College of Engineering
Prepared
by
Khalid Rassim Mahmood
Assistant professor
Civil Engineering Department
RAMADI IRAQ
University of Anbar
College of Engineering
Civil Engineering Department
IraqRamadi
Soil Mechanics
University of Anbar
University of Anbar
College of Engineering
Civil Engineering Department
IraqRamadi
Evaluation
Homework & Reports: 10%
MidTerm Examination: 20%
Unannounced quizzes: 10%
Final Examination: 60%
Class Notebook
You are required to keep and assemble a three ring (or other
suitable binding) notebook with the following divisions in it:
Homework
Quizzes
Tests
Class Notes (Optional)
You will turn this notebook in at the final exam. It will be inspected
and returned to you.
Appearance of Work
All homework and tests must be on engineering paper.
Homework and tests must conform to format given in syllabus.
Failure to do so will result in reduced credit.
Each time you use an equation, write down what it is: don't just put
a bunch of numbers on the page and expect anyone to know what
you did. This too will result in reduced credit.
University of Anbar
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Civil Engineering Department
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Honour System
You are encouraged to work homework with someone but your
turned in work must be your own work.
You are studying now so that you may enter and practice the
engineering profession later. The engineering profession is highly
regarded by the public because those who practice it do so with
ethical and social consciousness. The same is expected of students
in this course. Any direct copying of homework, tests or exams will
be considered a violation of the honour code and a course grade of
F will be given.
Types of Civil Engineering
Structural Engineering
Engineering Mechanics
Transportation Engineering
Environmental Engineering
Coastal Engineering
Geotechnical Engineering
Definition of Geotechnical Engineering
The branch of Civil Engineering that deals with the properties of
soils and rocks and their capability of supporting structures placed on
or under them.
Characteristics of Geotechnical Engineering
Works in a complex environment
Requires a higher degree of judgment than other branches of
engineering
More than one acceptable solution to any problem
The integrity of the structure above is dependent upon the quality of
the foundation below
Asst. Prof. Khalid R. Mahmood (PhD.)
University of Anbar
College of Engineering
Civil Engineering Department
IraqRamadi
University of Anbar
College of Engineering
Civil Engineering Department
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Settlement
Seepage Problems
Teton Dam Failure, 1976
Historical Background
Karl Terzaghi
The father of geotechnical engineering
Developed both the theory and practice of the analysis of soils and
the design of foundations
Consolidation theory
Bearing Capacity of Shallow Foundations
Design of retaining walls and cellular cofferdams
Wrote some of the first textbooks on soil mechanics and
foundations design
Soil Mechanics in Engineering Practice (1948)
Theoretical Soil Mechanics (1943)
University of Anbar
College of Engineering
Civil Engineering Department
IraqRamadi
University of Anbar
College of Engineering
Civil Engineering Department
IraqRamadi
University of Anbar
College of Engineering
Civil Engineering Department
IraqRamadi
University of Anbar
College of Engineering
Civil Engineering Department
IraqRamadi
University of Anbar
College of Engineering
Civil Engineering Department
IraqRamadi
of
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Sedimentary Rocks
Definition Rocks formed by deposition, usually under water, of
products derived by the disaggregation of preexisting rocks.
Types
Shales
clay and silt particles
Sandstones
Limestone (Karst topography)
Dolstone (marl, chalk)
Metamorphic Rocks
DefinitionRocks that may be either igneous or sedimentary rocks
that have been altered physically and sometimes chemically by the
application of intense heat and pressure at some time in their
geological history
Types
Coarse crystalline (gneiss)
Medium crystalline (schist, marble, soapstone)
Fine to microscopic (slate, anthracite coal)
Methods of Classifying Rocks
Visual Classification
Weathering Classification
Discontinuity Classification
Colour and Grain Size
Hardness Classification
Geological Classification
Classification by Field Measurements and Strength Tests
Strength
Rock Quality Designation and Velocity Index Rock
Rock Quality Designation (RQD)
Based on a modified core recovery procedure
Li = length of a given recovered piece
Asst. Prof. Khalid R. Mahmood (PhD.)
RQD
Li
Lt
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VELOCITY INDEX
90  100
75  90
50  75
25  50
0  25
0.80  1.00
0.60  0.80
0.40  0.60
0.20  0.40
0  0.20
Excellent
Good
Fair
Poor
Very Poor
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Weathering
Physical or Mechanical weathering causes disintegration of the rocks
into smaller particle sizes, the processes that cause physical
weathering areFreezing and thawing
Temperature changes
Erosion (Abrasion)
Activity of plants and animals including man
 Chemical weathering causes decomposition in rocks by
Oxidation union of oxygen with minerals in rocks forming
another minerals
Hydration water will enter the crystalline structure of
minerals forming another group of minerals
Hydrolysis the release Hydrogen from water will union with
minerals forming another minerals
Carbonation when Co2 is available with the existence of
water the minerals changed to Carbonates
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Transported Soils
Alluvial
Aeolian
Glacial
Marine
Colluvial
Pyroclastic
Sedimentary Soils
Residual Soils: Material formed by disintegration of underlying
parent rock or partially indurated material.
Sands
Residual sands and fragments of gravel size formed by
solution and leaching of cementing material, leaving the
more resistant particles; commonly quartz.
Generally, favourable foundation conditions.
Clays
Residual clays formed by decomposition of silicate rocks,
disintegration of shales, and solution of carbonates in
limestone.
Variable properties requiring detailed investigation. Deposits
present favorable foundation conditions except in humid and
tropical climates.
Organic Soils: Accumulation of highly organic material formed in
place by the growth and subsequent decay of plant life.
Peat. A somewhat fibrous aggregate of decayed and
decaying vegetation matter having a dark colour and odour
of decay.
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AlluvialLacustrine deposits.
Material deposited within lakes (other than those associated
with glaciation by waves, currents, and organochemical
processes.
Clays are frequently varved, i.e., layered by the annual
deposition of material
Usually very uniform in horizontal direction. Finegrained
soils generally compressible.
Piedmont deposits
Alluvial deposits at foot of hills or mountains. Extensive
plains or alluvial fans.
Generally favourable foundation conditions.
Deltaic deposits.
Deposits formed at the mouths of rivers that result in
extension of the shoreline.
Generally finegrained and compressible. Many local
variations in soil condition.
Aeolian Soils: Material transported and deposited by wind.
Loess
A calcareous, unstratified deposit of silts or sandy or clayey
silt traversed by a network of tubes formed by root fibres
now decayed.
Relatively uniform deposits characterised by ability to stand
in vertical cuts. Collapsible structure. Deep weathering or
saturation can modify characteristics.
Dune sands
Mounds, ridges, and hills of uniform fine sand
characteristically exhibiting rounded grains.
Very uniform grain size; may exist in relatively loose
condition.
Glacial soils: Material transported and deposited by glaciers, or by
melt water from the glacier.
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Glacial till
An accumulation of debris, deposited beneath, at the side
(lateral moraines,) or at the lower limit of a glacier (terminal
moraine.) Material lowered to ground surface in an irregular
sheet by a melting glacier is known as a ground moraine
Consists of material of all sizes in various proportions from
boulder and gravel to clay. Deposits are unstratified.
Generally present favourable foundation conditions;
however, rapid changes in conditions are common.
GlacioFluvial deposits
Coarse and finegrained material deposited by streams of
melt water from glaciers. Material deposited on ground
surface beyond terminal of glacier is known as an outwash
plain. Gravel ridges known as kames and eskers.
Many local variations. Generally, these present favourable
foundation conditions.
GlacioLacustrine deposits
Material deposited within lakes by melt water from glaciers.
Consisting of clay in central portions of lake and alternate
layers of silty clay or silt and clay (varved clay in peripheral
zones.
Very uniform in a horizontal direction.
Marine Soils: Material transported and deposited by ocean waves
and currents in shore and offshore areas.
Shore deposits
Deposits of sands and/or gravels formed by the transporting,
destructive, and sorting action of waves on the shoreline.
Relatively uniform and of moderate to high density.
Marine clays
Organic and inorganic deposits of finegrained material.
Generally very uniform in composition. Compressible and
usually very sensitive to remolding.
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Manmade and
Hydraulic Fills
Limestone and Related
Soils
Karst Topography
Calcareous Soils
Quick Clays
Dispersive Clays
Submarine Soils
Expansive Soils
Expansive soils are distinguished by their potential for great volume
increase upon access to moisture.
Soils exhibiting such behaviour are mostly Montmorillonite clays and
clay shales.
Expansive soils can be identified by either their plasticity limit or a
swell test
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Collapsing Soils
Collapsing soils are distinguished by their potential to undergo large
decrease in volume upon increase in moisture content even without
increase in external loads.
Examples:
Loess
Weakly cemented sands and silts where cementing agent is soluble
(e.g., soluble gypsum, halite, etc.)
Certain granite residual soils.
Deposits of collapsible soils are usually associated with regions of
moisture deficiency.
Permafrost and Frost Penetration
Volume Increase from underground ice formation leads to heave of
structure
In nonfrost susceptible soil: Typically 4% (porosity 40%, water
volume increase in turning to ice = 10%, total heave = 40% x 10% =
4%).
In susceptible soil heave is much greater as water flows to colder zones
(forming ice lenses). The associated loss of support upon thaw can be
more detrimental to structure than the heave itself.
Silts are the most susceptible to frost heave. Soils of types SM, ML, GM,
SC, GC, and CL are classified as having frost heave potential.
Manmade and Hydraulic Fills
Found in coastal facilities, levees, dikes and tailings dams.
High void ratio.
Subject to large amount of settlement.
Uniform gradation but variable grain size within same fill.
High liquefaction potential
Lateral spreading.
Easily eroded.
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Distribution and physical properties of sand, silt and clay may change
with time and local geologic conditions
Soil deposits have typical properties
Some areas (Gulf of Mexico) have weak, underconsolidated deposits
Cohesionless soils
Cohesive soils
Soil Cohesion
Cohesionless Soils
Generally are granular or coarse
grained
Particles do not naturally adhere
to each other
Have higher permeability
Cohesive Soils
Generally are fine grained
Particles have natural adhesion
to each other
due to presence of clay minerals
Have low permeability
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Subrounded
Well rounded
Rounded
Subangular
Relative Density
Dr
emax eo
x100
emax emin
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Example
Find
Given
Void Ratio
Sand Backfill
Relative Density
Unit Weight = 109 pcf
Water Content = 8.6%
Specific Gravity of Solids = 2.6
emax = 0.642 (loosest state)
emin = 0.462 (densest state)
Solution
Assume Vt = 1 ft3; thus, Wt = 109 lbs.
