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A STUDY ON THE EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM

INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY


Absenteeism is a serious workplace problem and an expensive occurrence for both employers
and employees seemingly unpredictable in nature.

A satisfactory level of attendance by

employees at work is necessary to allow the achievement of objectives and targets by a


department. Employee Absenteeism is the absence of an employee from work. It is a major
problem faced by almost all employers of today. Employees are absent from work and thus the
work suffers. Absenteeism of employees from work leads to back logs, piling of work and thus
work delay.
Absenteeism is of two types 1. Innocent absenteeism - Is one in which the employee is absent from work due to
genuine cause or reason. It may be due to his illness or personal family problem or any
other real reason
2. Culpable Absenteeism - is one in which a person is absent from work without any
genuine reason or cause. He may be pretending to be ill or just wanted a holiday and stay
at home.
Many employees will, on occasions, need a few days off work because of illness, however, when
absences become more frequent or long term and reach an unacceptable level, action by
management is necessary. Absence from work can be expensive in both monetary and human
terms. The costs incurred when an employee is absent from work may include:
(i) Replacing the employee or requiring other staff to cover the absence;
(ii) Inability to provide services, or achieve section and departmental objectives;
(iii) Low morale and general dissatisfaction from other staff, particularly if the absence is
perceived as unwarranted

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
DEFINITIONS OF ABSENTEEISM
i.

Absents constitutes a single day of missed work(Martocchio & Jimeno 2003)

ii.

Absence occurs whenever a person chooses to allocate time to activities that compete
with scheduled work either to satisfy

the waxing and warning of underlying

motivational rhythms(Fichman 1984) or to maximise personal utility(Chelius 1981)


iii.

An individuals lack of physical presence at a given location and time when there is a
social expectation for him or her to be there. (Martocchio & Harrison, 1993)

iv.

Absenteeism refers to Non-attendance of employee for sheduled work( Gibson, 1966


john, 1978)

v.

Absenteeism is defined as a failure of an employee to report to work when he or she is


sheduled to do so

TYPES OF ABSENTEEISM
There are two types of absenteeism, each of which requires a different type of approach.
1. Innocent Absenteeism
Innocent absenteeism refers to employees who are absent for reasons beyond their control; like
sickness and injury. Innocent absenteeism is not culpable which means that it is blameless. In a
labour relations context this means that it cannot be remedied or treated by disciplinary
measures.
2. Culpable Absenteeism
Culpable absenteeism refers to employees who are absent without authorization for reasons
which are within their control. For instance, an employee who is on sick leave even though
he/she is not sick, and it can be proven that the employee was not sick, is guilty of culpable
absenteeism.

Counseling Innocent Absenteeism


Innocent absenteeism is not blameworthy and therefore disciplinary action is not justified. It is
obviously unfair to punish someone for conduct which is beyond his/her control. Absenteeism,
no matter what the cause, imposes losses on the employer who is also not at fault. The damage
suffered by the employer must be weighed against the employee's right to be sick. There is a
point at which the employer's right to expect the employee to attend regularly and fulfill the
employment contract will outweigh the employee's right to be sick. At such a point the
termination of the employee may be justified, as will be discussed.
The procedure an employer may take for innocent absenteeism is as follows:
1. Initial counselling(s)
2. Written counselling(s)
3. Reduction(s) of hours and/or job reclassification
4. Discharge
5. Initial Counselling
Presuming you have communicated attendance expectations generally and have already
identified an employee as a problem, you will have met with him or her as part of your
attendance program and you should now continue to monitor the effect of these efforts on his or
her attendance.
If the absences are intermittent, meet with the employee each time he/she returns to work. If
absence is prolonged, keep in touch with the employee regularly and stay updated on the status
of his/her condition. (Indicate your willingness to assist.)
You may require the employee to provide you with regular medical assessments. This will
enable you to judge whether or not there is any likelihood of the employee providing regular
attendance in future. Regular medical assessments will also give you an idea of what steps the
employee is taking to seek medical or other assistance. Formal meetings in which verbal
warnings are given should be given as appropriate and documented. If no improvement occurs
written warning may be necessary.

Written Counselling
If the absences persist, you should meet with the employee formally and provide him/her with a
letter of concern. If the absenteeism still continues to persist then the employee should be given a
second letter of concern during another formal meeting. This letter would be stronger worded in
that it would warn the employee that unless attendance improves, termination may be necessary.
Reduction(s) of hours and or job reclassification
In between the first and second letters the employee may be given the option to reduce his/her
hours to better fit his/her personal circumstances. This option must be voluntarily accepted by
the employee and cannot be offered as an ultimatum, as a reduction in hours is a reduction in pay
and therefore can be looked upon as discipline.
If the nature of the illness or injury is such that the employee is unable to fulfill the requirements
of his/her job, but could for example benefit from modified work, counsel the employee to bid on
jobs of such type if they become available.
Discharge
Only when all the previously noted needs and conditions have been met and everything has been
done to accommodate the employee can termination be considered. An Arbitrator would
consider the following in ruling on an innocent absenteeism dismissal case.
1. Has the employee done everything possible to regain their health and return to work?
2. Has the employer provided every assistance possible? (i.e. counselling, support, time off.)
3. Has the employer informed the employee of the unworkable situation resulting from their
sickness?
4. Has the employer attempted to accommodate the employee by offering a more suitable
position (if available) or a reduction of hours?
5. Has enough time elapsed to allow for every possible chance of recovery?
6. Has the employer treated the employee prejudicially in any way?
As is evident, a great deal of time and effort must elapse before dismissal can take place. These
points would be used to substantiate or disprove the following two fold test. The absences must

be shown to be clearly excessive. It must be proven that the employee will be unable to attend
work on a regular basis in the future.
Corrective Action for Culpable Absenteeism
As already indicated, culpable absenteeism consists of absences where it can be demonstrated
that the employee is not actually ill and is able to improve his/her attendance. Presuming you
have communicated attendance expectations generally, have identified the employee as a
problem, have met with him/her as part of your attendance program, made your concerns on his
specific absenteeism known and have offered counseling as appropriate, with no improvement
despite your positive efforts, disciplinary procedures may be appropriate.
The procedures for corrective/progressive discipline for culpable absenteeism are generally the
same as for other progressive discipline problems. The discipline should not be prejudicial in any
way. The general procedure is as follows: [Utilizing counseling memorandum]
1. Initial Warning(s)
2. Written Warning(s)
3. Suspension(s)
4. Discharge
5. Verbal Warning
Formally meet with the employee and explain that income protection is to be used only when an
employee is legitimately ill. Advise the employee that his/her attendance record must improve
and be maintained at an improved level or further disciplinary action will result. Offer any
counseling or guidance as is appropriate. Give further verbal warnings as required. Review the
employee's income protection records at regular intervals. Where a marked improvement has
been shown, commend the employee. Where there is no improvement a written warning should
be issued.
Written Warning
Interview the employee again. Show him/her the statistics and point out that there has been no
noticeable (or sufficient) improvement. Listen to the employee to see if there is a valid reason
and offer any assistance you can. If no satisfactory explanation is given, advise the employee that

he/she will be given a written warning. Be specific in your discussion with him/her and in the
counseling memorandum as to the type of action to be taken and when it will be taken if the
record does not improve. As soon as possible after this meeting provide the employee personally
with the written warning and place a copy of his/her file. The written warning should identify
any noticeable pattern
If the amount and/or pattern continue, the next step in progressive discipline may be a second,
stronger written warning. Your decision to provide a second written warning as an alternative to
proceeding to a higher level of discipline (i.e. suspension) will depend on a number of factors.
Such factors are, the severity of the problem, the credibility of the employee's explanations, the
employee's general work performance and length of service.
Suspension [only after consultation with the appropriate superiors]
If the problem of culpable absenteeism persists, following the next interview period and
immediately following an absence, the employee should be interviewed and advised that he/she
is to be suspended. The length of the suspension will depend again on the severity of the
problem, the credibility of the employee's explanation, the employee's general work performance
and length of service. Subsequent suspensions are optional depending on the above condition.
Dismissal [only after consultation with the appropriate superiors]
Dismissals should only be considered when all of the above conditions and procedures have been
met. The employee, upon displaying no satisfactory improvement, would be dismissed on the
grounds of his/her unwillingness to correct his/her absence record.
THEORIES OF ABSENTEEISM
Absence behaviour is discussed in terms of theories on absences such as the notion of the
informal contract, perceived inequity, and withdrawal from stressful work situations, dynamic
conflict,

social

exchange,

withdrawal,

non-attendance,

organizationally

excused

organizationally unexcused, involuntary vs. voluntary and lastly a four-category taxonomy.

vs.

