Incarceration in the United States - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Incarceration in the United States
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Incarceration in the United States is a concurrent power under the Constitution of the United States, which means that prisons are operated under strict authority of both the federal and state governments. Incarceration is one of the main forms of punishment for the commission of felony offenses in the United States. Less serious offenders, such as those convicted of misdemeanor offenses, may receive a short term sentence to be served in a local city or county jail, or to alternative forms of sanctions such as community corrections (halfway house) or house arrest. Different U.S. prisons operate at different levels of security, ranging from minimum-security prisons—that mainly house non-violent offenders—to Supermax facilities that house the more dangerous criminals such as Oklahoma City bomber Terry Nichols and September 11 conspirator Zacarias Moussaoui. The United States has the highest documented incarceration rate in the world.[3][4] It also has the highest total documented prison population in the world.[3][5][6] According to the U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics: "In 2008, over 7.3 million people were on probation, in jail or prison, or on parole at yearend — 3.2% of all U.S. adult residents or 1 in every 31 adults."[7] 2.3 million of those were incarcerated in jails or prisons.[2] In addition, according to a January 2009 OJJDP (Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention) report, there were 94,875 held in juvenile facilities as of October 27, 2004.[8]

Over 7.2 million persons on probation or parole or incarcerated in jail or prison at yearend 2006. "About 3.2% of the U.S. adult population, or 1 in every 31 adults, were incarcerated or on probation or parole at yearend 2006." [1][2]

Number of inmates. 1920 to 2006.

The People's Republic of China ranks second with 1.5 million, while having four times the population, thus having only about 18% of the US incarceration rate.[9][10] The federal government, states, counties, and many individual cities have facilities to confine people. Generally, "prison" refers to facilities for holding convicted felons (offenders who commit crimes where the sentence is more than one year). Individuals awaiting trial, being held pending citations for non-custodial offenses, and those convicted of misdemeanors (crimes which carry a sentence of less than one year), are generally held in county jails. In most states, cities operate small jail facilities, sometimes simply referred to as "lock-ups", used only for very short-term incarceration—can be held for up to 72 business hours or up to five days—until the prisoner comes before a judge for the first time or receives a citation or summons before being released or transferred to a larger jail. Some states have "unified" systems, in which all the jails and prisons are operated by the state. The federal government also operates various "detention centers" in major urban areas or near federal courthouses to hold criminal defendants appearing in federal court.

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Many of the smaller county and city jails do not classify prisoners (that is, there is no separation by offense type and other factors). While some of these small facilities operate as "close security" facilities, to prevent prisoneron-prisoner violence and increase overall security, others may put many prisoners into the same cells without regard to their individual criminal histories. Other local jails are large and have many different security levels. For example, one of the largest jails in the United States is Cook County Jail in Cook County (located in Chicago). This facility has eleven different divisions, including one medical unit and two units for women prisoners, with each of the eleven divisions operating at a different security level, ranging from dormitory-style open housing to super-secure lock-down. In the state of California, to prevent violence, prisoners are segregated by race, ethnicity, and sexual orientation while held in county jails and in the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation's reception centers, where newly committed prisoners are assessed prior to being transferred to their "mainline", long-term institutions.

1 Duration 2 Security levels 3 Population 4 Comparison with other countries 5 Conditions 6 Privatization 7 Aging 8 Youth 9 Criticism 10 Cost 11 Recidivism 12 See also 13 Notes 14 External links

Main article: Criminal sentencing in the United States A judge sentences a person convicted of a crime. The length of the prison term depends upon multiple factors including the severity and type of the crime, state and/or federal sentencing guidelines, the convicted's criminal record, and the personal discretion of the judge. These factors may be different in each state and in the federal system as well. The vast majority of criminal convictions arise from plea bargains, in which an agreement is made between prosecutors and defense counsel for the defendant to plead guilty to a lesser charge for a lesser sentence than they would receive if found guilty at trial. Some prisoners are given life sentences. In some states, a life sentence means life, without the possibility of parole. In other states, people with life sentences are eligible for parole. In some cases the death penalty may be applied. Many legislatures continued to reduce discretion in both the sentencing process and the determination of when