Weight balance: 109 = Ws + Ww
Water content = Ww/Ws = 0.086
Solving two previous equations:
Ws = 100.4 lbs; Ww = 8.6 lbs.
Vs = Ws s = 100.4/((2.6)(62.4)) = 0.618 ft3
Vw = Ww w = 8.6/62.4 = 0.138 ft3
Va = Vt Vw Vs = 1 0.138 0.618 = 0.243 ft3
e = Vv/Vs = (Va + Vw)/Vs = (0.243 + 0.138)/0.618 = 0.616
Dr
emax eo
x100
emax emin
0642 0618
x100 14.2%
0642 0.462
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silicon
Si
Tetrahedral unit
Silica sheet
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Al (Gibbsite)
or
Mg (Magnesia)
Al
Alumina sheet
Octahedral unit
Sheets can layer in different ways, forming different types of clay
minerals
Clay minerals tend to form flat, platelike, and niddle shapes
Electro Chemical Forces
Primary valency bonds
Van der Waals forces or molecular bonds
Polar forces
Hydrogen bonds
Isomorphic substitutions and absorbed ions
It is the replacement of the silicon and aluminum ions in the crystal by
other elements, with no change in the crystalline structure
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Kaolinite group
Illite group
Montmorillonite group
Kaolinite
One sheet alumina,
one silica
Most prevalent clay
mineral
Halloysite
One sheet alumina,
one silica, sheet of
water in between
Properties affected
by presence or
removal of water
sheet
Reverts to kaolinite
when water is
removed
Illite
Montmorillonite
Same as Illite except no
potassium; iron or
magnesium
replace the alumina
Very prone to expansion
with changes in water
content due to weak
bonding
Specific surface
It defines as the ratio of the surface area (As) of a material to either its volume
(V) for regular shape or mass (m) for irregular shape of soil particles.
S .S
1
As
(
) ; S .S
V length
As length 2
(
)
m
mass
To demonstrate this, S.S for cubes with different dimensions were computed
as follows:S.S
Cube
1x1x1 cm3
6(1cm 2 )
1cm 3
6 / cm
1x1x1 mm3
6(1mm 2 )
1mm 3
6 / mm
1x1x1 m3
6(1 m 2 )
1 m3
6/ m
0.6 / mm
6000 / mm
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+ +
+ +
+ 
Concentration of ions
Catio
Anio
Distance from the clay particle
Oxygen
=
Hydrogen
Hydrogen
105o
Clay
particle
Dipole
+ 
_
_
_
+ 
Dipole
Cation
Hydrogen
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Sieve Analysis
Primarily applied to granular (cohesionless) soils
Passes soil sample through a series of sieves of varying mesh fineness
Different portions of soil with different grain size pass through each mesh
Distribution of grain sizes constructed and plotted
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D10 effective size particle size at which 10% of the sample has passed.
It is useful to determine permeability
Uniformity Coefficient Cu
D60
D10
Well graded even distribution of different particle sizesCu > 10
Poorly graded most particles in a narrow size range Cu < 5
Gap Graded some particle size ranges are missing
Cu
Coefficient of Curvature Cc
Cu
D 2 30
D10 D60
Cu
D60
D10
Cu
D 2 30
D10 D60
0 .6
0.07
8 .5
0.24 2
1.37
0.07 x0.6
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Basic Concepts
Soil is a collection of particles that do not form a totally solid substance
Soil is a combination of:
Soil material in particles
Air
Water
The relationship between this combination defines much of what any
particular soil can do to support foundations
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Phase Diagram
Assumptions and Definitions:
Weight of air = 0
Dry Soil: Water weight and volume = 0
Volume of voids include all nonsoil volume, both air and water
Saturated Soil
Saturated Soil: Air volume = 0
Only water and solids appear in completely saturated soil
Basic Formulas
V total=V air+V water+V soil
Wtotal=Wwater+Wsoil
or
W x = xV x
or
Mtotal=Mwater+M soil
M x = xV x
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e=
Vv
Expressed as decimal Sands (0.4 1.0) Clays (0.3 1.5)
Vs
2. Porosity , n
n=
Vv
x100%
Vt
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n=
Prove that
e
1+ e
or
e=
n
1 n
3. Degree of saturation, S
S=
Vw
x100% S = 0 % Dry Soil,
Vv
4. Air Content, Ac
Ac =
Va
x100%
V
Ac = n(1 S )
Ww
x100% can be equal to zero in dry soil and may be reached
Ws
Wt Ws + Ww
=
Vt
Vt
Ws
Vs
Ww
Vw
There are three other useful densities in soils engineering; they are
 Dry Unit weight, d =
Ws
Vt
Ws + Ww Wt
=
Vt
Vt
(Va = 0, S = 100 % )
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Gs =
s
w
apparent
Solid
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Example 1
Given:
Total Volume = 1 cu. ft.
Total Weight = 140 lb.
Dry Weight = 125 lb.
Find
Water Content
Wet Unit Weight
Dry Unit Weight
By Definition:
Dry Unit Weight = Dry Weight = 125 lb/ft3
Wet Unit Weight = Total Weight = 140 lb/ft3
Solve for Weight of Water
WT = Ws + Ww
140 = 125+Ww
Ww = 15 lb/ft3
Solve for Water Content
w = Ww/Ws = Ww/125 = 15/125 = 0.12 = 12%
Example 2
Given:
Total Mass = 18.18 kg
Total Volume = 0.009 m3
Dry Mass = 16.13 kg
Specific Gravity of Solids = 2.7
Find
Wet Density
Dry Unit Weight
Void Ratio
Water Content
Compute Mass of Water
Mt = Ms+Mw
18.18 = 16.13+Mw
Mw = 2.05 kg
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2
3
State
Brittle
Water content 0
Semi solid
S.L
L.I<0
P.L
Plastic
L.I = 0
Liquid
L.L
L.I = 1
= P.L
Liquid Limit
Definition
Atterberg defined the liquid limit as a water content at which the soil becomes
a viscous liquid.
Casagrande defined the liquid limit as a water content at which a standard
groove cut in the remolded soil sample by a grooving tool will close over a
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In practice, it is difficult to mix the soil so that the groove closure occurs at
exactly 25 blows, so Casagrande did the following:
, %
Flow curve
L.L (l)
Slope = tan
N (No. of blows)
25
Log. Scale
Sometimes one point liquid limit test can be used because, for soils of
similar geologic origin, the slopes of the flow curves are similar.
L.L( L ) = n (
n tan
)
25
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Plastic Limit
Atterberg defined the plastic limit as water content at which soil becomes
in plastic state .
Casagrande defined the plastic limit as water at which a thread of soil just
crumbles when it is carefully rolled out to a diameter of 3 mm(1/8). It should
break up into segments about 3 10 mm (1/8 3/8 inch) long. If the thread
crumbles at diameter smaller than 3 mm, the soil is too wet. If the thread
crumbles at diameter grater than 3 mm, the soil past the P.L
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Shrinkage Limit
It defines as a water content at which no further volume change occurs with
continuous loss of moisture.
Volume of soil
Vi
Vf
s
S.L
P.L
L.L
44.4 mm dia.
12.7 mmheight
Oven dried
Before drying
Vf soil volume
m soil mass
After drying
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However
i (%) =
m1 m2
x100%
m2
also
(%) =
(Vi V f )
m2
S .L = i
x w x100%
We can also estimate the magnitude of S.L using the plasticity chart, as we
will described in lab.
Other index properties for the soil
 Plasticity index, P.I = L.L P.L
 Flow index, F .I =
2 1
=
=
log N 2 log N1 log N 2 = 1 for K oneK cycle
N1
Toughness index, T .I = P.I express the soil consistency in the plastic State.
F .I
L.L n
L.L n
=
L.L P.L
P.I
n P.L
P.I
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Plasticity increase
4. Type of ions.
The type of absorbed ions will effect the plasticity characteristics such
as Na , Mg will give high plasticity while Ca will give low plasticity.
5. Content of organic matter.
As the organic matter content increase the plasticity characteristics
Increase.
Activity
Skempton (1953) observed the following relationship. He defined a quantity
called Activity which the slope of the line correlating P.I & % finer than 2
m.
A=
P.I
%ofclay sizefraction, byweight
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P.I
Soil 1
A1
Soil 2
A2
Soil classification
< 0.75
0.75 1.25
1.25 2.0
Non Active
Normally Active
Active
A
0.4 0.5
0.5 1.0
1.0 7.0
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Example
The following data were obtained from the liquid & plastic limits tests for a
soil with n = 15 %
Liquid limit test
No. of blows
15
20
28
Moisture content; %
42
40.8
39.1
P.L = 18.7 %
Required
a Draw the flow curve & find the liquid limit.
b Find the plasticity index of the soil
c Find L.I, C.I, F.I, T.I
Moisture Content %
Solution
44.00
40.00
L.L = 39.5 %
36.00
10.00
100.00
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The soil is heavily preconsolidated, since n is smaller than P.L & lower than
L.L.
Plasticity Chart
Casagrande (1932)
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Voids
Loose
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Dense
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Soil solid
Void
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Thixotropy
Thixotropy is the ability of certain substances to liquefy when agitated and
to return to a gel form when at rest. The term thixotropy is derived from
the Greek words thixis, meaning "the act of handling," and trope, meaning
"change." Thixotropic substances are colloidal gels when solid and sols
when liquefied. Examples of thixotropic substances include catsup, some
hand creams, certain paints and printer's inks, and suspensions of clay in
water. The reversibility and essentially isothermal nature of the of the gelsolgel transformation distinguish thixotropic materials from those that
liquefy upon heatingfor example gelatin.
Thixotropic systems are quite diverse. Therefore, it is unlikely that a single
descriptive theory can include them all. However, in general, the
phenomenon is found only in colloidal suspensions.