Informal Contract
Gibsson (1966) attempted to explain some of the main features of absence behaviour by means
of the notion of an informal contract. The contract is viewed as being made between the
individual and the organisation. Gibsson (1966) was especially interested in absences that were
not long enough to activate formal legitimising (certification) procedures. He used the concept
of valence, referring to a persons positive or negative relationships to a work situation and
pointed out that if the combined valences of a work situation are weak, it will be easier for
people to legitimise their absences to themselves.
Gibsson (1966) remarks that a plausible idea relating to the size of the organisation influences
absence rates; in larger organisations, since there is greater division of labour, there is also more
concealment of the contributions of individuals, thus permitting latitude for absence from work.
He also mentions the importance of the employees identification with the organisation, as in the
case of longer-service employees, and argues for the importance of the authenticity of the
work contract (Gibsson, 1966). In other words, the organisation should be seen to offer a fair
deal to the individual, whose feelings of obligation would thus be strengthened.
In this research Gibssons (1966) concept of valence, referring to an individuals positive and
negative relationship toward a work situation has relevance, as the aim of this research is to
determine whether work-related attitudes (Job Involvement and Organisational Commitment)
predict employee absenteeism. It is hypothesised that employees with low job involvement and
organizational commitment (negative relationship to the work situations) will have higher levels
of absenteeism.
Resolving Perceived Inequity
Adams (1965), Hill and Trist (1953) and Patchen (1960) have made notable theoretical
contributions towards the study of absenteeism. No recent literature has been identified which
has built on this perspective. Adams (1965) suggested that absences may be a means of resolving
perceived inequity; the probability of absence behaviour will increase with the magnitude of
inequity and if other means of reducing inequity are not available. Patchen (1960) had tested this
kind of hypothesis; producing evidence of a relationship between absences and perceived

fairness of pay, that is, employees feelings about how fairly they had been treated in regard to
their pay levels and promotions.
Withdrawal from the Stress of Work Situations
In their study on absence, Hill and Trist (1953; 1962) contributed a theory of absence as being
the withdrawal from the stress of work situations. Withdrawal is the
central explanatory concept; thus, individuals experiencing conflicts of satisfaction and
obligations tend to express them through labour turnover, accidents, and unsanctioned absences
(this is, absences without formal permission). In addition to the views of Hill and Trist (1962),
Hanisch and Hulin (1991) theorised that absenteeism and other withdrawal behaviours reflect
invisible attitudes such as job dissatisfaction, low level of organisational commitment, or an
intention to quit. According to this view, an employee who is absent from work is consciously
or unconsciously expressing negative attachment to the organisation.
Dynamic Conflict
The withdrawal explanation offered by Hill and Trist (1962) had some subsequent influence on
theoretical discussions by s (1962) and Knox (1961). Gadourek (1965) described the latter as
dynamic conflict theories. The conflict is located within the individual, and whether a person
stays or withdraws is the result of a complex in incentives and stresses.
Social Exchange
Chadwick-Jones(1982) presented a case for the theory of absenteeism that is social, not
individual in emphasis. As a first step Chadwick-Jones (1982) assumed the interdependency of
members of work organisations.

It seems obvious that individuals do have some mutual

obligations to peers, subordinates, and superiors (as well as other relationships outside the work
situation).

In this context the rights and duties of individuals are both subject to, and

representative of, a set of rules about activities in the work situation. What individuals do is
therefore likely to be in answer to, on behalf of, in defence of, as well as achieving a compromise
with the rules of the group.

The second assumption made by Chadwick-Jones (1982), is that under the employment contract,
some form of social exchange is taking place between employers and employees. Whatever they
exchange in this situation whether it be their time, effort, or skill or money, security, congenial
friends, or anything else- it will be only what is possible for employees in the organisation.
Exchanges may be conceived as between individuals and work groups, or between work groups
and management, but it would not be realistic to conceive of the exchange between the
individual and the organisation while disregarding the social conditions and rules.
Chadwick-Jones think of social exchange between employees and employers as developing in, or
as revealed by, a pattern of behaviour in the work situation that includes absences with all the
other factors that constitute the contract, formal and informal, between employers and
employees. Formal factors include pay, hours, disciplinary rules, job duties, and promotion lines.
Informal ones include supervisory styles, peer group relations, and salient to their analysis
absence from work. Chadwick-Jones (1982) however, do point out that absences may not enter
into the exchange at all, insofar as some employees or employee groups, especially those with
higher status supervisors in factories, managers in banks are absent very little or hardly at all.
It is quite possible, however, that managers possess greater control over the allocation of their
working time and may take periods of time out that are not recorded.
Withdrawal
According to Chadwick-Jones (1982), absence from work, where work is defined by the
employees presence at a particular location (office or workshop) for a fixed period each day, can
be interpreted as an individual act of choice between alternative activities; as withdrawal or
escape from surveillance; as individual or group resistance to an inflexible system. Thus,
absence may also be viewed as a stratagem in inter-group relations, as a defensive or aggressive
act in inter-group conflict (Chadwick-Jones et al., 1982). For the purpose of this research this
theory has relevance, as the reasons for absence behaviour could be related to a choice of
alternative activities instead of attending work.
Non-attendance
Another definition of absenteeism refers to the non-attendance of employees for scheduled work
(Gibons, 1966; Johns, 1978; Jones, 1971). The definition distinguishes absenteeism from other

forms of non-attendance that are arranged in advanced (e.g. vacations) and specifically avoids
judgements of legitimacy associated with absent events that are implied by as sick leave. This
definitional emphasis seeks to focus on the key organisational consequences of unscheduled nonattendance instability in the supply of labour to the organisation resulting in the disruption of
scheduled work processes and the loss of under utilisation of productive capacity (Allen, 1981;
Jones, 1971, Nicholson, 1977). For this research this definition will be applicable, as the
researcher will not take into account absences due to vacation leave and sick leave taken over
more than three days.
Organisationally excused vs. organisationally unexcused
In terms of distinguishing among types of absence, one simple distinction that previous studies
(Blau, 1985; Cheloha & Farr, 1980; Firzgibbons & Moch, 1980) made is between
organizationally excused versus organizationally unexcused absences. Based on these studies, it
seems that organizations operationalise excused absence to include (within defined limits)
categories such as personal sickness, jury duty, religious holidays, funeral leave, and
transportation problems. However, as Johns and Nicholson (1982) noted, absence behaviour can
have a variety of meanings for individuals. This research will focus on the organizationally
unexcused type of absenteeism.
Involuntary vs. voluntary
March and Simon (1958) on the other hand, distinguished between two basic types of absences:
involuntary (e.g. certified sickness, funeral attendance) and voluntary (e.g. vocation, uncertified
sickness). Voluntary absences are under the direct control of the employee and are frequently
utilised for personal aims. Conversely, involuntary absences are beyond the employees
immediate control. Hence, voluntary rather than involuntary absences from work may reflect job
dissatisfaction and lack of commitment to the organization.
A four-category taxonomy
Blau and Boal (1987) presented a four-category taxonomy describing the meanings of absence.
These categories are medical, career enhancing, normative and calculative. In the medical
category , absence is viewed as a response to various infrequent and uncontrollable events

