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MOTION IN A STABILITY REGION (PART II)

CHAPTER 5
MOTION IN A STABILITY REGION (PART II)

Fig. 5 1
This section begins by showing how to find the steady-state response of a one
degree-of-freedom system acted on by a periodic excitation. The periodic
2
excitation has a period T, or equivalently, a frequency
. The periodic
T

excitation is represented as a linear combination of harmonic functions. The linear


combination of harmonic functions is called a Fourier series. Once a periodic
excitation is expressed as a Fourier series, the steady-state response of a system
acted on by a periodic excitation is found. By the principle of linear superposition,
the response of the system to the periodic excitation is a linear combination of the
responses of the harmonic functions that make up the Fourier series.
After showing how to represent a periodic excitation by a Fourier series and how
to determine the associated response, its shown how to represent a periodic
excitation by a complex Fourier series. The complex Fourier series is used to
develop a method of finding the steady-state response to a non-periodic excitation.
Excitations are generally non-periodic. Earthquakes and wind produce nonperiodic excitations on buildings. Wind, road surfaces and guides produce nonperiodic excitations on vehicle systems. Like the periodic excitation, the nonperiodic excitation is represented as a linear combination of harmonic functions.
CONTROL OF DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS: AN INTRODUCTORY APPROACH

MOTION IN A STABILITY REGION (PART II)

However, instead of its frequencies being multiples of the frequency of an


excitation, there is a continuous range of frequencies. The non-periodic excitation
is an integral of harmonic functions instead of a discrete sum of them. The integral
of harmonic functions is called the Fourier integral. The coefficients in the integral
are called the frequency response. The frequency response represents the
amplitude of the response as a function of the frequency of the harmonics that
make up the non-periodic excitation. Since any non-periodic excitation can be
expressed in terms of its frequency response and, conversely, a frequency response
can be found for any non-periodic excitation, the two expressions are also called
the Fourier transform and the inverse Fourier transform; together theyre called the
Fourier transform pair.
The Fourier transform pair is important in engineering. It applies not only to
excitations in vibrating systems but can be used to characterize how any physical
quantity changes in time. After the Fourier transform pair is developed, this section
develops the procedure for finding the transient and steady-state responses of
systems acted on by non-periodic excitations. The procedure uses a variation of the
Fourier transform called the Laplace transform.

1. Fourier Series
A periodic excitation f(t) is represented as a Fourier series of sine functions and
cosine functions as
(5 1)

f (t )

1
B0 ( B r cos r t C r sin r t ),
2
r 1

r r

2
T

in which Br and Cr are constants, called Fourier coefficients, and T is the period of
2
the excitation; the frequency of the excitation is
The periods
T

Tr

2 T
of the individual harmonics in Eq. (4 1) are integer fractions of the
r
r

period of the excitation. Therefore, the period of the series is T (See Fig. 5 1).
The Fourier coefficients are1.

The Fourier coefficients Br (r = 0, 1, ) are found by multiplying both sides of


T /2

Eq. (13.4 1) by T / 2 ( ) cos r tdt . Similarly, Cr (r = 1, 2, ) are found by


T /2

multiplying both sides of Eq. (5 1) by T / 2 ( ) sin r tdt . On the right sides,


one then notices that

T /2

T / 2 cos r t sin s tdt 0 for any r and s and that

T /2
T /2
T / 2 cos r t cos s tdt T / 2 sin r t sin s tdt 0 for any r and s that are

distinct

( r s ).

CONTROL OF DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS: AN INTRODUCTORY APPROACH

MOTION IN A STABILITY REGION (PART II)

2
T
2
Cr
T
Br

(5 2)

T /2

T / 2 f (t ) cos r tdt
T /2

T / 2 f (t ) sin r tdt

r 0, 1, 2, ...
r 1, 2, ...

As an illustration, consider the square wave excitation shown in Fig. 5 2. It is


defined over the interval [-T/2 T/2] as

A0
A0

f (t )

0t T /2
T / 2 t 0

Substituting f(t) into Eq. (5 2)


Br 0 r 0, 1, 2, ...