Various mechanisms can cause thixotropic behavior. For a gel system,
agitation disrupts the threedimensional structure that binds the system into
a gel. Agitation might also introduce order into the system. In a system
containing long polymeric molecules, these molecules can be disordered in
the gel. When the gel is agitated, the molecules can align in the direction
of flow, reducing the resistance to flow.
Some substances possess a property which is nearly the opposite of
thixotropy. This property is called dilatancy. A dilatant substance is one
that develops increasing resistance to flow as the rate of shear increases. A
household example of a dilatant material is a thick dispersion of cornstarch
in water. This appears to be a freeflowing liquid when poured, but when it
is stirred, it becomes very firm. Another familiar example of dilatancy is
the phenomenon of wet sand appearing to dry and become firm when it is
walked on.
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Soil Classification
Introduction
A soil classification system is the arrangement of different soils with similar properties into groups &
subgroups based on their application or to their probable engineering behavior.
provides a common language to briefly express the general characteristics of
soils, which are infinitely varied, without detailed descriptions.
Most of the soils classification systems that have been developed for
engineering purposes are based on simple index properties such as particle size
distribution & plasticity.
Although there are several classification systems now in use, none is totally
definitive of any soil for all possible applications, because of the wide diversity
of soil properties.
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The role of classification system in geotechnical engineering practice isClassification & index properties
e, n, , S, GDS, L.L, P.I, etc
Classification system
Engineering properties
Permeability, compressibility, Shear
strength,.etc.
Engineering purposes
Highways, airfield, dams, foundations,etc.
A Textural classification
In general classification systems divided soils into the following categories on
the basis of particle size. Gravel; Sand; Silt; and Clay , but the nature of
soils are mixtures of particles from several size groups, so if we know the
principle components of the soils, we can named the soils such as Sandy Clay,
Silty Clay ; and so forth. One of these systems is the system developed by
AASHTO (American Association of State Highway and Transportation
Official).the following chart is used to classify the soil, It is based on the
particle size limits
Sand size
2.0 0.05
mm in diameter
Silt size
Clay size
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0 100
10
90
20
80
70
30
Clay
40
50
% of Sand
70
80
90
100
Sand
10
60
50
Silty clay
Sandy
clay
30
Sandy Clay
loam
Clay
loam
Sandy loam
20
30
40
Silty Clay
loam
Loam
40
50
Silty loam
60
70
20
Silt
80
90
10
0
100
% of Silt
The chart is based only on the fraction of soil that passes through the no. 10
sieve. Otherwise a correction will be necessary if a certain percentage of the
soil particles are larger than 2 mm in diameter, as shown belowThe modified textural composition areModified % Sand =
% sand
x100%
100 % gravel
Modified % Silt =
% silt
x100%
100 % gravel
Modified % Clay =
%clay
x100%
100 % gravel
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Then the soil is classified by proceeding in manner indicated by the arrows &
the soil named according to the zone that fall in it as shown in the following
example.
Example
Given
Particle size distribution (%)
Soil
Gravel
A
B
Sand
0
18
Silt
18
Clay
24
58
51
22
62.2
26.83
10.96
51
x100 = 62.2%
100 18
22
= 26.83%
100 18
Modified % Clay =
9
= 10.96%
100 18
Using AASHTO chart we classified the soil A as clay and soil B As gravelly
Sandy loam
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4.75
4.75
MEDIUM
19
0.075
COLLOIDAL
CLAY
SILT
0.005
0.001
SAND
COARSE
FINE
75
COARSE
300
COBBLLES
USCS
BOULDERS
GRAVEL
0.425
FINE
MEDIUM
2
0.425
FINE
75
COARSE
AASHTO
GRAVEL
BOULDERS
SAND
FINES
(SILT & CLAY)
0.075
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Soil component
Boulder
Cobble
Gravel
Sand
Symbol
Significant properties
None
None
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Soil component
Symbol
Silt
Clay
Organic matter
Significant properties
Silt is inherently unstable, particularly
when moisture is increased, with
tendency to become quick when
saturated. It is relatively impervious,
difficult to compact, highly susceptible
to frost heave, easily erodible and
subject to piping and boiling. Bulky
grains reduce compressibility, flaky
grains, i.e., mica, diatoms, increase
compressibility, produce an elastic
silt. Produce
The distinguishing characteristics of
clay is cohesion or cohesive strength,
which increase with decrease in
moisture. The permeability of clay is
very low, it is difficult to compact
when wet and impossible to drain by
boundary means, when compacted is
resistant to erosion and piping, is not
suspectible to frost heave, is subject to
expansion and shrinkage with changes
in moisture. The properties are
influenced not only by the size and
shape (flat, plate like particles) but
also by their mineral compositions:
i.e., the type of clay mineral, and
chemical environment or base
exchange capacity. In general, he
Montmorillonite clay mineral has
greatest, Illite and Kaolinite the least,
adverse effect on the properties.
Organic matter present even in
moderate amounts increase
compressibility and reduces the
stability of the fine grained
components. It may decay causing
voids or by chemical alteration change
the properties of a soil, hence organic
soils are not desirable for engineering
uses.
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GW GM , SW SM
GM , SM
GP , SP
GW GC , SW SC
GC , SC
GP GM , SP SM
GP GC , SP SC

CH , MH , OH
CL ML &Pt
60
A line
CH
U line P.I = 0.9 (LL 8)
CL ML
7
4
P.I% 0
CL
CL
MH
or
or
ML
or
ML
OL 50
100
Liquid Limit %
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100 F
the soil will take the symbol G (gravel or gravelly soil).
2
100 F
the soil will take the symbol S (sand or sandy soil)
If F1
2
If F1 <
To state the degree of gradation whether to be well (W) or poor (P) the
following criteria shall be meet together and the soil will be well graded
otherwise the soil will be poorly graded.
Cu greater than 4 for gravel & greater than 6 for sand
Cc between 1 and 3
Then if F < 5% examine GSD & find Cu & Cc and the soil will take one of the
following symbol GW, SW, GP, SP according to the above criteria.
If F is between 5%  12% besides the GSD characteristics (Cu & Cc ) we shall
use the plasticity characteristics such as (L.L & P.I ) with the plasticity chart
to define the dual symbol such as GW GM , SW SM , GP GM , SP
SM , GW GC , SW SC , GP GC , SP SC .
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If F > 12% we use the plasticity characteristics (L.L & P.I) with the plasticity
chart to state the soil symbol such as GM, GC, SM, SC,
GM GC or
SM SC .
Step 3 For fine grained we use the plasticity characteristics (L.L & P.I)
with the plasticity chart to state the soil symbol such as OL
or
ML,
Example
Following are the results of a sieve analysis and L.L & P.L tests for two soils
Sieve size
Soil 1 % passing
Soil 2 % passing
99
97
No. 10 (2 mm)
92
90
86
40
No. 100
78
60
L.L
20
P.L
15
P.I
NP (Not Plastic)
Required
Classify the soil according to USCS
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Solution
1 Plot the GSD curve for the two soils.
2 For soil 1 % passing no. 200 sieve is greater than 50% so it is fine grained
soil and by using plasticity chart the soil plots in the zone (CL ML).
3 For soil 2 % passing no. 200 sieve is less than 50% so it is coarse
grained soil.
F1 =92% (% passing no. 4 & retained on No.200 sieve) >
100 5
= 47.5% so
2
D60
D30 2
Cu =
= 3.9 < 6 ; C c =
0.91 1
D10
D10 .D60
as Cu & Cc does not meet the requirements of well graded the soil is poorly
graded , the symbol will be SP, but since % passing no. 200 sieve = 5% the
soil will take a dual symbol, since the soil is NP so the symbol is SM
so the symbol will be SP SM .
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W.T.
Impervious Soil
h = hA  hB
pervious Soil
W.T.
hA = total head
Impervious Soil
Datum
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Permeability
Overview of Underground Water Flow
Hydrologic Cycle
Aspects of Hydrology
A relatively small amount of the earth's water (<1%) is contained in the
groundwater, but the effects of this water are out of proportion to their
amount
The permeability of soil affects the distribution of water both between the
surface and the ground mass and within the ground mass itself
Ground Surface
Vadose Zone
(zone of aeration)
Capillary fringe
Water Table
(Phreatic Surface)
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Permeability
Definition The property of soils that allows water to pass through them at some
rate.
This property is a product of the granular nature of the soil, although it
can be affected by other factors (such as water bonding in clays)
Different soils have different perm abilities, understanding of which is
critical to the use of the soil as a foundation or structural element
Soil and rock are porous materials
Fluid flow takes place through interconnected void spaces between
particles and not through the particles themselves
No soil or rock material is strictly impermeable
Macroscopic flow
Microscopic flow
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Pavement Drainage
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Theory
Bernoulli's Law
According to Bernoullis equation, the total head (ht) at a point in water under
motion is
ht =
p v2
+
+Z
w 2g
Where
Pressure head (Kinetic vomponent) =
p
w
=hp
v2
=hv
2g
Elevation head (Gravitational (potential) component) = Z=he
p
+ Z = hp + he
w
Head Differential
W.T .
h = hA  hB
W.T .
hA
Water In
q = v . A = kiA = k
hB
Datum
h
A
L
Water
ZA
Elevation Head
hB
Soil
B
L = Drainage Path
Datum
ZB
Total Head
(q)
Pressure Head
i = Hydraulic Gradient
Elevation Head
hA
Pressure Head
Total Head
Head Loss or
Head Difference or
Energy Loss
h =h A  hB
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PA
P
+ Z A) ( B + ZB )
w
w
h can be expressed in nondimensional form as
Hydraulic gradient
h
i=
L
Where
i = hydraulic gradient
L = distance between A&B (the length of flow over which loss of head occurred)
In general, the variation of velocity (v) with the hydraulic gradient (i) will be
as shown in the figure below
h = hA hB = (
Zone III
Zone II
Velocity, v
Zone
I
Hydraulic
gradient,
i hydraulic gradient
Nature of variation
of velocity
with
vi
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Darcys Law
In 1856, Darcy published a simple equation for discharge velocity of water
through saturated soils, which may expressed as
v = ki
Where
(v) is based on the gross sectional area of the soil, however the actual
velocity of water (seepage velocity, vs )through the void spaces is higher than
v this can be derived as following:
Av = Area of voids
Flow rate, q
=
A = Area of soil sample
v ( Av + As ) v ( Av + As ) L v (Vv + Vs )
Vs
=
=
Av
Av L
Vv
Vv
1 + V
s
vs = v
V
v
Vs
1+ e v
= v
=
e n
vs =
v
n
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1.2
Air pressure
Length (m)
0.6
Datum
2.4
1.8
1.2
0.6
0
0.6
1.2
(cm/sec)
Velocity
2
1
0
In this case the air pressure will produce the required head for horizontal
flow. Thus
23.4
= 2.385 m .