(illness, injury, fatigue, and family demands). If such an absence (medical) occurred, it probably
would be operationalised as a sporadically occurring excused absence (Blau & Boal, 1987). In
the career-enhancing category , absence is depicted as a mechanism that gives the employee a
further choice to pursue task- and career-related goals.
For the normative category , absence is viewed less as a motivated behaviour and more as a
habitual response to the norms of the work group (organisation) regarding absence (Blau & Boal,
1987). As such, this type of absence probably would operationalise as a consistently occurring
excused absence. More importantly, rather than absenteeism appearing as a random walk, as
with the medical category, definite patterns will emerge. Thus, for this group, it would be
expected not only to predict frequency, but also when absenteeism will happen.
Finally the calculative absence is viewed as a coin of exchange (Blau and Boal, 1987; Johns &
Nicholson, 1982) in either fulfilling or modifying the implicit social contract between the
employee and employer, and as a time allocation strategy for enhancing non-work outcomes.
This type of absence would be operationalised in terms of the employee using a certain number
of excused and unexcused absences permitted by the organisation, depending on how much the
employee felt he or she should modify the implicit social contract. It could be predicted that an
extremely apathetic employee (low job involvement and organisational commitment) would take
full advantage by using both kinds of absence. Thus, the absolute frequency and total number of
days absent should be greatest for workers who are the most apathetic.
EFFECTS OF ABSENTEEISM
Following are the drawbacks of excessive absenteeism
1.ON INDUSTRY
Absenteeism in industry stops machines, disrupts processes, creates production bottle-necks,
hampers smooth flow or continuity of work, upsets production targets, result in production
losses, increases direct overhead costs , increase work load of the inexperienced , less
experienced or sub standard workers as substitutes, this in turn creating problems of recruitment ,
training, job adjustments, morale and attitudes of the employees.

ON WORKERS
1. Absenteeism reduces workers earnings and adds to his indebtedness, decrease his
purchasing power. Makes it difficult for him to meet necessities of life, leading to
personal problems, and in many cases loss of employment and resultant disaster for his
dependents.
2. It affects both quantity and quality of production. If more number of workers are absent
the total output is affected. If alternative arrangement is made by employing casual
workers who do not posses adequate experience the quality of goods produced is
affected.
3. It affects the efficiency of workers. The workers who joins after a long period of absence
would normally be much less efficient.
4. It affects the discipline of the workers adversely. The worker who is attending to his work
irregularly may not care much about the discipline.
Peculiar Features of absenteeism
On the basis of micro studies undertaken in different parts of the country, certain observations
may be made.
a. The rate of absenteeism is the lowest on pay day, it increases considerably on the days
following the payments of wages and bonus.
b. Absenteeism is generally high among workers below 15 years of age and those above
40.The younger employees are not regular and punctual, presumably because of the
employment of a large number of newcomers among the younger age groups.While the
older people are not able to withstand the strenuous nature of the work.
c. The rate of absenteeism varies from department to department within a unit. As the size
of the group increases, the rate of absenteeism goes up. This difference in the rate of
absenteeism is believed to be due to the peculiar style and practices of management, the
composition of the laboue force and the culture of the organization.

d. The percentage of absenteeism is generally higher in the day shifts.


e. The percentege of abasenteeism is much higher in coal ans mining industries than in
organized industries.
f. Absenteeism in India is seasonal in character.
g. It is the highest during March-April-may, when a land has to be prepared for monsoon
saving, and also in the harvest season, when the rate goes as high as 40 percent.

LITERATURE REVIEW
How to Control Employee Absenteeism in the Workplace Written by: N. Plowman
Many employers attempt to reduce absenteeism but find it difficult to successfully do so because
of a lack of understanding relating to employees and attendance. This article identifies why
employees tend to miss work and how employers can effectively control absenteeism throughout
the workplace.
Effects of Absenteeism on Businesses
After turnover, absenteeism can be one of the most critical human resource issues for businesses.
Observing, evaluating, and attempting to improve absenteeism can be extremely difficult, but
with the proper understanding of what causes absenteeism and how to reduce it, businesses can
limit the negative side effects of employee attendance issues.
In addition to lowered workplace morale, less team cohesion, and decreased organizational
commitment, employee absenteeism is detrimental to businesses in respect to the increased costs
associated with high instances of absenteeism. When employees do not come to work, employers
are financially burdened due to the lost productivity and increased costs associated with finding
and paying for temporary replacements. Additionally, absenteeism is positively correlated with
turnover, which means that the more an employee misses work, the more likely he or she is to
eventually leave the company. This resulting turnover also financially impacts a business
because of the costs associated with finding and training a permanent replacement.
Reasons for Heightened Absenteeism
Many studies suggest that most of employee absenteeism, roughly between 60% and 70%, is due
to reasons other than employee illness. The following are the most common reasons employees
tend to miss work.

Employees are stressed or preoccupied by personal matters, such as parental concerns,


marital problems, community involvement, family well-being, care for elderly relatives,
care for severely ill immediate family members, and so on.

Employees are overwhelmed with their current working situation, or they are overworked
due to workforce reductions and voluntary turnover.

Employees are dissatisfied with their current working conditions, position, team
performance, supervisor, or overall organization.

Employees are not committed to their team, department, or organization.

Employees are not challenged by their position and have increased feelings of burnout.

Ways to Reduce Absenteeism


Since most absenteeism is a result of non-illness related events, employers can control
approximately 60% of employee absenteeism. Obviously, an employer cannot improve
absenteeism due to personal reasons, but an employer can directly influence the other four main
causes of absenteeism through the following initiatives.
1. Increase employee motivation.
This is easier said than done, but it can be accomplished by enhancing the intrinsic motivation
employees receive from their job by making production goals more realistic, increasing desirable
job responsibilities, and improving working conditions. An employer can also increase extrinsic
motivation by implementing a type of recognition or reward program.
2. Enhance job satisfaction.
Job satisfaction is influenced by many employment factors. However, the best way to
improve employee satisfaction is to reduce workplace stressors to make working conditions more
enjoyable and consistently provide honest and meaningful feedback and praise.
3. Implement a job rotation or job enlargement strategy.
One of the reasons employees are frequently absent is lack of challenging work due to repetition,
boredom, and burnout. A way that employers can improve an employees perspective of his or
her position is to provide opportunities to rotate among jobs and to gain more skills and
knowledge in an area of personal and professional interest.

4. Reward and discipline employees for increased or decreased absenteeism.


Although this may seem elementary, the reward/punishment motive is still an effective way to
influence absenteeism rates in organizations. If a financial or recognition-based reward is
attached to instances of decreased absenteeism, employees that are motivated to receive the
reward will have fewer instances of absenteeism and strive to achieve attendance goals.
Furthermore, employees that are motivated to avoid consequences positively react to this type of
strategy.
5. Allow employees to utilize a modified work schedule.
Since some absenteeism is a result of personal-related matters, providing employees the
opportunity to be flexible in their schedules, occasionally or permanently, helps employees feel
more able to balance their work and personal life. Flex time, or modified work schedules, can
range in degrees of formality and type, so the flexibility can be easily controlled by an employer.