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the conditions of a sentence have been satisfied. Determinate sentencing, use of mandatory minimums, and guidelines-based sentencing continue to remove the human element from sentencing, such as the prerogative of the judge to consider the mitigating or extenuating circumstances of a crime to determine the appropriate length of the incarceration. As the consequence of "three strikes laws," the increase in the duration of incarceration in the last decade was most pronounced in the case of life prison sentences, which increased by 83% between 1992 and 2003.[11][12]

Security levels
Prisoners reside in different facilities that vary by security level, especially in security measures, administration of inmates, type of housing, and weapons and tactics used by corrections officers. The federal government's Bureau of Prisons uses a numbered scale from one to five to represent the security level. Level five is the most secure, while level one is the least. State prison systems operate similar systems. California, for example, classifies its facilities from Reception Center through Levels I through V (minimum to maximum security) to specialized high security units (all considered Level V) including Security Housing Unit (SHU)—California's version of supermax—and related units. As a general rule, county jails, detention centers, and reception centers, where new commitments are first held either while awaiting trial or before being transferred to "mainline" institutions to serve out their sentences, operate at a relatively high level of security, usually close security or higher. Supermax prison facilities provide the highest level of prison security. These units hold those considered the most dangerous inmates. These include inmates who have committed assaults, murders, or other serious violations in less secure facilities, and inmates known to be or accused of being prison gang members. Most states have either a supermax section of a prison facility or an entire prison facility designated as a supermax. The United States Federal Bureau of Prisons operates a number of supermax facilities across the country. One Federal supermax is deserving of special note: ADX Florence, located in Florence, Colorado, also known as the "Alcatraz of the Rockies", widely considered to be perhaps the most secure prison in the United States. ADX Florence has a standard supermax section where assaultive, violent, and gang-related inmates are kept under normal supermax conditions of 23 hour confinement and abridged amenities. ADX Florence is considered to be of a security level above that of all other prisons in the United States, at least in the "ideological" ultramax part of it, which features permanent 24 hour solitary confinement with rare human contacts or opportunity to earn better conditions through good behavior. In a maximum security prison or area, all prisoners have individual cells with sliding doors controlled from a secure remote control station. Prisoners are allowed out of their cells one out of twenty four hours. When out of their cells, prisoners remain in the cell block or an exterior cage. Movement out of the cell block or "pod" is tightly restricted using restraints and escorts by correctional officers. Under close security, prisoners usually have one or two person cells operated from a remote control station. Each cell has its own toilet and sink. Inmates may leave their cells for work assignments or correctional programs and otherwise may be allowed in a common area in the cellblock or an exercise yard. The fences are generally double fences with watchtowers, housing armed guards, plus often a third, lethal-current electric fence in the middle. Prisoners that fall into the medium security group may sleep in dormitories on bunk beds with lockers to store their possessions. They may have communal showers, toilets and sinks. Dormitories are locked at night with one or more correctional officers supervising. There is less supervision over the internal movements of prisoners. The perimeter is generally double fenced and regularly patrolled. Prisoners in minimum security facilities are considered to pose little physical risk to the public and are mainly

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non-violent "white collar criminals". Minimum security prisoners live in less-secure dormitories, which are regularly patrolled by correctional officers. As in medium security facilities, they have communal showers, toilets, and sinks. A minimum-security facility generally has a single fence that is watched, but not patrolled, by armed guards. At facilities in very remote and rural areas, there may be no fence at all. Prisoners may often work on community projects, such as roadside litter cleanup with the state department of transportation or wilderness conservation. Many minimum security facilities are small camps located in or near military bases, larger prisons (outside the security perimeter) or other government institutions to provide a convenient supply of convict labor to the institution. Many states allow persons in minimum-security facilities access to the internet.

