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FLUID MECHANICS AND HYDRAULIC EXPERIMENTAL REPORT

MODULE H-02
HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE

GROUP 22
Daniel Andiga Wibisana

1306437076

John William Horasia

1306437082

Raihan Alisha Nabila

1306437126

Fikri Dwisatrio

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Sabrina Nurul Hidayah

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Name of Assistant

: Victor Saragih

Date of Experiment

: October 3, 2014

Date of Approval

Score

Assistants Signature :

LABORATORY OF HYDRAULIC, HYDROLOGY, AND RIVER


CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTEMENT
ENGINEERING FACULTY
UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA
DEPOK 2014

HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE

1. Objective
This experimental work is intended to determine a hydrostatic force magnitude on the
vertical plane. As well as determining the correlation between water level and mass load
on the apparatus.

2.Basic Theory
Any object that is put in the water will experience pressure that is perpendicular with its
surface by .g.h ( is the density of water).

The magnitude of compressive force on the flat areas is:


...(1)

And the location of the working point from the water surface is:

Icg
ycg A.ycg

.(2)

Where:
= density of water
g = gravitational acceleration
ycg = distance of planes center of gravity from water surface
A = area of plane
Icg = moment of inertia of the plane in respect to the horizontal axis that cut the planes center of
gravity

= angle of the plane to the water surface


Zcf = distance of forces working point from water surface
For partially submerged condition, the equation used:
L
r

m.g
d

y
b

Picture1.Partially submerged condition

...(3)
(4)

For fully submerged condition, the equation used:


L
r
r

m.g
d

y
b

Picture 2.Fully submerged condition

.(5)

..(6)

...(7)

3. Instruments
1. Hydraulic Table
2. Hydrostatic pressures apparatus
3. Loads
4. Ruler
5. Calipers

Picture 3.Hydrostatic Pressure Apparatus

Pictures description
1. A container/tank
2. Nivo (spirit level)
3. Weight hanger
4. Beam level indication
5. Quadrant object
6. Clamping screw
7. Scales arm

8. Sharp shaft/pivot
9. Adjustable counterbalance
10. Water surfaces scale
11. Rectangular surface area
12. Drain valve
13. Leveling feet

4.Procedure of Experiment
1. Measuring the length of a, L, d and b from the apparatus
2. Setting the leveling feet so that the container is completely flat
3. Putting the weight hanger in the end of scales arm
4. Setting the adjustable counterbalance until the scales arm returns to flat condition
5. Put the loads on the weight hanger
6. Closing the draining valve and filling the container with water little by little until the
scales arm returns flat
7. Recording the water level (y) in the appropriate column
8. Performing step 5-7 until the maximum water level reached
9. Reducing the loads according to the addition of loading before
10. Lowering the water level by opening the draining valve until the scales arm returns flat
11. Recording the water level (y) in the appropriate column
12. Performing step 9-11 until the minimum water level is reached

5. Observation and Data Calculation

a = 10 cm
b = 7.5 cm
d = 10 cm
L = 27.5 cm

FILLING TANK

DRAINING TANK

Mass (m)

Height of Water (y)

Mass (m)

Height of Water (y)

(gram)

(mm)

(gram)

(mm)

50

45

50

46

70

56

70

56

90

68

90

63

110

69

110

68

130

76

130

76

150

82

150

82

170

87

170

87

190

93

190

93

210

98

210

98

230

103

230

103

250

109

250

108

270

114

270

113

290

118

290

118

310

122

310

123

330

127

330

128

350

133

350

133

370

137

370

137

1. Prove equation (3) and (5) with equation (1) and (2)

Equation (3)

Equation (5)

))

} ,

/)

}{

).
(

/}

)
.

Partially Submerged Experiment


DRAINING
TANK
Height
Height
Mass
of
Mass
of
water
(g)
water
(g)
(cm)
(cm)
FILLING TANK

Average

y (x)

m/y2(y)

x2

y2

xy

50

4,6

50

4,6

50

4,6

4,6

2,36294896

21,16

5,583527789 10,86956522

70

5,6

70

5,6

70

5,6

5,6

2,232142857

31,36

4,982461735

90

6,3

90

6,3

90

6,3

6,3

2,267573696

39,69

5,141890467 14,28571429

110

6,9

110

6,8

110

6,85

6,85

2,344291118

46,9225

5,495700847 16,05839416

130

7,6

130

7,6

130

7,6

7,6

2,250692521

57,76

5,065616823 17,10526316

150

8,2

150

8,2

150

8,2

8,2

2,230814991

67,24

4,976535524 18,29268293

170

8,7

170

8,7

170

8,7

8,7

2,246003435

75,69

5,04453143

190

9,3

190

9,3

190

9,3

9,3

2,196785756

86,49

4,825867656 20,43010753

210

9,8

210

9,8

210

9,8

9,8

2,186588921

96,04

4,781171111 21,42857143

12,5

19,54022989

66,95 20,31784226 522,3525 45,89730338 150,5105286

Table 1. Regression Linear, relationship between

y= -0.02597x + 2.450

Grapg of y and m/y2


Partially Submerged Experiment
3

m/y2 (y)

