MODULE H02
HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE
GROUP 22
Daniel Andiga Wibisana
1306437076
1306437082
1306437126
Fikri Dwisatrio
1306437132
1306437145
Name of Assistant
: Victor Saragih
Date of Experiment
: October 3, 2014
Date of Approval
Score
Assistants Signature :
HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE
1. Objective
This experimental work is intended to determine a hydrostatic force magnitude on the
vertical plane. As well as determining the correlation between water level and mass load
on the apparatus.
2.Basic Theory
Any object that is put in the water will experience pressure that is perpendicular with its
surface by .g.h ( is the density of water).
And the location of the working point from the water surface is:
Icg
ycg A.ycg
.(2)
Where:
= density of water
g = gravitational acceleration
ycg = distance of planes center of gravity from water surface
A = area of plane
Icg = moment of inertia of the plane in respect to the horizontal axis that cut the planes center of
gravity
m.g
d
y
b
...(3)
(4)
m.g
d
y
b
.(5)
..(6)
...(7)
3. Instruments
1. Hydraulic Table
2. Hydrostatic pressures apparatus
3. Loads
4. Ruler
5. Calipers
Pictures description
1. A container/tank
2. Nivo (spirit level)
3. Weight hanger
4. Beam level indication
5. Quadrant object
6. Clamping screw
7. Scales arm
8. Sharp shaft/pivot
9. Adjustable counterbalance
10. Water surfaces scale
11. Rectangular surface area
12. Drain valve
13. Leveling feet
4.Procedure of Experiment
1. Measuring the length of a, L, d and b from the apparatus
2. Setting the leveling feet so that the container is completely flat
3. Putting the weight hanger in the end of scales arm
4. Setting the adjustable counterbalance until the scales arm returns to flat condition
5. Put the loads on the weight hanger
6. Closing the draining valve and filling the container with water little by little until the
scales arm returns flat
7. Recording the water level (y) in the appropriate column
8. Performing step 57 until the maximum water level reached
9. Reducing the loads according to the addition of loading before
10. Lowering the water level by opening the draining valve until the scales arm returns flat
11. Recording the water level (y) in the appropriate column
12. Performing step 911 until the minimum water level is reached
a = 10 cm
b = 7.5 cm
d = 10 cm
L = 27.5 cm
FILLING TANK
DRAINING TANK
Mass (m)
Mass (m)
(gram)
(mm)
(gram)
(mm)
50
45
50
46
70
56
70
56
90
68
90
63
110
69
110
68
130
76
130
76
150
82
150
82
170
87
170
87
190
93
190
93
210
98
210
98
230
103
230
103
250
109
250
108
270
114
270
113
290
118
290
118
310
122
310
123
330
127
330
128
350
133
350
133
370
137
370
137
1. Prove equation (3) and (5) with equation (1) and (2)
Equation (3)
Equation (5)
))
} ,
/)
}{
).
(
/}
)
.
Average
y (x)
m/y2(y)
x2
y2
xy
50
4,6
50
4,6
50
4,6
4,6
2,36294896
21,16
5,583527789 10,86956522
70
5,6
70
5,6
70
5,6
5,6
2,232142857
31,36
4,982461735
90
6,3
90
6,3
90
6,3
6,3
2,267573696
39,69
5,141890467 14,28571429
110
6,9
110
6,8
110
6,85
6,85
2,344291118
46,9225
5,495700847 16,05839416
130
7,6
130
7,6
130
7,6
7,6
2,250692521
57,76
5,065616823 17,10526316
150
8,2
150
8,2
150
8,2
8,2
2,230814991
67,24
4,976535524 18,29268293
170
8,7
170
8,7
170
8,7
8,7
2,246003435
75,69
5,04453143
190
9,3
190
9,3
190
9,3
9,3
2,196785756
86,49
4,825867656 20,43010753
210
9,8
210
9,8
210
9,8
9,8
2,186588921
96,04
4,781171111 21,42857143
12,5
19,54022989
y= 0.02597x + 2.450
m/y2 (y)
2.5
2
y = 0.045x + 2.727
R = 1
1.5
y = 0.026x + 2.4508
R = 0.5657
m/y2
Theory
0.5
0
0
10
12
Relative Mistake



FHydrostatic:
Height of Water
Mass
(m)
FHydrostatic
50
0,046
1,037898
70
0,056
1,538208
90
0,063
1,9467945
110
0,0685
2,301548625
130
0,076
2,833128
150
0,082
3,298122
170
0,087
3,7125945
190
0,093
4,2423345
210
0,098
4,710762
Hydrostatic Force
Partially Submerged
Height of water (m)
0.12
0.1
0.08
0.06
0.04
0.02
0
0
FILLING TANK
Height
Mass
of
water
(g)
(cm)
DRAINING
TANK
Height
of
Mass water
(g)
(cm)
Average
M (y)
230
10,3
230
10,3
230
250
10,9
250
10,8
270
11,4
270
290
11,8
310
H (x)
10,3
x2
y2
xy
106,09
52900
2369
250
10,85 117,7225
62500
2712,5
11,3
270
11,35 128,8225
72900
3064,5
290
11,8
290
139,24
84100
3422
12,2
310
12,3
310
12,25 150,0625
96100
3797,5
330
12,7
330
12,8
330
12,75 162,5625
108900
4207,5
350
13,3
350
13,3
350
13,3
176,89
122500
4655
370
13,7
370
13,7
370
13,7
187,69
136900
5069
2400
11,8
96,3
1169,08
736800
29297
Graph of h and m
Fully Submerged Experiment
500
Mass (g)
400
300
200
y = 40.655x  189.38
R = 0.9994
y = 40.909x  181.82
R = 1
100
M (y)
Theory
0
0
10
15
20
Relative Mistake








FHydrostatic:
Mass
Height of
F. Hydrostatic
Water (m)
230
0,103
5,1993
250
0,1085
5,73885
270
0,1135
6,22935
290
0,118
6,6708
310
0,1225
7,11225
330
0,1275
7,60275
350
0,133
8,1423
370
0,137
8,5347
Hydrostatic Force
Fully Submerged
0.16
0.14
0.12
0.1
0.08
0.06
0.04
0.02
0
4
6. Analysis
i. Analysis of Experiment
The Hydrostatic Pressure experiment has the objective to determine the force of
hydrostatic of water and to also determine the relationship between the height of water
and the mass load on the hydrostatic pressure apparatus. First of all, students have to
prepare the instruments that will be used in the experiment by referring to the module.