Cr

2 A0
(1 cos r ) r 1, 2, ...
r

Fig. 5 2
The Fourier series of the square wave excitation, truncated to n terms, is
f (t )

2 A0 n 1
2rt
(1 cos r ) sin T
r 1 r

Fig. 5 2 shows the Fourier series of the square wave truncated to n = 2 terms and
to n = 10 terms. The square wave itself was actually generated by truncating the
Fourier series to n = 500 terms.

CONTROL OF DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS: AN INTRODUCTORY APPROACH

MOTION IN A STABILITY REGION (PART II)

2. Steady-State Response to Periodic Excitation


When the steady-state responses xr(t) to individual excitations fr(t) are known, then
the steady-state response to any linear combination of the excitations fr(t) can be
found by the principle of linear superposition. Let a system be acted on by the
excitation
f (t ) A1 f1 (t ) A2 f 2 (t ) A3 f 3 (t ) ...

The systems steady-state response is simply


x s (t ) A1 x1 (t ) A2 x 2 (t ) A3 x 3 (t ) ...

Notice that the coefficients in the linear combination of the excitation are the same
as the coefficients in the linear combination of the steady-state responses.
Consider the damped system described by Eq. (5 2). Its steady-state response to a
constant force of F0 was found to be x = F0/k. Its steady-state response to
f F0 cos t is x = X 0 cos(t ) and its steady-state response to
f F0 sin t is x = X 0 sin(t ) . It follows from the principle of linear
superposition that the steady-state response to the period excitation in Eq. (5 1) is
x s (t )

(5 3)

1
1
B0 B r x 0r cos( r t r ) C r x 0r sin( r t r )
2
k
r 1

1 B0
x 0r [ B r cos( r t r ) C r sin( r t r )]
2 k
r 1

in which from Eq. (4 41)

(5 4)

1
X 0r
k

r

n

2 2

r tan

[2

r
1
n

r 2
]
n

r
n

For example, look again at the square wave excitation illustrated after Eq. (5 2).
Assume now that it acts on an undamped system that has mass m and stiffness k.
From Eq. (5 4) its steady-state response is
x s (t )

2 A0 n 1

r 1 r

1 cos r
2r
k m

2r
t
T

sin

CONTROL OF DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS: AN INTRODUCTORY APPROACH

MOTION IN A STABILITY REGION (PART II)

The response xs is shown in Fig. 5 3 for the Fourier series truncated to n = 1 term
and n = 10 terms. Notice that xs is dominated by the first harmonic. The higher
harmonics contribute to the response only slightly.

Fig. 5 3

3. Complex Fourier Series


The complex Fourier series is developed below as an intermediate step that will be
used in the next section to represent a non-periodic excitation by harmonic
functions. We begin by expressing the cosine and sine functions that appear in Eq.
(5 1) in terms of complex exponentials. Solving for the cosine and sine functions
in Eq. (4 6)
(5 5)

cos r t

1 i r t
(e
e i r t )
2

sin r t

1 i r t
(e
e i r t )
2i

Substituting Eq. (5 5) into Eq. (5 1), yields the complex Fourier series

(5 6)

f (t )

Fr e i t
r

r r

2
T

in which Fr are complex Fourier coefficients, given by


(5 7)

Fr

1 T /2
f (t )e ir t dt
T T / 2

r 0, 1, 2, ...

Periodic excitations can be represented by real Fourier series per Eq. (5 1) or by


complex Fourier series per Eq. (5 7) although the real Fourier series is generally
preferred over the complex Fourier series.
CONTROL OF DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS: AN INTRODUCTORY APPROACH

MOTION IN A STABILITY REGION (PART II)

4. Fourier Integral (Fourier Transform)


A non-periodic excitation can be thought of as a periodic function whose period T
is infinite. Following this reasoning, the non-periodic excitation is represented in
terms of harmonic functions by a Fourier integral obtained from the complex
Fourier series by letting its period T approach infinity. Substitute

(5 8)

2
T

F ( ) T Fr

into Eq. (5 6) and drop the index r to get


f (t )

Fr e i t
r

1
T Fr e ir t
2

As T approaches infinity (and approaches zero) we get the Fourier integral of


f(t)
(5 9)

f (t )

1
F ( )e i t d
2

Similarly, substitute Eq. (5 8) into Eq. (5 6), drop the index r, multiply the
result by T, and let T approach infinity to get the frequency response of f(t)
(5 10)

F ( )

f (t )e i t dt

Equation (5 9) can be thought of as transforming a frequency-domain function to


a time-domain function and Eq. (5 10) as doing the opposite. Thus F() is also
called the Fourier transform of f(t) and Eq. (5 9) and (5 10) are called a Fourier
transform pair.

