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# Calculus II

1.

2n
xn
n  1 !


n 1

2n  1 n  1  !

n  2  ! 2n

2


n 2

0


2.

3 n xn

n 1

n  1 3n
3n  1 n




n 1 1

n 3

1
3


so R  3.

3.

n n

1 n 2

n 0

x

3



n  1 n n 1 
3n



1
n
3
n n 1 n 2

n 1 1

n 2 3

1
3

2

1
n

so R  3.


4.

n 1

2n  ! n
x
n!  2

## Answer. We look at the ratios:





2n  2  ! n!  2

n  1 !  2 2n  !


2n  2  2n  1 

n  1 2


2


2 

n

1

1 2
n

Thus R  1 4.


5.

n 1

n  1 n  2 n  3 n
x
n!


that the general term is of the form a n  p n 
n! xn , where p is a polynomial
 

of degree 3, Thus a n  g n   xn n 3  !  , where g is a ratio of polynomials of degree 3. Since lim g n 

exists, the numbers g n  are bounded. Thus, by the comparison test (with the exponential series), this series
converges for all x; that is, R  .


6. Let f x 


n 0

n  2 n  1 n
x  Find a formula for the function f .
n!

Answer. We have to look at the form of the series: is it obtained from a series we know using algebraic
operations, differentiation, or integration? The terms n  2 n  1 give a clue: these have been obtained by

two differentiations. So, we integrate twice to see what we have:



F x

f t  dt


G x


F t  dt

n  2 n
x
0 n!

n! xn


2

n 0



G x
Then


F x

G x

## Heres another one to try:

x2 ex

f x


f x

n 0

2xex  x2 ex


n! xn 

x2


F  x


2ex  4xex  x2 ex


n  2 n  1 x n


n 0

7. Find the Taylor series centered at the origin for the function F x 

dt
1 t4


1
1 x
Substitute t 4

xn 

n 0

## for x, and then integrate term by term:

1
1



F x


x
0

t 4n 

t4 

n 0

dt
1

4n 

t4 

n 0

t 4n 

8. Find the Taylor series centered at the origin for the antiderivative (indefinite integral) of f x 
ex
Now, substitute

xn

n!


n 0

## x2 for x and subtract 1:

e

x2

1

n 0

1

nx

2n

n!

1

n 1

1

nx

2n

n!

e

x2

1


Now, divide by x:
x2

e

1

nx

2n  1

n!

n 1

## Now integrate term by term:

f x

n 1

1  n 2n
x
2n  n!

1  t2
dt
1 t2

9. Find the Taylor series centered at the origin for the function
0

t 2n 

1 t2

n 0

t2
1 t2

so that


1  t2 

1
Then

t 2n

n 0

1
1 t2

t 2n 

t 2n

n 0

n 0

Now, the second series in this sum is the same as the first, except for the first term. Thus
1  t2
1 t2
Now integrate term by term:

x
0

1  t2
dt
1 t2

1  2 t 2n


1
x2n

2n
1
1

x 2


10. Find the Taylor series centered at the origin for the function
1 x2

1
1 x2 

x2n 

n 0

2x
1 x2 

n 1

2 

2nx2n 

n 1

## Now divide both sides by 2x, and change the index:



1
1 x2 

2 

nx2  n 

1

n 1




n  1 x2n


n 0

We remark that one could also start with the series for 1 1 x  , differentiate it, and then substitute x 2 for x,
leading to, of course, the same result.

## 11. Find the Taylor expansion of x 3 centered at the point -1.

We need to find
the successive derivatives of f x   x 3 at x  1. We find: f 1   1 f  1 



3 f   1   6 f    1   6, and all subsequence derivatives are zero. Thus the Taylor expansion is


x3

1  3 x  1 

6
x  1
2!

6
x  1
3!


1  3 x  1 3 x  1

ex  e 
2

12. Find the Taylor series centered at the origin for the function cosh x 

ex

xn

n!

n 0

e

nx

1

x  1

n!

n 0

When we add the two series, the odd terms cancel, and the even terms double. Thus
ex  e 
so
coshx 

x2n
2n  !


ex  e 
2

n 0

n 0

## 13. Find the first 5 coefficients of the Maclaurin series for f x 



x2n
2n  !


e x cos x.

Answer. We have to write down the Maclaurin series of e x and cos x up to the fifth term, and then multiply
just as we would polynomials, throwing away products which are of degree greater than 5;
ex cos x 


x2
2


1 x

x4
24


x


14. Expand f x 


x2
2
x3
2
1

x3
6


x4
24


x5
120


 

x5 x2 x4 x3 x5




24 2
4
6 12
1 3 1 4 1 5
x
x
x   
x
3
6
30


x2
2

1


x4
24

  

x4
x5

24 120


 

1  x 3x 2  x9 in a Maclaurin series.

Answer. The expression of a polynomial as a sum of monomials is its expression as a Maclaurin series.