Displacement Force

x(t)

f(t)

complex Fourier

coefficients

Fourier transform

Xr

Fr

X()

F()

Laplace transform

X (s )

F (s )

Fig. 1a

Find and graph the frequency response of the pulse shown. Let A0 = 1 and T = 5.

Solution

T

0

F ( ) A0 e it dt

A0 it T

A

A

e

i 0 (cos T i sin T 1) 0 [sin T i (cos T 1)]

0

i

F ( ) F ( ) e i

in which

F ( )

tan

A0

A

[sin 2 T (cos T 1) 2 ]1 / 2 0

1 cos T

4

2

T

2

T

T

2 sin

cos

2

2

cos T 1

1

tan

sin T

1/ 2

2 A0

T

sin

2 sin 2

tan 1 tan T T

2

2

the pulses frequency response is maximum at = 0 and periodically zero.

Fig. 1b

CONTROL OF DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS: AN INTRODUCTORY APPROACH

Fig. 2b

Fig. 2a

2

t is sampled N times at time intervals of

T

t T / n. Find the discrete Fourier transform of f(t) for the two cases: 1) n = 15

Solution

The discrete Fourier transform of the cosine function is

2rs

2s i

Fr A0 cos

e

n

s 0

N 1

( r 0, 1, 2... , N 1)

Figures c and d show its magnitude for n = 15 and n = 10. In the first case, the

cosine function is sampled 15 times per period. The discrete Fourier transform

shows a peak at N/n = 13.3 from the start and finish of the frequency line. In the

second case, the cosine function is sampled 10 times per period. The discrete

Fourier transform shows a peak at N/n = 10 from the start and finish of the

frequency line. In the second case, the discrete Fourier transform is zero except at

the two peaks because N/n is an integer.

Fig. 2d

Fig. 2c

conditions x(0) = 0 and x (0) 0. Find x(t).

Solution

The Laplace transform procedure and Table 1 are used. Using the Table of Laplace

transforms, begin by transforming the differential equation

( s 2 5 s 6) X

6

s

from which

X 6

1

s ( s 2 5s 6)

Next, perform a partial fraction expansion of X . Factor the denominator into s, s+2 and

s+3. Then rewrite the polynomial in terms of the Laplace transforms that appear in the

table as

1

2

s ( s 5s 6)

A

B

C

s s2 s3

both sides yields the three linear algebraic equations

s2 :

A BC 0

s:

5 A 3B 2C 0

1:

6A 1

1

3

2

s s2 s3

Finally, taking the inverse Laplace transform of X using the Table of Laplace transforms,

X

x 1 3e 2t 2e 3t

The system is an over-damped. Its equilibrium position is xe = 1. The answer given in Eq.

(e) is checked by differentiating x, substituting the results into the left side of the

differential equation, and verifying that its equal to the right side.

= 0 and x (0) 0. Find x(t).

Solution

The Laplace transform procedure and Table 1 are used. Transform the differential

equation to get

(2 s 2 8) X 10

s

2

s 3

from which X 5

s

( s 2 2 2 )( s 2 3 2 )

s

2

( s 2 )(s 3 )

As B

2

s 2

Cs D

s 2 32

numerators of both sides yields

s3 :

AC 0

s2 :

BD 0

s:

4 A 9C 1

1:

4B 9D 0

X

the time response is

s

2

s 2

transform of X

s

2

s 32

x cos 2t cos 3t

A free under-damped system is described by the differential equation

mx cx kx 0 with the initial conditions x(0) = x0 and x (0) v 0 . Find the time

response x(t).

