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LEP

1.3.15

Related topics

Circular motion, angular velocity, angular acceleration, moment of inertia, Newtons Laws, rotation.

Principle and task

The angle of rotation and angular velocity are measured as a

function of time on a body which is pivoted so as to rotate

without friction and which is acted on by a moment. The angular acceleration is determined as a function of the moment.

Equipment

Turntable with angle scale

Aperture plate for turntable

Holding device w. cable release

Air bearing

Precision pulley

Pressure tube, l 1.5 m

Blower

Light barrier with Counter

Power supply 5V DC/0.3 A

PEK capacitor/case 1/0.1 mmF/500 V

Adapter, BNC-plug/socket 4 mm

Weight holder 1 g

Slotted weight, 1 g, natur. colour

02417.02

02417.05

02417.04

02417.01

11201.02

11205.01

13770.93

11207.08

11076.93

39105.18

07542.26

02407.00

03916.00

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

20

Connecting cord, 1000 mm, blue

Connecting cord, 1000 mm, red

Circular level

Tripod base -PASSBarrel base -PASSBench clamp -PASS-

02412.00

07363.04

07363.01

02122.00

02002.55

02006.55

02010.00

1

1

1

1

1

1

2

Problems

With uniformly accelerated rotary motion, the following will be

determined:

1. the angle of rotation as a function of time,

2. the angular velocity as a function of time.

3. the angular acceleration as a function of time,

4. the angular acceleration as a function of the lever arm.

Set-up and procedure

The experimental set-up is arranged as shown in Fig. 1. By

means of a spirit level, and with the blower switched on, the

rotary bearing is aligned horizontally with the two adjusting

feet on the support base. The release switch should be so

adjusted that in the set condition it touches the curve of the

sector mask. The triggering range and the electrical switching

PHYWE series of publications Laboratory Experiments Physics PHYWE SYSTEME GMBH 37070 Gttingen, Germany

21315

LEP

1.3.15

range to be measured is fixed by moving the light barrier. The

release switch and light barrier should be connected as shown

in Fig. 2. The precision pulley is clamped so that the thread is

suspended horizontally over the plate and is flush with the pulley.

Measurement of the angle of rotation w as a function of time t:

Place the selection key on

of the fork type light barrier.

Install the light barrier in a desired angle w with the shutter

release.

Press the wire release and lock in place.

Press the Reset key of the light barrier.

Loosening the wire release stopper; sets in motion the plate

of rotation with the screen and the counter starts.

After the screen has passed the pin of the shutter release,

the wire release is pressed again and locked.

As soon as the screen enters the light path of the light barrier, the counter stops.

Note

If the counter stops on loosening, viz. pressing the wire release, a capacitor of high capacitance should be connected parallel to the wire release.

Measurement of the angular velocity V as a function of time

t.

The dark time of the sector mask in the light barrier is used

(gate time Dt) for measuring velocity.

Immediately, after the measurement of the time of rotation t for

an angle of rotation w, the corresponding angular velocity V is

measured.

Place the selection key to the light barrier at

.

Press the Reset key of the light barrier.

Loosening the locked wire release; sets into motion the

plate of rotation with the screen, the counter indicates

0000.

As soon as the screen enters the path of the light of the fork

type light barrier, the counter starts; it stops when the

screen moves out of the light path.

R

The relationship between the angular momentum L of a rigid

body in a stationary coordinate system

with its origin at the

R

centre of gravity, and the moment T acting on it, is

R

T =

d R

L.

dt

(1)

R

^

v

and the inertia tensor I from

R

L=Iv,

R

v has the direction of a principal inertia

axis (z-axis), so that L has only one component:

LZ = IZ v,

where IZ is the z-component of the principal inertia tensor of

the plate.

For this case, equation (1) reads:

dv

TZ = IZ

.

dt

Measurement of Dt

Calculation of the angular velocity

V = Df / Dt = 0.262 /Dt

Df

v ( t1 + Dt ) =

,

2

Dt

where t1 is the time from the start until the sector mask reaches the light barrier (angle time).

To determine the acceleration as a function of the force, the

mass on the weight pan is increased by 1 g at a time. The

dependence of the acceleration on the radius is determined at

constant mass. The instantaneous velocities are measured at

a fixed location. The precision pulley must be aligned to the

corresponding radius (height, alignment).

21315

PHYWE series of publications Laboratory Experiments Physics PHYWE SYSTEME GMBH 37070 Gttingen, Germany

LEP

1.3.15

accelerated rotary motion for m = 0.01 kg, r = 0.015 m.

Fig. 5: Angular velocity as a function of time in uniformly accelerated rotary motion, with m = 0.01 kg, r = 0.015 m.

the exponential statement

Y = A XB

the exponent is obtained

B = 2.005

(see (4))

R

the linear statement

T =r F

Y=A+BX

TZ = r m g,

mgr = IZ

dv (t)

[ IZ a.

dt

B = 0.114

(2)

(see (3))

IZ = 0.0129 kgm2

v (0) = 0

one obtains

v (t) =

mgr

t

IZ

(3)

w (0) = 0

w (t) =

1 mgr 2

t .

2 IZ

(4)

PHYWE series of publications Laboratory Experiments Physics PHYWE SYSTEME GMBH 37070 Gttingen, Germany

21315

LEP

1.3.15

active force with uniformly accelerated rotary motion

for r = 0.03 m.

21315

uniformly accelerated rotary motion for m = 0.016 kg.

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