You are on page 1of 43

Chemical Engineering Drawing

Menggambar Teknik Proses


(ENCH600014)

Topic VII
Process Flowsheeting

Departement of Chemical Engineering


Universitas Indonesia

Flow Sheet
Is a diagrammatic model of the process
Shows the arrangement of equipment selected to carry our the
process

Includes :
a.

stream connections

b.

names of streams

c.

stream flow rates

d.

compositions

e.

and operating conditions (temp., Pressure)

f.

Instruments

g.

optional details of streams


i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.

molar compositions
physical data (, )
code no. of streams
Enthalpies of streams
Brief description of stream

Types of diagrams
Block Diagram
Material Flow Sheet

Energy Flow Sheet


Process Flow Diagram
Information Flow Diagram
Piping & Instrumentation
Diagram

Block Diagram
Simplest form of presentation
Each Block can be represent
a single piece of equipment or

a complete stage in the process


For complex processes,
1. usage of block diagram is limited to showing the overall
process
2. represent only the principle stages
Useful for representing a process in a simplified form in reports and
text books, but have only a limited use as engineering document
Stream flow rates and compositions can be shown
o adjacent to stream lines when only a small amount of information
is shown
o in a separate table

Liquid
storage
LS- 01

Liquid
storage

LS- 02

Mixing

Reactor

M-03

R-04
For recycling

Process Flow Diagram (PFD)


Is the pictorial representation of the process layout with standard
symbols
Equipment should be drawn approximately to the scale (mainly
principal equipment)
All equipment should be labeled
Is shown the sequence of unit operations and stream connections
Slide 7
Usually include auxiliary services to the process

circulating oil

air

water

Steam

flue gas

refrigeration, etc. Slide 8

Slide 6

Fragment of PFD

Standard symbols
BS 8888 ; BS 1553

Reactor

Sealed tank

Tray column

Fluid
contacting
column

Heat exchange

Material Flow Sheet


Is drawn with standard symbols and labeled and include all data
obtained
If no space available to label equipment, a equipment key can be
drawn at the bottom of the flow sheet
Following data should be shown on the flow sheet in deferent ways

flow rate of each component

total stream flow rate

percentage composition

Simplest method suitable for simple processes with few


equipments, tabulate the data in blocks alongside the process
stream Slide 14
Better method applicable for all complex processes, stream line is
numbered and the data tabulated at the top or bottom of the sheet
(above and below the equipment layout)
Slide 15

N Component Flow rate T

C1
R2

N Component Flow rate T


Equipment key
C1 Column
R2

Reactor
Slide 13

Energy Flow Sheet

Energy balance is to determine the energy requirement of the


process:

the heating, cooling and power required.

In energy flow sheet


Inlet and outlet energy flow rates should be shown separately for
each piece of equipment
Include

energy (calculated by total enthalpy form or using specific


capacity data) of each component in all (inlet and outlet)
streams
- process conditions of all (inlet and outlet) streams
- process conditions of the specific equipment

Energy Balance Sheet

Information Flow Diagram (IFD)


Is used in simulation programmes

Is presented by blocks

Each block represents a calculation module in the


simulation programme, usually a process unit or
part of a unit
units in which no change of composition or
temperature or pressure occurs are omitted from
IFD
But other operations not shown on the process
flow diagram as actual pieces of equipment, but
which can cause changes in the stream
composition must be shown.
Flow of information should be shown with lines and
arrow

Piping & Instrumentation Diagram (P & I)


Shows the engineering details of equipment, instrument, piping,
valves and fittings and their arrangement

Sometimes called as Engineering Flow Sheet or Engineering Line


Diagram

P & I should be included with

All process equipment identified by equipment number

All pipes identified by a line number. Pipe size and material of


construction should be shown (material may include as a part of the
identification number)

All valves with an identification no. along with their type & size
should be shown

Ancillary fittings that are part of piping system such as inline sight
glasses, strainers and stream traps with an identification no.

Pumps identified by a suitable code no.

All control loops and instruments with identification

Instrument Identification

Measured Variable

Type of Conditioner

Type of Component

F = Flow

R = Recorder

T = Transmitter

L = Level

I = Indicator

M = Modifier

P = Pressure

C = Controller

E = Element

Q = Quantity

A = Alarm

T = Temperature

Example :
Pure oxygen is manufactured by liquefying air and distilling it to
recover pure oxygen and nitrogen. The entering air is contacted
with potassium hydroxide solution in a CO2 absorption tower to
remove carbon dioxide. The air (free of carbon dioxide) is then
sent through a compressor to increase its pressure to 200 atm. In
this process the temperature of arises to 50 0C and this is cooled
to 30 0C in a water-cooled heat exchanger. The resultant air at
200 atm and 30 0C is cooled to -30 0C in a first stage cooler and it
is further cooled to -180 0C in a second stage cooler. The liquefied
air mixture (N2 and O2) is distilled in a distillation column to
produce a distillate product of 98% N2 and 2% O2 and a bottom
product of 99% O2 and 1% N2.
Draw a block diagram for the above process and indicate all
process streams by arrows and label all streams and process
units with pressure, temperature and compositions as per the
above process description

