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ChE 182 FBC-TUV/TWX

Laboratory Exercise 7
Name

Lab Section and Class Number

Consider the liquid-level control system shown on the


right. The tanks are non-interacting. The following
information is known:

The flow-head relation is linear. The outlet valve


2
resistances have a value of 1.0 min/ft .
2

The cross-sectional area of each tank is 3 ft .

The control valve was tested separately, and it was


found that a change of 1 psi in pressure to the valve
3
produced a change in flow of 0.2 ft /min.

The current-to-pressure transducer has a gain of 0.3


psi/mA.

The level transmitter has a span of 4 ft, a zero of 0.2


ft, and an output range of 4-20 mA.

The control valve, transducer, and measuring element


have negligible dynamics.

The variables q1, q2, q3, and q4 are volumetric flow


rates.

1.

Identify the controlled, manipulated, and the disturbance variables


for the given system.

ANSWER:
Controlled variable: h2
Manipulated input variable: q2
Disturbance input variable: q1

2. Using material balances, derive the process transfer functions relating h2 to q1 and q2. State your assumptions.
SOLUTION:
Assumption: constant density in all streams

3.

Write the transfer functions Gm, Gv, and GIP which are for the
sensor, control valve, and current-to-pressure transducer,
respectively. Indicate units.

ANSWER:

4.

Construct the block diagram for the given feedback control system showing all numerical values of the transfer functions, except for
the controller transfer function which will be written as GC. Indicate the input and output signals across each transfer function.
SOLUTION:

Gc

For a proportional (P) controller, Gc = Kc:


5.

Write the overall closed-loop transfer functions relating the controlled or output variable to the set point and to the disturbance
variable.
SOLUTION:
(

)(
(

)(

)(

)
(

)(

6.

For the proportional gain, Kc = 5, how much is the offset if the set point is suddenly changed from 1 ft to 2 ft? Solve for this value
using the overall transfer function and the final value theorem.
SOLUTION:
(

)(
(

)(
(

)(

)(

(
)

)(
(

(
(

)(

)(

)(

)(

]
)

]
)

)(

)
)

7.

Implement the block diagram in SIMULINK, with filename liquid_level_P.mdl. Verify your answer in (6) by running the simulation.
Plot the response of the controlled variable against time for Kc = 5 and for two other values Kc = 10, 15. Label all axes, add a legend
and a title: Control system response for a step change in the set point of 1 ft, P control. Save the figure as P_sp.fig.
For Kc = 5:

Control response to a 1-ft step change in the set-point, P control


1
0.9
0.8
0.7

h',ft

0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
Kc = 5

0.2

Kc = 10
0.1
0

Kc = 15
0

10

15
t, min

20

25

30

What is the effect of increasing the value of Kc?


ANSWER:
Increasing Kc decreases the offset but increases the overshoot and degree of oscillation.

8.

For the proportional gain, Kc = 5, how much is the offset if the disturbance variable suddenly changes by 0.5 ft /min? Solve for this
value using the overall transfer function and the final value theorem.
SOLUTION:
(

)(

)
(

)(

)
(

)(

(
)(

)(

)
(

)(

)(

)
(

)(

)
(

9.

]
)(

]
)(

Verify your answer in (8) using SIMULINK. Plot the response of the controlled variable against time for Kc = 5 and for two other values
Kc = 10, 15. Label all axes, add a legend and a title: Control system response for a step change in the disturbance variable of 0.5
3
ft /min, P control. Save the figure as P_dist.fig.

Control response to a 0.5-ft 3/min step change in q1, P control


0.25

0.2

h',ft

0.15

0.1
Kc = 5
Kc = 10
0.05

Kc = 15

10

15
t, min

20

25

30

What is the effect of increasing the value of Kc?


ANSWER:
Increasing Kc decreases the magnitude of the offset but the degree of oscillation.

