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21st Century Math Projects

Project Title: U.S. Presidential Inquiry


Standard Focus: Data Analysis & Probability

Time Range: 3-5 Days


Supplies: Pencil and Paper

Topics of Focus:
-

Box and Whisker Plot

Mean, Median, Mode

Stem and Leaf

Histogram

Benchmarks :
6.SP

4. Display numerical data in plots on a number line, including dot plots, histograms, and box
plots.

6.SP

5c. Summarize numerical data sets in relation to their context, such as by giving quantitative
measures of center (median and/or mean) and variability (interquartile range and/or mean
absolute deviation), as well as describing any overall pattern and any striking deviations from
the overall pattern with reference to the context in which the data were gathered.

Statistics and Probability

8.SP

1. Construct and interpret scatter plots for bivariate measurement data to investigate patterns of
association between two quantities. Describe patterns such as clustering, outliers, positive or
negative association, linear association, and nonlinear association.

Statistics and Probability

8.SP

2. Know that straight lines are widely used to model relationships between two quantitative
variables. For scatter plots that suggest a linear association, informally fit a straight line, and
informally assess the model fit by judging the closeness of the data points to the line.

Statistics and Probability

8.SP

3. Use the equation of a linear model to solve problems in the context of bivariate measurement
data, interpreting the slope and intercept.

Statistics and Probability

8.SP

4. Understand that patterns of association can also be seen in bivariate categorical data by
displaying frequencies and relative frequencies in a two-way table. Construct and interpret a
two-way table summarizing data on two categorical variables collected from the same subjects.

Interpreting Categorical
and Quantitative Data

S-ID

1. Represent data with plots on the real number line (dot plots, histograms, and box plots).

Interpreting Categorical
and Quantitative Data

S-ID

6. Represent data on two quantitative variables on a scatter plot, and describe how the variables
are related.

Statistics and Probability

Statistics and Probability

Procedures:
A.) Student will use US President Data to complete He Entered a Young Man.
B.) Student will use US President Data to complete Oval Office Analysis.
C.) Student will use US President Data to complete Presidential Inquiry.

21st Century Math Projects

Data of US Presidents
Name

State
of Birth

Term

Age at
Inauguration

Age at Death

Number of
Sons

Number of
Daughters

Washington
Adams
Jefferson
Madison
Monroe
JQ Adams
Jackson
Van Buren
W Harrison
Tyler
Polk
Taylor
Fillmore
Pierce
Buchanan
Lincoln
A Johnson
Grant
Hayes
Garfield
Arthur
Cleveland*
B Harrison
McKinley
T Roosevelt
Taft
Wilson
Harding
Coolidge
Hoover
F Roosevelt
Truman
Eisenhower
Kennedy
LB Johnson
Nixon
Ford
Carter
Reagan
GHW Bush
Clinton
GW Bush
Obama

VA
MA
VA
VA
VA
MA
SC
NY
VA
VA
NC
VA
NY
NH
PA
KY
NC
OH
OH
OH
VT
NJ
OH
OH
NY
OH
VA
OH
VT
IA
NY
MO
TX
MA
TX
CA
NB
GA
IL
MA
AR
CO
HA

1789-1797
1797-1801
1801-1809
1809-1817
1817-1825
1825-1829
1829-1837
1837-1841
1841
1841-1845
1845-1849
1849-1850
1850-1853
1853-1857
1857-1861
1861-1865
1865-1869
1869-1877
1877-1881
1881
1881-1885
1885-89, 1893-97
1889-1893
1897-1901
1901-1909
1909-1913
1913-1921
1921-1923
1923-1929
1929-1933
1933-1945
1945-1953
1953-1961
1961-1963
1963-1969
1969-1974
1974-1977
1977-1981
1981-1989
1989-1993
1993-2001
2001-2009
2009-

57
61
57
57
58
57
61
54
68
51
49
64
50
48
65
52
56
46
54
49
50
47
55
54
42
51
56
55
51
54
51
60
62
43
55
56
61
52
69
64
46
54
47

67
90
83
85
73
80
78
79
68
71
53
65
74
64
77
56
66
63
70
49
56
71
67
58
60
72
67
57
60
90
63
88
78
46
64
81
93
93
-

0
3
1
0
0
3
0
4
6
8
0
1
1
3
0
4
3
3
7
5
2
2
1
0
4
2
0
0
2
2
5
0
2
2
0
0
3
3
2
4
0
0
0

0
2
5
0
2
1
0
0
4
6
0
5
1
0
0
0
2
1
1
2
1
3
2
2
2
1
3
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
2
2
1
1
2
2
1
2
2

21st Century Math Projects

He Entered a Young Man


Make a parallel box-and-whisker plot by hand of the ages of the US
Presidents at the time of their inauguration. Use the box-and-whisker plot
to answer the following questions.

1.

What is the median of the ages of the US President at the time of their inauguration?

2.

What is the age of the youngest US President at the time of their inauguration?

3.

What is the age of the oldest US President at the time of their inauguration?

4.

What is the upper quartile age of the US Presidents at the time of their inauguration?

5.

The interquartile is the term used to describe the middle 50%. This is the data between the upper and
lower quartiles. What is the age range of Presidents in the interquartile?

6.

Analyze the results of your investigation and draw at least three conclusions.

21st Century Math Projects

Oval Office Analysis


For this exercise, use the data on the Ages of US Presidents
1.

Find the mean, median, mode, and range of the ages.

Mean

Median

Mode

Range

Age of Presidents
2.

Draw a stem-and-leaf plot for the data.

3.

Using the below interval for the age of the presidents at their inauguration (x-axis), tally the number of
presidents falling into each group -- these are the frequencies (y-axis).

