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Cellular Traffic Engineering Tutorial

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I2R - NUS

Tutorial 3

Cellular design and Traffic Engineering

1.

(a) Prove that for a hexagonal geometry, the co-channel reuse ratio is

given by Q = 3N , where N = i 2 + ij + j 2

(b) Show that the frequency reuse factor for a cellular system is given by

k S , where k is the average number of channels per cell and S is the

total number of channels available to the cellular service provider.

(c) For i=3, j=2, draw the layout of the cellular structure.

2.

scheme which can tolerate a signal-to-interference ratio of 15dB in the

worst case. Find the optimal value of N for (i) omni-directional antennas,

(ii) 120 sectoring, and (iii) 60 sectoring. Should sectoring be used? If

so, which case should be used? Assume a path loss exponent of n=4.

(Please thought over the significant of the results)

(b)

If n=3, is there any change in your design decision?

[Ans: (a)(i) N=7 (ii) N=3 (iii) N=3, 120 sectoring should be used. (b)(i) N=12 (ii) N=7 (iii)

N=4, 60 sectoring should be used]

3.

[Textbook] For a N=7 system with a P(block)=1% and average call length

of 2 minutes, find the traffic capacity loss due to trunking for 57 channels

when going from omni-directional antennas to 60 sectored antennas.

Assume that blocked calls are cleared and the average per user call rate

is = 1 per hour. [Ans : from 1326 users to 738 users, a drop of 44%]

4.

[Textbook] Assume that a cell named Radio Knob has 57 channels, each

with an effective radiated power of 32W and a cell radius of 10 km. The

GOS is established to be a probability of blocking of 5% (assuming

blocked calls are cleared). Assume the average call holding time is 2

minutes, and each user averages 2 calls per hour. Further, assume the

cell has just reached its maximum capacity and must be split into 4 new

microcells to provide 4 times the capacity in the same area.

(a)

What is the current capacity of the Radio Knob cell?

(b)

What is the radius and transmit power of the new cells?

(c)

If traffic is uniformly distributed, what is the new traffic carried by

each cell? Will the probability of blocking in these new cells be

below 0.1% after the split?

[Ans : (a) 772 users (b) 2 W (c) 12.75 Erlangs, so blocking probability below 0.1%]

1

I2R - NUS

5.

signal at d = d 0 = 1 m from the transmitter. In order to mitigate cochannel interference effects, it is required that the signal received at any

base station receiver from another base station transmitter which

operates with the same channel must be below 100dBm.

A

measurement team has determined that the average path loss exponent

in the system is n = 3 . (a) Determine the major radius of each cell if a 7cell reuse pattern is used. (b) What is the major radius if a 4-cell reuse

pattern is used? [Ans: (a) >470.1 m (b) >621.9 m]

6.

available for each cluster. In a specific cluster the traffic load is not

uniformly distributed over the cells.

To cater for the different

requirements, the available channels are allocated as follows: {42, 30, 18,

6} for the cells in the cluster.

(a)

Given a blocking probability of 2%, what traffic loads can each cell

accommodate?

(b)

Due to interference problems, 120 degrees sectorisation is

introduced into the system. What traffic loads can each cell now

accommodate? Explain possible differences.

(c)

Assume that we can categorize the traffic patterns into 3 classes.

Short message of duration 20sec/call, normal calls of duration 4

min/call and teenage gossiping of duration 1.5 hours/call. Let

there be 5 normal calls and 10 short message for each teenager

calling. How many calls per hour can be accommodated on

average in the cluster when sectorisation is not used?

[Ans: (a) 32.8, 21.9, 11.5, 2.28 Erlang (b) 24.6, 15.24, 6.84, 0.67 Erlang (c) 580 calls/hr]

7.

follows a log-normal distribution with a shadowing spread of 5 dB. The

transmitted power is Pt =10W, the cell radius of R=3km, the reference

distance is d 0 =1km, and the carrier frequency is 900MHz.

The

environment is described by a path loss exponent of = 3.5 .

(a)

Assuming shadowing losses only, what is the probability that the

received signal level is 3 times smaller than the average level?

(b)

Assuming that satisfactory performance is possible for a signal

level above the threshold level = 63.46 dBm, what is the

coverage percentage at the boundary of the cell given shadowing?

