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BLI-PRAJ

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INDOLOGY AND CULTURE


Volume 2

Number 1

2013

BALI SANSKRIT INSTITUTE


AND
UNIVERSITY OF MAHENDRADATTA
DENPASAR, BALI, INDONESIA

ISSN 2301-2709

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BLI-PRAJ
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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INDOLOGY AND CULTURE


BALI SANSKRIT INSTITUTE AND UNIVERSITY OF MAHENDRADATTA
Jalan Ken Arok 10 - 12, Denpasar, Indonesia - 80115, Phone : +62 361 434827
E-mail : info@mahendradatta.org
Foreword
: I Gusti Ngurah Arya Wedakarna Mahendradatta Wedastraputra
Suyasa III
Advisor
: I Made Titib (Indonesia)
Chief Editor
: Subash Chandra Dash (India)
Board of Editors : I Gusti Made Sutjaja (Indonesia)
Ravindra Kumar (India)
I Ketut Donder (Indonesia)
Toshihiro Wada (Japan)
San Sarin (France)
Shopana Sri Champa (Thailand)
Dongsung Huh (South Korea)
I Gede Suwantana (Indonesia)
Chief Editor
Dr. Subash Chandra Dash
Chair Professor
ICCR, University of Mahendradatta
Jl. Ken Arok No. 10 12 Denpasar
Telp/fax : +62 361 434 827
Director
Bali Sanskrit Institute
Jl. Beliton, No 4, Denpasar - 80115
Website : www.balisanskritinstitute.com
Email. subashchandradash@yahoo.co.in
balisanskritinstitute@gmail.com
Bali Sanskrit Institute, University of Mahendradatta Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia

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PREFACE
Thoughts are the subject matter in action and speech consolidate through the
language. Then communication becomes possible and clear in three levels i.e.
thought, action and speech.The Vedas are the exposition of this type of endeavour and
Sanskrit Language became the language of Gods. This language became the mode of
communication for Gods, Environment and people. The Vedic Science presented such
a continous flow of knowledge to the entire humanity. It borned in India and became the
property of the entire Humanity. The meaning of the Vedas hence related to Knowledge
and became the central focus of every activity. This knowledge became predominant in
Bharat (ancient name of India) and those who wanted this wisdom came to the then India
for study. The name Bharat consists of two units viz. Bh (light or brightness) and rata
(engaged) which mean the land (country) engaged for light, brightness or knowledge.
Hence, Bharat became the Center for Knowledge of the World. That tradition is still
continuing and India is signing through its rich tradition of knowledge.
The subject matters presented through Sanskrit language are enormous. There are
sixty-four branches of study in Sanskrit covering almost all aspects of modern study.
That area of the study is called Indology. Many Journals are established throughout
the world to bring out this great stream of knowledge for the society. The dream came
true last year as we established BLI PRAJ an International journal to fulfill the
long felt need of the Balineese people. The word Bli-Praj means the wisdom of
Bali which was first published jointly from the Bali Sanskrit Institute and Universitas
Mahendradatta in May 2012 by the first initiative by the chief editor Prof Subash
Chandra Dash along with I Ketut Donder and I Gede Suwantana as board of editors.
As many scholars contributed papers last time for the first volume so supported this
time too by their learned papers in different branches of study. I thank them from the
core of my heart for this great support without which it would not have seen the light
of the day. The papers unfold many secrets of the rich tradition of Sanskrit treasure. I
hope that this will fulfill the demand of the world of scholars to add a new chapter in
continuity of the tradition.
I thank again to the contributors for their help in sending research papers. I thank
the rector of the University Dr. Arya Vedakarna for his constant support for publishing
the second volume. I thank Prof. I Made Titib for his advice for this volume. I thank Dr.
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I Ketut Donder for his tireless effort to make the publication possible. I also place on
record my sincere thanks to the entire board of Editors for shaping the present journal.
I also thank the proprietor of Pramit Publications Mr. I Wayan Yasa for printing this
journal. This Journal welcomes views and suggestions from the world of scholars to
make it better in the forthcoming issues and hope similar cooperation in future.
jayatu sansktam
2nd July 2013
Denpasar
Subash Chandra Dash

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FOREWORD
It gives me immense pleasure to record that the second volume of the International
journal named BLI PRAJ is ready for publication. This is an attempt for the
scientific investigation from this beautiful island of Bali to the field of Sanskrit language
and subjects related to the great tradition of Indology. In this volume many scholars have
presented their papers for publication and I feel very happy to welcome their support
to publish this journal from the Bali Sanskrit Institute and Universitas Mahendradatta,
Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia. It is possible due to the strong and continuous effort by
the Chief Editor Prof. Subash Chandra Dash, ICCR Chair Professor in Sanskrit at the
University who took so much initiative from beginning to get many papers from the
scholars from different countries for publication. I also appreciate the help of Prof. Dr. I
Made Titib as the advisor to this Journal. I also would like to thank the board of Editors
for their support. I also deeply acknowledge the tireless effort given by Dr. I Ketut
Donder and Dr. I Gede Suwantana for assisting to the Chief Editor. Finally, I thank the
proprietor of Pramita Publication Mr. I Wayan Yasa for undertaking the publication
work in time.
I hope BLI PRAJ will fulfill the strong felt need of the researchers of Bali
to cherish their commitments and dedication for the people of Bali and open up new
dimensions and create a database in the field of Indological research in future. Again
I sincerely thank and congratulate Prof. Subash Chandra Dash and his team of Editors
for this great success.
30th June 2013
Denpasar
I Gusti Ngurah Arya Wedakarna Mahendradatta Wedastraputra Suyasa III
Rector of Mahendradatta University, Denpasar, Bali

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LIST OF CONTENTS
PREFACE............................................................................................................... iii
FOREWORD.......................................................................................................... v
LIST OF CONTENTS............................................................................................ vii
TOSHIHIRO WADA and SUBASH C. DASH
An Introduction to the Navdakrk of Udayana........................................... 1
SUBASH C. DASH
A Quest For Spiritual Science............................................................................ 7
SADANANDA DAS
Praskta of The Atharvaveda (Xi. 4): A Cosmological Approach................. 16
ANIRBAN DASH
Bhathari on Apabhraa.................................................................................. 30
SHOUN HINO.
Inquiry into the Brahman
- To Establish the Impersonal Principle, the Brahman...................................... 36
CHHOM KUNTHEA
Interaction between Sanskrit and Khmer Double-Language inscriptions
from Ancient Cambodia with special reference to K. 235................................. 47
SUDIP CHAKRAVORTTI
Vidysgaras Role in Making Sanskrit Grammar Easier ................................. 58
IDA BAGUS PUTU SUAMBA
Balinese Lontar: Its Philosophical Background and its Ritual Performance..... 65
DIPANKAR LAMA
Guru Padmasambhava Path Maker of Buddhism In Sikkim............................. 72
RAVINDRA KUMAR
Gandhian Non-Violence in Current Perspectives.............................................. 75

