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Design of Purlins and Rafters

INTRODUCTION

Purlins
A

horizontal structural element (beam) found in a

roof whose purpose is to resist wind loads and
weight of the roof.
Can be made of timber or steel (C shapes)

Rafters
A

sloped beam that supports the entire roof a

building. It also carries roof live loads and wind

INTRODUCTION

Pitch

is the ratio of the height of the truss to the

length of the bottom chord
Roof Pitch angle angle made by the rafter with
respect to horizontal
Spacing of purlins, s
Bay Spacing of truss

INTRODUCTION

Loads resisted by purlins and rafters

INTRODUCTION

= ()

is the spacing of purlins on center

INTRODUCTION

= ( cos )

Where is the roof live load in pressure

is the spacing of purlins on center
is the angle of the rafter or roof pitch angle

INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION

= ()

= 0

Where is the spacing of purlins on center

is the normal component of wind load
is the normal component of wind in psf

INTRODUCTION

Total distributed load in the normal direction

wn total wn D wn RL wn W

Total distributed load in the tangential direction

wt total wn D wn RL

INTRODUCTION

Vt max
Vn max

M t max

wt L

2
wn L

M n max

wt L

8
2
wn L

purlin

fv

f v t

f v n

f b f b t f b n

INTRODUCTION

total
4

5wt L
t
384 E ' I y

5wn L
n
384 E ' I x

INTRODUCTION

= ()

= cos

= sin

INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION

Total distributed load carried by the rafter

wn total wn D wn RL wn W

rafter

V
f v 1.5
A

6M
fv 2
bd

INTRODUCTION

Consider

D+Lr

1.25

D+W

1.60

Check

+

for each directions (for purlins)

Higher normalized load will govern in the design

INTRODUCTION

If

length of bearing is given, then check for

If length of bearing is not given, determine the
required length of bearing

lb ,req 'd

Rn

bF 'c

SAMPLE PROBLEM

Determine the adequacy of 2x4 purlins in the

structure below. Also, design for the rafter.
Neglect the effect of overhang and the notches
at the support. Neglect deflections in the
design and analysis.
Bay Spacing = 8 ft

4 ft
16 in

16 ft

SAMPLE PROBLEM
D = 10 psf including weight of purlins
purlin: Lr = 21 psf; W = 23 psf
(normal to roof)
rafter: Lr = 16 psf; W = 18 psf
(normal to roof)

Bay Spacing = 8 ft

4 ft
16 in

16 ft

SAMPLE PROBLEM

Conditions
Moist

service condition
Normal temperature
Roof sheathing provided as lateral support to the
purlins and blocking is provided for the rafter

Materials:

Property

Species:

= 1100

Hem-Fir