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PARTICULATE MATTER, TSP, PM10 AND PM2.

NAME: MUHAMMAD ELYAS BIN M.MOHAMED HANIFA UK25986


NASRI WAJDI BIN JAMALUDIN

UK24869

NAZZARUL FIKRI BIN FUAD

UK25464

MOHD AZRUL BIN SUID

UK27317

LECTURER: DR. NURUL ADYANI BINTI GHAZALI

INTRODUCTION
It is estimated that around 50% of the world population, some 75% of those living in developing
countries, rely onbiomass fuels (wood, dung and crop residues), which are typically burnt in
simple open fire stoves, for household cooking and sometimes heating (Reddy et al., 1997).
Such widespread use of biomass fuels results in indoor pollution levels, including particulate
pollution, among the highest ever measured. Numerous urban studies in industrialized
countries have shown associations between ambient particulate air pollution and acute and
chornic respiratory morality in children and adults (Dockery and Pope, 1994). Altough exposure
characteristics vary tremendously from the developed world to rural areas in the developing
world, it is hypothesized that high exposure to contaminants from biomass fuel combustion is a
risk factor to low birth weight and acute respiratory infection (Smith, 1987). World Health
Organization (WHO) began to examine the feasibility of carrying out controlled intervention
studies designed to assess the effects on key child and adult respiratory health outcomes of a
measured reduction in exposure.

PARTICULATE MATTER, TSP, PM10 AND PM2.5 SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM


PM10, PM2.5 and Total Suspended Particle (TSP) are measured in stack gas emission using
European standard. Figure 1 is a schematic diagram of the size fraction frctionation sampling
systems that are used according to the standard. The standard explains the theory begind this
device. The imoactors consist of a series of nozzles and impaction plates, which separate
particles according to their aerodynamic diameter. The sample stack gas is drawn through a
nozzle onto a plate at a previously determinedvolumetric flow rate. The plate causes the gas to
be deflected at 90 along the surface of the plate. Larger particles will be impacted onto the
surface of the plate, due to their mass of inertia. Finer particles remain suspended in the stack
gas and continue to the next stage of the impactor. Each impactor plate has a cut off point,
where 50% of the particles of a certain aerodynamic diameter will be deposited on the plate
and 50% passes to the next stage.
In the two stage impactor, the particles are divided into the following three fractions based on
their diameters:

Greater the 10m (first impactor)


Between 10 m and 2.5 m (second impactor)
Smaller than 2.5 m (backup filter)

MONITORING DEVICE

(Figure 1)

1
2
3
4
5

Size fractionation device


Back up filter
Pitot tube
Thermocouple
Temperature indicator

6
7
8
9
10

Static pressure
Differential pressure
Sampling tube
Condenser
Isokenetic controls

TWO STAGE CASCADE IMPACTOR

(Figure 2)

The cascade impactor should be positioned in the stack, so that it points in the same direction
as the flow, a vertical orientation in a vertical stack. However, quite often, due to restricted
access into stacks, it is necessary to install the impactor into the stack at 90 to the flow
direction giving a horizontal orientation in a vertical stack. Under these circumstances a goose
neck nozzle is used to ensure the nozzle points into the direction flow.

PROCEDURE
MEASURING PM10, PM2.5 AND TSP IN AMBIENT AIR
Unlike the stack emissions monitoring techniques, measuring particulate matter in ambient air
is a measure of both primary and secondary particulate matter. Most ambient air particulates
matter measuring systems can be modified to collect particles at specific size fractions. The
most common approach is to use size selective inlets. Some inlets are simply sampling heads
with a geometry that favors a certain particle size range or with particular upper cut off point.
Other selective inlet system separates the particles after the sample has been entrained in the
sampling system.
Cascade impactors are useful as they provide the full particle size distribution by mass. The
impactors work by the same principles as the ones used for stack emission monitoring. Most
ambient monitoring cascade impactors consist of several impaction plates, which can give up to
ten size ranges, including PM10, PM2.5 and TSP.
The most straightforward of the ambient monitoring techniques available is to draw air through
filter papers using pumps followed by gravimetry (weighing before and after sampling). In order
to measure different size fractions a size specific sampling head or cascade impactor device is
used. This technique is considered to be the reference method for sampling particulate matter
in ambient air.

REFERENCES
Reddy, A.K.N., Williams, R.H. and Johansson, T.B. (1997) Energy After Rio: Prospects and
Challenges, New York, United Nations Development Programme.
Dockery, D.W. and Pope, C.A. III (1994) Acute respiratory effects of air particulate pollution,
Annual Review of Public Health, 15, 107-132.
Smith K.R. (1993) Fuel combustion, air pollution exposure, and health: the situation in
developing countries, Annual Review of Energy and the Environment, 18, 529-566.