American prisons and jails held 2,304,115 inmates in 2008.[2] Approximately one in every 18 men in the United States is behind bars or being monitored. A significantly greater percentage of the American population is in some form of correctional control even though crime rates have declined by about 25 percent from 1988-2008.[13] 70% of prisoners in the United States are non-whites.[14] In recent decades the U.S. has experienced a surge in its prison population, quadrupling since 1980, partially as a result of mandated sentences that came about during the "war on drugs." Violent crime and property crime have declined since the early 1990s.[15] As of 2004, the three states with the lowest ratio of imprisoned to civilian population are Maine (148 per 100,000), Minnesota (171 per 100,000), and Rhode Island (175 per 100,000). The three states with the highest ratio are Louisiana (816 per 100,000), Texas (694 per 100,000), and Mississippi (669 per 100,000).[16] Nearly one million of those incarcerated in state and federal prisons, as well as local jails, are serving time for committing non-violent crimes.[17] In 2002, 93.2% of prisoners were male. About 10.4% of all black males in the United States between the ages of 25 and 29 were sentenced and in prison, compared to 2.4% of Hispanic males and 1.3% of white males.[18] In 2005, about 1 out of every 136 U.S. residents was incarcerated either in prison or jail.[19] The total amount being 2,320,359, with 1,446,269 in state and federal prisons and 747,529 in local jails.[20] A 2005 report estimated that 27% of federal prison inmates are noncitizens, convicted of crimes while in the country legally or illegally.[21] However, federal prison inmates are only a 6 percent of the total incarcerated population; noncitizen populations in state and local prisons are more difficult to establish. The World Prison Brief puts the total number of foreign prisoners in all federal, state and local facilities at 5.9%.[3]

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Comparison with other countries
The United States has the highest documented incarceration rate in the world at 738 persons in prison or jail per 100,000 (as of 2005).[20] A report released Feb. 28, 2008 indicates that more than 1 in 100 adults in the United States are in prison.[10] The United States has 5% of the world's population and 23.6% of the world's prison population.[3] By comparison in 2006, the incarceration rate in England and Wales was 148 persons Table 1 from Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2005.[22] A U.S. Bureau of Justice imprisoned per 100,000 Statistics report. According to a January 2009 OJJDP (Office of Juvenile Justice and residents; the rate for Norway Delinquency Prevention) report there were 94,875 held in juvenile facilities as of was 66 inmates per 100,000 and October 27, 2004.[8] Add those to the total inmates. the rate in New Zealand was 186 per 100,000.[3] In Australia in 2005, the rate was 126 prisoners per 100,000 residents.[3] The incarceration rate in the People's Republic of China varies depending on sources and measures: in 2003, for sentenced prisoners only, the rate was declared at 118 inmates per 100,000; [3] in 2008, an estimate for all forms of imprisonment in China assessed the incarceration rate at 218 prisoners per 100,000 population.[23] However, these figures are disputed. According to a 2004 Straight Dope column, US-based human rights activist and ex-Chinese labor camp prisoner Harry Wu, claims that "16 to 20 million of his countrymen are incarcerated, including common criminals, political prisoners, and people in involuntary job placements."[24] Ten million prisoners would mean a rate of 793 prisoners per 100,000 citizens in the People's Republic of China. However, it is not clear what this figure is based on. As well, the incarceration rate does not equate with the punishment rate — many other countries may practice corporal punishment or immediate capital punishment as an alternative to imprisonment.

The non-governmental organization Human Rights Watch raised concerns with prisoner rape and medical care for inmates.[25] In a survey of 1,788 male inmates in Midwestern prisons by Prison Journal, about 21% claimed they had been coerced or pressured into sexual activity during their incarceration, and 7% claimed that they had been raped in their current facility.[26] In August 2003, a Harper's article by Wil S. Hylton estimated that "somewhere between 20 and 40% of American prisoners are, at this very moment, infected with hepatitis C". Prisons may outsource medical care to