For a proportional-integral (PI) controller, Gc = Kc(Is+1)/Is with Kc = 5:


10. Write the overall closed-loop transfer functions relating the controlled or output variable to the set point and to the disturbance
variable.
SOLUTION:
(

)
(

(
(

)(
)

)(
(

)(

)
(

)(

11. For the integral time, I = 1.5 min, how much is the offset if the set point is suddenly changed from 1 ft to 2 ft? Solve for this value
using the overall transfer function and the final value theorem.
SOLUTION:
(

)
(

)
(

(
)

)(
(

)(
(

)(

)(

(
)

)
(

)
(

(
)
(

[
(

)(
(

)(
)(

)(

)(
(

)(

)
)

]
)

12. Implement the block diagram in SIMULINK, with filename liquid_level_PI.mdl. Verify your answer in (11) by running the simulation.
Plot the response of the controlled variable against time for I = 1.5 min and for two other values I = 2.5, 3.5 min. Label all axes, add
a legend and a title: Control system response for a step change in the set point of 1 ft, PI control with Kc = 5. Save the figure as
PI_sp.fig.
For I = 1.5:

Control response to a 1-ft step change in the set-point, PI control, K c = 5


1.6

I = 1.5
I = 2.5

1.4

I = 3.5

1.2

h',ft

1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0

10

20

30

40

50
t, min

60

70

80

90

100

What is the effect of increasing the value of I?


ANSWER:
PI control yields no offset; increasing the value of I results in less oscillatory response
3

13. For the integral time, I = 1.5 min, how much is the offset if the disturbance variable suddenly changes by 0.5 ft /min? Solve for this
value using the overall transfer function and the final value theorem.
SOLUTION:
(

)(

(
(

)(

)(

)(

[
(

)(

)
)(

)(

)(

]
(

)(

)
(

)(

14. Verify your answer in (13) using SIMULINK. Plot the response of the controlled variable against time for I = 1.5 min and for two other
values I = 2.5, 3.5 min. Label all axes, add a legend and a title: Control system response for a step change in the disturbance
3
variable of 0.5 ft /min, PI control with Kc = 5. Save the figure as PI_dist.fig.

Control response to a 0.5-ft 3/min step change in q1, PI control, K c = 5


0.25

I = 1.5 min
I = 2.5 min

0.2

I = 3.5 min
0.15

h',ft

0.1

0.05

-0.05

-0.1

10

20

30

40

50
t, min

60

70

80

90

100

What is the effect of increasing the value of I?


ANSWER:
PI control yields no offset; increasing the value of I results in less oscillatory response.

For a PARALLEL proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller, Gc = Kc * 1 + 1/(Is) + Ds/(Ds+1) ] with Kc = 5, I = 1.5 min, = 0.1:
15. Implement the block diagram in SIMULINK, with filename liquid_level_PID.mdl. For a sudden change in the set point from 1 ft to 2 ft,
plot the response of the controlled variable against time for the following values of the derivative time, D= 0.2, 2, and 5 min. Label
all axes, add a legend and a title: Control system response for a step change in the set point of 1 ft, parallel PID control with Kc = 5,
I = 1.5 min, and = 0.1. Save the figure as PID_sp.fig.
For D= 0.2:

Control response to a 0.5-ft 3/min step change in q1, PID control, K c = 5, I = 1.5 min
1.5

D = 0.2 min
D = 2 min
D = 5 min

h',ft

0.5

10

20

30

40

50
t, min

60

70

80

90

100

How much is the offset? What is the effect of increasing the value of D?
ANSWER:
No offset. Increasing the value of D results in less oscillatory and faster response.
3

16. For a sudden change in the disturbance variable of 0.5 ft /min, plot the response of the controlled variable against time for the
following values of the derivative time, D= 0.2, 2, and 5 min. Label all axes, add a legend and a title: Control system response for a
3
step change in the disturbance variable of 0.5 ft /min, parallel PID control with Kc = 5, I = 1.5 min, and = 0.1. Save the figure as
PID_dist.fig.

Control response to a 0.5-ft 3/min step change in q1, PID control, K c = 5, I = 1.5 min
0.25

D = 0.2 min
D = 2 min

0.2

D = 5 min
0.15

h',ft

0.1

0.05

-0.05

-0.1

10

20

30

40

50
t, min

60

70

How much is the offset? What is the effect of increasing the value of D?
ANSWER:
No offset. Increasing the value of D results in less oscillatory and faster response.

80

90

100