CONTROL OF DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS: AN INTRODUCTORY APPROACH

MOTION IN A STABILITY REGION (PART II)

Fig. 5 4 Unit Impulse


As an example, the unit pulse shown in Fig. 5 4 is
5 t 5
1
0 t 5 or t 5

f (t )

From Eq. (5 10), the frequency response of the pulse is (See fig. 5 5)
F ( ) 2

sin 5

Fig. 5 5 frequency response of a Unit Impulse

5. Discrete Fourier Transform

CONTROL OF DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS: AN INTRODUCTORY APPROACH

MOTION IN A STABILITY REGION (PART II)

Fourier transforms and inverse Fourier transforms are calculated by integration.


Instead, it can be simpler to use a discrete Fourier transform in which the
calculations are performed by sums. When using the discrete Fourier transform,
the excitation f(t) is represented as sampled data. The sampled data is the
excitation evaluated at the times t0, t1, t2, tN-1 in which N is the number of
samples. The sampled data of f(t) is f0, f1, f2, . fN-1. The sampled data of f(t) is
expressed in terms of complex exponentials as
(5 11)

2rs

N ,

i
1 N 1
fs
Fr e
N r 0

( s 0, 1, 2... , N 1)

in which Fr (r = 0, 1, N 1) are frequency data that indicates the amount of


2rs

that is present in the sampled data. The frequency data are also called

discrete Fourier coefficients. The discrete Fourier coefficients are2


(5 12)

Fr

N 1

fse

2rs

N ,

( r 0, 1, 2... , N 1)

s 0

Fig. 5 6

Figure 5 6 shows the complex harmonics

2rs

e N
i

(r, s = 0, 1, , N 1) in the

complex plane. Notice they represent a set of unit vectors that are equally spaced
around a circle.
2

The discrete Fourier coefficients Fr (r = 0, 1, N 1) are found by multiplying


2ns

N 1 i

both sides of Eq. (13.5 4) by e

s 0
2s
N 1 i
( r n)
N

side, one then notices that e


equal to N when ( r n).

( n 0, 1, ... N 1) .

On the right

is equal to zero when ( r n) and is

s 0

CONTROL OF DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS: AN INTRODUCTORY APPROACH

MOTION IN A STABILITY REGION (PART II)

As an illustration, the sampled pulse shown in Fig. 5 7 is


s 0, 1,... n 1
A0
0 s n, n 1,... N 1

fs

From Eq. (5 12), its discrete Fourier coefficients are


Fr A0

n 1

2rs

s 0

( r 0, 1, 2... , N 1)

Notice that the discrete Fourier


coefficients are complex. The discrete
Fourier transform is used to analyze
and even alter the frequency content
of sampled data. Sampled data is also
called a digital signal. The methods
and techniques of analyzing and
altering sampled data are called
digital signal processing. Digital
signal processing is used in many
engineering fields. Digital signal
processing is used to analyze and alter
signals in acoustics, electronics, and
imaging, to name a few.

Part 1

Part 2

Part 3
Fig. 5 6

6. Laplace Transform
The Laplace transform is used in a general procedure to solve constant-coefficient
linear differential equations. The procedure draws from the method in Chapter 4
and the previous sections in this Chapter of finding transient solutions and steadystate solutions to systems acted on by non-periodic excitations obtained using a
Fourier transform. The Laplace transform of f(t) is defined as
CONTROL OF DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS: AN INTRODUCTORY APPROACH

MOTION IN A STABILITY REGION (PART II)

(5 13)

F (s)

f (t )e s t dt

Notice that the Laplace transform of f(t) is similar to the Fourier transform of f(t)
(See Eq. (5 10)). There are two differences, though. First, the lower limit in the
Laplace transform is 0 instead of . This change was made because, when
computing time responses of systems, its convenient to let the excitation f and the
response x start at time t = 0. Secondly, notice that s is used in the Laplace
transform instead of .
To develop the Laplace transform procedure in a general way, we start with the nth-order constant-coefficient linear differential equation
(5 14)

an

d nx
dt

a n 1

d n 1 x
dt

n 1

...a 2

d 2x
dt

a1

dx
a0 x f
dt

The Laplace transform is used to solve Eq. (5 14) in three steps.