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SAN SARIN
Samudramanthana: Calculation Ascertained .................................................... 88
BANAMALI BISWAL
The Concept of Word, Meaning and Their Relationship in Sanskrit Grammar. 98
IDA AYU TARY PUSPA
akti in Pura : A Study of Gender ................................................................. 117
I KETUT DONDER
Tri Hita Karaa: A Communication form of Universal Brotherhood
(Perspective of Balinese Tradition and Concept of Hindu Religion)................. 136
SHANTIPRIYA DEVI
Treatment of Values in Yoga Philosophy........................................................... 151
TIWI ETIKA
A Brief Sketch of The Historical Development of The Skhya Philosophy.. 158
ABOUT SENDING THE RESEARCH PAPER................................................ 168
ABOUT THE BOARD OF EDITORS................................................................ 169

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AN INTRODUCTION TO
THE NAVDAKRK OF UDAYANA
Toshihiro Wada and Subash C. Dash
I. INTRODUCTION
India has a long tradition of writing manuscripts in different scripts. The materials for
recording such texts were used as per the convenience of their availability. The north Indian
tradition of writing manuscripts was dependent on birchbark and paper. The eastern Indian
tradition mostly used palm-leaf and paper. The western Indian tradition devoted itself to
its writing patterns largely based on paper. The southern India used palm-leaf as the source
material for writing different texts. The manuscripts were preserved in a traditional manner
by applying ancient method of preservation. The temples, maths, pthaals, gurukulas,
paits, priests, and villages continued the tradition of writing, copying, and preserving of the
manuscripts since time immemorial. The kings, the sultans, the administrative officials of the
royal kingdoms patronized the above tradition for continuity and considered that as their sacred
duty respecting towards the Vedic and stric traditions. As a result, we get many manuscript
centers, museums, and individual collections of the rich manuscript heritage which almost
spread out all over India and outside too.
The Vedic tradition was handed down to the disciples in an oral manner, and the disciples
again continued the same process to the next generation. There was no strict discipline of
maintaining the writing tradition in the beginning when the Vedic religion was in its foundation.
Later on when the rituals were performed, there was a need for easy reference for which the
applicative formulae needed a method of recording those for systematization. This method
was adopted to record the tradition in a small manner of writing small treatises for definite
and accurate practices. This probably helped the performers keep in record the formulae of the
ritual practices into a strict discipline of continuing ritualistic tradition.
The kings employed also many officers to keep the records of their daily events and
economical expenditures for smooth governance. They many a times managed those officers
to record some of the religious scriptures and multiplied in numbers in order to donate to the
neibouring kingdom as a special gift in different historical occasions and ceremonies. Hence,
we get similar type of texts in multiplication in different collections of royal patronage and
museums all over India. In kings palace religious debates and exposition of theories were
conducted frequently, and the paits, cryas, strins, and disciples took part in exchanging
intellectual dialogues in a regular manner. In such occasions, new texts, commentaries, and
literary creations were exposed and freely debated upon. By this method many such texts were
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and priests of another kingdom. The texts were taken seriously and again multiplied in their own
kingdom and sometimes followed the above process of popularizing the textual tradition. One
such popular method was the puric and stric tradition. Other traditions were also adopted
like writing new kvyas and presenting the same to the kings and paits in the gatherings of
the intellectuals, i.e., vidvatsabhs. This method contributed much to the ongoing Sanskrit,
Pli, and Prkt traditions in India.

II. DISCUSSION
2.1 Navdakrik MSS
While searching for manuscripts on philosophical treatises in Orissa State Museum,
Bhubaneswar, India, Subash Dash came across with the single palm-leaf manuscript of the
Navdakrik of Udayana (mentioned in the printed Catalogue published by Orissa State
Museum [Mahptra: 1960]: No. Dar-64: folio 99a line 1 through folio 100b line 2). This text
presents the exposition of the meaning of the negative particle na, which stands for the bound
particles a- and an-, and the free particle na.
It was surprising for him to see the title in the name of Udayana. He immediately
consulted with the authorities to make available him the above manuscript as soon as possible
and asked them to permit working on it. They kindly accepted Dashs request, and thus he
could start reading it. He searched other catalogues in Orissa to find similar manuscripts of the
same author but could not find it. He also consulted other important manuscript collections in
Pune, Chennai, Baroda, Jodhpur, Kolkata, Varas, etc. to find at least another manuscript of
the same text. However, there was no availability of such a manuscript. It is unfortunate too that
he has not yet found a single commentary on the Navdakrik.
The above number of manuscript bundle contains not only the Navdakrik but also
other texts. Dash extracted his required portion for editing and further study: folio 99a through
folio100b. The text is inscribed in old Oriya script. The text is a complete one from start to
finish without any break, and directly starts with r and ends with iti r-udayancryaprat na-vda-krik sampt. In the year of 2008 December Dash suggested Toshihiro
Wada, the co-author of the present book, to collaborate with this project, and then we started
working on it.

2.2 The Text


The text runs into sixty kriks and discusses about the nature and function of the
negative particle n in application. There is a long tradition of memorizing texts in verse
form which is named kriks. Take for example, the Skhyakrik is a versified form of
the Skhyastras of Kapila. The Skhyastras were somehow lost to the students, and the
same content is presented in krik-form by varaka, then the commentaries of Vysa,