9.81
2.385
v 0.663
v = k .i = 0.5
= 0.663 v s = =
= 2 cm / sec
1.8
n 0.33
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Downward Flow
Elevation (m)
Total head
Datum
0.6
v = k .i = 0.5.
vs =
0.6
1.2
1.8
2.4
3.0
3.6
3.6
= 1 cm/sec at the entrance and the exit parts of the tube .
1.8
v
1
=
= 3 cm/sec through the soil sample
n 0.33
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Upward flow
The same tube was tested under upward flow as shown in the figure below
Elevation (m)
Total head
Datum
0
v = k .i = 0.5.
0.6
1.2
1.8
2.4
3.0
3.6
4.2
4.8 0
1.2
v 0.33
= 0.33 v s = =
= 1 cm/sec
1.8
n 0.33
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k (cm / s ) =
Kg K w
=
(12)
k (mm/sec)
Coarse gravel
10 to 103
10 2 to 10
10 4 to 102
10 5 to 104
10 8 to 105
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k 20 ( 20 )( T )
=
kT ( T )( 20 )
Where
kT , k20 = coefficient of permeability at T oC and 20oC, respectively
T , 20 = mass density of the fluid at T oC and 20oC, respectively
T , 20 = coefficient of viscosity at T oC and 20oC, respectively
Since the value of 20 / T is approximately 1, we can write
k 20 = kT
Where
T
20
T
= f (T ) 1.682 0.0433T + 0.00046T 2
20
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Laboratory Tests
Constant head test
Direct measure of permeability using Darcy's Law
QL
Q = qt = kiAt k =
hAt
Suitable for cohesionless soils with permeabilities > 10 x104 cm/sec
The simplest of all methods for determining the coefficient of permeability
This test is performed by measuring the quantity of water, Q, flowing
through the soil specimen, the length of the soil specimen, L, the head of
water, h, and the elapsed time, t. The head of water is kept constant
throughout the test.
Distilled de aired
Overflow
Collection of water in a
cylinder (Q at time t)
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h1
h
h2
Soil sample with cross section
area = A
Overflow
h
dh
A = a
L
dt
where h = head difference at any time t
A = area of specimen
a = area of standpipe
L = length of specimen
From eq.(15),
q = kiA = k
h2
0 dt = h
aL dh
Ak h
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Or
k = 2.303
aL
h
log 1
At
h2
Field tests
There are many useful methods to determine the permeability coefficient in
field such as
1. pumping from wells
2. Bore hole test
3. Open end test
4. Packer test
5. Variable head tests by means of piezometer observation well
Pumping from wells
Gravity wells (unconfined aquifer)
r2
R
r1
dr
dh
Test well
Observation wells
h
H1
h1
h2
H
2rw
Impermeable layer
q = kiA
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q=k
dh
2hr
dr
r2
h2
dr 2k
r = q hdh
r
h
So
2.303q log r2
r1
k=
h22 h12
r1
dh
dr
Test well
Observation wells
h
H1
h1
h2
Hw
2rw
Impermeable layer
q = kiA = k
r2
dh
2rT
dr
h2
dr
2kT
r = q dh
r
h
1
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k=
q log(r2 / r1)
2.727T (h2 h1 )
k=
q log( R / rw )
2.727T ( H1 H w )
Empirical Correlations
Several empirical equations for estimation of the permeability coefficient
have been proposed in the past. Some of these will be briefly discussed in this
section.
Hazen (1930)
2
k (cm / sec) = cD10
Casagrande
k = 1.4e 2 k0.85
k = C1
3
e3
2.32 0.6 e
C1 = C 2 D10
Cu
1+ e
1+ e
0.89
k = 1.2C u0.735 D10
e3
1+ e
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Samarasingh et.
al. (1984)
k = C3
en
1+ e
log k = A log + B
/
For clays
log k = log ko
eo e
Ck
For clays.
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Direction of flow
k h3
k vn
k hn
k H (eq) =
1
(k h1 H1 + kh2 H 2 + k h3 H 3 + L + k hn H n )
H
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Or
n
khi H i
k H (eq) = i =1
Vertical direction
h3
h2
h1
k v1
k h1
k v2
k h2
k v3
k h3
k vn
k hn
Direction of flow
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v = v1 = v 2 = v3 = L = vn
and
h = h1 + h2 + h3 + L + hn
using Darcy,s law v = ki , we can write
kv (eq) .
h
= kv1.i1 = kv 2 .i2 = kv 3.i3 = L = kvn .in
H
again
kv (eq ) =
H
H1 H 2 H 3
H
+
+
+ L + n
kv1 kv 2 kv 3
kvn
or
k v (eq ) =
H
H
k i
i =1 vi
n
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Examples
1. An impervious layer as shown in the figure underlies a permeable
soil layer. With k = 4.8x103 cm/sec for the permeable layer, calculate
the rate of seepage through it in cm3/sec/cm length width. Given H =
3 m and = 5o .
Ground surface
G.W.T (free surface)
H cos
h = L tan
Direction
of seepage
L /cos
H
Impervious layer
Solution
From the above figure
i=
headloss L tan
=
= sin
length
L
cos
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k (cm/sec)
1x102
3x103
5x104
B
A
150 mm
C
150 mm
150 mm
Solution
For the soil layers B & C (the flow is parallel to the stratification)
k H ( eq ) =
1
(kh1H 1 + k h 2 H 2 ) = 1 (3x10 3 (5) + 5 x10 4 (5)) = 1.75 x10 3
H
10
cm/sec
H
H1 H 2
+
k1 k 2
45
30
15
+
2
1x10
1.75x103
= 3.8 x103
300
(10)2 = 0.259 cm3 / sec
450
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k1 e12
0.1 (0.55)2
0.1)(0.7 )2
(
=
=
k2 =
= 0.16 ft/min at e = 0.7
k2
k 2 e22
(0.7 )2
(0.55)2
4. for normally consolidated clay soil, the following are given:
Void ratio
k (cm/sec)
1.1
0.302x107
0.9
0.12x107
e1n
n
+
1
e
e
k1
1
Samarasingh et.al. eq. k = C 3
=
1+ e
k2 e2n
1 + e
(1.1)n
2
.
517
=
0.12 x10 7
2.1 0.9
(0.9)n
1 + 0.9
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2.782 = (1.222)n
log(2.782) 0.444
n=
=
= 5.1
log(1.222) 0.087
So
e 5.1
k = C 3
1
+
e
To find C3
0.302 x10
C3 =
(1.1)5.1 1.626
= C3
C 3
=
1 = 1.1 2.1
1.626
cm / sec
Hence
e 5.1
k = 0.39 x10 7
+
1
e
k = 0.39 x10
1.25.1
7
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50
k=
= 0.0267 ft / min 0.027 ft / min
20 2 152
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Seepage
H1
Outflow rates
v z + z dz dxdy
z
h
H2
dy
v x + x dx dzdy
x
v x dzdy
dx
Permeable layer
vy
v z dxdy
Impermeable layer
vx
Inflow rates
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Assumptions:
1. The row of sheet piles is impervious
2. The steady state flow of water from the upstream to the downstream
side through the permeable layer is a two dimensional flow.
3. The water is incompressible
4. No volume change occurs in the soil mass. Thus, the total rate of
inflow should be equal to the total rate of outflow
v z
v x
Or
v x v z
+
= 0 (1)
x
z
Using Darcy,s law, the discharge velocities can be expressed as
h
h
and v z = k z i z = k z
..(2)
x
z
Where k x , k z are the permeability coefficients in the horizontal and vertical
v x = kxix = k x
directions respectively.
From Eqs. 1 and 2, we can write that
kx
2h
2h
+
k
=0
z
x 2
z 2
If the soil is isotropic with respect to the permeability coefficients that is,
k x = k z  the preceding continuity equation for two dimensional flow
simplifies to
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2h 2h
+
=0
x 2 z 2
h1
H1
Z
H2
Datum
Soil 1
k1
h2
Soil 2
k2
2h
= 0 h = A1 z + A2
z 2
Soil 1
@z=0
@ z = H1
h = h1
h = h2
h1 = A2
h2 = A1 H 1 + h1
h=
A1 =
( h1 h2 )
z + h1
H1
Soil 2
@ z = H1
@ z = H1+H2
( h1 h2 )
H1
for 0 z H 1
h = h2
h=0
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h2 = A1 H 1 + A2
A2 = h2 A1 H 1
0 = A1 ( H 1 + H 2 ) + A2
A1 =
h=
H
h2
z + h2 (1 + 1 )
H2
H2
for
h2
H2
and
A2 = h2 (1 +
H1
)
H2
H1 z H1 + H 2
h1 h2
h 0
A = k2 2
A
H1
H2
h1k1
k
k
H 1 1 + 2
H1 H 2
h = h1 (1
k2 z
)
k1 H 2 + k 2 H 1
k1
( H 1 + H 2 z )
h = h1
k1 H 2 + k2 H 1
for
0 z H1
for
H 1 z H1 + H 2
Flow Nets
The following methods are available for the determination of flow nets:
1. Graphical solution by sketching
2. Mathematical or analytical methods
3. Numerical analysis
4. Models
5. Analogy methods
All the methods are based on Laplaces continuity equation.
Flow net in isotropic medium
2h 2h
+
= 0 represents two orthogonal families of curves that is, the
x 2 z 2
flow lines and the equipotential lines.
Flow line is a line along which a water particle will travel from upstream to
the downstream side in the permeable soil medium.
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Equipotential line is a line along which the potential head at all points is the
same.