Age at
Inauguration

40-44

45-49

50-54

55-59

60-64

65-70

Frequency
4.

Construct a histogram by making a bar graph with no spaces between bars of the frequency for each
interval as categorized in the table above. It is important that the bars are touching.

5.

Compare the distribution of the data to the normal distribution. How well do they match up?
What are the differences, if any?

21st Century Math Projects

6.

Using the data on the age of death, find the five number summaries, and construct a box-and-whiskers plot.

7.

Using the below interval for the age of the presidents at their death(x-axis), tally the number of presidents
falling into each group -- these are the frequencies (y-axis).

Age at
Death

40-49

50-59

60-69

70-79

80-89

90-99

Frequency
8.

Construct a histogram of the frequency for each rating as categorized in the table above.

21st Century Math Projects

Presidential Inquiry
Inquiring minds may ask . . .
Do US Presidents with the most children live longer
after they have been inaugurated?
In this activity, you will use the US President Data and the notion of correlation of bivariate data to
determine if a relationship exists between the age of Presidents number of children and their longevity after
inauguration. Recall that data variables can have strong correlation, weak correlation, or no correlation.
Before the data can be analyzed, you must first determine which data to use and what you need to do with
the data in order to begin answering the question. The questions below will get you thinking on the right
track.
1.

What variables are you looking at?

2.

Make a scatterplot and label your axes. Recall that the dependent variable goes on the y-axis and the
independent variable goes on the x-axis.

21st Century Math Projects

3.

Analyze your scatterplot. Are the points clustered together? Are they scattered out, showing no definite trend?
Determine the correlation (weak, strong, or none).

Email to the Presidential Candidates


Write a paragraph to the next wave of president candidates about based on the findings of this project.

21st Century Math Projects

Thank you for being my Math Friend!


If you liked this

21st Century Math Project


You might like others.

(Click the logo)

Math it Up.
Boomdiggy.
21st Century Math Projects

He Entered a Young Man

KEY

Name:

Make a parallel box-and-whisker plot by hand of the ages of the US Presidents at the
time of their inauguration. Use the box-and-whisker plot to answer the following
questions.

40

45

50

55

60

65

70

75

Ages at time of Inauguration

1.

What is the median of the ages of the US President at the time of their inauguration?
54

2.

What is the age of the youngest US President at the time of their inauguration?
42 (Teddy Roosevelt)

3.

What is the age of the oldest US President at the time of their inauguration?
69 (Ronald Reagen)

4.

What is the upper quartile age of the US Presidents at the time of their inauguration?
58

5.

The interquartile is the term used to describe the middle 50%. This is the data between the upper and lower
quartiles. What is the age range of Presidents in the interquartile?
50-58

6.

Analyze the results of your investigation and draw at least three conclusions.

21st Century Math Projects

Oval Office Analysis

Name:

For this exercise, use the data on the Ages of US Presidents


1.

Find the mean, median, mode, and range of the ages.

Age of Presidents
2.

3.

Median
54

Mode
54

Range
27

Draw a stem-and-leaf plot for the data.


4

2, 3, 6, 6, 7, 7, 8, 9, 9

0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 4, 4, 4, 4, 4, 5, 5, 5, 6, 6, 6, 7, 7, 7, 7, 8

0, 1, 1, 1, 2, 4, 4, 5, 8, 9

Using the below interval for the age of the presidents at their inauguration (x-axis), tally the number of
presidents falling into each group -- these are the frequencies (y-axis).

Age at
Inauguration
Frequency

4.

Mean
54.62

40-44

45-49

50-54

55-59

60-64

65-70

13

11

Construct a histogram by making a bar graph with no spaces between bars of the frequency for each interval
as categorized in the table above. It is important that the bars are touching.

20

15

10

40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64 65-70

5.

Compare the distribution of the data to the normal distribution. How well do they match up?
What are the differences, if any?

The distribution is similar to a normal distribution


21st Century Math Projects

6.

Using the data on the age of death, find the five number summaries, and construct a box-and-whiskers plot.

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Ages at time of death


7.

46

LQ

63

Med

69

UQ

79

Max

93

Using the below interval for the age of the presidents at their death(x-axis), tally the number of presidents
falling into each group -- these are the frequencies (y-axis).

Age at
Death
Frequency

8.

Min

40-49
2

50-59
5

60-69
12

70-79

80-89

90-99

10

Construct a histogram of the frequency for each rating as categorized in the table above.

20

15

10

40-49 50-59 60-69 70-79 80-89 90-99

21st Century Math Projects

Presidential Inquiry

Name:

Inquiring minds may ask . . .


Do US Presidents with the most children live longer after they have been inaugurated?
In this activity, you will use the US President Data and the notion of correlation of bivariate data to
determine if a relationship exists between the age of Presidents number of children and their longevity after
inauguration. Recall that data variables can have strong correlation, weak correlation, or no correlation.
Before the data can be analyzed, you must first determine which data to use and what you need to do with
the data in order to begin answering the question. The questions below will get you thinking on the right
track.
1.

What variables are you looking at?

2.

Make a scatterplot and label your axes. Recall that the dependent variable goes on the y-axis and the
independent variable goes on the x-axis.

From Excel.

Number of children (x) vs. Years alive


after inauguration (y)
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
0

3.

10

12

14

16

Analyze your scatterplot. Are the points clustered together? Are they scattered out, showing no definite trend?
Determine the correlation (weak, strong, or none).

There appears to be no correlation between the number of children and the years between inauguration and death.

4.

Based on your analysis, write a paragraph about your findings.

21st Century Math Projects