COMPANY PROFILE
SEW Infrastructures
In the year 1959,Sri. Vallurupalli Nageswara Rao, founded 'Southern Engineering Works' (SEW)
in Vijaywada, A.P. India, with late Sri. Y. Purnachandra Rao and Sri. Y.M.G. Nageswara Rao as
co-founders to pursue civil engineering construction activities. The first project SEW worked on,
was the prestigious Nagarjuna Sagar Dam in Andhra Pradesh. During the period of expansion,
other partners joined the company and contributed to the growth of the organization to its present
status
In the year 1967, the seventh year since founding, SEW was awarded a Gold Medal by the then
Honble Prime Minister of India Shrimati Indira Gandhi for the record progress of stone masonry
in a single day at Nagarjuna Sagar Dam.
With the experience gained at the Nagarjuna Sagar Dam, the company participated in the
building of other major dams of Tawa, Bargi, Bansagar, Hasdeo Bango, in Madhya Pradesh &
Srisailam and Priyadarshini Jurala in Andhra pradesh. SEW attained specialization in the
construction of high dams due to the experience gained in the opportunities available in the
beginning years of its founding.
In the year 1983, the company was converted to a Private Limited Company with the name SEW
Constructions Ltd.
Over the years, SEW Constructions Ltd., has diversified into construction of

Lined Irrigation Canals

Hydel, Thermal and Gas based Power

Industrial, Commercial and Residential Buildings

Dams & Barrages

Lift Irrigation Schemes

Canal Structures

Roads and Bridges

Fabrication and Erection of Gates

Water Supply Projects

Transmission Lines

In the year 2008, the company was renamed as SEW Infrastructure Ltd. to highlight our
commitment to infrastructure project works.
We derive our strength from the shareholders and employees and the company accords top most
priority for their growth. Our company is backed by a large team of talented, committed and
loyal employees, sub- contractors and suppliers.
We continue to aim towards being a leader in the construction industry with strong client
relationships, dedicated and satisfied workforce with an impeccable reputation to be the top
quality provider without cost and time overruns.
Vision
"To be a leader in the construction industry setting standards in technology, quality &
deliverables while ensuring growth of employees and creating value to share holders.

Core Values
We actively demonstrate our Core Values at all times because we are a customer and employee
oriented organization delivering maximum value to our stakeholders.

We always Do what we say

We do our BEST to EXCEL in everything

We RESPECT and COLLABORATE with each other to succeed

We continually CHANGE and INNOVATE to IMPROVE

We strive to ENRICH our STAKEHOLDERS and COMMUNITY

Strength
Dependability is a cherished quality amidst uncertainties. SEW Infrastructure Ltd., earned
several accolades for competence, dedication and quality. Having gained experience of handling
men and machinery, a fast pace for an impressive growth is now set.

Specialising in the development of sustainable infrastructure, SEW diversified into allied

strategic business areas, which are wide ranging and impressive by any standards. A total
commitment to quality and time has earned SEW the reputation of a highly dependable
company.

Strong Technical and Management team to identify, develop and execute all types of
infrastructure projects.

Experienced and well equipped state of the art in house Design facility to execute EPC
projects.

Meeting and exceeding customer expectations of project completion dates and quality

Proven qualification credentials to take up big size projects

Capability in bringing together Joint Venture Partners to take up mega projects of high
value.

Clients

AD Hydro Power Limited, Bhilwara Group

Aditya Hospitals (P) Ltd

Andhra Pradesh State Electricity Board

Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation

BSES-Andhra Power Ltd

Bharat Energy Ventures Limited

Bharat Heavy Electrical Limited

Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd

Bharat Oman Refinery Ltd

Chattisgarh State Electricity Board

DANS Energy Private Ltd

Domus Infra Projects Pvt. Ltd

GATI Infrastructure Ltd

GMR Jadcherla Expressways Private Ltd

GMR Projects Private Ltd

GMR hyderabad international airport Ltd

Ginni Global Ltd

Guntur Vikas (P) Ltd

HEG Ltd.(Manideep)

Harayana Vidyut Prasaran Nigam Ltd

Indore Municipal Corporation

Institute of Management Technology

Irrigation & CAD Department, Government of Andhra Pradesh

Irrigation Deparment, Govt of Chhattisgarh

Irrigation Department,Govt of Madhya Pradesh

JSW Energy (Ratnagiri) Ltd

Karnataka Neeravari Nigam Ltd

Kelo Project Survey Division

Krishna Valley Development Corporation, Govt. of Maharashtra

Larsen & Toubro, ECC Division

Madhya Pradesh Power Transmission Company Ltd

Madhya Pradesh State Electricity Board

Maharashtra State Power Generation Co Ltd

Malana Power Company Ltd

Meghalaya State Electricity Board

Minor Irrigation Divison

Mumbai Metro One Private Ltd

Nagpur Municipal Corporation

Narmada Valley Development Corporation, Govt. of Madhya Pradesh

National Buildings Construction Corporation Ltd

National Highways Authority of India

North Eastern Electric Power Corporation

Power Grid Corporation Of India Limited (PGCIL)

Prasad & Company (Project works) Ltd

Public Health Engineering Department, Govt. of Madhya Pradesh

Rajasthan Rajya Vidyut Prasaran Nigam

Rashtriya Ispat Nigam Limited

Rashtriya Ispat Nigam Ltd (Visakhapatnam Steel Plant)

Reliance Innoventures Private Limited

Shree Maheshwar Hydel Power Corporation Ltd

Shree Ram Urban Infrastructure Ltd

South Eastern Coal Fields Ltd

Southwest Infrastructure Pvt. Ltd

State Electricity Board, Government of Meghalaya

Tapi Irrigation Development Corporation, Govt. of Maharashtra

Teesta Urja Ltd

Utility Energytech Engineers Private Ltd

Uttar Pradesh Power Transmission Corporation Limited (UPPTCL)

VA Tech Escher Wyss Flovel Ltd

Vallurupalli Rattayya & Seethamma Charitable Trust

Visakhapatnam Municipal Corporation

Water Resources Department, Govt. of Chhattisgarh

Water Resources Department, Govt. of Madhya Pradesh

Commitment
Environment Responsibility
SEW is committed to safeguarding the environment. All our projects, whether it is a hydro
electric project, a dam, a new road, or a new airport facility, has the potential to affect people,
flora and fauna and the surrounding land. Whether it is cement in the form of concrete for the
structure or fossil fuel in the form of electricity to provide energy, environmental aspects play an
important part in throughout the life cycle of a project.
Our goal always is to protect the environment during a project, and to build in safeguards that
will keep protecting it long after the project is complete.
Operating ecologically and using limited resources sparingly is a matter of course for SEW. It is
our objective to identify the environmental impact of all projects and activities early on and to
keep this to a minimum.