(c)

If the transmit power is increased by a factor of 3, what cell size

I2R - NUS

[Hint : If no knowledge is given for d<d0, then free space model is assumed]

[Ans: (a) 0.829 (b) 0.171 (c) R=4.1km]

8.

and B2 is a co-channel cell as shown in figure. For a mobile located in

cell B1, find the minimum cell radius R to give a forward link C/I ratio of

at least 18 dB at least 99% of the time. Assume the following:

Co-channel interference is due to base B2 only.

Carrier frequency = 890 MHz

Reference distance d0=1km

Omni-directional antennas for both transmitter and receiver

Gbase =6dB, G mobile =3dB

Transmitter power = 10W and equal power for all base stations.

PL (dB) between the mobile and base B1 is given as

d

PL(dB) = PL(d 0 ) + 10(2.5) log 1 X ( = 0dB )

d0

d

PL(dB ) = PL(d 0 ) + 10(4.0) log 2 X ( = 7 dB )

d0

9.

new US PCS band of 1850MHz to 1880MHz (reverse line) and 1930MHz

to 1960 MHz (forward lind). They intend to use DCS1900 radio

equipment. DCS1900 provides a GSM-like service and supports 8 users

per 200kHz radio channel using TDMA. Because of GSMs digital

techniques, GSM vendors have convinced the licensee that when the path

loss exponent is equal to 4, GSM can be deployed using 4-cell reuse.

(a)

How many GSM radio channels can be used by the licensee?

(b)

If each DCS1900 base station can support a maximum of 64 radio

channels. How many users can be supported by the base station

during fully loaded operation?

3

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

(g)

(h)

I2R - NUS

of 2500 sq km, and the base stations use 20W transmitter powers

and 10dB gain omni-directional antennas, determine the number

of cells required to provide forward link coverage to all parts of the

city. Assume 4-cell reuse, and let n=4 and the standard deviation

of 8dB hold as the path loss model for each cell in the city. Also

assume that a required signal level of 90dBm must be provided

for 93% of the coverage area in each cell, and that each mobile uses

a 0dB gain antenna. Assume d 0 =1km.

For your answer in (c), define in exact detail a suitable channel

reuse scheme for each cell in the city, and define the channels used

by each cell. Your scheme should include details such as how

many channels each base station should use, what the nearest

reuse distance should be, and other issues which clearly define

how to assign channels geographically throughout the city? You

may assume that users are distributed uniformly throughout the

city, that each cell is equal distance from its neighbors, and you

may ignore the effect of control channels (that is, assume all radio

channels carry only voice users).

How many (I) cells (base stations) (ii) total radio channels (iii)

total user channels (there are 8 user channels per radio channel)

are available throughout the entire city, based on your answer in

(d)? The total number of user channels is equal to the maximum

capacity of the system and is a hard limit on the number of users

that can be simultaneously served at full capacity.

If each base station costs $500,000, and each radio channel within

the base station costs $50,000, what is the cost of the system in (e)?

This is the initial cost of the system.

If the system in (d) is designed for 5% blocking probability at startup, what is the maximum number of subscribers that can be

supported at start-up? This is the number of phones that may be

initially subscribed at start-up. Assume that each user channel is

trunked along with the other user channels on other radio

channels within the base station.

Using your answer in (g), what is the average cost per user needed

to recoup 10% of the initial system buildout cost after one year if

the number of subscribers is static during year 1?

[Ans : (a) 150 (b) 512 (c) 10 (d) Cluster size = 4, 38, 38, 37, 37 (e) 10, 375, 3000 (f)

$23.75x10**6 (g) 3x10**4 (h) $79.17]

4

10.

I2R - NUS

total of 1001 radio channels available for handling traffic. Suppose the

area of a cell is 6 km2 and the area of the entire system is 2100 km2.

(a) Calculate the system capacity if the cluster size is 7

(b) How many times would the cluster of size 4 have to be replicated in

order to approximately cover the entire cellular area?

(c) Calculate the system capacity if the cluster size is 4.

(d) Does decreasing the cluster size increase the system capacity?

Explain.

Consider the case when cell cluster of size 7. Given that the traffic load

per user is 0.03 Erlangs and the average number of calls per hour per

user is 1.5, for an Erlang-C system with a probability of delaying a call

being 5%, determine

(e) The traffic load per cell

(f) The number of users per km2 that can be supported by this system

(g) The mean duration of a call

(h) The probability that a delayed call will have to wait for more than

10s, and

(i) The probability that a call will be delayed for more than 10s.

[Ans : (a) 50,050 (b) 87 (c) 87,000 (d) yes (e) 122.98 Erlangs (f) 683 (g) 72s (h) 0.062

(i) 0.0031]

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