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sub-commentaries, etc. were written for easy understanding of the students. The same case is
also applied by Vivantha while commenting on his own kriks, i.e., the Krikval.1 Here
in this case the Navdakrik follows the same pattern even though we have another text by
Raghuntha named the Navda. We, Dash and Wada, conjecture that this krik-style must
precede the prose-style of Raghunthas text, since the latter text is too small in its style to
shorten for memorizing.
It is true that there are many parallel discussions between the present Navdakrik of
Udayana and Raghunthas Navda. Since the subject matters of both texts outwardly appear
to be the same, one may think why the two texts hold the same content. The language used by
Raghuntha in his Navda is more explicative than that used in the Navdakrik.2 It is clear
from the above comparison that our krik-style text is earlier, and that the prose-style text is
a later one. Raghunthas text is more intelligible than the Navdakrik as far as the Navyanyya language is concerned.
Raghuntha quotes, with the wording iti mate, one statement regarding the view of
elided case-endings in the case of compounds, which statement is found in the Navdakrik.3
He introduces an objection with the wording yat tu iti, which, according to Indian tradition,
sometimes indicates a quotation. This introduced objection is found in Navdakrik.4 While
concluding this text, Udayana briefly refers to three things: injunction (vidhi), prohibition
(niedha), and alternative (vikalpa) in krik 60 as a conclusion to his whole discussion. He
does not discuss the alternative portion further in his Navdakrik. However, Raghuntha
devotes more lively discussion to issues of alternative by quoting the oain-cup examples,
etc. to explain the issues in a better manner.5 These facts imply that the Navdakrik may
precede Raghunthas text. As a result, we do consider that the present Navdakrik
influenced Raghunthas text.
The name Udayana is famous in the world of Nyya and Vaieika philosophies. Udayana
perhaps is the first author of Prcna- and Navya- Nyya, who was active in the 11th century,6 as we
come across in his outstanding works of the Lakaval, the Lakaamla, the tmatattvaviveka,
the Nyyakusumjali (NKu), the Nyyapariia, the Nyyavrtikattparyapariuddhi, and the
1 Matilal [1977: 110] says that not all of the kriks were composed by Vivantha.
2 For example, Raghunthas conclusion, which is mentioned in texts 21 and 22 given in Matilal [1968: 193],
deserves to be called Navya-nyya language. The Navdakrik # 58, so-called, corresponds to these two texts,
but it is far from such kind of language.
3 Cf. Matilal [1968: 191, text 10]: nlotpala citragur itydau lupty vibhakter anusandhnam iti mate ,
which corresponds to Navdakrik # 38.
4 Cf. Matilal [1968: 191, text 10]: yat tu karaaniedhe vikalppatter bheda- parateti, which corresponds to
Navdakrik # 40.
5 For his discussion of the issues, see Matilal [1968: 163-16, 192 text 18].
6 On the data of the authors dealt with in this book, we have followed Potter [1995(1970)]. Wada [2007b: 9-23]
discusses about the origin of Navya-nyya and concludes that though Udayana who wrote those Sanskrit texts
does not use delimitor (avacchedaka) and delimited (avacchinna), he is the founder of this school.

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Kiraval.7 This well-known Udayana does not seem to be the author of our Navdakrik.
The reason for this is that this text contains the terms which began to appear in Navya-nyya
texts after famous Udayana and before Gagea (14th century): delimitor (avacchedaka) and
delimited (avacchinna) in krik 2. Another reason is that the text contains the terms, i.e.,
counter-relatum (pratiyogin) and base-relatum (anuyogin) in kriks 6 and 58,8 which are not
used by the first Udayana.9 The text also uses the term of describer (nirpaka) in kriks 11 and
13 in the Navya-nyya sense, but unfortunately we cannot determine whether this term is used
in this technical sense before Gagea or not.

2.3 Udayana
Another Udayana is made known by Mahptra [1958: 42], who claims that this
Udayana lived in Orissa in the 12th century and wrote two stone inscriptions during the time
of ruling Gaga family of ancient Orissa.10 According to Mahptra [1958: 46], the present
Udayana, a poet-philosopher, who belonged to Orissa, also composed a commentary named
the Bhvavibhvin on the famous Khaakvya, i.e., the Gtagovinda of the poet Jayadeva,
and another commentary on the Naiadhyacaritam of rhara. Both commentaries have not
yet been found.11 If we adopt that date for the author of the present text, we can solve the above
problems of the technical terms.

III. CONCLUSION
Thus, we have come to the conclusion that the author of the Navdakrik is a poetphilosopher who probably lived in Orissa in the 12th century. We are aware that there are many
problems to be solved: how much knowledge of Navya-nyya the second Udayana had,12 why
7 Udayana probably composed these works in this order. On this order, see Chemparathi [1972: 22-25].
8 Krik 15 also contains the term anuyogin, but it means the locus of absence. On this meaning, see Ingalls
[1951: 55].
9 Potter [1977: 50] states that Bhsarvaja (ca. 860-920) used these two terms; but unfortunately he does not
refer to Bhsarvajas texts. Nor do Potters and Matilals respective summaries of Bhsarvajas Nyyasra
and Nyyabhaa refer to the term anuyogin. The index of Potter [1977: 718] does not tell us that this term
appears in those two texts. Instead, a summary of the commentary composed by Jayasihasri (ca. 14th c.), the
Ttparyadpik, on the Nyyasra indicates the use of this term. This summary is presented by V. Varadachari in
Potter and Bhattacharyya [1993: 365]. In addition, the term is not actually found in those two texts of Bhsarvaja. Accordingly, we cannot at present confirm how certain Potters statement of Bhsarvajas use of the term
is. On the other hand, the use of the term pratiyogin in the sense of a counterpositive can be traced back to
Dharmakrtis Hetubindu (p. 24*,18-20; p. 30*,16,23). This term itself is not an indicating sign of Navya-nyya
literature, but a frequent use of it may be such a sign.
10 On this, see Mahptra [1958: 42]. According to him, the date of the two inscriptions of the present Udayana is
1190 A.D.
11 For further information of the second Udayana, see Mahptra [1960: xxviii-xxxvi].
12 We should take into consideration how the second Udayana acquired the knowledge of Navya-nyya. Unfortunately, we have no information about this. Bronkhorst [2012] tells us that it took time for such knowledge to
expand to intellectuals of traditional Sanskrit grammar from Mithil, the center of Navya-nyya. Bronkhorst,
Diaconescu, and Kulkalni [2013] discuss the expansion of the knowledge/technique of Navya-nyya to Vara-

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the manuscripts of his text or its commentaries have not been found elsewhere, whether Navyanaiyyikas including Gagea knew this text or not,13 what is the relationship between this text
and Raghunthas Navda, and the like. We can say that as the text Navdakrik was not
known till the date of the second Udayana, a poet-philosopher, the other commentaries also still
need much attention to be searched out from some manuscript collections in future to prove our
conclusion and solve those problems.
If our conclusion about the author of Navdakrik is true, most of Raghunthas
novelties revealed in his Navda will be ascribed to the second Udayana. This outcome,
we hope, should not be interpreted as devaluing Raghuntha in the history of Navya-nyya,
but as raising the estimation of other Navya-naiyyikas in this history. In other words, they
are courageous enough to challenge and alter traditional views from the logical or rational
viewpoint.14