Sheet pile
H1
H2
Flow line
Equipotential
line
Permeable layer
kx = kz =k
Impermeable layer
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Seepage Calculation
h1
h2
q
h3
h4
l1
l3
l1
l2
l3
l
q
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rate
of
seepage
through
the
flow
channel
per
unit
width
q1 = q2 = q3 = L = q
From Darcy,s law, the rate of flow is equal to k.i.A . Thus
h h4
h h3
h h2
l3 = L So
l2 = k 3
l1 = k 2
q = k 1
l2
l1
l3
h1 h2 = h2 h3 = h3 h4 = L =
H
Nd
And
q = k
H
Nd
Where
H = the difference of head between the upstream and downstream sides
Nd = number of potential drops
If the number of flow channels in a flow net is equal to Nf , the total rate of
flow through all the channels per unit width can be given by
q = k .H .
Nf
Nd
= k.H .
Nd
Nf
Although convenient, it is not always to draw square elements for a flow net.
It is also possible to draw a rectangular mesh for a flow channel as shown in
the figure below, provided that the width to length ratio for all the
rectangular elements in the flow net are the same.
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h1
h2
h3
h4
b1
b3
l1
b2
l3
l
q
In that case, the flow rate through the channel can write as follows
h h
h h
h h
q = k 1 2 b1 = k 2 3 b2 = k 3 4 b3 = L
l1
l2
l3
If
b1 b2 b3
=
= = L = n . So
l1 l 2 l3
n
q = k .H .
Nd
Nf
q = k .H .
Nd
.n = k.H . .n
In general the flow nets may contain square and rectangular elements, in that
case we can solve the problem by treating each part separately then we get the
sum of the parts.
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2h
2h
k x 2 + kz 2 = 0
x
z
in that case the equation represents two families of curves that do not meet at
90o . However, we can rewrite the preceding equation as
2h
2h
k
+
=0
z
z 2
( k z / k x )x 2
Substituting x = k z / k x . x then
2 h 2h
+
=0
x2 z 2
To construct the flow net, use the following procedures:
1. Adopt a vertical scale (that is, z axis) for drawing the cross section.
2. Adopt a horizontal scale (that is, x axis) such that horizontal scale =
k z / k x . (vertical scale).
3. With scales adopted in steps 1 and 2, plot the vertical section through the
permeable layer parallel to the direction of flow.
4. Draw the flow net for the permeable layer on the section obtained from step
3, with flow lines intersecting equipotential lines at right angles and the
elements as approximate squares.
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q = ke .H . = k x .k z .H .
Nf
Nd
Where
Natural Scale
h
b
Flow direction
l kx kz
ke .
h
h
b(1) = k x
k e = k x .k z
l
l kx kz
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Transformed Scale
Natural Scale
Flow direction
b
l
l kx kz
ke
h
h
l (1) = k z
.l k x k z ke = k x .k z
b
b
k x = kmax and
k z = k min
h
v x = k x .i x = k x .
x
h
v z = k z .i z = k z .
z
Also, in any direction S, inclined at angle to the x direction
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h
v s = k s .i s = k s .
s
Now
h h x h z
= .
+ .
S x S z S
x
= cos
S
z
= sin
S
v
vs
v
= x cos + z sin
ks k x
kz
v x = v s cos
Also
v z = v s sin
1 cos 2 sin 2
=
+
ks
kx
kz
Or
S 2 x2 z2
=
+
ks k x k z
ks
kz
kx
Permeability Ellipse
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Transfer Condition
In case of flow perpendicular to soil strata, the loss of head and rate of flow
are influenced primarily by the less pervious soil whereas in the case of flow
parallel to the strata, the rate of flow is essential controlled by comparatively
more pervious soil.
The following shows a flow channel (part of two dimensional flow net)
going from soil A to soil B with k A k B (two layers). Based on the principle
of continuity, i.e., the same rate of flow exists in the flow channel in soil A as
in soil B, we can derive the relationship between the angles of incident of the
flow paths with the boundary for the two flow channels. Not only does the
direction of flow change at a boundary between soils with different
permeabilities, but also the geometry of the figures in the flow net changes.
As can be seen in the figure below, the figures in soil B are not squares as is
the case in soil A, but rather rectangles.
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q A = q B
q A = k A
h
bA
lA
q B = k B
h
bB
lB
kA
h
h
bA = k B
bB
lA
lB
lA
l
= tan A L and L B = tan B
bA
bB
tan A
kA
kB
k
=
A=
tan A tan B
k B tan B
Example
A flow net for flow around single row of sheet piles in a permeable soil layer
is shown in the figure. Given k x = k z = k = 5 x103 cm/sec. Determine:
1. How high (above the ground surface) the water will rise if
piezometers are placed at points a, b, c, and d.
2. The total rate of seepage through the permeable layer per unit width.
3. The rate of seepage through the flow channel II per unit width
(perpendicular to the section shown)
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Sheet pile
H1 = 4.5 m
H2 = 1.5 m
0
I
III
Nf = 3
4.5
II
9.0
Impermeable layer
Datum
d
Point
1x 0.5 = 0.5
2 x 0.5 = 1.0
5 x 0.5 = 2.5
5 x 0.5 = 2.5
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Solution
a.
3
= 0.5 m drop
6
Nf
3
= 0.05 x103 (3.0) = 7.5 x10 5 m3 / sec / m length
Nd
6
H
3
= 0.05 x10 3. = 2.5 x105 m3 /sec /m length
Nd
6
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Let w = 10 kN/m2
Point
he , m
ht , m
hp , m
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i
27
18
14.7
11.7
9.0
11.7
14.7
18.0
19.5
27.0
27.0
27 1x0.9375 = 26.0625
27 2x0.9375 = 25.125
27 4x0.9375 = 23.25
27 6x0.9375 = 21.375
27 7x0.9375 = 20.4375
27 8x0.9375 = 19.5
19.50
0
9.0
11.325
13.425
14.25
9.675
5.7375
1.50
0
Water pressure
kN/m2
0
90
113.25
134.25
142.5
96.75
57.375
15.0
0
4
3
= 18.75 x10 9 m /sec / m. length
8
Exit gradient
i=
h 1.25
=
= 0.362
l
3.45
The water pressure plot, such shown in the above figure, is useful in
the structural design of the wall and in study of water pressure
differential tending to cause leakage through the wall.
2. Uplift Pressure under Hydraulic structures
Example
The following figure shows a weir, the base of which is 1.8 m below
the ground surface. The necessary flow net also been drawn (assuming
k x = k z = k ).
H = 6.3 m.
So, the loss of head for each potential drop is H 7 = 6.3 7 = 0.9 m.
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Let the datum be at the base level of the weir, so the elevation head of
points (a to g) will be zero and since ht = h p + he then ht = h p
The total head at the ground level in the upstream side = 6.3 + 1.8 = 8.1 m
6.3 m
1.8 m
9.0
m
Impermeable layer
Let w = 10 kN/m2
Total head, ht
Point
Pressure head, hp
7.2
72
6.3
63
5.4
54
4.5
45
3.6
36
2.7
27
E
F
iexit = 0.9 / L
High value of exit gradient will affect the stability of the structure and a factor
of safety will be applied. This will discussed later
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Assuming that the top flow line is determined, a typical flow net for an
earth dam with a rock toe, resting on an impervious foundation is shown in
Fig. 6.9:
hp = 0 thus ht = he
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Schaffernaks solution
using Dupuit,s assumption
dz
= sin
dx
Considering cde
q = kiA
dz
i=
dx
A = (c e )(1) = L sin
so
q = k (tan )( L sin ) = kL tan sin KKKK(1)
Again,
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dz
dz
q = kiA = k ( zx1) = kz KKKKKK( 2)
dx
dx
kz
z = L sin
z = L cos
.......
.......
L=
cos
d2
H2
.......... ............( 3)
cos2 sin 2
dz
q = kiA = k (1xz )
ds
z = L sin
kzdz = L sin 2
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L = s s2
H2
sin 2
+ H
Then
L = d 2 + H 2 d 2 H 2 cot 2
Example
The crosssection of an earth dam is shown in Figure. Calculate the rate of
seepage through the dam [q in m3/min m] by
1. Schaffernaks solution
2. L. Casagrandes method;
30 m
25 m
3x104 m/min
50m
60m
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Schaffernaks solution
L=
d
d2
H2
.
cos
cos 2 sin 2
90
90 2
25 2
= 16.95
2
2
cos
cos 26.57 sin 26.57
q = kL tan sin
L=
L. Casagrandes method;
L = d 2 + H 2 d 2 H 2 cot 2
L = 90 2 + 25 2 90 2 252 cot 2 26.57 = 19m
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Air
Water
Water Table (W.T.)
Voids
Solid
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Water
HA
Soil
A
a1
a2
a3
a4
an = Area of points of contact
A = Cross Sectional area of soil mass
Pn = Forces acting at points of contact
P1
P2 P
3
P4
The sum of the vert. components of the forces at their points of contact per unit of Xsectional area is the effective stress.
The sum of vertical components of forces over the area is the effective stress F
/= (P1v+P2v+P3v .....+Pnv) / A
If as = a1 + a2 + a3 +...an
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Where /
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Note that the h/H2 is the hydraulic gradient that caused flow therefore,
c = z iz w
And limiting conditions may occur when c = z iz w = 0 which lead to
icr = critical hydraulic gradient
icr =
for most soils 0.91.1 ith average value of 1
w
Downward flow
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Seepage Force
p1 = z A
p2 = ( z iz w ) A = p1 + seepage force
seepage force = iz w A
p3 = ( z + iz w ) A = p3 + seepage force
seepage force = iz w A
The volume of the soil contributing to the effective stress force equals zA, so the seepage
force per unit volume of the soil is
iz w A
= i w in the direction of seepage (see the fig.)
zA
Therefore, in isotropic soil and in any direction, the force acts in the same direction as the
direction of flow. Thus, the flow nets can be used to find the hydraulic gradient at any
point to find seepage force at that point. This concept is useful to estimate F.S against
heave
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Sheet pile
H1
H2
D/2
Heave zone
D
D/2
Permeable layer
Impermeable layer
1 2
D
Submerged weight
W
D( D / 2)( sat w )
2
=
=
=
=
F .S =
1
iav w
Uplift force caused by seepage U
soil volume x ( iav w )
D 2 iav w
2
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Estimation of iav
nd = 10
a
point
a
Driving head
driving head
4
H
10
b
6.7
H
10
c
2.5
H
10
( h + hc ) / 2 + hb
hav = a
2
hav
iav =
D
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nd = 10
a
D/2
D1
D
1 2
1
+ 1 F
+ DD1 F
D
W + WF
D
2
F .S =
= 2
=
1
U
iav w
D 2 iav w
2
D
W
U
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hc =
4T
d w
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S
u =
hc w
100
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Examples
EXAMPLE1. Plot the variation of total and effective vertical stresses, and pore water
pressure with depth for the soil profile shown below in Fig.
