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Power Series-Taylor Series Problems-Answers

Power Series-Taylor Series Problems-Answers

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1.

2n

xn

n 1 !

n 1

2n 1 n 1 !

n 2 ! 2n

2

n 2

0

2.

3 n xn

n 1

n 1 3n

3n 1 n

n 1 1

n 3

1

3

so R 3.

3.

n n

1 n 2

n 0

x

3

n 1 n n 1

3n

1

n

3

n n 1 n 2

n 1 1

n 2 3

1

3

2

1

n

so R 3.

4.

n 1

2n ! n

x

n! 2

2n 2 ! n! 2

n 1 ! 2 2n !

2n 2 2n 1

n 1 2

2

2

n

1

1 2

n

Thus R 1 4.

5.

n 1

n 1 n 2 n 3 n

x

n!

that the general term is of the form a n p n

n! xn , where p is a polynomial

of degree 3, Thus a n g n xn n 3 ! , where g is a ratio of polynomials of degree 3. Since lim g n

exists, the numbers g n are bounded. Thus, by the comparison test (with the exponential series), this series

converges for all x; that is, R .

6. Let f x

n 0

n 2 n 1 n

x Find a formula for the function f .

n!

Answer. We have to look at the form of the series: is it obtained from a series we know using algebraic

operations, differentiation, or integration? The terms n 2 n 1 give a clue: these have been obtained by

two differentiations. So, we integrate twice to see what we have:

F x

f t dt

G x

F t dt

n 2 n

x

0 n!

n! xn

2

n 0

G x

Then

F x

G x

x2 ex

f x

f x

n 0

2xex x2 ex

n! xn

x2

F x

2ex 4xex x2 ex

n 2 n 1 x n

n 0

7. Find the Taylor series centered at the origin for the function F x

Answer. We start with the series

dt

1 t4

1

1 x

Substitute t 4

xn

n 0

1

1

F x

x

0

t 4n

t4

n 0

dt

1

4n

t4

n 0

t 4n

8. Find the Taylor series centered at the origin for the antiderivative (indefinite integral) of f x

Answer. We start with the series

ex

Now, substitute

xn

n!

n 0

e

x2

1

n 0

1

nx

2n

n!

1

n 1

1

nx

2n

n!

e

x2

1

Now, divide by x:

x2

e

1

nx

2n 1

n!

n 1

f x

n 1

1 n 2n

x

2n n!

1 t2

dt

1 t2

9. Find the Taylor series centered at the origin for the function

0

t 2n

1 t2

n 0

t2

1 t2

so that

1 t2

1

Then

t 2n

n 0

1

1 t2

t 2n

t 2n

n 0

n 0

Now, the second series in this sum is the same as the first, except for the first term. Thus

1 t2

1 t2

Now integrate term by term:

x

0

1 t2

dt

1 t2

1 2 t 2n

1

x2n

2n

1

1

x 2

10. Find the Taylor series centered at the origin for the function

Answer. We start with the series

1 x2

1

1 x2

x2n

n 0

2x

1 x2

n 1

2

2nx2n

n 1

1

1 x2

2

nx2 n

1

n 1

n 1 x2n

n 0

We remark that one could also start with the series for 1 1 x , differentiate it, and then substitute x 2 for x,

leading to, of course, the same result.

Answer.

We need to find

the successive derivatives of f x x 3 at x 1. We find: f 1 1 f 1

3 f 1 6 f 1 6, and all subsequence derivatives are zero. Thus the Taylor expansion is

x3

1 3 x 1

6

x 1

2!

6

x 1

3!

1 3 x 1 3 x 1

ex e

2

12. Find the Taylor series centered at the origin for the function cosh x

Answer. We have

ex

xn

n!

n 0

e

nx

1

x 1

n!

n 0

When we add the two series, the odd terms cancel, and the even terms double. Thus

ex e

so

coshx

x2n

2n !

ex e

2

n 0

n 0

x2n

2n !

e x cos x.

Answer. We have to write down the Maclaurin series of e x and cos x up to the fifth term, and then multiply

just as we would polynomials, throwing away products which are of degree greater than 5;

ex cos x

x2

2

1 x

x4

24

x

14. Expand f x

x2

2

x3

2

1

x3

6

x4

24

x5

120

x5 x2 x4 x3 x5

24 2

4

6 12

1 3 1 4 1 5

x

x

x

x

3

6

30

x2

2

1

x4

24

x4

x5

24 120

1 x 3x 2 x9 in a Maclaurin series.

Answer. The expression of a polynomial as a sum of monomials is its expression as a Maclaurin series.

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