KOH

Air

Water

CO2 Free

Absorption

Air

Compressor

Compressed air
500C, 200 Atm

Heat
Exchanger

CO2
Cooler

Cooled air

-300C, 200 Atm

Liquified Air Mixture


-1800C

Cooler

Distillation
Unit

Cooled air

300C, 200 Atm

Distilled Product
N2 98%
O2 2%

Bottom Product
N2 1%
O2 99%

Water

Approach for Conceptual Design

Typical Workflow In Front-end Design


Projects

Work Flow For Developing P&ID and PFD


Process Flow Diagram
(PFD)

Equipment Sizing
Main Flow
& Control System

Equipment
Data Sheet

Plot Plan

Equipment
Location

Material Selection Diagram


(MSD)

Piping Service
Class
Material

Piping & Instrument Diagram


(P&ID)
Piping
Design

Perhitungan
Hidrodinamika

Piping sizel

Client requirement
Maintenance Philosophy

Instrument
Design

Client
Specification

Introduction to notation for various important


equipments in P&ID

Numbering of equipments and instruments


Agitators, Mixers
Equipment/Item Number
Title/Service
Power Requirements
Materials of Construction
Vessels/Tanks
Equipment/Item Number
Title/Service
Size, Capacity
Design Pressure @ Temperature
Materials of Construction
Trim
Insulation

5. Penomoran Pipa (Line Numbering)

Jika kita akan memulai penomoran line (pipa) dari angka 100 untuk membedakan
dan memudahkan pencarian. Dan pipa untuk service fluida HC terdiri dari 5 kelas
untuk berbagai rating dan maximum working pressure yang dapat dicapai, maka
penotasian dapat berupa kelas A s/d E untuk service fluida HC ini, yang dibedakan
dengan ratingnya, misalnya kelas C s/d E untuk rating pipa yang lebih tinggi karena
adanya kontaminan CO2 dalam fluida HC tersebut.
Selanjutnya berapa ukuran pipa yang dimaksud (setelah dipastikan dengan
perhitungan proses tentunya) adalah penotasian berikutnya, sehingga penotasian
lengkap dapat berupa :
100 - A - 2" atau 100 - HC - A - 2"

Berarti :

angka 100 adalah line number,


huruf HC merupakan jenis fluida,
huruf A adalah kelas yang dimaksud misal kelas 150#,
2" adalah ukuran pipanya.

Semua hal ini harus cocok dengan notasi pada gambar isometrik perpipaan yang
ada serta segala macam gambar yang diproduksi oleh departemen piping.

6. Pengenalan berbagai simbol dalam P&ID

Simbol Valve

Simbol Garis

Simbol Pipa

Simbol Instrumentasi

7. Pengenalan komponen penting lainnya dalam P&ID

Drawing index : berisi daftar nomor P&ID dan judul-judul dari P&ID alur
process/utilities yang dibuat, revisi yang pernah dibuat serta status P&ID
tersebut apakah gambar dibuat untuk keperluan konstruksi atau untuk
keperluan demolish/removal. Judul yang dapat dibuat untuk sebuah P&ID
bisa berupa penggambaran satu buah equipment dalam alur proses
utamanya, misal High Pressure Separator (V-2001 A). Drawing index ini
penomorannya dapat dimulai dari 00, melanjutkan contoh diatas maka
nomor drawing index adalah DM-PP-2000 sheet 1 of 3, dengan judul :
Drawing Index.
Simbol-simbol baik simbol statik/rotating equipment, instrumentasi,
piping, elektrikal yang diperlukan dalam proyek tersebut yang dipecah jadi
beberapa sheet bila diperlukan maka penomorannya bisa dicontohkan
DM-PP-2000 sheet 2 and 3 of 3, melanjutkan notasi penomoran dari
drawing index, dengan berjudul standard symbol and legend.
Sambungan (link) antara berbagai P&ID harus match baik itu pipingnya :
ukuran, spek, line numbernya maupun posisinya. Kemudian juga sinyal
instrumentasi yang ada, baik itu signal elektrikal ataupun pneumatic.
Tentunya bagan to and from dari dan ke berbagai P&ID untuk
penotasian piping atau sinyal itu harus dicantumkan lengkap disitu
sehingga memudahkan pencarian dan pengertiannya aliran atau dari dan
kemana sinyal itu berjalan.

Penulisan simbol

Contoh P&ID

Control valve loop

1
PC H
005
L

PT
005

PY
005

I/P

PV
005

FC
4 300#
4

LT/FT Cascade Control

LT
105

LI
105

DISP

H
L

SP
FC
102
FT
102
FV
102
6-PL-10042-AA11-N

6-PL-10042-AA11-N
300#
FE
102

FC
4 300#
4

Split range control(1)


PY 2xa
001A

PY 2x(a-50)
001B

CV OPENING

PC H
001 L

100

I/P
PY
001D
PV
001B

0
0
100
PIC OUTPUT

8-PG-10043-AA11-N
PT
001

FC/TSO
4 300#

I/P
PY
001C

6-PG-10043-BA21-N

PV
001A
6

FC
4 300#
4

6-PG-10042-BA21-N

Split range control(2)


2x(50-a)

PY
001A

PY 2x(a-50)
001B

a
PC AH
001 AL

I/P
PY
001C
PV
001A
2

100

I/P
PY
001D

PT
001

CV OPENING

0
0
100
PIC OUTPUT

PV
001B

2-PG-10102-AA11-N

3-PG-10101-AA11-N

3
FC
1

FC
1-1/2

1-1/2

Typical centrifugal compressor