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EXAMPLE2. Plot the variation of total and effective vertical stresses, and pore water
pressure with depth for the soil profile shown below in Fig.
A
H1 = 2 m
Dry Sand
Gs = 2.66
B
Moist Sand
Gs = 2.66
H2 = 1.8 m
G.W.T
C
Saturated Clay
H3 = 3.2 m
= 42%
D
Rock
Dry sand
Moist sand
Saturated Clay
d =
3
Gs
2.66
w =
9.81 = 16.84 kN/m
1+ e
1 + 0.55
3
G s + Se
2.66 + 0.5 * 0.55
w =
9.81 = 18.58 kN/m
1+ e
1 + 0.55
G s 2.71 * 0.42
e=
=
= 1.138
S
1
3
G +e
2.66 + 1.138
sat = s
w =
9.81 = 17.66 kN/m
1+ e
1 + 1.138
t =
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Point v
A
kN/m2
kN/m2
/v
33.68
kN/m2
2*16.84=33.68
 S w H2 =  0.5*9.81*1.8 =  33.68(8.83)
8.83
42.51
2*16.84+1.8*18.58 = 67.117
67.117
2*16.84+1.8*18.58+3.2*17.66
=123.68
3.2*9.81=31.39
123.6831.39
92.24
Stress, kN/m2
20 10
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
0
1
Total stress
depth, (m)
Effective stress
3
4
5
6
7
8
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Geostatic Stress
Topics
Normal and Shear Stresses on a Plane
Stress distribution in soils
Stress Caused by a Point Load
Vertical Stress Caused by a Line Load
Vertical Stress Caused by a Strip Load
Vertical Stress Due to Embankment Loading
Vertical Stress below the Center of a uniformly Loaded Circular
Area
Vertical Stress at any Point below a uniformly Loaded Circular Area
Vertical Stress Caused by a Rectangularly Loaded Area
Influence Chart for Vertical Pressure (Newmark Chart)
Approximate methods
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y
yx
C
F
xy
D
x
xy E
A
Y > X
n
n F
x
T
yx
xy
x
xy
y
EB = EF cos
FB = EF sin
Summing forces in N and T direction, we have
n ( EF ) = x ( EF ) sin 2 + y ( EF ) cos 2 + 2 xy ( EF ) sin cos
n =
y +x
y x
2
cos 2 + xy sin 2 ..
.(1)
Again
n ( EF ) = x ( EF ) sin cos + y ( EF ) sin cos xy ( EF ) cos 2 + xy ( EF ) sin 2
n =
y x
2
sin 2 xy cos 2
(2)
If n = 0 then
tan 2 =
2 xy
y x
.(3)
This eq. gives 2 values of that are 90o apart, this means that there are 2
planes that are right angles to each other on which shear stress = 0, such
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planes are called principle planes and the normal stress that act on the
principle planes are to as principle stresses.
To find the principle stress substitute eq.3 into eq.1, we get
n = 1 =
n =3 =
y + x
2
y + x
2
y x
2
+
+ xy
2
2
y x
2
+ xy
2
Mohrs circle
above
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+
2
y x
2
+ xy
y x
2
+ xy
R x, xy
n, n
M y, xy
x
x + y
2
Pole Method
a) Draw the circle.
b) To locate the pole P:
1) Through the point representing the stresses on the first reference
plane (xplane), draw the orientation of the first reference plane
(xplane is vertical).
2) The point where this line intersects the Mohrs Circle is the pole
P.
c) To find the stresses on a plane of any orientation:
1) Draw a line through the pole P parallel to the plane;
2) The point where this line intersects the Mohrs circle gives the
stresses (n, n) on the plane of interest.
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x, xy
n, n
Pole
x
y,xy
y
yx
x
xy E
A
yx
C
xy
B
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Added
Geostatic stresses
Total Stress
Effective Stress
Pore Water
Pressure
Westergaards Method
Bossinisque Equations
Point Load
Line Load
Strip Load
Triangular Load
Circular Load
Rectangular Load
Influence Charts
x
y
x
Approximate Method
Stress Bulbs
Newmark Charts
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Geostatic stresses
The vertical geostatic stress at point X will be computed as following
V = h
homogenous soils
V = i hi stratified
1
soils
h
h = K v where
stress ratio
K=
h
v
1< K 1
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K <1
v = 1
h = 3
2 = 3 = h
K =1
v = h = 1 = 2 = 3
Isotropic
K >1
h = 1
v = 3
2 = 1 = h
The largest shear stress will found on plane lying at 45o to the horizontal
v
(1 K )
2
K <1
max =
K =1
max = 0
K >1
max =
v
( K 1)
2
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z = (3P/2) (Z3/L5)
z = (P/Z2) Ip
L=(x2+y2+z2)1/2=(r2+z2)1/2
General
= v
z = 1
2
Stresses
r=(x2+y2)1/2
Principal
GROUND
Stresses
h
q (Load/Unit Length)
q (Load/Unit Length)
X
WALL
z =
Principal
General
Z
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Strip footing
q (Load/Unit Area)
X
Using Influence Factor Table(9.3pp234,235)
Z
z = (q/Z) IB
Principal
Stresses
Stresses
General
z =
q=H
1(radians)=tan1{(B1+B2)/z}tan1(B1/z)
z = qI2
B2
2=tan1(B1/z)
B1
B2
B1
H
X
Z
Highway embankment
2
1
Principal
General
v
2
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Osterberg,s Chart
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GROUND
Y
X
z= q { 1 1/[(R/Z)2 + 1 ]3/2 }
1
2
3
GROUND
Y
X
z= q (A +B )
/
Z
General
z = v
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qs
X/R
0.95
0.90
0.80
0.70
0.60
0.50
0.40
xy
Z/R
0.30
xy
0.20
1
z
z =
x =
x =
z =
0.15
3
1/qs
0.10
4
Circular Load: (Major Principal Stress)/(Surface Stress)
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qs
1
X/R
0.40
0.50
0.55
0.60
0.60
0.55
0.50
0.45
0.40
0.35
Z/R
0.30
0.25
0.20
z =
x =
x =
z =
0.15
3
(13)/qs
0.10
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qs
1
X/R
0.90
0.80
0.70
0.60
0.50
0.40
Z/R
0.30
2
0.20
z =
x = 2
x =
z =
0.15
3
z/qs
0.10
0.05
4
Circular Load: (Vertical Stress)/(Surface Stress)
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IR = f (m,n)
L
B
q = Load /Area
Loaded Area
Foundation Level
m = B/Z
m & n from Charts or tables
n = L/Z
z= v
h
See tables 9.7 pp. 246,247 or one can use the charts below
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C
O
Q = q x Area
Elevation
z
O P o in t o f in te re s t
F ig . 1 0 s tr e ss in c r e a s e a t a p o in t b e lo w a lo a d e d r e c ta n g u la r r e g io n
z z
O Point of interest
Fig. 10 stress increase at a point below a loaded rectangular region
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4m
O
Loaded
Area
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Approximate Methods
Equivalent Point Load Method
z =
Qi
I pi
z2
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2:1 Method
z =
Q
( B + Z )( L + Z )
Rectangular area
z =
Q
(B + Z ) 2
Square area
z =
(D + Z ) 2
4
Circular area
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Examples (13)
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Example 4
A rectangular foundation 6 x 3m carries a uniform pressure of 300 kN/m2
near the surface of a soil mass. Determine the vertical stress at a depth of 3m
below a point (A) on the centre line 1.5m outside a long edge of the
foundation using influence factors
m=1
m=1
n =1.5
n=0.5
I = 0.193
I=0.120
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Example 5
Determine the stress increase under the embankment at points A1 and A2
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Compressibilty of Soils
Topics
Introduction
Immediate Settlement
Consolidation Settlement (Primary Consolidation)
Secondary Compression (Secondary consolidation) Settlement
Time Rate of Consolidation
Methods for Accelerating Consolidation Settlement
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Introduction
Soil deformation may occur by change in:
a) Stress
b) Water content
c) Soil mass
d) Temperature
The compression is caused by
a) Deformation of soil particles
b) Relocation of soil particles
c) Expulsion of water or air from the voids
Types of settlement:
a) Immediate (Elastic) Settlement e
b) Consolidation Settlement (primary consolidation) c
c) Secondary Compression (Consolidation) Settlement
Thus, the total settlement will be
T
e
c
s
s
Contact
pressure
distribution
Clay
Contact
pressure
distribution
Flexible
Settlement profile
Contact
pressure
distribution
Settlement profile
Contact
pressure
distribution
Rigid
Settlement profile
Settlement profile
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Es
Schleicher (1926)
Ip
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Be
Be
Be
Eo
IG I F I E
4 BL
Diameter
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Pore water
(Incompressible)
Voids
Skeletal Material
(incompressible)
Solid
Voids
Time
dependent
process
Solid
+
Water
Initial State
Deformed State
Spring model
u=0
u=
= P/A
u<
u=0
water
Effective soil skeleton spring
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Total Stress
Time
Excess Pore
Pressure
Time
Effective Stress
Time
Settlement
Time
Conclusions
Especially in low permeability soils (silts and clays) settlement is
delayed by the need to squeeze the water out of the soil
Consolidation is the process of gradual transfer of an applied load
from the pore water to the soil structure as pore water is squeezed
out of the voids.
The amount of water that escapes depends on the size of the load
and compressibility of the soil.