(1) Take the Laplace transform of both sides of Eq. (5 14). This converts a
linear differential equation into a linear algebraic equation in terms of X (s ) .
(2) Solve for X (s ) and express it as a linear combination of the Laplace
transforms that appear in the Table of Laplace transforms.
(3) Take the inverse Laplace Transform of
Transforms to obtain x(t).

X (s ) using

the Table of Laplace

To perform the first step, we will need to take the Laplace transform of the left side
of Eq. (5 14) which contains derivatives of x(t). From Eq. (5 13) and by
employing integration by parts, the Laplace transform of x (t ) is
X (1) ( s )

st
(t )e s t dt x (t )e s t |
x
dt sX ( s ) x 0
0 s 0 x (t )e

Similarly, the Laplace transform of x(t ) is

(t )e s t dt
X (1) ( s ) x(t )e s t dt x (t )e s t |
0 s x
0

s[ sX ( s ) x 0 ] v 0 s X ( s ) [ sx 0 v 0 ]

By repeating this procedure for higher derivative of x(t), the Laplace transform of
the n-th derivative of x(t) is expressed in terms of the Laplace transform of x(t) as
(5 15)

d n 1 x 0

X ( n) ( s ) s n X ( s )

dt n 1

d n2 x 0
dt n 2

... s n 2

dx 0
s n 1 x 0
dt

CONTROL OF DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS: AN INTRODUCTORY APPROACH

MOTION IN A STABILITY REGION (PART II)

Equation (5 15) is used to take the Laplace transform of the left side of Eq. (5
14). The Laplace transform of the right side of Eq. (5 14) is performed using the
Table of Laplace transforms.
The second step in the Laplace transform procedure is to solve for X (s ) . When
this is done, you will find that X (s ) is a ratio of polynomials in s. The Table of
Laplace transforms contains simple ratios; certainly not every possibility.
Therefore, X (s ) needs to be expressed in terms of the Laplace transforms that
appear in the Table. This is done by performing a partial fraction expansion of
X (s ) .
Examples at the end of this section illustrate the Laplace transform procedure.

CONTROL OF DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS: AN INTRODUCTORY APPROACH

MOTION IN A STABILITY REGION (PART II)

Table 1: Laplace Transforms


Function x(t)
dnx
dt

Laplace transform X (s )

d n 1 x 0

s n X ( s)

dt

n 1

d n2 x 0
dt

n2

... s n 2

dx 0
s n 1 x 0
dt

1
s
n!

tn

s n 1
1
s
n!

e t
t n e t

( s ) n 1

cos t

s
2

s 2

sin t
cos t e

s2 2
s

(s ) 2 2
sin t e t

(s ) 2 2

In closing, this section developed methods of representing a non-periodic function


in terms of its harmonics and a procedure for finding the time response of an n-th
order constant-coefficient linear differential equation. Figure 5 8 shows the
notation that was used in this chapter.

Fig. 5 8
time response

Displacement Force
x(t)
f(t)

complex Fourier
coefficients
Fourier transform

Xr

Fr

X()

F()

Laplace transform

X (s )

F (s )

CONTROL OF DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS: AN INTRODUCTORY APPROACH

MOTION IN A STABILITY REGION (PART II)

Example 1: Fourier Integral (Fourier Transform)

Fig. 1a

Find and graph the frequency response of the pulse shown. Let A0 = 1 and T = 5.
Solution
T
0

F ( ) A0 e it dt

A0 it T
A
A
e
i 0 (cos T i sin T 1) 0 [sin T i (cos T 1)]
0
i

The frequency response is complex. It can be written in the polar form as


F ( ) F ( ) e i

in which
F ( )

tan

A0
A
[sin 2 T (cos T 1) 2 ]1 / 2 0

1 cos T
4
2

T
2
T
T
2 sin
cos
2
2

cos T 1
1

tan

sin T

1/ 2

2 A0
T
sin

2 sin 2

tan 1 tan T T

2
2

The magnitude of the frequency response is graphed in Fig. b. The magnitude of


the pulses frequency response is maximum at = 0 and periodically zero.