We make sure that every project we undertake meets or exceeds the national and local
governmental regulations for air, water and sound quality. We also take steps to mitigate
potential impact on nature at and near project sites. That includes creating new habitats for
animals and birds by planting trees to replace any that must be removed.
Our environment protection policies are certified to ISO 14001 on all projects across SEW.
These are integrated into the core business processes from site planning to waste disposal.
Using the ISO 14001 as a guideline we have put in place a series of practices and procedures to
manage our commitment towards prevention of pollution and minimization of other negative
impacts on the environment.
Quality Commitment
Quality objectives are established for all processes of the organization in line with Quality
Policy. Management Review meetings are conducted periodically at various levels to ensure the
effectiveness and adequacy of the Quality Management System. Learning out of corrective &
preventive actions provides opportunity for improvement.
CLIENT FOCUS
Processes are established for client communication on suggestions for improvements,
information on status and meetings. Client feedback is obtained once in three months by the
project in-charge. Areas of dissatisfaction / improvements, if any, are discussed in the site
management review meetings and corrective actions taken based on those inputs.
During the project execution, the client interaction is maintained on a continuous basis and the
requirements are met on a regular basis as per the documented Project Quality Plan.
QUALITY POLICY
Our Quality Policy, is consistent with the SEW Vision & Core Values:

Shows commitment to comply with the requirements and continually improve the
effectiveness of the Quality Management System.

Provides a frame work for establishing and reviewing quality objectives.

Communicated and understood within the organization.

The policy is communicated to all by displaying at strategic locations and through


Quality manual, which is being distributed to all sections and intend being circulated to
all employees of SEW.

Reviewed for continuing suitability, once in two years.

QUALITY OBJECTIVES

To incorporate state of the art technology in the areas of design, construction, materials,
processes and machinery.

Progressive wastage elimination.

Continuous training of all employees towards empowerment saving decision making


time.

To reduce impact on environment at the project site and to progressively achieve


pollution certification.

QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

SEWs Quality Management System (QMS) is taking appropriate steps to improve its
effectiveness in accordance with the requirements of ISO 9001 requirements &
guidelines.

Procedures are established to specify the methods and criteria for effective operation,
control and necessary resources and information to support the operation and monitoring
of these processes.
o

1. Procedure for monitoring, measuring and analyzing of these processes and to


take necessary actions to achieve planned results and continual improvement of
these processes. It has also maintained relevant procedures to identify and
exercise required control over outsourced processes, if any

2. The responsibilities and authorities for each function are defined. These include
planning, operations, control, review and monitoring and corrective / preventive
action as appropriate for respective functions. Effectiveness of the Quality
Management System is evaluated through review meetings at various levels and
course correction made accordingly. The monthly meetings have pre defined
agenda. The information flow is affected through the minutes of meetings to
ensure that both operation and control of these processes are effective and
transparent.

3. Minute planning is done for each project site for the efficient management of
Human Resource, Plant & Machinery and other requirements. Well-established
systems exist for acquisition, monitoring & control of effective utilization of the
resources against annual targets set.

4. MIS is the tool used in organization for systematic data collection and
reporting. This data is used to analyze, reviewed and monitor region / sites at
different levels and collated by Management committees. Action plans are
developed and communicated to concerned persons for implementation and
improvement.

5. Persons responsible for implementation do so as per plan; results are measured


against targets set. Performance measurement aims at continual improvement;
inability to do so calls for review of processes to improve effectiveness.

Wherever the processes are outsourced for some specific products (projects/contracts), these are
controlled in accordance with the documented Quality Management System.
QUALITY MANUAL
A PROJECT QUALITY PLAN is maintained for all project sites in SEW, that includes the
quality manual, work procedures and work instructions.
Employee Safety

At SEW Safety is of paramount importance to us, a value that is fundamental to our culture.
SEW has pursued zero incident programs on it's nationwide projects to heighten the sense of
safety consciousness in every job we do. We strictly enforce the use of all safety equipment
available to every worker on our sites. We have an extensive deployment of impact, electrical
and fire protection systems available to ALL workers on EVERY project.
We believe that every accident, every injury, no matter how small, is preventable, and we embed
that philosophy into every SEW project through a combination of technical field procedures and
ongoing training programs.
Our dedication to safety helps keep workers safe, and it also pays off for our stakeholders. Our
operating costs go down and productivity goes up because less time is lost to accidents and
results in savings on insurance premiums.
The OHSAS 18001 standard for Occupational Health and Safety is used as a guideline to
develop our health and safety management systems.
SEW implemented a variety of programs and processes, to address the issues around
ergonomics, machine guarding and the use of personal protective equipment to achieve greater
protection and to prevent occupational injury and illness of employees, contractors and visitors.
All employees are committed to identifying and reporting safety concerns and are involved in
implementing solutions for any potential hazard.
We have developed formal safety management systems which are being implemented across all
projects. A task group to look at independent auditing performs periodic safety inspections to
ensure the internal standards on workplace safety are being followed.
Safety audit is a key element of safety management. We subject our safety management systems
to extensive internal audit scrutiny to ensure adherence to our best practices and standards. All
projects maintain programmes for internal audit and inspection, to monitor implementation of
operational controls.
The Project Safety Task Force, chaired by the Managing Director is established to develop a
company policy, review performance, launch new initiatives, and ensure good practices are
shared across all projects nationwide.

SEW has a setup a nationwide helpline in place for reporting of accidents and incidents of all
types (safety, health, environment, quality, security, complaints etc). This also helps perform a
common underlying case analysis and a powerful facility to track actions from investigations,
audit and risk assessment.
We also ask our subcontractors and partners to adopt our commitment to safety and health for
exceptional safety performance, even in hazardous work environments, severe weather, and
remote locations.
SEW provides a blanket insurance cover to all its employees employed on project sites to cover
the risk of personal accidents and emergency medical attention etc.
SAFETY PROGRAMS
SEW strives to be a leader in employee safety. We have extensively deployed safety equipment
and programs available ALL our workers on project sites. These include:

Light weight hard hats, eye and face protection, and improved tools and equipment.

Full-body harness to fall protection of employees working at heights.

Injury prevention program of stretching exercises and training in lifting techniques.

A worker-based safety program that puts the responsibility for changing and eliminating

unsafe practices in their hands with support from project management.

An program to protect workers who work in underground tunneling areas.

Supplier Engagement
Our suppliers and subcontractors are extremely valued members of SEWs contracting and
procurement functions supporting the companys strategy and varied service offerings of
irrigation, power, transportation and buildings. SEW counts on the quality, consistency and
integrity of all services and products delivered by it's suppliers. Jointly we share the common
objectives of enhancing our stakeholder value and advancement of our strategic business

objectives while conforming to the strict moral code of dignity of labour, equal opportunity, fair
competition and respecting mutual business interests.
We continually encourage our suppliers to excel in the mutual goals of on-budget performance,
on-time quality delivery, enforcement of safe work environment, fairness in labour compensation
and transparency of business practices.
SEW's PROCUREMENT ORGANIZATION
Our procurement is conducted from the SEW head office as well as the project sites. Our staff is
segmented into experienced specialists for contracting, procuring and materials management.
Most are people dedicated to direct support of our projects while others play a more indirect role
by providing functional services to our projects.
Each project has its own commercial team responsible for obtaining the correct materials and
services, validating capabilities of our prospective vendors, managing the bid cycle, ensuring a
fair evaluation of each responsive bidder is conducted prior to award, and monitoring quality and
schedule. This team consists of several specific disciplines which include Finance, Contracts,
Procurement, Inventory Management, Quality Enforcement and Project Management.
Purchase order requirements and specifications adherence will be checked by the Quality
Assurance / Inventory Management team. Equipment and Materials receipt will be provided on
the spot when such deliveries are made. Industry codes and standards will be applied nonconforming quality and manufacturing issues will be identified before such issues impact quality
of project works.