The rate at which it escapes depends on the coefficient of
permeability, thickness, and compressibility of the soil.
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Sand
Total stress
increase
u=
Depth
=0
Sand
At time t = 0
u<
>0
u=0
At time t =
Porous Stone
H
Metal Ring
Water
Soil Sample
Dia.
H
64 mm(2.5 in)
Porous Stone
25 mm (1 in)
Consolidometer (Oedometer)
Asst. Prof. Khalid R. Mahmood (PhD.)
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The compression
deformation is
measured by a
micrometer dial
gauge
p2
p1
H1
H2
H3
Hn
d50
Stage IIPrimary consolidation
H
Soil
d100
Stage IIISecondary Compression
t50
U% = 100%
Time at
U%=100%
hn
Time, min
o
1
2
5
10
20
30
1 hr
2 hr
..
24 hr
Deformation, mm
Ws
AG s
Prove it.
w
eo
Vv
Vv
Hs
Hv A
HsA
Hv
Hs
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1(
P1
) which causes a
A
deformation H1
H1
Hs
e1
2(
P1
P2
A
eo
e1
H2
Hs
e1
Log
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Normally Consolidated
o
At past
p = max. preconsolidation
At present
o = Effective overburden
pressure
Overconsolidate
d
At past
=
max.
preconsolidation
p
pressure
At present
=
Effective
overburden
o
O .C . R
P
O
/
O
/
P
Log
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eo
Laboratory compression curve
Field (virgin) compression curve
Slope = Cc
0.4eo
/
o
N.C. CLAY
eo
Laboratory compression curve
Field (virgin) compression
curve, Slope = Cc
0.4eo
/
p
O.C. CLAY
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Vo V1
HA ( H
Vvo Vv 1
Vv
Vs
Vo
1 eo
cA
)A
eVs
AH
1 eo
eVs
AH
1 eo
e
1 eo
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N.C. CLAY
eo
e
log
Cc
/
p
/
o
C c [log(
) log
] C c log(
)
o
e
1 eo
Cc
H log(
1 eo
)
o
O.C. CLAY
eo
If
/
o
e
log
Cs
/
o
/
p
If
eo
/
p
/
o
Cs
H log(
1 eo
e
1 eo
e1
C s [log(
) log
/
o
C s log(
)
o
e2
C s [log
log
p
p
] C c [log(
) C c log(
/
p
C s log(
e
1 eo
H
C s log(
1 eo
) log
)
p
p
o
) C c log(
)
p
/
p
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1 1
to C c
5 10
Cc = 0.009(LL 10)
= liquid limit
Cc = 0.007(LL 7)
= liquid limit
undisturbed clays
LL
remolded clays
LL
e
log t 2 log t1
e
t
log 2
t1
ef
C
1 ep
t1
t2
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C H log
t2
t1
Type of soil C
O.C clays
0.001 or less
N.C clays
0.005 to 0.03
Organic soil 0.04 or more
u
(vz+( vz/ z)dz) dxdy
Sand
A=dxdy
dz
V=dxdydz
H=2Hdr
Depth
Sand
dy
dx
vz dxdy
Volume of pore fluid which flows out = Volume decrease of the soil
and thus
Rate at which pore fluid flows out = Rate of volume decrease of soil
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vz
dz )
z
[(v z
vz
dxdydz
z
V
t
v z ] dxdy
V
t
It will also be assumed that Darcys law holds and thus that
vz
ki
h
z
u
z
1
V
dxdydz t
u
z2
During consolidation
V
t
Vv
t
V
t
Vs
(Vs
Vs
t
e
t
Vs
Vs
t
but
e
t
1 eo
1
1 eo
u
z2
dxdydz
1 eo
dxdydz e
1 eo t
Vs
t
but
V
Vs
V
t
eVs )
e
e
t
But
av (
av u
av = coefficient of compressibility
k
w
u
z2
av
1 eo
u
t
mv
u
t
where mv
av
1 eo
mv = coefficient of volume
compressibility
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or
u
t
cv
u
z2
where cv
k
w mv
w
k
av
1 eo
MZ
2uo
sin(
) e
M
H dr
M 2 Tv
Where
M
( 2m 1)
z
, a depth factor dimensionless number
H dr
Tv
cv t
2 , a time factor is a nondimensoinal number
H dr
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Uz
uo
uz
uo
uz
uo
uz
excess
pore
pressure at time t
The variation of excess pore pressure within the layer is shown in Figure
below
The average degree of consolidation for the entire depth of the clay layer
at any time t can be written as
c(t )
1
2 H dr
2 H dr
uz dz
0
uo
1
m
2
e
2
0 M
M 2Tv
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The values of Tv and their corresponding average U for the case presented
above may also be approximately by the following relationship:
For U = 0 to 60%
Tv
U%
4 100
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T50
cv t 50
H dr2
cv
0.197 H dr2
t 50
S
q
u
a
r
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cv t 90
H dr2
cv
0.848 H dr2
t 90
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Hperbola method
it gives good results for U =60%  90%.
The results are plotted on
t
 t, then identify the straight
H
mH dr2
D
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0.0385 H dr2
t 22.14
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/
t
/
o
/
m
/
b
Alternative approach
Simply divide the clay layer to a number of sub layers, and then
estimate c for each sub layer taking into account effective overburden
pressure and an increase in effective stress at the middle of each sub
layer, then get the summation of settlements of the sub layers to get the
final consolidation of the clay layer.
Rate of consolidation
It is important to determine c time relationship, which can be
helpful in estimating the differential settlement between adjacent
footings if the drainage condition at one footing differs from the other.
U
c(t )
c
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Examples
The following results were obtained from an oedometer test on a specimen of
saturated clay:
Pressure (kN/m2)
Void ratio
27
1.243
54
1.217
107
1.144
214
1.068
429
0.994
214
1.001
107
1.012
54
1.024
A layer of this clay 8m thick lies below a 4m depth of sand, the water table being
at the surface. The saturated unit weight for both soils is 19kN/m3. A 4m depth of
fill of unit weight 21 kN/m3 is placed on the sand over an extensive area.
Determine the final settlement due to consolidation of the clay. If the fill were to
be removed some time after the completion of consolidation, what heave would
eventually take place due to swelling of the clay?
eo e1
H
c
1 eo
Appropriate values of e are obtained from elog / drawn from the result. The clay
will be divided into four sublayers, hence H =2000 mm.
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Assuming the fill in pervious example is dumped very rapidly, what would be the
value of excess pore water pressure at the centre of the clay layer after a period of
3 years? Assume Twoway drainage condition and the value of cv is 2.4m2/year.
Uz
uz
uo
uz
uo
35.2
uz
84
0.58
kN / m 2
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Strength of different
materials
Steel
Soil
Concrete
Tensile
strength
Compressive
strength
Shear
strength
Presence of pore
water
Complex
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Introduction
Soils are essentially frictional materials. They are comprised of individual particles
that can slide and roll relative to one another. In the discipline of soil mechanics, it
is generally assumed that the particles are not cemented.
Thus, the Shear strength of a soil mass is the internal resistance per unit area that
the soil mass can offer to resist failure and sliding along any plane inside it.
Embankment
Strip footing
Failure surface
Mobilized shear
resistance
One consequence of the frictional nature is that the strength depends on the
effective stresses in the soil. As the effective stresses increase with depth, so in
general will the strength.
The strength will also depend on whether the soil deformation occurs under fully
drained conditions, constant volume (undrained) conditions, or with some
intermediate state of drainage. In each case, different excess pore pressures will
occur resulting in different effective stresses, and hence different strengths. In
assessing the stability of soil constructions analyses are usually performed to
check the short term (undrained) and long term (fully drained) conditions.
Shear strength components
The shear strength components areFriction resistanceIt occurs between the particles of the soil due to the external load consists ofFriction due to sliding
Friction due to rolling
Friction due to interlocking
Cohesion
Apparent Cohesion
True Cohesion
Negative pore water pressure
Cementation
Due to the presence of cementing agents
Negative excess pore water
such as calcium carbonate or iron oxide
pressures due to dilation
(expansion)
Electrostatic and electromagnetic attractions
Apparent mechanical forces
Primary valence bonding (adhesion)
Occurs primarily during overconsolidation
Can not be relied on for soil
strength
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f( )
tan
c = cohesion, and
= angle of internal friction
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tan
...1
2
1
cos 2
..2
sin 2
2
Sub. Eq.2 in Eq.1
f
sin 2
cos 2
tan
or
c
3 tan
.......................3
1
sin 2 cos 2 tan
2
For a given value of 3 and c, the failure condition will be determined by the
minimum value of the major principle stress 1 , for a minimum value of 1 ,
1
the term [ sin 2 cos 2 tan ] in eq.3 has to be maximum. Thus,
2
1
d 1
( sin 2
d 2
or
cos 2
Eq .5
45
cos 2 tan )
sin 2
0...........................4
0...................5
...........................................................6
c
3
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let
tan 2 (45
tan 2 (45
) 2c tan(45
)..........................7
1 sin
1 sin
2c N . ............................................7
c and
or c and
c
c
u) tan
tan
shear strength.
Failure envelopes in terms of total & effective stresses
Failure envelope
in terms of
Failure envelope in
terms of total
effective stresses
total stresses
c/ c
3
or
Type of soil
Cohesion
Sand and Inorganic silt
Zero
Normally consolidated Very small Zero
clays
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> Zero
or c ,
Shear tests
Laboratory tests on specimens
taken from representative
undisturbed samples
Field tests
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Strip footing
vc
A
representative
vc
z
hc
hc
vc
hc
hc
vc
vc
vc
Before construction
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Shear box
Proving ring to
measure shear
force
Dial gauge to
measure horizontal
displacement
Step 1: Apply a vertical load to the specimen and wait for consolidation
Step 2: Lower box is subjected to a horizontal displacement at a constant rate.