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Primary sources:
Hetubindu of Dharmakrti, in Ernst Steinkellner (ed.), Dharmakrtis Hetubindu, Teil
1 Tibetischer Text und rekonstruierter Sanskrit-Text, Verffentlichung der Kommission fr
Sprachen und Kulture Sd- und Ostasiens Heft 4, Wien: Kommissionsverlag der sterreichischen
Akademie der Wiessenschaften.
Navda of Raghuntha iromai, in Matilal [1968: 189-193].
Secondary sources:
Bronkhorst, Johannes
2012
Bhaoji Dkita and the Revival of the Philosophy of Grammar, in C.
Watanabe, M. Desmarais, and Y. Honda (eds.), Saskta-Sdhut: Goodness of Sanskrit:
Studies in Honour of Professor Ashok N. Aklujkar, New Delhi: D.K. Printworld, pp. 55-85.
Bronkhorst, Johannes, Bodgan Diaconescu, and Malhar Kulkarni
2013
The Arrival of Navyanyya Techniques in Varanasi, K. Pandikattu and B.
Pichalakkattu (eds.), An Indian Ending: Rediscovering the Grandeur of Indian Heritage for a
Sustainable Future: Essays in Honour of Professor Dr. J. Vattanky SJ on Completing Eighty
Years, New Delhi: Serials Publications, pp. 73-109.
Chemparathi, Goerge
1972
An Indian Rational Theology: Introduction to Udayanas Nyyakusumjali,
Leiden: E.J. Brill.
nasi. Further research of this kind is required to bring clarity to the second Udayanas knowledge of Navyanyya.
13 We do not deny the possibility that Gagea knew this text; simply we mean that no one has reported that he
knew the text.
14 We will publish the Romanized text and translation of the Navdakrk with annotation soon.

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Ingalls, Daniel H.H.


1951 Materials for the Study of Navya-Nyya Logic, Harvard Oriental Series 40,
Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
Mahptra, Kedarnath
1958
Govardhana chrya and Udayana chrya, Oissa Historical Research
Journal 7(1): 40-46.
1960
Descriptive Catalogue of Sanskrit Manuscripts of Orissa, vol. 2, Bhubaneswar:
Orissa State Museum.
Matilal, Bimal Krishna
1968
The Navya-Nyya Doctrine of Negation, Harvard Oriental Series 46,
Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
1977
A History of Indian Literature: Nyya-Vaieika, vol. 6(2), Wiesbaden: Otto
Harrassowits.
Potter, Karl H. (ed.)
1995(1970)
Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies, vol. 1: Bibliography, Delhi:
Motilal Banarsidass.
Potter, Karl H. and Sibajiban Bhattacharyya (ed.)
1993
Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies, vol. 6: Indian Philosophical Analysis:
Nyya-Vaieika from Gagea to Raghuntha iromai, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass.
Wada, Toshihiro
2007a Gagea on the Meaning of Verbal Suffixes (1), in K. Preisendanz (ed.),
Expanding and Merging Horizons: Contributions to South Asian and Cross-Cultural Studies
in Commemoration of Wilhelm Halbfass, Vienna: the Austrian Academy of Sciences, pp. 415429.
2007b The Analytical Method of Navya-Nyya, Gonda Indolgical Studies 14,
Groningen: Egbert Forsten Publishing.

Department of Indian Studies,


Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan.
Department of Sanskrit,
Utkal University, Vanivihar,
Bhubanesvar, Odisha, India
and ICCR Professor
Mahendradatta University
Bali, Indonesia

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A QUEST FOR SPIRITUAL SCIENCE


Subash Chandra Dash
I. INTRODUCTION
The Indian culture has a strong background of spirituality. The Vedas are the strong
prescriptions for Universal teachings. The is have enough facts for training their deciples
for a strong society through their methods of teachings. The chanting of the mantras were
meant for a strong foundation of their mental faculty along with many practical methods of
training for day to day life. They developed the sacrifices and various formulae were applied
to make everybody happy. The foundation of spirituality ows its background in the Vedas. The
mantras were for universal harmony and there by established peace for everybody. Then the
Upaniads were very much accepted as a specified branch of spiritual science. The foundation
of Indian culture has a strong base to the Vedic literature that helped much for the growth
and development of human life on earth . The Vedic rituals were performed in various ways
which later on changed into different forms. The Vedas are the revealed texts as those are not
written by any particular author. The ancient is handed down the teachings to the disciples
through oral tradition1 and hence called ruti There are four Vedas namely g, Yajus, Sma, and
Atharva which are very ancient and documents the ancient thoughts of the world2. The word
Veda means knowledge coming from the root -vid which means to know. The Vedic knowledge
is for everybody . There was no concept of religion at that time as we have many faiths now.
The Vedic teachings were the universal practices meant for the welfare of everybody having
no differences. The Upaniads are the jewels of the Vedas. Those texts contain the essence of
the whole Vedic wisdom. It is stated that the individual attains the true nature of himself and
transcends his narrow individuality and identifies with the whole. This is the exposition of
reality what the Vedic religion has offered. The Upaniads pray lead me from the unreal to the
real, lead me from darkness to light, lead me from death to immortality3
The quest for knowledge is an age old phenomenon which started from the dawn of
civilization. The Vedic Civilization stands proof to this outstanding quest for spiritual knowledge.
No doubt the Vedas do mention a lot about the creation and the environment around us but we
have not yet understood the Vedic Science well. Many scolars have interpreted in various ways
but the Vedas still prove to be the highest exercise of human intellect on earth till today. To
understand about the outside phenomena and the physical world is very easy through physical
science but what is happening in the inner world is indeed a difficult task for any scientist
born so far. As a matter of fact the Vedic scientists have led us analyse and examine the whole
cosmos from different viewpoints both internal and external. Hence, they had a strong desire
to understand the creation through its wholistic perspective. For this a quest for the spiritual
science emerged and we have a lots of discussions in the Sanskrit Literature .