PRINCIPLES OF SUPPLIER AND SUBCONTRACTOR ENGAGEMENT

SEW maintains the highest standards of integrity in its dealings with suppliers and
subcontractors

SEW follows rigorous and transparent procedures to select it's suppliers and
subcontractors

Every qualified supplier will be provided equal opportunity and afforded fair treatment

Our expectations will be clearly set and documented

We will be available for a review of our relationship to address performance


improvement opportunities

We aim to fully meet our contractual obligations to ensure and protect our joint interests

We will protect the confidentiality of quotations and other 3rd party information
entrusted to us

We always will strive to avoid placing our employees in positions of potential conflict of
interest

We will always strive to promote fair competition among our suppliers in the interests of
SEW, acting in accordance with the law

ETHICS AND SAFETY


We are committed to the highest safety and ethical standards in the industry and expect the same
from our suppliers and subcontractors. We seek suppliers and subcontractors who understand
SEW's obligations to it's clients and other stakeholders.
SEW seeks to apply high standards of ethics and professional practices in it's supply chain
operations. Our practices are governed by the following core principles:
Adherence to the law of the land

All applicable legal obligations must be observed based on the area of operations

Bribery and corruption will be strongly dealt with Employee rights & safe working
environment

All Human Rights and labour laws should be observed

Equal opportunities of employment should be provided regardless of caste, color, gender


and religious preferences.

Respect personal dignity of all individuals employed

Deal with a sense of fairness and provide access to the judicial system

Provide all safety equipment and training facilities to employees

Prohibition of child labour


Indian Child Labour (Prohibition & Regulation) Act, 1986 and subsequent rules should be
strictly adhered to
Environment sensitivity
We require our subcontractors and suppliers to promote environment sensitivity, be aware of the
risks involved and have sound mitigation practices
Social Responsibility
The main charitable activities of SEW are handled through SEW Charitable Trust with our
founder Sri. Vallurupalli Nageswara Rao and Sri. Vallurupalli Raja Rama Mohan Rao as the
trustees.
The trust is fully funded and supported by SEW Infrastructure Ltd.
Core Principles of the Trust

To provide education, establish maintain, run, develop, improve and extend Educational
institutions

To provide boarding and lodging facilities to students and working youth and to render
help financially to deserving students

To establish maintain, run, develop, improve and otherwise assist in setting up of


Libraries, Reading Rooms and other facilities including publication of books, journals,
pamphlets etc.

To establish, maintain, run, develop, improve and otherwise assist in setting up of


vocational training centers and similar other institutions

To conduct and carry on classes for propagation of adult education, to take over any
existing educational institutions or vocational training centers and to conduct, maintain,
run, develop and improve the same subject to the regulations of the Government in this
behalf

To establish Hospitals, Nursing Home. Clinics, Health units, Homes for the aged etc., and
provide medical facilities to the public

AREAS OF IMPACT
EDUCATION
Supporting education for the needy children
Supported institutions such as Anadha Vidyarthi Griha, Vaidehi Seva Samithi, Bhoja Krishna
Narayana Desha Seva Trust to contribute to their social service activities in providing education
for the poor and the underprivileged children.
School Adoption and Mid-Day Meal Programs
SEW supports the cause of education based empowerment to uplift the socially and
economically disadvantaged sections of the society by adopting Government Schools lacking in
standard infrastructure facilities. This includes:

Student sponsorship

Capacity building

Mid-day meals

Drinking water and sanitation

Building school infrastructure

Maintenance of playgrounds

Upgrading libraries, laboratories, and computer labs

Extra-curricular activities such as science exhibitions, health camps etc.

As part of our Empower with Education programs we have also supported special needs
children that are mentally handicapped, deaf and dumb.
Vocational Training
Established a vocational training institute at Bachupally, Hyderabad, with facilities to provide
employment-oriented training to poor people.

During the Financial year 2008-09, about 400 unemployed youth, belonging to the various parts
of the country, have been trained in activities such as plumbing, electrical, farm work carpentry,
masonry with free boarding and lodging facilities on campus.
Higher Education
Supporting Vignana Jyothi an organization promoting the VNR College of Engineering &
Technology (named after our founder Sri. Vallurupalli Nageswara Rao) among numerous other
schools and colleges.
MEDICAL CAMPS AND RED CROSS
In addition to supporting the Red Cross Society of India, the SEW Charitable Trust as conducted
free medical camps in associations with hospitals such as the Asian Institute of GastroEntrology, Hyderabad.
CULTURAL
Supports the development and sustenance of Indian classical music, dance and other cultural
activities via South India Cultural Association (SICA).
SPORTS
Promotes activities to identify talent and generate opportunities for the underprivileged children
in sports such as gymnastics and cricket by supporting the Sports Coaching Foundation.
Infrastructure Industry
Infrastructure Industry in India have been experiencing a rapid growth in its different sectors
with the development of urbanization and increasing involvement of foreign investments in this
field. The Indian government has taken initiatives to develop the infrastructure sector, with major
emphasis on construction, engineering, IT, entertainment, textiles, food, and utility to name
some.

Reports of different segments in Infrastructure Industry:


The section of the construction industry of Infrastructure Industry in India reported an estimated
growth of 6.78% year-on-year in 2006. The industry in India is highly fragmented and has about
300,000 construction companies operating nationwide. The government has allowed 100%
foreign equity in the construction industry. Among the major infrastructure projects are the
US$7-8bn India-Iran gas pipeline, the US$2.8bn construction of two power plants, and the
US$2.3bn power project in Tamil Nadu.
Heavy Engineering Industry is one of the largest segments of Infrastructure Industry in India. It
includes a whole range of industries such as Heavy Electricity Machinery, Turbines, Generators,
Transformers, Switchgears, Textile Machinery etc. all of which are essential infrastructure for
the development of industrial sector in India. For proper industrial development the utility
commodities like the switchgear and control gear, MCBs, air circuit breakers, switches,
rewireable fuses and HRC fuses with their respective fuse bases, holders and starters are
produced. Construction machinery, equipment for irrigation projects, diesel engines, tractors, and
transport vehicles, cotton textile and sugar mill machinery are other manufactured objects of
great demand of the Infrastructure Industry. Some major areas where these are in use are the
multi-crore projections for power generation like nuclear power stations, petrochemical
complexes, and chemical plants integrated steel plants, non-ferrous metal units etc. In India
BHEL is the largest engineering and manufacturing enterprise in the energy related infrastructure
sector, manufacturing over 180 products under 30major product groups and catering the core
sectors of the Indian Economy.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Need for the study:
Indian workers abstain from work much more than that of other country employees. To
overcome this, the physical and emotional needs of employees must be addressed properly.
Moreover, the cost of absenteeism is much high for any organization. The present study aims at
bringing to the surface, various reasons for the absenteeism and their impact on the employees.
Objectives of the study:
1. To understand the main causes of absenteeism in the organization.
2. To analyze the effects of unauthorized absenteeism by the employees in the organization.
3. To study the current disciplinary actions taken by the HR department for reducing
absenteeism.
4. To study the attitude of employees towards these disciplinary actions.

Scope of the study:


The study on employee absenteeism focuses on bringing out the causes of absenteeism in an
organization. It also focuses on the employee responses towards their absenteeism. The whole
study is confined to the extent of the following factors in causing the absenteeism.
1. Job Satisfaction and Income
2. Work atmosphere and relationship
3. Family, domestic and other problems
4. Habits and Attitude
Data collection:
The primary data is collected using the questionnaire. The questionnaires are distributed to the
employees and their responses are collected. Other sources of primary data included interaction
with the employees and the personal interviews with the managers.