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private companies such as Correctional Medical Services, which, according to Hylton's research, try to minimize the amount of care given to prisoners in order to maximize profits. Also identified as an issue within the prison system is gang violence, because many gang members retain their gang identity and affiliations when imprisoned. Segregation of identified gang members from the general population of inmates, with different gangs being housed in separate units often results in the imprisonment of these gang members with their friends and criminal cohorts. Some feel this has the effect of turning prisons into "institutions of higher criminal learning."[27] Many prisons in the United States are overcrowded. For example, California's 33 prisons have a total capacity of 100,000, but they hold 170,000 inmates.[28] Many prisons in California and around the country are forced to turn old gymnasiums and classrooms into huge bunkhouses for inmates. They do this by placing hundreds of bunk beds next to one another, in these gyms, without any type of barriers to keep inmates separated. In California, the inadequate security engendered by this situation, coupled with insufficient staffing levels, have led to increased violence and a prison health system that causes one unnecessary death a week. This situation has led the courts to order California to release of 27% of the current prison population, citing the Eighth Amendment's prohibition of cruel and unusual punishment.[29] The three-judge court considering requests by the Plata v. Schwarzenegger and Coleman v. Schwarzenegger courts found California's prisons have become criminogenic as a result of overcrowding.[30] In 2005, the Supreme Court of the United States case of Cutter v. Wilkinson established that prisons that received federal funds could not deny prisoners accommodations necessary for religious practices.

In recent years, there has been much debate over the privatization of prisons. The argument for privatization stresses cost reduction, whereas the arguments against it focus on standards of care, and the question of whether a market economy for prisons might not also lead to a market demand for prisoners (tougher sentencing for cheap labor). While privatized prisons have only a short history, there is a long tradition of inmates in state and federal-run prisons undertaking active employment in prison for low pay. Some advantages of private prisons have been cited. These include flexibility, including the ability to terminate a contract more easily and cost-effectively than it would be to close down a government prison and lay off civil servants in the event of a decline in prison population. Private prisons also have an incentive to look for ways to save on costs; for instance, Travis Snelling of the Corrections Corporation of America notes that his prisons are designed to save on labor, which represents 70% of the total costs over the useful life of a prison. This is particularly important given that posts must often be manned 24 hours a day, requiring more than five employees to cover all the shifts. Snelling estimates: "If you can eliminate one post by your architectural design, just one, that'll save you well over $100,000 in a given marketplace, as far as labor is concerned."[31] The three leading corporations in the private prison business in the U.S. are the Corrections Corporation of America, the GEO Group, and Cornell Companies. Private companies which provide services to prisons combine in the American Correctional Association, which advocates legislation favorable to the industry. Such private companies comprise what has been termed the Prison-industrial complex.


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The percentage of prisoners in federal and state prisons aged 55 and older increased by 33% from 2000 to 2005 while the prison population grew by only 8%. The Southern Legislative Conference found that in 16 southern states the elderly prisoner population increased on average by 145% between 1997 and 2007. The growth in the elderly population brought along higher health care costs, most notably seen in the 10% average increase in state prison budgets from 2005 to 2006. The SLC expects the percentage of elderly prisoners relative to the overall prison population to continue to rise. Ronald Aday, a professor of aging studies at Middle Tennessee State University and author of Aging Prisoners: Crisis in American Corrections, concurs. One out of six prisoners in California is serving a life sentence. Aday predicts that by 2020 16% percent of those serving life sentences will be elderly.[32][33] Inmates are unable to apply for Medicare and Medicaid. Housing one prisoner costs a state between $18,000 and $31,000 annually, $33 per day for the average prisoner and $100 per day for an elderly prisoner. Most DOCs report spending more than 10 percent of the annual budget on elderly care. State governments pay all of their inmates' housing costs which significantly increase as prisoners age.[32][33]

Main article: Youth incarceration in the United States Through the juvenile courts and the adult criminal justice system, the United States incarcerates more of its youth than any other country in the world, a reflection of the larger trends in incarceration practices in the United States. This has been a source of controversy for a number of reasons, including the overcrowding and violence in youth detention facilities, the prosecution of youths as adults and the long term consequences of incarceration on the individual's chances for success in adulthood.