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II. DISCUSSION
2.1 Enquiry a fundamental aspect
Any sort of enquiry is a fundamental aspect of our quest for knowledge. It is called
jijs or a logical and spiritual enquiry. The famous Brahmastra starts with the same as
let us then start enquire about what is the Brahman.4 Then the commentator analyses what is
exactly the enquiry and what for the enquiry and so on and so forth. What is the requirement
for the Brahman is also discussed in a great detail 5. The enquiry may be sometime about a
small thing or a big thing doesnot matter. But whatever the entity may be the enquiry still is
an enquiry. The quantity of the Brahman how big or small is not the subject matter but it is
enquired upon to its entirety. The Mimmsstra also starts the enquiry about Dharma as
the first requirement of investigation to the science of Ritual6. Then also the commentator
comments on each word, why the enquiry about Dharma and its requirement and what is the
purpose of such an enquiry elaborately7. This is entirely the sstric enquiry which encourages
many questions and raises opponents views through the subject of discussion. The discussion
aims at arriving at certain conclusion so that truth can be prevailed. This truth is again the reality
and called as tattvajna. This consolidates to the fact that through discussion you can achive
to the desired goal8 of your enquiry. All philosophical systems have done so in discussing the
logic and justified the need of such science. This has been done in the history of the Science of
Enquiry since time immemorial.
2.2 Aim of Life
In Hinduism there are four aims of life (pururthas), i. e. dharma, artha, kma, and
moka. Pururtha means what is desired by one purua or man. Man desires these four
pururthas. But the fact is that man emphasizes, from time immemorial only, artha and kma
which only satisfy his immediate physical needs. Man desires after worldly pleasures and
properties and runs after them which turn him to be materialist. All the time his efforts naturally
are towards these two and not towards dharma and moka. The spiritual science emphasizes
on the realization of the significance of life and beyond that. Its only significance is realization
of God, and its mystical experience and search for the Everlasting and ineffable peace and the
knowing of human existence. The Moka principle leads one towards the spiritual science but
prepares him from the first pururtha. The chief goal is to attend moka and has remained to
be the central focus of the science of spirituality.
2.3 Desire for Eternal Happiness
The man is always hunting for happiness since time immemorial. He is doing a lot of
activities to make him happy in any way. Many theories have developed to bring them in to
practice for achieving happiness. But still human being is far from such reality. The Upaniads

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have discussed in details many ways and means to achieve the desired goal. More emphasis is
given to spirituality in these treatises. The adhytmavidy is the result of such discussions and
implemented. Many secreat practices were developed and came to lime light by the spiritual
scientists. The is , Maharis and philosophers were such scientists who invented many
theories of attaining happiness and eternal bliss called nanda. The practice of disciplining the
body and mind became the most popular practice of such inventions and many followers came
forward of accepting it and became popular .
The practice of yoga draws the attention of human beings in the present society, which
reflects the very idea of how it can be acceptable to everybody. Patajali is the great philosopher
who initiated this discussion and emphasized on controlling of the mind.7 Now a days every
one is busy both physically and mentally and invite problems. Such problems are of different
types, such as tensions, conflicts, social disharmony, violence, stress, misunderstanding, nonacceptability, ego, jealousy, hatred and terrorism etc. Due to such problems the human mind is
bound and pressurized, hence there is unhappiness and uneasiness within every individual. Day
by day it increases slowly to a higher degree. There is lack of values in every sphere of life and
people loose happiness. The happiness has to be searched and implemented in daily life and
must be leading in attaining nanda.
2.4 Spirituality in Daily Life
Is there any one in this world who is not stressed, imbalanced and leading a peaceful
life? Everywhere, there is a talk regarding the erosion of human values. People day by day
forget the inner quality of being human and therefore forgetting the happiness of others. Every
one of us wants that the world should be a better place to live in but how far one tries to solve
this problem?
When one gets any solution and if he starts implementing, he discovers that no one is
co-operative and people are devoid of any sensitivity. We normally realize that, our problems
are due to human apathy, conflicts, non co-operation, selfishness, intolerance, cruelty, pride,
injustice, irresponsibility, carelessness, hatred , anger, violent behaviour and negative aspects
in society.
For overcoming such problems, each one of us needs a change in our attitude, which
will be of acquiring human, moral, social, and spiritual values and implementing in conflict
resolution in every walk of life. The human being is so designed that he can derive nanda or
bliss and maintain it through association with his kind, as in satsang. Good association alone
produces morality, justice, compassion, sympathy, love, tolerance, equanimity and many other
qualities that train character, and mould the human personality. If the individual knows he
is divine and that all else are equally so, that consciousness is the best bond for society; that
nanda is the best atmosphere to sustain people. How can a person who knows that all are
divine keep away from the God he recognises? I am He, He is I, both I and He are kith and

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kin in Him. This awareness is so thrilling, so satisfying and uplifting, that such a society is the
universal house of peace and harmony. This is highest spirituality.
2.5 Harmony the Great Need
The texts inform us that we have all the resources we need within us. One can practice
of those ways by identifying, manifesting, and by sharing them with others. God is Sat, Cit
and nanda -- Being, Awareness and Bliss Absolute. He is iva-akti svarpa both forms in
one Divine Energy. This is described in all Epics and Puras and spiritual Texts. To live a
spiritual life, we need to balance our thoughts, words and actions. However, few are able to do
this. But the science of spirituality informs us to follow scrupulously the unity of three which
lead to realization of higher level of consciousness. To live life is to be related and in every
relationship there are three factors, the subject, object and their connection. If the relationship
is harmonious, life is harmonious; if not, life is disharmonious. The art of wisely accepting the
realities of life and heightening the individual is considered to be spiritual.
If the content of our consciousness is low then our life is low and if the content of our
consciousness is high life is high. If our content of consciousness is hurt, jealousy, anger,
ego it pulls us down and if it is love, gratitude, compassion then ones life will be highly
disciplined. Everybody in this world is restless in his daily activities. Being restful, being calm,
being inwardly silent and not noisy is an important quality of a spiritual being. If one is restless
inwardly, mind pollutes everything. If the mind is calm, one sees situations objectively; if
disturbed, one sees things in a distorted way. Normally people dont live in the objective world,
rather they live in our subjective world. We dont live in Gods world we live in our private
world of hates and upsets.
When one looks at a beautiful thing he silently says I like it or dont like it and by that
inner language, I am not in touch of it but affected by my internal words, my likes and dislikes.
A spiritual way of looking is -- I see an object, without wording an object, and then I am in
touch with the object in a different level. If somebody is angry on me, I listen to him without
uttering any internal words and get objectively what he is saying. But when he scolds me and I
am crowded with my thoughts, with my internal words and reacts in my levels internally. This
leads me to lose my balance and become angry and react strongly and even beating physically.
In such case to control me means to control my anger and feelings. This balance is necessary.
By remaining alert to the sensations that are happening every now and then and bringing them
to my awareness whether liking or disliking it, my sensations bring back to normalcy. This
is harmonizing the consciousness both internal and external. To live a life of gratitude is an
enlightened way of living. Be grateful and not greedy. If one is grateful, one is sensitive to life;
if not, one is sentimental. Being grateful, one will not be egoistic and being sentimental, one
becomes egoistic. Drop the arrogant self to be truly spiritual. We believe that what happens to
others will not happen to us. We apply different standards to evaluate our own behaviour and
that of others in all fields of activity. That is because we dont have a spiritual base.