The secondary data is collected from various books, journals, magazines, publications etc.
Internet is another major source used for the study.
The secondary data from the organization was collected from:
1. Monthly absenteeism data.
2. Yearly absenteeism report.
3. Leave records of employees.
Sampling:
The sample size is 100 which includes the employees from all the cadres.
The sampling method used is convenience sampling which is a non-probability method of
sampling.
Limitations:
1. The study is conducted in a single organization and so it is not applicable to the whole
industry/sector.
2. Time is the major constraint for the study. Hence it is not able to approach each and every
employee.
3. Further, the responses may be biased or not much accurate due to various reasons.
Future scope of the study:
The study can be further extended by taking into account all those factors that directly or
indirectly influence the absenteeism of the employees. Further, the study can be made in detail
taking into consideration various levels/cadres of employees.

DATA INTERPRETATION
I. Job Satisfaction and Income:
1. My job in company is very interesting.
a. Not at all
b. To some extent
c. Average
d. To great extent
e. Highly interesting

Level of interest in the job


36

40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0

26
20
11
7

Not at all

To some
extent

Average

To great
extent

Highly
interesting

Interpretation:
According to the graph, 36 respondents feel great extent to their job, 26 respondents feel highly
interesting towards the job, 20 respondents feel average, 11 respondents to some extent and 7
respondents not at all towards the interest in the job.

2. Reason for taking employment:


a. To spend time.
b. Forced by family Members.
c. To take care of my family.
d. Liking of the work

Reason for taking employment


31

35

33

28

30
25
20
15
8

10
5
0

To spend time

Forced by family
Members

To take care of my
family

Liking of the work

Interpretation:
According to the survey, 33 respondents feel it is a profession, 31 respondents are employed to
take care of the family, 28 respondents are influenced by the family members and 8 respondents
are doing for spending the time.

II. Work atmosphere and relationship:


3. Are you aware of the leave rules of the company?
a. Yes
b. To some extent
c. No
d. Not at all

Awareness of the leave rules of the company


34
35
27

30
25

21
18

20
15
10
5
0
Yes

To some extent

No

Not at all

Interpretation:
For every employee, it is mandatory to know the leave rules of the company for availing leaves.
According to the survey, 34 respondents are having the full knowledge, 27 respondents are
having to some extent, 21 respondents are not having the knowledge about the leaves and 18 of
the respondents are not aware of the leaves rules in a company.

4. How many paid leaves are availed by you per annum?


a. 1-2 days
b. 3-5 days
c. 6-10 days
d. More than 10 days

Paid leaves availed


41

45
40

35

35
30
25
20

15

15

10
5
0
1-2 days

3-5 days

6-10 days

More than 10 days

Interpretation:
Among the 100 respondents, 41 respondents are availing 6 10 days per annum, 35 respondents
are availing 3 5 days, 15 respondents are availing in between 1 2 days and the remaining 9
respondents are availing more than 10 days per annum.

5. How many unpaid leaves are availed by you per annum?


a. 1-2 days
b. 3-5 days
c. 6-10 days
d. More than 10 days

Unpaid leaves availed


60

51

50
40
28
30
15

20
10

0
1-2 days

3-5 days

6-10 days

More than 10 days

Interpretation:
According to the graph, Majority of the respondents (51) has availed More than 10 days of
unpaid leaves, 28 respondents has availed the unpaid leaves in between 6 10 days,15 of them
availed in between 3 5 days and only 6 respondents availed 1 2 days.

6. What is the percentage of your absenteeism in last one year?


a. 0-20%
b. 21-40%
c. 41-60%
d. 61-80%
e. 81-100%

Percentage of absenteeism
37

40
35

30

30

24

25
20
15
7

10

5
0
1-20%

21-40%

41-60%

61-80%

81-100%

Interpretation:
The above table infers that 37 respondents belongs 0-20%, 30 respondents belongs to 21-40%,
24 respondents belongs to 41-60%,7 respondents belongs to 61-80%, and 2 percent belongs to 81
-100% are the absenteeism in the last one year.

7. Main reason behind high leave consumption:


a. Personal
b. Family related
c. Work related
d. Social
e. Addiction
f. Indebtness

Main reason behind high leave consumption


29
30
25

21

20
15
15

14

11

10

10
5
0
Personal

Family
related

Work related

Social

Addiction

Indebtness

Interpretation:
It is observed that 29 of them utilizing the leaves for their family, 21 of them utilizing for their
personal reasons, 15 of them for social programs, 14 of them for addiction, 11 of them for
work related and 10 for indebtness.

8. My colleagues are highly supportive.


a. Yes
b. To some extent
c. No
d. Not at all

Supportiveness of colleagues
43
45
40
35
26

30

21

25
20
15

10

10
5
0
Yes

To some extent

No

Not at all

Interpretation:
According to the graph, 43 of them are getting support for their colleagues, 26 of them to some
extent, 21 of them with no support and the remaining 10 is not at all getting support from the
colleagues.

9. Disciplinary actions taken by management on absenteeism have reduced absenteeism in


our company.
a. Yes
b. To some extent
c. No

Disciplinary actions taken to reduce absenteeism

24%
34%
Yes
To some extent
No

42%

Interpretation:
According to the pie graph, 34% of them had improved with the disciplinary actions taken by the
management, 42% of them to some extent and the remaining 24% of them not at all improved

10. In our company, real, genuine sickness cases claiming sick leave are:
a. 0-20%
b. 21-40%
c. 41-60%
d. 61-80%
e. 81-100%

Genuine cases for absenteeism


40

36

35
28

30

25

25
20
15
10

5
0
0-20%

21-40%

41-60%

61-80%

81-100%

Interpretation:
Among the 100 respondents 36 respondents are in between 0 20%, 25 respondents are in
between 21 40%, 28 respondents are in between 41 60%, 6 respondents are in between 61
80% and 5 respondents are in between 81 100% has genuine cases for absenteeism.

11. I interact with the management staff without hesitating.


a. Yes
b. To some extent
c. No

I interact with the management staff without hesitating


16%

Yes
To some extent
56%

No

28%

Interpretation:
Majority of 56% respondents will interact with the management staff without hesitation, 28%
respondents to some extent and the remaining 16% will hesitate with the management staff.

III. Family, domestic and other problems:


12. How is your family condition and family atmosphere?
a. Satisfactory
b. Average
c. Unsatisfactory

Family condition
15%

46%

Satisfactory
Average
Unsatisfactory

39%

Interpretation:
According to pie graph, 46% of them are satisfactory with the family conditions and atmosphere,
while 39% of them are average and only 15% of them are unsatisfactory with the conditions and
atmosphere of their family.

13. Is your salary structure adequate?


a. Yes
b. No

Salary structure is adequate


22%

Yes
No

78%

Interpretation:
According to the pie graph, 78% of them are satisfactory with the salary which they are drawing
while 22% are not satisfied with the salary they are drawing.

14. If No, are you and your family members engaged in some business?
a. Yes
b. No

Engaged in other business


18%

Yes
No

82%

Interpretation:
From the above graph, it is shown that 82% of the family members are engaged in other business
while only 18% are not engaged.

15. Is this involvement in business a cause of your absenteeism?


a. Yes, always
b. Sometimes
c. Rarely
d. Never

Absenteeism due to involvement in side business


15%
25%

Yes, always
Sometimes
24%

Rarely
Never

36%

Interpretation:
According to the pie chart, 15% of them are always involved in absenteeism due to the
involvement in their side business, 24% of them for sometimes, 36% of them rarely and 25% are
not involved in the absenteeism pertaining to their side business.

IV. Habits and Attitude:


16. The cause of my absenteeism is taking alcohol.
a. Yes
b. To some extent
c. No

The cause of my absenteeism is taking alcohol


0%

6%

Yes
To some extent
No

94%

Interpretation:
According to the pie chart, only 6% of them are involved to some extent in the absenteeism by
consuming alcohol.