2.5
2

y = -0.045x + 2.727
R = 1

1.5

y = -0.026x + 2.4508
R = 0.5657

m/y2

Theory

0.5
0
0

10

12

Height of water (cm)

Relative Mistake
|

|
|

F-Hydrostatic:

Height of Water

Mass

(m)

F-Hydrostatic

50

0,046

1,037898

70

0,056

1,538208

90

0,063

1,9467945

110

0,0685

2,301548625

130

0,076

2,833128

150

0,082

3,298122

170

0,087

3,7125945

190

0,093

4,2423345

210

0,098

4,710762

Table of Hydrostatic Pressure for partially submerged

Hydrostatic Force
Partially Submerged
Height of water (m)

0.12
0.1
0.08
0.06
0.04
0.02
0
0

Hydrostatic Force (N)

Graph of Hydrostatic Force (Partially Submerged)

Fully Submerged Experiment

FILLING TANK
Height
Mass
of
water
(g)
(cm)

DRAINING
TANK
Height
of
Mass water
(g)
(cm)

Average

M (y)

230

10,3

230

10,3

230

250

10,9

250

10,8

270

11,4

270

290

11,8

310

H (x)
10,3

x2

y2

xy

106,09

52900

2369

250

10,85 117,7225

62500

2712,5

11,3

270

11,35 128,8225

72900

3064,5

290

11,8

290

139,24

84100

3422

12,2

310

12,3

310

12,25 150,0625

96100

3797,5

330

12,7

330

12,8

330

12,75 162,5625

108900

4207,5

350

13,3

350

13,3

350

13,3

176,89

122500

4655

370

13,7

370

13,7

370

13,7

187,69

136900

5069

2400

11,8

96,3

1169,08

Table 1. Regression Linear, relationship between

736800

29297

Graph of h and m
Fully Submerged Experiment
500

Mass (g)

400
300
200

y = 40.655x - 189.38
R = 0.9994

y = 40.909x - 181.82
R = 1

100

M (y)
Theory

0
0

10

15

20

Height of water (cm)

Relative Mistake
|
|

|
|

|
|

|
|

F-Hydrostatic:

Mass

Height of

F. Hydrostatic

Water (m)
230

0,103

5,1993

250

0,1085

5,73885

270

0,1135

6,22935

290

0,118

6,6708

310

0,1225

7,11225

330

0,1275

7,60275

350

0,133

8,1423

370

0,137

8,5347

Table of Hydrostatic Pressure for fully submerged

Height of water (m)

Hydrostatic Force
Fully Submerged
0.16
0.14
0.12
0.1
0.08
0.06
0.04
0.02
0
4

Hydrostatic Force (N)

Graph of Hydrostatic Force (Fully Submerged)

6. Analysis
i. Analysis of Experiment
The Hydrostatic Pressure experiment has the objective to determine the force of
hydrostatic of water and to also determine the relationship between the height of water
and the mass load on the hydrostatic pressure apparatus. First of all, students have to
prepare the instruments that will be used in the experiment by referring to the module.
The hydrostatic pressure apparatus, the weights, and water have to be prepared. Before
adding weights, the apparatus have to be calibrated by turning the adjustable
counterbalance until the position of the apparatus is balanced. The way the apparatus
works is, when the tank is filled with water, there will be force acting perpendicularly on
the vertical part of the apparatus. That is why the apparatus will go up and down when
water is added or drained.
This experiment consists of filling and draining the water tank. Students must take
note of the dimensions of the apparatus; length of a, L, d and b. As students add loads on
the weight hanger at the end of the scales arm, water is then added until the scales arm
returns flat. The starting load of the experiment is 50 grams. More loads are added until it
reaches 370 grams and the loads are added by 20 grams each time. For every time the
loads are added, students must add water until the scales arm is flat or balanced, then
record the water level which is millimeter. Once the load reaches 370 grams, the loads
are then reduced until it reaches the original weight which is 50 grams. The removing of
weight is also done by taking 20 grams of loads at each time. The water level is then
recorded once the scales arm is flat or balanced, and in order to do that the water would
have to be drained from the tank. If the water level is too low, then more water can be
added to reach the balanced state. The process of filling and draining the tank is done to
obtain more accurate data from the experiment.
It is evident that water has force acting on the surface of the apparatus because
whenever water is added or drained, the apparatus would go up or down until it is
balanced again. For data calculation, it is divided into two sections; partially and fully
submerged. This is because there are 2 different formulas used partially and fully
submerged object. When the apparatus is fully submerged, the vertical surface
experiences forces perpendicularly, but there is also another force coming from the top of

the apparatus because water has forces in all directions. The data will be processed using
linear regression, y = bx + a, where y is the hydrostatic force, b is the mass, x is the
height of water, and a is the deviation value. When a and b are determined using manual
calculations, they are then compared to the theoretical values. And from there the relative
mistakes are calculated to show how accurate our data and calculations are.