Solution

The Laplace transform procedure is used. From the Table of Laplace transforms,

the transform of the differential equation is

m( s 2 X v 0 sx 0 ) c( sX x 0 ) kX 0

from which

X

(mx 0 ) s (mv 0 cx 0 )

ms 2 cs k

Since the system is under-damped, the denominator can be written as

ms 2 cs k m[( s ) 2 d2 ]

c / 2m ,

in

which n k / m ,

and

d n2 2 . The polynomial is written in terms of the Laplace transforms that

X

(mx 0 ) s (mv 0 cx 0 )

x0 s (v0 2x0 )

( s ) 2 d2

v x 0

d

s

( 0

)

= x0

2

2

d

(s ) d

( s ) 2 d2

Taking the inverse Laplace transform of X using the Table of Laplace transforms,

the time response

v x 0

v x 0

x x 0 cos d t e t 0

sin d t e t e t ( x 0 cos d t 0

sin d t )

d

d

ms 2 cs k

Derive the following Laplace transforms:

2) L( e t ) =

1) L(1) = 1/s,

s

3) L( cos t ) =

1

s

4) L( sin t ) =

s 2

2

Solution

1 st 1

e

0

s

s

1

1

L(e t ) e t e st dt

e ( s )t

0

0

s

s

it

it

e e

L(cos t ) cos t e st dt

e st dt

0

0

2

it

e

e it st

1

e dt [e ( s i )t e ( s i )t ]dt

0

2

2 0

L(1) 1 e st dt

0

1

1

1

e ( s i )t

e ( s i )t

2 s i

s i

1

1

1

1 ( s i ) ( s i )

s

2

2

2 s i s i

2

s

s 2

it

e

e it st

L(sin t ) sin t e st dt

e dt

0

0

2i

it

e

e it st

1

e dt [e ( s i )t e ( s i )t ]dt

0

2i

2i 0

1

1

1

e ( s i ) t

e ( s i ) t

2i s i

s i

1

1

1

1 ( s i ) ( s i )

2

2

2 s i s i

2i

s

s 2

Problem Statement

The problems in this chapter consider systems 1 1 through 1- 7. Set the applied

moment and the applied force to zero. Assume that the system is initially at rest

and that the initial angle is 10 larger than the first equilibrium angle (like in

Chapter 2). This places the system in the neighborhood of the first equilibrium

position.

Assume now that the load is the square wave below.

M3

A0 ,

A0 ,

(2r 1)T0 t 2rT0

(r 1, 2, ...)

in which T0 denotes a half-period. Use the same values of T0 and A0 here that you

used in Problem 4 1.

(a) Find the response of the system by representing the forcing function M3 as

a Fourier Series. Plot the response for about 6 oscillations.

Consider the load described in Problem 5 1.

(a) Find the response of the system by representing the forcing function M3 as

a series of step functions. Again, plot the response for about 6 oscillations.

Consider the load described in Problem 5 1.

(a) Find the response of the system by representing the forcing function M3

using the convolution integral. Again, plot the response for about 6

oscillations.

- GEK-113535NUploaded byGustavoJanito
- Inverse Laplace Transform of a ConstantUploaded bytutorciecle123
- K. Sankara RaoUploaded byaced321
- Lab 2Uploaded byMohd Fazli
- Analysis and ProbabilityUploaded bySiddharth Sharma
- Mathematical Physics Sample Exam 1Uploaded byPerry Esguerra
- BIOTECH III TO VIII.pdfUploaded byRaja Prabhu
- [Yves Meyer, Ronald Coifman] Wavelets Calderón-ZUploaded bycharlyshaka1
- 17724_Exp 1Uploaded byParas Bali
- productFlyer_978-3-540-92953-6Uploaded byKrip Key
- syl_se_ectUploaded byIsuru Pasan Dasanayake
- Curriculum_2010_Descriptions_Aug19.docUploaded byMuhammad Anique Aslam
- Computer BasicsUploaded byphilippn41925211
- CSE obeUploaded byvasishtakumar
- imageRUNNER+25452535+series+Service+Manual_en_9.0.pdfUploaded byPierre Chirac
- Final Syllabus-EE-3rd Semester4_5_6_7_8Uploaded byRavi Sharma
- Applied MathsUploaded bySolomon Udoh
- m.sc., PhysicsUploaded byandrew9180
- Four TranUploaded byOh Nani
- DSP4 Fourier Series_unlockedUploaded byluisperiko
- Fourier Transform SineUploaded bytutorciecle123
- Chapter6-fourier10Uploaded bystriaukas
- signalUploaded bysureshfm1
- Viewcontent FourierUploaded byrbudiman
- INPUT MODULESUploaded byWilmar Pedro Ramos Hinojosa
- Formulae SheetUploaded byFathosh
- Assigment 1Uploaded byNurul Hidayah
- 00014605Uploaded byprotecciones
- energy signals matlab tutorialUploaded byAlan Vinzón
- SPM - 2014.docxUploaded byCS & IT