High rates of incarceration may be due to sentence length for crimes such as theft and drug possession.[34] Repeat offenders may not be properly handled due to a lack of focus on rehabilitation. Shorter sentences may even diminish the criminal culture by possibly reducing re-arrest rates for first-time convicts.[35] Critics have lambasted the United States for incarcerating a large number of non-violent and victimless offenders;[36][37] half of all persons incarcerated under state jurisdiction are for non-violent offenses, and 20% (in State prisons, whereas Federal prison percentages are higher) are incarcerated for drug offenses.[38][39] "Human Rights Watch believes the extraordinary rate of incarceration in the United States wreaks havoc on individuals, families and communities, and saps the strength of the nation as a whole."[36] The population of inmates housed in prisons and jails in the United States exceeds 2 million, with the per capita incarceration population higher than that officially reported by any other country.[40] Because of its size and influence, the U.S. prison industry may be referred to as the prison-industrial complex. Criminal justice policy in the United States has also been criticized for a number of other reasons.[41] Reporting at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association (August 3, 2008), Becky Pettit, associate professor of sociology from the University of Washington and Bryan Sykes, a UW post-doctoral researcher, reveal that the mammoth increase in the United States’ prison population since the 1970s is having profound demographic consequences that affects 1 in 50 Americans. Drawing data from a variety of sources that looked at prison and general populations, the researchers found that the boom in prison population is hiding lowered rates of fertility and increased rates of involuntary migration to rural areas and morbidity that is marked

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by a greater exposure to and risk of infectious diseases such as tuberculosis and HIV or AIDS.[42] United States prisons operate like labor camps, according to a comprehensive University of Massachusetts study. Operating like the labor camps of Communist China, prisons in at least two states, California and Oregon, are doing "exactly what the U.S. has been lambasting China for", the report says. It discusses the similarities in the two countries' prison labor systems. "You might just as well call this slave labor", the report continues, explaining that U.S. prison work is not volunteer work since inmates get time deducted off their sentences for working in the prison: "If prisoners don't work, they serve longer sentences, lose privileges, and risk solitary confinement." The report concludes that there is no "real difference between China's forced labor and that in the U.S. prison system."[43] The United States prison system is being called "a new form of inhumane exploitation." Current penal labor in the U.S. is said to have "its roots in slavery."[34]

According to December 2009 info online from the United States Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) $68,747,203,000 was spent on corrections in 2006.[44] The BJS data online as of December 2009 concerning the average cost per state or federal prisoner: "The average annual operating cost per state inmate in 2001 was $22,650, or $62.05 per day; among facilities operated by the Federal Bureau of Prisons, it was $22,632 per inmate, or $62.01 per day." There is no BJS info on that page about the average cost per jail inmate, nor about the average cost per person on probation or parole.[45]


U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics. To view the data: [44]

A 2002 study survey showed that among nearly 275,000 prisoners released in 1994, 67.5% were rearrested within 3 years, and 51.8% were back in prison.[46] However, the study found no evidence that spending more time in prison raises the recidivism rate, and found that those serving the longest time, 61 months or more, had a significantly lower re-arrest rate (54.2%) than every other category of prisoner. This is most likely explained by the older average age of those released with the longest sentences, and the study shows a strong negative correlation between recidivism and age upon release.

See also
Crime in the United States Law enforcement in the United States Capital punishment in the United States Federal Bureau of Prisons United States Department of Justice
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Religion in the United States' prisons United States incarceration rate Inmate telephone system Federal Prison Industries, Inc. Kids for cash scandal Prison Policy Initiative November Coalition Lists: List of U.S. federal prisons Prisons in California List of countries by incarceration rate