ii. Result Analysis


In this experiment, students must record the water level at which the scales arm
is at a flat or balanced state. When loads are added or removed, the scales arm will not
be balanced. Water is added or drained from the tank to balance with the loads on the
weight hanger. The data is divided into 2 sections; partially and fully submerged.
Partially submerged is measured at the water level below 100 mm and loadings starting
from 50 grams to 210 grams. For fully submerged it is measured above 100 mm and
loadings starting from 210 grams all the way to 370 grams. The values of a and b are
determined for both sections and then compared to the theoretical values. And it is clear
that there had been some errors during obtaining and calculating the data. To find a and b,
we used

For partially submerged experiment, we obtained y= -0.02597x + 2.450


(

and
and

). We then used the equations


to find the theoretical values and we end up with relative

mistake for a = 42.28% and b = 10.13%. The coefficient of correlation obtained is R2 =


0.565, which means that the x and y are not closely related.

For fully submerged experiment, we obtained


and
*

and

). We then used the equations


to find the theoretical values and we end up with

relative mistake for a = 5.29% and b = 8.12%. The coefficient of correlation obtained is
R2 = 0.999, which means that the x and y are very closely related.
From data calculation, we also obtain the value of hydrostatic force at each of the
water level by using the formula

for partially submerged and

for fully submerged..

iii. Graphical Analysis


According to observation and data calculation using linear regression, students
obtained 2 graphs. One graph shows the relationship between water level (y) and m/y2 for
partially submerged experiment. The second graph shows the relationship between water
level and mass of the fully submerged experiment. For the partially submerged
experiment, the data of the graph is scattered and does not form a linear line because they
do not lie on the trend line. But for the fully submerged experiment, the graph forms a
linear line, which means that the relative mistake is low. The relationship between mass
and water level shows a directly proportional relationship, where if mass is removed, then
the water would also have to be removed. This is because as the water is reduced, the
hydrostatic force decreases.
What we also found for partially and fully submerged condition is that as the
water level increases, the hydrostatic force also increases. The graph shows a linear
relationship. It is evident that the hydrostatic force is directly proportional to the water
level of the object.

iv. Error Analysis


During this hydrostatic pressure experiment, there will be some mistakes or errors
that can occur. These errors will affect the data that will be collected and the
measurements that follow. This is evidence because the relative mistakes for a and b for
both partially and fully submerged are not equal to zero. These errors could be caused by
several factors

Inaccurate readings of the scales arm, where the balanced state is not
recorded accurately

Inaccurate readings of the water level on the water tank could also hapen,
where the water level during filling and draining shows two different
numbers.

The eye posistion of the reader or observer that is not straight with the
scales arm or the water tank could also results in some mistakes in the
data recorded

There could also be some errors in the rounding of the numbers during the
calculation process

7. Conclusion
1. The value of hydrostatic force can be determined experimentally. The magnitude of
hydrostatic force is perpendicular to the surface of the apparatus. As more volume of the
object is submerged, the more hydrostatic force will act on it.
2. As the weight of the load increases, the height of the water also increases because more
water is needed to balance the scales arm.
3. The values of a and b obtained from experiment and theory show a linear relationship
between the relationship of mass and water level.
4. The weights that are added to the apparatus are able to be balanced by adding water to the
tank because there is hydrostatic force acting on the vertical surface of the apparatus.
5. The sum of moments and hydrostatic force acting on the surfaces that are not vertical is
zero because the directions point straight to the hinge. The force is zero because it is not
perpendicular and these forces can be ignored during the experiment.
6. Relationship between h and m/h2 is inversely proportional because as y increases, m/h2
decreases.
7. Relationship between m and h is directly proportional because as y increases, h also
increases.

8. References
Departemen Teknik Sipil Fakultas Teknik Universitas Indonesia. Modul Praktikum
Mekanika Fluida dan Hidrolika. Depok: Laboratorium Hidrolika, Hidrologi, dan
Sungai, 2013.
Potter, Merle C., David C. Wiggert, Bassem H. Ramadan, and Tom I-P.Shih.Mechanics
of Fluids. 4th ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1991. Print.

9. Attachment