Normal Force = N
Normal Force = N
= Horizontal
Displacement
Shearing Force = T
Shear
Resistance
Soil
Shear
Resistance
Soil
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Normal force
Cross sec tional area
Shearing force
Cross sec tional area
N
A
T
A
L) 2
(L
Shear stress,
Stressstrain relationship
Dense sand/
OC clay
f
f
Loose sand/
NC clay
Expansion
Compression
Change in height
of the sample
Shear displacement
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Shear stress,
Normal stress =
Normal stress =
Normal stress =
f2
2
1
f1
f3
Shear displacement
Normal stress,
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Overconsolidated clay (c
0)
Normal force,
Shearing Force = T
Shear
Resistance
Foundation
Material
ca
tan
where
ca = adhesion
= angle of wall friction
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Proving ring to
measure the
deviator load
Dial
gauge
to
measure
vertical
displacement
Failure plane
Soil sample
at failure
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Flexible tube
Soil
sample
Impervious
membrane
Porous stone
Perspex cell
Water
Cell pressure
Back pressure
Pore pressure or
volume change
Pedestal
> 3D
3D2D
<D
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deviatoric stress
( )
Step 1
Step 2
c+
c
Under allaround cell pressure
Shearing (loading)
Is the drainage valve open?
yes
no
Unconsolidated
sample
no
Drained
loading
Undrained
loading
UU
CD
CU
C=
= deviatoric stress =
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Stresses
F = Deviator load
r
= Axial stress
F
A
The term F/A is known as the deviator stress, and is usually given the
symbol .
Hence we can write
= a stresses are principal stresses)
If
Strains
From the measurements of change in height, dh, and change in volume
dV we can determine
Axial strain
Volume strain
= dh/h0
v
= dV/V0
Where h0 is the initial height, and V0 the initial volume. The conventional
small strain assumption is generally used.
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It is assumed that the sample deforms as a right circular cylinder. The crosssectional area, A, can then be determined from
A(ho + h) = V = V0 + V
dV
V0
dh
1 +
h0
1 +
A =
Ao
Ao
1 1 
v
a
1
1 
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failure. In such a case, failure is assumed to have taken place when the
strain reaches an arbitrary value such as 20%.
Merits of Triaxial Compression Test
The following are the significant points of merit of triaxial compression
test:
(1) Failure occurs along the weakest plane unlike along the predetermined
plane in the case of direct shear test.
(2) The stress distribution on the failure plane is much more uniform than
it is in the direct shear test: the failure is not also progressive, but the
shear strength is mobilised all at once. Of course, the effect of end
restraint for the sample is considered to be a disadvantage; however,
this may not have pronounced effect on the results since the
conditions are more uniform to the desired degree near the middle of
the height of the sample where failure usually occurs.
(3) Complete control of the drainage conditions is possible with the
triaxial compression test; this would enable one to simulate the field
conditions better.
(4) The possibility to vary the cell pressure or confining pressure also
affords another means to simulate the field conditions for the sample,
so that the results are more meaningfully interpreted.
(5) Precise measurements of pore water pressure and volume changes
during the test are possible.
(6) The state of stress within the specimen is known on all planes and not
only on a predetermined failure plane as it is with direct shear tests.
(7) The state of stress on any plane is capable of being determined not
only at failure but also at any earlier stage.
(8) Special tests such as extension tests are also possible to be conducted
with the triaxial testing apparatus.
(9) It provides an ingenious and a symmetrical threedimensional stress
system better suited to simulate field conditions.
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3
3
uc
Drainage
ud = 0
3
uc
3
d)f
Axial strain
Compression
Volume change of
the sample Vc
3
Expansion
Deviator stress,
Loose sand
or NC Clay
d)f
Since u = 0 in CD tests,
Therefore, c = c/ and
Expansion
Dense sand
or OC clay
Compression
Volume change of
the sample Vd
Axial strain
Axial strain
Loose sand
or NC clay
and cd and
are used
to denote them
)f
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CD tests
Deviator stress,
d)fc
1=
Confining stress =
+(
d) f
3c
Confining stress =
3b
Confining stress =
d)f
3a
d)fa
Shear stress,
Axial strain
Mohr Coulomb
failure envelope
or
3a
3c
3b
d)fa
1a
1b
1c
d)fb
Shear stress,
Mohr Coulomb
failure envelope
or
3a
1a
CD tests
d)f
or NC clay
Failure envelopes
For OC Clay, cd
0
NC
OC
Cd
or
3
d)f
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Soft clay
= in situ drained shear strength
Core
Note: CD test simulates the long term condition in the field. Thus, cd and
d should be used to evaluate the long term behavior of soils
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3
3
uc
Drainage
ud
No drainage
3
3
Axial strain
Compression
Volume change of
the sample Vc
uc
d)f
Expansion
Deviator stress,
Loose sand
or NC Clay
d)f
Axial strain
d)f
Loose sand or
NC Clay
d)f
ud
Axial strain
ud
d
Af
( ud ) f
d
Soil
N.C
O.C
Af
0.51
00.5
Dense sand or
OC clay
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Deviator stress,
d)f
Confining stress =
3b
Confining stress =
3a
+(
d)f
3
d)f
Total stresses at
Shear stress,
Axial strain
Mohr Coulomb
failure envelope in
terms of total stresses
ccu
3b
3a
1a
d)f
1=
Shear stress,
+(
cu
ufa
ccu
3b
3a
3  uf
Effective stresses at
3a
d)f  uf
uf
C/
or
1b
3b
1a
ufb
1a
1b
1b
or
f
d)fa
drained
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Shear stress,
cu
or
3a
3a
1a
1a
d)f
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Soft clay
= in situ undrained shear strength
Core
Note: Total stress parameters from CU test (Ccu and cu) can be used for stability
problems where, Soil have become fully consolidated and are at equilibrium
with the existing stress state; Then for some reason additional stresses are
applied quickly with no drainage occurring
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Step 2
Initial specimen
condition
C=
No
drainage
Step 3
Specimen condition
during shearing
3
C=
3+
No
drainage
d
3
No
drainage
3
C=
3
uc
uc = B
Increase of pwp due to
increase
of
cell
3
3
Increase of cell
Skemptons pore
water pressure
3)
No
drainage
3+
3+
 uc
ud
d
3
 uc
ud
uc ud
ud = A B
Increase of pwp due to
increase of deviator stress
d
Increase of deviator stress
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uc = B
ud = AB
u = uc + ud
u=B [
3+
u=B [
3+
A(
d]
1
3]
3+
3
2
No drainage
2+
No drainage
 uc
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3+
2+
No drainage
No drainage
direction =
and
 u
d
Increase
in effective stress in
Average
ud Increase in effective stress = (
directions =
1
 ud  ud ud)/3
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u
1
Axial strain
Axial strain
(A = 0.5 1.0)
(A > 1.0)
u
Axial strain
Axial strain
OC Clay (Lightly overconsolidated)
(A = 0.0 0.5)
(A = 0.5  0.0)
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Stress Path
If
q
2
1
and
v
3
h
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Either the effective stresses or the total stresses may be used for this
purpose. The basic types of stress path and the coordinates are:
p/ , q /
p = p/+u , q = q/
u0 = zero in the conventional triaxial test, and (b) and (c) coincide in this
case. But if back pressure is used in the test, u0 = the back pressure.
For an insitu element, the static pore water pressure depends upon the level
of the ground water table.
Slope of stress path line
q
p
qf
qo
pf
po
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tan
p tan
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p tan
,p
Where m = c cos
Typical stress paths for triaxial compression and extension tests (loading as
well as unloading cases) are shown in Fig. below
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A1 is the effective stress path for conventional triaxial compression test
during loading. ( v = positive and h = 0, i.e., h is constant). A typical
field case is a footing subjected to vertical loading.
A2 is the unloading case of the triaxial extension text ( h = 0 and
negative). Foundation excavation is a typical field example.
v=
h=
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[Note : TSSP to the right of ESP indicates of positive excess pore pressure;
TSSP to the left of ESP indicates negative excess pore pressure. Both
coincide for zero excess pore pressure].
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Example 1
The following results were obtained from direct shear tests on specimens of
a sand compacted to the insitu density. Determine the value of the shear
strength parameter /.
Normal stress (kN/m2)
154 235
Would failure occur on a plane within a mass of this sand at a point where
the shear stress is 122 kN/m2 and the effective normal stress 246 kN/m2?
The values of shear stress at failure are plotted against the corresponding
values of normal stress, as shown in Figure above. The failure envelope is
the line having the best fit to the plotted points; in this case a straight line
through the origin. If the stress scales are the same, the value of / can be
measured directly and is 38o.
The stress state =122kN/m2, / = 246 kN/m2 plots below the failure
envelope, and therefore would not produce failure.
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Example 2
The results shown in Table below were obtained at failure in a series of
triaxial tests on specimens of a saturated clay initially 38mm in diameter by
76mm long. Determine the values of the shear strength parameters with
respect to (a) total stress and (b) effective stress.
Solution
The initial values of length, area and volume for each specimen are:
lo = 76mm; A0 = 1135mm2; V0 = 86 x 103 mm3
Cu = 85 kN/m2;
=0
c/ = 0;
= 270
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Example 3
The results shown in Table below were obtained for peak failure in a series
of consolidatedundrained triaxial tests, with pore water pressure
measurement, on specimens of saturated clay. Determine the values of the
effective stress parameters.
tan 2 (45
262
70 tan 2 (45
487
) 2c tan(45
) 2c tan(45
) 2c tan(45
)..............................(1)
)............................( 2)
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Example 4
The following results refer to a consolidatedundrained triaxial test on a
saturated clay specimen under an allround pressure of 300 kN/m2:
l/lo
0 0.01 0.02 0.04 0.08 0.12
2
138 240 312 368 410
13 (kN/m ) 0
u (kN/m2)
0 108 158 178 182 172
Draw the total and effective stress paths and plot the variation of the pore
pressure coefficient A during the test.
From the shape of the effective stress path and the value of A at failure it
can be concluded that the clay is overconsolidated.
Asst. Prof. Khalid R. Mahmood (PhD.)
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Soil Compaction
Topics
General Principles
Soil Compaction in the Lab:
Factors affecting Compaction
Structure of Compacted Clay Soil
Field Compaction
Specification for Field Compaction
Determination of Field Unit Weight of Compaction
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General Principles
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Curve type
A (one peak)
B (one & half Peak)
C (double peak)
D (odd shape)
Soil properties
Soil with liquid limit 3070
Soil with liquid limit < 30
Soil with liquid limit >70
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Field Compaction
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