17. The cause of my absenteeism is smoking.


a. Yes
b. To some extent
c. No

The cause of my absenteeism is smoking


0%

10%

Yes
To some extent
No

90%

Interpretation:
According to the pie chart, only 10% of them are involved to some extent in the absenteeism by
the habit of smoking.

18. The cause of my absenteeism is chewing habits.


a. Yes
b. To some extent
c. No

The cause of my absenteeism is chewing habit


6%
12%

Yes
To some extent
No

82%

Interpretation:
From the above graph, it is inferred that majority of 82% are involved in absenteeism due to the
chewing habit, while 12% of them to some extent and 6% are involved in absenteeism due to the
chewing habit.

19. The cause of my absenteeism is intake of drugs.


a. Yes
b. To some extent
c. No

The cause of my absenteeism is intake of drugs


0%

15%

Yes
To some extent
No

85%

Interpretation:
For 15% of them the absenteeism is to due to the habit of taking drugs to some extent.

20. The cause of my absenteeism is regular health problems.


a. Yes
b. To some extent
c. No

The cause of my absenteeism is regular


health problems
6%
15%

Yes
To some extent
No

79%

Interpretation:
From the above graph, only 6% of them are absenteeism due to regular health problems, 15% of
them are due to absenteeism to some extent due to regular health problems.

FINDINGS OF THE STUDY


The major findings of the research are:
1. Majority of the employees are interested with their jobs and some of them are doing
as profession, to take care of their family and some are forced by the family members.
2. Maximum number of employees are aware of leave rules
3. Per annum 41employees are utilizing the paid leaves in between 6-10 days and 35
employees in between 3 5 days.
4. Pertaining to utilization of unpaid leaves per annum 51 employees are utilizing more
than 10 days per annum and 28 respondents in between 6 10 days.
5. Most of the employees were absent for less than 40% of the working days in the
previous year.
6. Half of the employee is utilizing the leaves for their personal and family related
reasons.
7. In the organization half of the employees support each other.
8. One of the reasons for reducing absenteeism when compared to previous year is the
disciplinary action taken on the Absentees by the organization.
9. On an average 40% of the employees has a genuine case for absenteeism.
10. Half of the employees do not hesitate to interact with the management staff.
11. 46 employees are found to be satisfactory and 36 employees are average with the
conditions and atmosphere of their families.
12. 78 employees are satisfied with the salary which they are drawing from the
organization.
13. 82% of the employees are having other business.

14. The another main reason for absenteeism is due to side business as 15 of them will
absent for this purpose, 24 of them for some times, 36 of them rarely.
15. Those who consume alcohol and do smoking also are rarely absent from work.
16. There is slight effect on absenteeism due to chewing habit, taking drugs and regular
health problems.

SUGGESTIONS
1. Organization should take care that the employees are highly interested in their job.
2. They should also be clearly communicated of the leave policies of the company.
3. The number of employees going for unpaid leaves is high. This should be taken into
serious consideration.
4. The organization should implement recreational programs which recreate and refresh the
employees so that they be back to work with enthusiasm.
5. The organization should also take measures to increase the employee attendance by
offering awards (both monetary and non-monetary) to them and taking necessary
disciplinary actions.
6. The employees should be encouraged to share their problems and other things with their
immediate supervisor or the teammates.

CONCLUSION
The study on the employee absenteeism was undertaken to give an insight in to the employee
satisfaction towards the job and the organization. The study was taken up with an objective to
bring out the various reasons that cause for absenteeism in an organization and related measures
that are taken by the management. It also throws light on the impact of such absenteeism on the
employee productivity and overall productivity of the organization.
The study is done at Hyderabad in a single organization with the employees as the respondents of
the study. The sampling technique used was convenience sampling. The entire study is based on
the factors like job satisfaction, compensation, work environment and the relationships,
employee problems (personal, family and other problems) and their habits and attitude. A
hypothesis is built showing that all these factors do not relate to or have impact on the
absenteeism of the employee. The study also had limitations like time which were taken care of.
The data collected from the primary source and the secondary sources was analyzed using
graphs, tables etc. From the study, it was found that the employees are interested in their job and
are highly aware of the leave policies and rules. The employees take leave mostly for the
personal and family reasons. The other reasons for absenteeism included side business or related
issues. It was also found from the study that the disciplinary actions taken up by the management
helped in reducing the absenteeism.
The organization should take care that the employees are highly interested and involved in their
job so that they are content with the present job and they should also be allowed to enjoy their
personal life by giving them certain flexibility. This makes the employees balance their work life
and reduces absenteeism. The employees should be allowed to work in there area of interest so
that they are highly involved. Necessary disciplinary actions should be taken and employees
should be properly rewarded to reduce the absenteeism.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Donald L. Kirkpatrick, James D. Kirkpatrick, Evaluating Training Pograms, Berrett-Koehler
Publishers in 2006.
John M Ivancevich, Human Resource Management 10E, published by Tata McGraw-Hill
Education in 2008.
Dr C R Kothari, Research Methodology, Second Edition, Published by New Age International in
2008

Websites:
www.wikipedia.org
www.benefits.org
www.scribd.com
www.slideshare.net
www.humanresources.about.com

ANNEXURE-1
QUESTIONNAIRE
Name: ________________

Department & Designation:_____________

Age:

No. of years in service :_____________

________________

I. Job Satisfaction and Income:


1. My job in company is very interesting.
f. Not at all
g. To some extent
h. Average
i. To great extent
j. Highly interesting

2. Reason for taking employment:


a. To spend time.
b. Forced by family Members.
c. To take care of my family.
d. Liking of the work

II. Work atmosphere and relationship:


3. Are you aware of the leave rules of the company?
a. Yes
b. To some extent
c. No
d. Not at all

4. How many paid leaves are availed by you per annum?


a. 1-2 days
b. 3-5 days
c. 6-10 days
d. More than 10 days

5. How many unpaid leaves are availed by you per annum?


a. 1-2 days
b. 3-5 days
c. 6-10 days
d. More than 10 days

6. What is the percentage of your absenteeism in last one year?


a. 0-20%
b. 21-40%
c. 41-60%
d. 61-80%
e. 81-100%

7. Main reason behind high leave consumption:


a. Personal
b. Family related
c. Work related
d. Social
e. Addiction
f. Indebtness

8. My colleagues are highly supportive.


a. Yes
b. To some extent
c. No
d. Not at all

9. Disciplinary actions taken by management on absenteeism has reduced absenteeism in


our company.
a. Yes
b. To some extent
c. No

10. In our company, real, genuine sickness cases claiming sick leave are:
a. 0-20%
b. 21-40%
c. 41-60%
d. 61-80%
e. 81-100%

11. I interact with the management staff without hesitating.


a. Yes
b. To some extent
c. No

III. Family, domestic and other problems:


12. How is your family condition and family atmosphere?
a. Satisfactory
b. Average
c. Unsatisfactory

13. Is your salary structure adequate?


a. Yes
b. No

14. If No, are you and your family members engaged in some business?
a. Yes
b. No

15. Is this involvement in business a cause of your absenteeism?


a. Yes, always
b. Sometimes
c. Rarely
d. Never

IV. Habits and Attitude:


16. The cause of my absenteeism is taking alcohol.
a. Yes
b. To some extent
c. No

17. The cause of my absenteeism is smoking.


a. Yes
b. To some extent
c. No

18. The cause of my absenteeism is taking chewing habits.


a. Yes
b. To some extent
c. No

19. The cause of my absenteeism is intake of drugs.


a. Yes
b. To some extent
c. No

20. The cause of my absenteeism is regular health problems.


a. Yes
b. To some extent
c. No

21. Suggestions please:


________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________