1. ^ Probation and Parole in the United States, 2006 ( . By Lauren E. Glaze and Thomas P. Bonczar. U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS), U.S. Department of Justice. 2. ^ a b c Correctional Population Trends Chart ( /corr2tab.cfm) . U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics 3. ^ a b c d e f g Walmsley, Roy (2009). "World Prison Population List. 8th edition ( /022140) " (PDF). International Centre for Prison Studies. School of Law, King's College London. 4. ^ "New Incarceration Figures: Thirty-Three Consecutive Years of Growth ( /publications/inc_newfigures.pdf) " (PDF). Sentencing Project. December 2006. /publications/inc_newfigures.pdf. Retrieved 2007-06-10. 5. ^ World Prison Brief - Highest to Lowest Figures ( /icps/worldbrief/wpb_stats.php) . International Centre for Prison Studies. School of Law, King's College London. 6. ^ "Prison Brief for United States of America ( /north_america_records.php?code=190) ". King's College London, International Centre for Prison Studies. 2006-06-21. /rel/icps/worldbrief /north_america_records.php?code=190. Retrieved 2007-10-19. 7. ^ "Total correctional population ( ". United States Bureau of Justice Statistics. 8. Retrieved 25 December 2009. ^ a b Juvenile Residential Facility Census, 2004: Selected Findings ( /publications/StatBBAbstract.asp?BibID=244623) . (NCJ 222721) January 2009. By Sarah Livsey, Melissa Sickmund, and Anthony Sladky. OJJDP (Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention). ^ "New High In U.S. Prison Numbers" ( /story/2008/02/28/ST2008022803016.html) . By N.C. Aizenman. February 29, 2008. Washington Post. ^ a b One in 100: Behind Bars in America 2008 ( /One%20in%20100.pdf) . Released Feb. 28, 2008. The Pew Center on the States. ^ /Abstract.aspx?id=206147 ^ ^ New York Times, March 2, 2009, "Prison Spending Outpaces All but Medicaid", ^ State University of New York - Binghamton ( ^ "US Department of Justice on War on drugs ( ". Retrieved 2006-12-09. ^ "Prisoners in 2004 ( /bjs/pub/pdf/p04.pdf) " (PDF). Bureau of Justice Statistics. /pdf/p04.pdf. Retrieved 2006-06-28. ^ "America's One-Million Nonviolent Prisoners ( /onemillionexec.html) ". Center on Juvenile and



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Criminal Justice. /pubs/one_million/onemillionexec.html. Retrieved 2006-06-13. ^ "Prisoners in 2002 ( /bjs/pub/pdf/p02.pdf) " (PDF). Bureau of Justice Statistics. /pdf/p02.pdf. Retrieved 2006-06-13. ^ Elizabeth White (22 May 2006). "1 in 136 U.S. Residents Behind Bars ( /0522-03.htm) ". Associated Press. /0522-03.htm. ^ a b Paige M. Harrison and Allen J. Beck, Ph.D. (November 2006). "Prisoners in 2005 ( " (PDF). U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics. pp. 13. ^ GAO-05-337R Information on Criminal Aliens Incarcerated in Federal and State Prisons and Local Jails ( ^ "Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2005". ( iid=1007) United States Bureau of Justice Statistics. ^ Jiang, Su. "Measuring Prison Population in China: A Preliminary Observation" ( /meta/p_mla_apa_research_citation/2/3/8 /8/0/p238803_index.html) Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Law and Society Association, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 27 May 2008 ^ Adams, Cecil (2004-02-06). "Does the United States lead the world in prison population? ( ". The Straight Dope. /columns/040206.html. Retrieved 2009-08-06. ^ "Inhumane Prison Conditions Still Threaten Life, Health of Alabama Inmates Living with HIV/AIDS, According to Court Filings ( /docs/2005/02/28/usdom10223.htm) ". Human Rights Watch. /usdom10223.htm. Retrieved 2006-06-13. ^ Cindy Struckman-Johnson & David StruckmanJohnson (2000). "Sexual Coercion Rates in Seven Midwestern Prisons for Men ( /pdf/struckman.pdf) " (PDF). The Prison Journal. ^ "Gang and Security Threat Group Awareness ( ". Florida Department of Corrections. /pub/gangs/. Retrieved 2006-06-13. ^ Thompson, Don (2008-04-05). "Prison Attacks Calling Attention to Overcrowding