Fig. 1b
CONTROL OF DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS: AN INTRODUCTORY APPROACH

MOTION IN A STABILITY REGION (PART II)

Example 2: Discrete Fourier Transform

Fig. 2b

Fig. 2a

The cosine function f (t ) A0 cos

2
t is sampled N times at time intervals of
T

t T / n. Find the discrete Fourier transform of f(t) for the two cases: 1) n = 15

and 2) n = 10. Let N = 200 and A0 = 1.


Solution
The discrete Fourier transform of the cosine function is
2rs

2s i
Fr A0 cos
e
n
s 0
N 1

( r 0, 1, 2... , N 1)

Figures c and d show its magnitude for n = 15 and n = 10. In the first case, the
cosine function is sampled 15 times per period. The discrete Fourier transform
shows a peak at N/n = 13.3 from the start and finish of the frequency line. In the
second case, the cosine function is sampled 10 times per period. The discrete
Fourier transform shows a peak at N/n = 10 from the start and finish of the
frequency line. In the second case, the discrete Fourier transform is zero except at
the two peaks because N/n is an integer.

Fig. 2d
Fig. 2c

CONTROL OF DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS: AN INTRODUCTORY APPROACH

MOTION IN A STABILITY REGION (PART II)

Example 3: Laplace Transform

A system is described by the differential equation x 5 x 6 x 6 with the initial


conditions x(0) = 0 and x (0) 0. Find x(t).
Solution
The Laplace transform procedure and Table 1 are used. Using the Table of Laplace
transforms, begin by transforming the differential equation
( s 2 5 s 6) X

6
s

from which

X 6

1
s ( s 2 5s 6)

Next, perform a partial fraction expansion of X . Factor the denominator into s, s+2 and
s+3. Then rewrite the polynomial in terms of the Laplace transforms that appear in the
table as
1
2

s ( s 5s 6)

A
B
C

s s2 s3

in which A, B, and C need to be determined. Equating powers of s in the numerators of


both sides yields the three linear algebraic equations
s2 :

A BC 0

s:

5 A 3B 2C 0

1:

6A 1

Thus, A = 1/6, B = -3/6, and C = 2/6. The Laplace transform is


1
3
2

s s2 s3
Finally, taking the inverse Laplace transform of X using the Table of Laplace transforms,
X

the time response is


x 1 3e 2t 2e 3t

The system is an over-damped. Its equilibrium position is xe = 1. The answer given in Eq.
(e) is checked by differentiating x, substituting the results into the left side of the
differential equation, and verifying that its equal to the right side.

CONTROL OF DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS: AN INTRODUCTORY APPROACH

MOTION IN A STABILITY REGION (PART II)

Example 4: Laplace Transform

A system is described by the differential equation 2 x 8 x 10 cos 3t in which x(0)


= 0 and x (0) 0. Find x(t).
Solution
The Laplace transform procedure and Table 1 are used. Transform the differential
equation to get
(2 s 2 8) X 10

s
2

s 3

from which X 5

s
( s 2 2 2 )( s 2 3 2 )

Next, perform a partial fraction expansion of X . Write


s
2

( s 2 )(s 3 )

As B
2

s 2

Cs D
s 2 32

in which A, B, C, and D need to be determined. Equating powers of s in the


numerators of both sides yields
s3 :

AC 0

s2 :

BD 0

s:

4 A 9C 1

1:

4B 9D 0

This yields A = 1/5, B = 0, C = 1/5, D = 0. The Laplace transform is


X

Taking the inverse Laplace


the time response is

s
2

s 2
transform of X

s
2

s 32

using the Table of Laplace transforms,

x cos 2t cos 3t

Notice that the system is undamped.