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2.6 Method of Transformation


The human values must be inculcated in our daily life and one should always be in
a state satisfaction (santoa). Patajali introduces in his Yogastra about the mind control9
systematically. He says the practice of yoga is universal in nature.
To these above problems, Yoga has certain solutions to offer and the roots of it right type
of training of mind. This involves a sort of ones own understanding in right success. In this
regard the human values are those key factors, which can bring harmony, peace and individual
transformation. This will lead world transformation. The practice of yoga helps develop that in
the present day society .
It is well known that the human being has his needs, which prompt him to act. But other
than this he requires some other and they are love, affection, compassion, good behaviour, not
harming anybody, speaking softly and adjust with the situation etc. These are called as qualities
(guas), which are somewhat more than that of the basic needs. Hence when something is
called valuable it is not only a higher type of requirement only but at the same time desirable
or acceptable by human beings. It covers a large range of quality oriented life patern leading to
conflict resolution which are certainly valuable and desirable.
Therefore greater than that of the usual behaviour for instance, truth is not a desire but
desirable. It is expected that one ought to be always truthful. Truth is the highest value over any
kind of values. Hence, values are the higher qualities of life, which are depicted, in Sanskrit
literature. The performance of ones action when is acceptable by the people at large is known
as values. Hence it is having two characteristic features i). Acceptability and ii) Adaptability.
These work in the level of body, mind and speech when one fails in one level, the importance
of it is altogether neglected in other areas too.
Depending on the day-to-day pattern human values can be of different types viz.
moral, social, cognitive, aesthetic, and spiritual. All these five classes of values lead to a total
development of ones personality and solving conflicts. The values are the pillars of the total
growth and development of human beings. If one obeys and does everything accordingly, he
gets the reya (which is mostly desired). Thereby, one achieves satisfaction Santoa, which
leads one to realize the final goal. It is prompted through Guas. The three Guas --(Sattva,R
ajas,Tamas)actually work and do all the actions that bear fruits good (puya) and (ppa) bad
whatsoever.
2.7 Why Disharmony in Spirituality?
There are many instances of disharmony and causes of suffering in our daily life. More
desires in life mean anger, hatred, jealousy, disharmony, anxiety, untruth, and unhappiness. A
man if always desirous of getting everything what is around him and then he becomes restless
to grab it by any way. This is his great enemy he does not know and hindrance for leading a
spiritual life. We have internal enemies than external. But we are not aware of those due to

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various factors. They are five major difficulties. The Five Obstacles in human life are avidyasmit-rga-dvea-abhinivea ( See P. Y. S-II. 3)
Avidy (Ignorance), asmit (Egoism), rga (Attachment), dvea (Aversion), abhinivea
(Desire to cling to life). The above obstacles can be removed through Meditation. Patajali
says -when the obstacles are more, man gets suffering. Those can be removed by resolving the
mind back to its primal cause 10 . Meditation is for harmony. Patajali says that we may have
the power of concentration which will remove the obstacles of all types of sufferings. The
Perfect Balance between Body and Mind will lead to enlightment and can remove all causes of
sufferings. Patajali says- (samdhibhvanta kleatanukararthaca) P. Y. S. II. 2
The ancient philosophers knew this fact and they were propagating the methods of
attaining balance in our daily life. They knew that when the individual attains peace, then the
whole mankind is automatically in peace. Hence,they promulgated Peace into two levels which
are based on paca mahbhtas.
FIVE MAHBHTAS

External(World) Internal (Body)


There is the internal world in us consisting of body,mind and soul and an external world
where others exist. I am the individual soul or purua who is a part of it and when practiced
values, I shall definitely be in peace. An individual is made of Trinity.
Individual

Body

Soul

Mind

The body is the gateway to reach the soul through mind. The whole body if well-managed
where there is no pain and misery, then one can think of a balanced or peaceful mind. A wellbalanced body leads to a well-balanced mind. This is mostly the stateBalance in Internal World

Balance in Outer World

A balanced body requires all the practices of Yoga. Yoga leads an individual to a balanced
state of mind where one is desire less.

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Balanced Personality (Life)


(HAPPINESS (Internal Peace)

State of realizing one self

In this stage, there is no quarrel, no conflict, no hatred, no misunderstanding, and no


feeling of grabbing money, power, position and any such human wants. If the individual is
in calm and tranquility he is a beginner in the path of spirituality. The Upaniads have stated
this in a louder voice. That is why the Yogadarana teaches us the eight steps of attainment.
It informs us about how to achieve internal peace which is possible for every one of us. It
is needless to say that one has to leave to forest for such a practice. Even, remaining in a
modern society one can be spiritual. The great is of our ancient time prayed nature, which is
around us to be kind enough towards everybody. The attainment of internal peace and ones
own realization of oneself are the fundamental needs of spirituality. The guas have the
capacities with positive attitude at an individual level. They are the basis of stable
social systems. Practice of Truth and all values allow us to evolve our consciousness to
higher and higher levels of wholeness and to ultimate consciousness. this is the quest
for spirituality.
III. CONCLUSION
From the above the following concluding remarks can be made :
The Vedic literature described various practices for leading a better and spiritual life
which everybody can follow. To attain balance and peace were aim of all types of ritualistic
performances. The purity in the environment and the individual is almost experienced while
performing ritual. The mind also is purified hence gives mental peace. If everybody follows the
path of pururtha, there will be happiness and peace everywhere. This is highest spirituality.
The Upaniads not only discuss the self-knowledge, but also provides the ways and means
of realizing happiness and peace through spirituality. The main aim of life is spirituality.
The feeling of sharing love and happiness is a necessary factor of the technology of peace
and spirituality. The spiritual enquiry regarding the soul in daily life is a subject matter of
spirituality. Spirituality is something universal, a life science. The spiritual quest culminates
in a new birth, a new person, characterized by physical well-being, mental stillness, emotional
stability, intellectual clarity, serenity and compassion. Human values are universal values
irrespective of caste, creed, sex, religion, time and place. These are the wings of spirituality.
FOOTNOTES AND REFERENCES
1. A Vedic seer is he who can foresee everything and the mantras are revealed to him and
hence called as ayo mantradrara .
2. For the dates,and the contexts of the Vedas see Jan Gonda,Vedic Literature (Samhits and
Brhmaas),Vol. 1,fasc. 1 of Jan Gonda,ed. ,A History of Indian Literature(Wiesbaden:

