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Laboratory Exercise 7

Name

right. The tanks are non-interacting. The following

information is known:

2

resistances have a value of 1.0 min/ft .

2

found that a change of 1 psi in pressure to the valve

3

produced a change in flow of 0.2 ft /min.

psi/mA.

ft, and an output range of 4-20 mA.

have negligible dynamics.

rates.

1.

for the given system.

ANSWER:

Controlled variable: h2

Manipulated input variable: q2

Disturbance input variable: q1

2. Using material balances, derive the process transfer functions relating h2 to q1 and q2. State your assumptions.

SOLUTION:

Assumption: constant density in all streams

3.

Write the transfer functions Gm, Gv, and GIP which are for the

sensor, control valve, and current-to-pressure transducer,

respectively. Indicate units.

ANSWER:

4.

Construct the block diagram for the given feedback control system showing all numerical values of the transfer functions, except for

the controller transfer function which will be written as GC. Indicate the input and output signals across each transfer function.

SOLUTION:

Gc

5.

Write the overall closed-loop transfer functions relating the controlled or output variable to the set point and to the disturbance

variable.

SOLUTION:

(

)(

(

)(

)(

)

(

)(

6.

For the proportional gain, Kc = 5, how much is the offset if the set point is suddenly changed from 1 ft to 2 ft? Solve for this value

using the overall transfer function and the final value theorem.

SOLUTION:

(

)(

(

)(

(

)(

)(

(

)

)(

(

(

(

)(

)(

)(

)(

]

)

]

)

)(

)

)

7.

Implement the block diagram in SIMULINK, with filename liquid_level_P.mdl. Verify your answer in (6) by running the simulation.

Plot the response of the controlled variable against time for Kc = 5 and for two other values Kc = 10, 15. Label all axes, add a legend

and a title: Control system response for a step change in the set point of 1 ft, P control. Save the figure as P_sp.fig.

For Kc = 5:

1

0.9

0.8

0.7

h',ft

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

Kc = 5

0.2

Kc = 10

0.1

0

Kc = 15

0

10

15

t, min

20

25

30

ANSWER:

Increasing Kc decreases the offset but increases the overshoot and degree of oscillation.

8.

For the proportional gain, Kc = 5, how much is the offset if the disturbance variable suddenly changes by 0.5 ft /min? Solve for this

value using the overall transfer function and the final value theorem.

SOLUTION:

(

)(

)

(

)(

)

(

)(

(

)(

)(

)

(

)(

)(

)

(

)(

)

(

9.

]

)(

]

)(

Verify your answer in (8) using SIMULINK. Plot the response of the controlled variable against time for Kc = 5 and for two other values

Kc = 10, 15. Label all axes, add a legend and a title: Control system response for a step change in the disturbance variable of 0.5

3

ft /min, P control. Save the figure as P_dist.fig.

0.25

0.2

h',ft

0.15

0.1

Kc = 5

Kc = 10

0.05

Kc = 15

10

15

t, min

20

25

30

ANSWER:

Increasing Kc decreases the magnitude of the offset but the degree of oscillation.

10. Write the overall closed-loop transfer functions relating the controlled or output variable to the set point and to the disturbance

variable.

SOLUTION:

(

)

(

(

(

)(

)

)(

(

)(

)

(

)(

11. For the integral time, I = 1.5 min, how much is the offset if the set point is suddenly changed from 1 ft to 2 ft? Solve for this value

using the overall transfer function and the final value theorem.

SOLUTION:

(

)

(

)

(

(

)

)(

(

)(

(

)(

)(

(

)

)

(

)

(

(

)

(

[

(

)(

(

)(

)(

)(

)(

(

)(

)

)

]

)

12. Implement the block diagram in SIMULINK, with filename liquid_level_PI.mdl. Verify your answer in (11) by running the simulation.

Plot the response of the controlled variable against time for I = 1.5 min and for two other values I = 2.5, 3.5 min. Label all axes, add

a legend and a title: Control system response for a step change in the set point of 1 ft, PI control with Kc = 5. Save the figure as

PI_sp.fig.

For I = 1.5:

1.6

I = 1.5

I = 2.5

1.4

I = 3.5

1.2

h',ft

1

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

10

20

30

40

50

t, min

60

70

80

90

100

ANSWER:

PI control yields no offset; increasing the value of I results in less oscillatory response

3

13. For the integral time, I = 1.5 min, how much is the offset if the disturbance variable suddenly changes by 0.5 ft /min? Solve for this

value using the overall transfer function and the final value theorem.

SOLUTION:

(

)(

(

(

)(

)(

)(

[

(

)(

)

)(

)(

)(

]

(

)(

)

(

)(

14. Verify your answer in (13) using SIMULINK. Plot the response of the controlled variable against time for I = 1.5 min and for two other

values I = 2.5, 3.5 min. Label all axes, add a legend and a title: Control system response for a step change in the disturbance

3

variable of 0.5 ft /min, PI control with Kc = 5. Save the figure as PI_dist.fig.

0.25

I = 1.5 min

I = 2.5 min

0.2

I = 3.5 min

0.15

h',ft

0.1

0.05

-0.05

-0.1

10

20

30

40

50

t, min

60

70

80

90

100

ANSWER:

PI control yields no offset; increasing the value of I results in less oscillatory response.

For a PARALLEL proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller, Gc = Kc * 1 + 1/(Is) + Ds/(Ds+1) ] with Kc = 5, I = 1.5 min, = 0.1:

15. Implement the block diagram in SIMULINK, with filename liquid_level_PID.mdl. For a sudden change in the set point from 1 ft to 2 ft,

plot the response of the controlled variable against time for the following values of the derivative time, D= 0.2, 2, and 5 min. Label

all axes, add a legend and a title: Control system response for a step change in the set point of 1 ft, parallel PID control with Kc = 5,

I = 1.5 min, and = 0.1. Save the figure as PID_sp.fig.

For D= 0.2:

Control response to a 0.5-ft 3/min step change in q1, PID control, K c = 5, I = 1.5 min

1.5

D = 0.2 min

D = 2 min

D = 5 min

h',ft

0.5

10

20

30

40

50

t, min

60

70

80

90

100

How much is the offset? What is the effect of increasing the value of D?

ANSWER:

No offset. Increasing the value of D results in less oscillatory and faster response.

3

16. For a sudden change in the disturbance variable of 0.5 ft /min, plot the response of the controlled variable against time for the

following values of the derivative time, D= 0.2, 2, and 5 min. Label all axes, add a legend and a title: Control system response for a

3

step change in the disturbance variable of 0.5 ft /min, parallel PID control with Kc = 5, I = 1.5 min, and = 0.1. Save the figure as

PID_dist.fig.

Control response to a 0.5-ft 3/min step change in q1, PID control, K c = 5, I = 1.5 min

0.25

D = 0.2 min

D = 2 min

0.2

D = 5 min

0.15

h',ft

0.1

0.05

-0.05

-0.1

10

20

30

40

50

t, min

60

70

How much is the offset? What is the effect of increasing the value of D?

ANSWER:

No offset. Increasing the value of D results in less oscillatory and faster response.

80

90

100

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