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( /news_1n5prisons.html) ". Associated Press. /news_1n5prisons.html. Retrieved 2009-08-06. ^ Moore, Solomon (2009-08-05). "California Prisons Must Cut Inmate Population ( /05calif.html?pagewanted=print) ". New York Times. /05calif.html?pagewanted=print. Retrieved 2009-08-06. ^ Order for population reduction plan ( /2009/08 /04/Opinion%20&%20Order%20FINAL.pdf) , pg. 9, three-judge court convened by the Chief Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit hearing Plata v. Schwarzenegger and Coleman v. Schwarzenegger ^ Crime Pays. 14. 60 Minutes. 25 November 1984. ^ a b Aging inmates clogging nation's prisons ( USA Today ^ a b Aday, Ronald H. (2003). Aging Prisoners: Crisis in American Corrections. Praeger. ISBN 0275971236. ^ a b Pelaez, Vicky (2005-10-13). "The prison industry in the United States: big business or a new form of slavery? ( /ingles/2005/octubre/juev13/42carceles.html) ". El Diario-La Prensa, New York. /juev13/42carceles.html. Retrieved 2009-08-28. ^ "The effect of prison on criminal behavior ( /sum/cprs199911-eng.aspx) ". Public Safety Canada. November, 1999. /res/cor/sum/cprs199911-eng.aspx. Retrieved 2009-08-28. ^ a b Fellner, Jamie. "US Addiction to Incarceration Puts 2.3 Million in Prison ( /docs/2006/12/01/usdom14728.htm) ". Human Rights Watch. /usdom14728.htm. Retrieved 2007-06-02. ^ Abramsky, Sasha (January 22, 2002). Hard Time Blues: How Politics Built a Prison Nation. Thomas Dunne Books. ^ "Prisoners in 2005 ( /bjs/pub/pdf/p05.pdf) " (PDF). United States Department of Justice: Office of Justice Programs. November 2006. /pdf/p05.pdf. Retrieved 2007-06-03. ^ "America's One-Million Nonviolent Prisoners ( /onemillionexec.html) ". Center on Juvenile and

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Criminal Justice. /pubs/one_million/onemillionexec.html. Retrieved 2007-06-03. 40. ^ "1 in 100 U.S. Adults Behind Bars, New Study Says ( ". The New York Times. February 28, 2008. 41. ^ Slevin, Peter (June 2006). "U.S. Prison Study Faults System and the Public ( /article/2006/06/07/AR2006060702050.html) ". The Washington Post. /wp-dyn/content/article/2006/06 /07/AR2006060702050.html. 42. ^ Bulging Prison System Called Massive Intervention in American Family Life ( /articles/view/543147/) Newswise, Retrieved on

August 3, 2008. 43. ^ U.S. Hard labor camps ( 44. ^ a b "Table about trend expenditures on criminal justice in the United States by function ( /exptyptab.cfm) ". U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics. /exptyptab.cfm. Retrieved 29 December 2009. 45. ^ "Expenditures/Employment ( ". U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics. Retrieved 29 December 2009. 46. ^ "Recidivism of Prisoners Released in 1994 ( ". Bureau of Justice Statistics.

External links
Women in Prison: How It Is With Us, by Assata Shakur ( Ken Silverstein - U.S.: America's Private Gulag ( "Orleans Parish Prison before and after Katrina" ( /2006/0306gerharzhong.html) from Dollars & Sense magazine U.S. Incarceration Rate Timeline from 1925 ( . Yearly totals and rates. State rates for a recent year. Table lists. Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics. ( Table 6.13.2005 - Number and rate (per 100,000 U.S. residents) of persons in State and Federal prisons and local jails, United States, 1985, 1990-2005. ( Retrieved from "" Categories: Incarceration rates | Human rights in the United States | Penal system in the United States This page was last modified on 1 January 2010 at 19:06. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. See Terms of Use for details. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. Contact us

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