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Otto Harrassowitz,1975).
3. Bhadrayakopaniad,I. 3. 27.
4. See Brahmastra I.1.i.
5. Skarabhya on I.1.i
6. I.1.i
7. See Sbarabhya on I.1.i
8. The philosophical Texts start such types of discussions in each subject in order to achieve
the desired result. So it is said in the tradition that vde vde jyate tattvabodhah . The
Nyya system of philosophy always emphasized on this type of discussions called vda. As
a result of this we get a lots of Texts of Nyya on various topics and discussions there on.
9. Yoga is Controlling of The Mind
(yogacittavtti nirodha) See Yogastra I.i
10. One can overcome all imbalances through everyday practice of Meditation
(dhyna-heyas-tad-vttaya) P.Y.S.II.11
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Bhandarkar, R.G. 1965, Vaisnavism, Saivism and Minor Religious Systems, Varanasi
Bhargava, P. L. 1971, India in the Vedic Age, Lucknow
Bhattacharya, H. 1956, The Cultural Heritage of India, Calcutta
Bloomfield, M. 1916,The Religion of the Veda, Harvard Oriental Series
Dasgupta, S.N. 1992, A History of Indian Philosophy, Motilal Banarasidass, Delhi.
Dasgupta S.N. 1998, Yoga as Philosophy and Religion, Motilal Banarsidass Publishers, Private
Limited, Delhi.
Dash, S.C., 2010, Importance of Rituals towards the development of Indian Culture,Sambh,
(Nagoya Studies in Indian Culture and Buddhism),Vol. 28,pp. 153-166
Edgerton ,1951,The Beginnings of Indian Philosophy, Harward University Press , Cambridge.
Hiriyanna, M. 1994,Outlines of Indian Philosophy, Motilal Banarasidass, Delhi.
Keith A.B. 1949, Skhya System, Heritage of India series, Y.M.C.A., Publishing house,
Calcutta .
Kenghe, Dr. C.T. 1976, Yoga as Depth Psychology and Para -Psychology, Vol. 11, First Edition,
Bharat Manisha Varanasi.
Majumdar, R.C. 1960, Ancient India, Delhi
Mishra Narayana, 1998, Patajali Yogadaranam, Bharatiya Vidya Prakasana, Delhi.
Radhakrishan, S. 1971, Indian Philosophy, 9th Edition, London, George Allen and Unwin Ltd.,
New York.
Rajadhyaksha, N.D. 1986, The six system of Indian Philosophy, Bharatiya Book Corporation,
I.U.B., Jawaharnagar, Bunglow Road, Delhi-110007.
Sharma Chandradhar,1994, A Critical Survey of Indian Philosophy, 9th Edition, Motilal

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Banarasidass, Delhi.
Sinha, J. 1955, Foundation of Hinduism, Calcutta
Swami Gambhirananda, 1992, Eight Upaniads, Vol-I and II, Advaita Ashram, Calcutta
Swami Nikhilanda, 1990, Vedntasra, Advaita Ashram, Calcutta
Swami Prabhavananda,2003, Patajali Yogastra, Ramakrishna Matha, Mylapore, Chennai-4,
Swami Satprakashananda, 1994, Mind according to Vednta, Sri Ramakrishna Math, Madras.
Tripathy Ramasankar; 1985, Patajali Yogastra, Krsnadas Academy, Banaras.
Veezhinathan, N. 2001, In adoration of the Self, The Adi Sankara Advaita Research Centre,
Chennai
Wilson, H. H. 1958, Religious Sect of the Hindus, (Reprint) Calcutta.

Department of Sanskrit,
Utkal University, Vanivihar,
Bhubanesvar, Odisha, India
(ICCR Professor, Mahendradatta University
Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia)

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PRASKTA OF THE ATHARVAVEDA (XI. 4):


A COSMOLOGICAL APPROACH
Sadananda Das
I. INTRUDUCTION

II. DISCUSSION

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III. CONCLUSION

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Institute of Indology and Central Asian Studies


University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany

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BHATHARI ON APABHRAA
Anirban Dash
I. INTRODUCTION
Apabraa : A Historical Overview

II. DISCUSSION
2.1 Apabhraa or Apaabda

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2.2 Bharthari on Apabhraa

2.3 Definition of Apabhraa

2.4

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2.5

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III. CONCLUSION

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Bibliography:
K.A. Subhramania Iyer, (ed.) Vkyapadya of Bharthari :with the commentares Vtti and
paddhati of Vabhadeva, Ka -1, Deccan College Monograph Series 32, Poona,
1966.
Raghunath Sarma, (ed.) Vkyapadya (part-1, Vol. I, with the commentary Amvakart
Sarasvati Bhavana Granthamala, Vol. 91, Varanasi, 1979.
Pattnayak Tandra:

abda: A study of Bhartharis Philosophy of language, D.K. Print World (p) ltd. New
Delhi, 1993.
stri Gaurinath:

Philosophy of Bharthari, Bharatiya vidya Prakashna, Delhi 1991
Kumar Puspendra:

Linguistics Thought in Ancient India, Nag Publisher, Delhi 1984

Department of Asian Studies


Institute for Cross-Cultural and Regional Studies
University of Copenhagen, Denmark

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INQUIRY INTO THE BRAHMAN


- To Establish the Impersonal Principle, the Brahman
Shoun Hino
I. INTRODUCTION
Establishment of Religion

II. DISCUSSION
2.1 Unio Mystica

2.2 Monism and Theism

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2.3 Similarity and Difference

2.4 The Making of the Brahman

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2.5 Pantheism

2.6 Impersonality and Personality

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2.7 The Making of a Confronting God

2.8 The Making of a Hidden God

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2.9 Islamic Philosophy

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2.10 Examination of State of Sleep

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III. CONCLUSION

Note and References

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Aichigakuin University, Japan

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INTERACTION BETWEEN SANSKRIT AND KHMER


Double-Language inscriptions from Ancient Cambodia
with special reference to K. 2351
Chhom Kunthea
I. INTRODUCTION
O nama ivdibhyo gurubhya

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I. DISCUSSION
2.1 Pre-Angkorian Period (6th - 8th century A.D)

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2.2 Angkorian Period (9th - 14th century A.D)

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2.3 Bilingual passages of the Sdok Kak Thom Inscription K. 235

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III. CONCLUSION

BIBLIOGRAPHY

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Candidate RUFA Phnom Penh/ EPHE Paris