- Resume Cover Letter SamplesUploaded byfake1139
- IBAMUploaded byulhasvasantkadam
- ModelUploaded byshyamsundarsr
- Advt No 2 2015 PAwebUploaded byNishant Upadhyaya
- DOT/FAA/AR-03/32Uploaded byB2B3
- Jet EngineUploaded byV Dhinakaran
- AbbreviationsUploaded byVivek Mishra
- uiicnUploaded byJeshi
- HCL Placement Paper 5Uploaded byNandini Reddy
- Engine System Helicopter Theory NotesUploaded bygurunathanpits
- 25202933Uploaded byshyamsundarsr
- Starting and IgnitionUploaded byshyamsundarsr
- Basics FinmktsUploaded bykarunasavi
- LcdUploaded byshyamsundarsr
- LedUploaded byshyamsundarsr
- Airport Authority of India Junior Executive (Cargo) -SyllabusUploaded byshyamsundarsr
- Icing and antiicingUploaded byshyamsundarsr
- Force BalanceUploaded byshyamsundarsr
- AainUploaded byJeshi
- scheme_rfUploaded byCecil Victor
- Composite 2014 IMP.pdfUploaded byshyamsundarsr
- 13-08714Uploaded bykkkraja
- Cms April 2010Uploaded byshyamsundarsr
- Ae2451 Cm Nov 2013 QpUploaded byshyamsundarsr
- AE2037 ESC 2014Uploaded byshyamsundarsr
- TurbineUploaded byshyamsundarsr
- College Lit ReviewUploaded byshyamsundarsr
- Catia DrawingsUploaded byshyamsundarsr

- Balamurugan - Mobile UploadsUploaded byramesh
- Guide en 1516Uploaded bydespina
- Math Formula.pptxUploaded byJohn Walter Camino Daison
- Periodic Plus Smooth Image DecompositionUploaded byAdrian Bottomley
- complex_2.pdfUploaded byAsif Afzaal
- MM-QBUploaded byVinay Kandula
- _gWSAeDboZHIUploaded byMoniruzzaman Monir
- Digital Signal ProcessingUploaded byzsyed92
- fourier-seriesUploaded bywilliampitt
- Digital Image ForensicsUploaded bypgcedzov
- B.tech (IT) 3rd to 8th SemUploaded byPrashant Kumar
- Survey Interpolation Methods in Medical Image ProcessingUploaded byCamila Cediel
- Buku Annan - GPRUploaded byMuhammad Nanda Zy
- Tarea MateUploaded byJhonatan Leon
- b.tech_mechatronics.pdfUploaded bySandeep Kota
- Electrical InstrumentationUploaded byAdi Wijaya
- Green’s functions for the wave, Helmholtz and Poisson equations in a two-dimensional boundless domainUploaded bysamouille6666
- Scheme and Syl of Civil Eng 2014Uploaded byMohammed Ansar A M
- Implemenation of Tlm Code CopyUploaded bybal krishna dubey
- cursuri (1)Uploaded byLaurențiu Nicu
- The Family of Fourier TransformUploaded byDaniel Madan Raja S
- SE ElectronicsUploaded byjunaid 786
- Ejemplo de DeepsoilUploaded byALEXEICALERO
- D-T Signals Definition of DFT –Numerical FT AnalysisUploaded byhamza abdo mohamoud
- Dynamic Modeling and Response of Soil-wall Systems, Veletsos and YounanUploaded byeltopo2
- dptx_2010_2__0_324909_0_110939Uploaded byDavid Axton
- EIEUploaded byph2in3856
- 2013 Regulation ME Structural EngineeringUploaded bymahendranmahe
- Be Ce Syllabus Aug 2010Uploaded byShaunak Patel
- Tutorial 6 - Fourier TransformUploaded bygjdapromise