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Design of Purlins and Rafters

CE 133 TIMBER DESIGN

INTRODUCTION

Purlins
A

horizontal structural element (beam) found in a


roof whose purpose is to resist wind loads and
weight of the roof.
Can be made of timber or steel (C shapes)

Rafters
A

sloped beam that supports the entire roof a


building. It also carries roof live loads and wind
loads.

INTRODUCTION

Geometry of purlins and rafters


Pitch

is the ratio of the height of the truss to the


length of the bottom chord
Roof Pitch angle angle made by the rafter with
respect to horizontal
Spacing of purlins, s
Bay Spacing of truss

INTRODUCTION

Loads resisted by purlins and rafters


Roof Live Load,

Roof Dead Load,

Wind Load,

INTRODUCTION

Loads resisted by purlins

Roof Dead Load,


= ()

Where is the roof dead load in pressure


is the spacing of purlins on center
is the normal component of dead load
is the tangential component of dead load

INTRODUCTION

Loads resisted by purlins

Roof Live Load,


= ( cos )

Where is the roof live load in pressure


is the spacing of purlins on center
is the normal component of dead load
is the tangential component of dead load
is the angle of the rafter or roof pitch angle

INTRODUCTION

Loads resisted by purlins


Normal Wind Load,

Wind Load,

INTRODUCTION

Loads resisted by purlins

Normal Wind Load,

= ()

= 0

Where is the spacing of purlins on center


is the normal component of wind load
is the normal component of wind in psf

INTRODUCTION

Total distributed load in the normal direction

wn total wn D wn RL wn W

Total distributed load in the tangential direction

wt total wn D wn RL

INTRODUCTION

Maximum shear and bending moment

Vt max
Vn max

M t max

wt L

2
wn L

M n max

wt L

8
2
wn L

Total shear stress and bending stress in the


purlin

fv

f v t

f v n

f b f b t f b n

INTRODUCTION

Total deflection in beam

total
4

5wt L
t
384 E ' I y

5wn L
n
384 E ' I x

INTRODUCTION

Loads resisted by rafters

Roof Dead Load,

= ()

= cos

= sin

INTRODUCTION

Loads resisted by rafters


Roof Live Load,

INTRODUCTION

Loads resisted by rafters

Normal Wind Load,

INTRODUCTION

Total distributed load carried by the rafter

wn total wn D wn RL wn W

Maximum shear and bending moment in the


rafter

V
f v 1.5
A

6M
fv 2
bd

INTRODUCTION

Load Duration Factor,


Consider

nomalized loads

Load Combination

D+Lr

1.25

D+W

1.60

Check

Normalized Load
+

for each directions (for purlins)


Higher normalized load will govern in the design

INTRODUCTION

Check for bearing stress


If

length of bearing is given, then check for


adequacy
If length of bearing is not given, determine the
required length of bearing

lb ,req 'd

Rn

bF 'c

SAMPLE PROBLEM

Determine the adequacy of 2x4 purlins in the


structure below. Also, design for the rafter.
Neglect the effect of overhang and the notches
at the support. Neglect deflections in the
design and analysis.
Bay Spacing = 8 ft

4 ft
16 in

16 ft

SAMPLE PROBLEM
LOADS
D = 10 psf including weight of purlins
purlin: Lr = 21 psf; W = 23 psf
(normal to roof)
rafter: Lr = 16 psf; W = 18 psf
(normal to roof)

Bay Spacing = 8 ft

4 ft
16 in

16 ft

SAMPLE PROBLEM

Conditions
Moist

service condition
Normal temperature
Roof sheathing provided as lateral support to the
purlins and blocking is provided for the rafter

Materials:

Property

Species:

= 1100

Hem-Fir
Stress Grade: No. 1
Weight = 35 lb/ft^3

= 150
= 405

= 1,500,000