CONTROL OF DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS: AN INTRODUCTORY APPROACH

MOTION IN A STABILITY REGION (PART II)

Example 5: Laplace Transform


A free under-damped system is described by the differential equation
mx cx kx 0 with the initial conditions x(0) = x0 and x (0) v 0 . Find the time
response x(t).
Solution
The Laplace transform procedure is used. From the Table of Laplace transforms,
the transform of the differential equation is
m( s 2 X v 0 sx 0 ) c( sX x 0 ) kX 0

from which
X

(mx 0 ) s (mv 0 cx 0 )

ms 2 cs k
Since the system is under-damped, the denominator can be written as
ms 2 cs k m[( s ) 2 d2 ]
c / 2m ,
in
which n k / m ,
and
d n2 2 . The polynomial is written in terms of the Laplace transforms that

appear in the table as


X

(mx 0 ) s (mv 0 cx 0 )

x0 s (v0 2x0 )

( s ) 2 d2
v x 0
d
s
( 0
)
= x0
2
2
d
(s ) d
( s ) 2 d2
Taking the inverse Laplace transform of X using the Table of Laplace transforms,
the time response
v x 0
v x 0
x x 0 cos d t e t 0
sin d t e t e t ( x 0 cos d t 0
sin d t )
d
d
ms 2 cs k

CONTROL OF DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS: AN INTRODUCTORY APPROACH

MOTION IN A STABILITY REGION (PART II)

Example 6: Laplace Transform


Derive the following Laplace transforms:
2) L( e t ) =

1) L(1) = 1/s,
s

3) L( cos t ) =

1
s

4) L( sin t ) =

s 2
2

Solution

1 st 1
e

0
s
s

1
1
L(e t ) e t e st dt
e ( s )t
0
0
s
s
it
it

e e
L(cos t ) cos t e st dt
e st dt
0
0
2
it
e
e it st
1

e dt [e ( s i )t e ( s i )t ]dt
0
2
2 0

L(1) 1 e st dt
0

1
1
1

e ( s i )t
e ( s i )t

2 s i
s i

1
1
1
1 ( s i ) ( s i )
s

2
2
2 s i s i
2
s
s 2
it

e
e it st
L(sin t ) sin t e st dt
e dt
0
0
2i
it
e
e it st
1

e dt [e ( s i )t e ( s i )t ]dt
0
2i
2i 0

1
1
1

e ( s i ) t
e ( s i ) t

2i s i
s i

1
1
1
1 ( s i ) ( s i )

2
2
2 s i s i
2i
s
s 2

CONTROL OF DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS: AN INTRODUCTORY APPROACH

MOTION IN A STABILITY REGION (PART II)

Problem Statement
The problems in this chapter consider systems 1 1 through 1- 7. Set the applied
moment and the applied force to zero. Assume that the system is initially at rest
and that the initial angle is 10 larger than the first equilibrium angle (like in
Chapter 2). This places the system in the neighborhood of the first equilibrium
position.

Problem 5 1: Response by Fourier Series


Assume now that the load is the square wave below.

Mathematically, the square wave can be written as

M3

A0 ,
A0 ,

2(r 1)T0 t (2r 1)T0


(2r 1)T0 t 2rT0

(r 1, 2, ...)

in which T0 denotes a half-period. Use the same values of T0 and A0 here that you
used in Problem 4 1.
(a) Find the response of the system by representing the forcing function M3 as
a Fourier Series. Plot the response for about 6 oscillations.

Problem 5 2: Response by Superimposing Unit Step Functions


Consider the load described in Problem 5 1.
(a) Find the response of the system by representing the forcing function M3 as
a series of step functions. Again, plot the response for about 6 oscillations.

Problem 5 3: Response by Convolution Integral


Consider the load described in Problem 5 1.
(a) Find the response of the system by representing the forcing function M3
using the convolution integral. Again, plot the response for about 6
oscillations.

CONTROL OF DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS: AN INTRODUCTORY APPROACH

MOTION IN A STABILITY REGION (PART II)

CONTROL OF DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS: AN INTRODUCTORY APPROACH