The hydrostatic pressure apparatus, the weights, and water have to be prepared. Before
adding weights, the apparatus have to be calibrated by turning the adjustable
counterbalance until the position of the apparatus is balanced. The way the apparatus
works is, when the tank is filled with water, there will be force acting perpendicularly on
the vertical part of the apparatus. That is why the apparatus will go up and down when
water is added or drained.
This experiment consists of filling and draining the water tank. Students must take
note of the dimensions of the apparatus; length of a, L, d and b. As students add loads on
the weight hanger at the end of the scales arm, water is then added until the scales arm
returns flat. The starting load of the experiment is 50 grams. More loads are added until it
reaches 370 grams and the loads are added by 20 grams each time. For every time the
loads are added, students must add water until the scales arm is flat or balanced, then
record the water level which is millimeter. Once the load reaches 370 grams, the loads
are then reduced until it reaches the original weight which is 50 grams. The removing of
weight is also done by taking 20 grams of loads at each time. The water level is then
recorded once the scales arm is flat or balanced, and in order to do that the water would
have to be drained from the tank. If the water level is too low, then more water can be
added to reach the balanced state. The process of filling and draining the tank is done to
obtain more accurate data from the experiment.
It is evident that water has force acting on the surface of the apparatus because
whenever water is added or drained, the apparatus would go up or down until it is
balanced again. For data calculation, it is divided into two sections; partially and fully
submerged. This is because there are 2 different formulas used partially and fully
submerged object. When the apparatus is fully submerged, the vertical surface
experiences forces perpendicularly, but there is also another force coming from the top of
the apparatus because water has forces in all directions. The data will be processed using
linear regression, y = bx + a, where y is the hydrostatic force, b is the mass, x is the
height of water, and a is the deviation value. When a and b are determined using manual
calculations, they are then compared to the theoretical values. And from there the relative
mistakes are calculated to show how accurate our data and calculations are.
and
and
and
relative mistake for a = 5.29% and b = 8.12%. The coefficient of correlation obtained is
R2 = 0.999, which means that the x and y are very closely related.
From data calculation, we also obtain the value of hydrostatic force at each of the
water level by using the formula
Inaccurate readings of the scales arm, where the balanced state is not
recorded accurately
Inaccurate readings of the water level on the water tank could also hapen,
where the water level during filling and draining shows two different
numbers.
The eye posistion of the reader or observer that is not straight with the
scales arm or the water tank could also results in some mistakes in the
data recorded
There could also be some errors in the rounding of the numbers during the
calculation process
7. Conclusion
1. The value of hydrostatic force can be determined experimentally. The magnitude of
hydrostatic force is perpendicular to the surface of the apparatus. As more volume of the
object is submerged, the more hydrostatic force will act on it.
2. As the weight of the load increases, the height of the water also increases because more
water is needed to balance the scales arm.
3. The values of a and b obtained from experiment and theory show a linear relationship
between the relationship of mass and water level.
4. The weights that are added to the apparatus are able to be balanced by adding water to the
tank because there is hydrostatic force acting on the vertical surface of the apparatus.
5. The sum of moments and hydrostatic force acting on the surfaces that are not vertical is
zero because the directions point straight to the hinge. The force is zero because it is not
perpendicular and these forces can be ignored during the experiment.
6. Relationship between h and m/h2 is inversely proportional because as y increases, m/h2
decreases.
7. Relationship between m and h is directly proportional because as y increases, h also
increases.
8. References
Departemen Teknik Sipil Fakultas Teknik Universitas Indonesia. Modul Praktikum
Mekanika Fluida dan Hidrolika. Depok: Laboratorium Hidrolika, Hidrologi, dan
Sungai, 2013.
Potter, Merle C., David C. Wiggert, Bassem H. Ramadan, and Tom IP.Shih.Mechanics
of Fluids. 4th ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1991. Print.
9. Attachment