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VIDYSGARAS ROLE IN
MAKING SANSKRIT GRAMMAR EASIER
Sudip Chakravortti
I. INTRODUCTION
Vidysgara, Pait varacandra Bandyopdhyya came of a very poor Brahmin
family from the village of Brsiha under Pacim Medinpur district of the West Bengal on
th
th
the 26 day of September, 1820 A.D. and on 29 July of 1891 A.D. he left this mortal world for
heavenly abode by creating a huge gap in the intelligensia of Sanskrit. Likewise a good many
Sanskrit scholars, he strongly believed from linguistic point of view that Modern Indo Aryan
Languages prevailing in India could not be survived without sufficient nourishment of their
root language, i.e. Sanskrit. For that very reason he has engaged himself to edit various texts
of Sanskrit Literature, to prepare proposals for the betterment of Sanskrit teaching-learning
policy, to prepare Sanskrit Grammars in vernacular language (In Bengali) and to write books
in Bengali Language. Besides these, he also has become successful in making the progress
and development of women education, introducing the widow remarriage act and to the
postponement of the burning of chaste wife on the funeral pyre of her husband (
)
and so on. He has supported his activities from the theories of Sanskrit scriptures.
There is an ample requirement to have an adequate view in respect of Sanskrit grammar
for the sake of an access to the firmament of Sanskrit language and literature. Most of the
people in general are afraid of complex nature of Sanskrit grammar. Despite their keen
patronage with Sanskrit language and literature, they virtually avert the highway of the learning
of this kind of literature. As contrary to this, cultivation of highly esteemed Sanskrit literature
is restricted within a small section of people. So Vidysgara takes keen interest to bring the
culture and practice of this great language back to the main stream of the society from its
degenerated state. And in view of meeting the mission he started doing the composition of
Saskta-vykaraer Upakramaik and Vykaraa-kaumud for imparting teaching in
a comparatively convenient way.
In Vidysgaras age Mugdhabodha and Adhyy (mainly its explanatory
book Siddhnta-kaumud) gain the basic ground of the culture of Sanskrit grammar. Barring
these, other grammars too have its expansion amidst the people by and large. But, all the
grammars mentioned here are completely composed in Sanskrit and even they have been taught
accordingly. There is no room for vernacular language in teaching this grammar. The situation,
indeed, adds a new dimension to the problem of the learning of Sanskrit. Thats why too much
importance is laid by Vidysgara on learning Sanskrit grammar through vernacular. For that,
Vidysgara deeply absorbs himself in simplification of Sanskrit grammar through the method

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of vernacular. He takes two-fold attempts one is Saskta-vykaraer Upakramaik and


the other is Vykaraa-kaumud.
nd
Rmagati Nyyaratna in his Bglbh O Bglshityaviayak Prastb (2
recension, Page 197) says a revolution has been made by Vidysgara in India in respect of
Sanskrit learning by composing Saskta-vykaraer Upakramaik and Vykaraa-kaumud.
People can easily enter into Sanskrit after having acquainted with these two books and their
virtual time and efforts are also saved.

II. DISCUSSION
2.1 Saskta-vykaraer Upakramaik
Vidysgara, indeed, takes attempt to write Saskta-vykaraer Upakramaik in
order to simplify the teaching faculty of Sanskrit language. And in course of the time, this very
grammar appears to be the milestone in the fertile field of learning of the Bengali learners. In
a fresh effort, Vidysgara makes room for basic tenets of Sanskrit grammar in this book. But
he does not follow the often practised method of referring to the stras in this edition. The
prime topics of Sanskrit grammar gains discussion in this very book. But the author does not
mention the stras of Sanskrit grammar in this edition. He tentatively offers comparatively easy
explanations and propels much needed stras in purely rhymed Bengali language. The book
utterly helps out within a very short span and the learners are benefited to get acquaintance with
the much-needed steps and stages of Sanskrit grammar. This book was first brought in 1851.
In recent time too Saskta-vykaraer Upakramaik is an essential guide book for the
students upto class VIII.
This is a matter of great regret that presently, no recension of the initial portion of that
very book is available. The book contains eleven chapters. These are Vara, Sandhi, Pada,
Subanta, Avyaya, Kraka-Vibhakti, Vieya-Vieaa, Tianta, Vcya, Kdanta and Samsa.
After a careful study of Saskta-vykaraer Upakramaik, the following resolutions
appear before us.
The Bengali learners by dint of vernacular get the opportunity to have knowledge of
Sanskrit grammar exclusively through Saskta-vykaraer Upakramaik which
for the long run may be sustained for human craze.
Saskta-vykaraer Upakramaik is the most effective edition to learn Sanskrit
through Bengali medium. The process of teaching Sanskrit by means of vernacular also
may be adopted in any other modern Indian languages like Hindi and Oriya etc. So it is
a unique policy which was firstly invented by Vidysgara to teach Saskrit to those who
are just on the threshold of learning.

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But the only limitation of it is its utility which is strictly restricted only within the
junior level of learning. After galloping the novice stage, Saskta-vykaraer
Upakramaik will be of no use for Sanskrit learning. It is essential to make a primary
base in Sanskrit.
Of late, the education system admits its exceptional status for imparting Sanskrit grammar
upto the students of class VIII.
In Saskta-vykaraer Upakramaik there is no narration of plutasvara. The
utility of plutasvara is not highly solicited by Vidysgara as first learners does not feel
the need of it.
Saskta-vykaraer Upakramaik has been of a great assitance to built the structure
of initially attemted Sanskrit vocabulary also as the learners get a lot of examples in form
of Sanskrit words in it.
The modern Sanskrit grammars for junior learners follow the style of this book to instruct
the pupils.
2.2 Vykaraa-kaumud
Sanskrit education policy of Vidysgar is mainly based on Vykaraa-kaumud
The book can enable the learners to be acquainted with the devices of Sanskrit grammar. At
the time of its publication, the book comprises with three odd volumes. Again, four parts or
divisions of the book are included in these three volumes. We find that the first part is inside
the first volume, second and third part are inside the second volume and fourth part is inside
the last volume. The recent editions of Vykaraa-kaumud appears before us with a single
volume and four parts are included therein. It is a matter of deep grief that the earlier edition of
Vykaraa-kaumud are not found at present and it may be claimed that these initial editions
may have been destroyed.
The first volume of the book comprises with the first part and we find nine chapters in
it. The chapters are Vara, Paribh, Sandhi, atva, atva, Vieya, Vieaa, Subanta,
abdarpa and Avyaya. The second volume has two parts which are originally known as second
and third part. In the second part there we find mainly the description of Lakras and Vcya
and in the third part Kt-pratyas and Udi-pratyas are included. The most important portion
of Vykaraa-kaumud is the final or fourth part where we can see the unique contribution of
the great educationist to enrich Sanskrit grammar with easier and newly invented or modified
stras. Six chaptes are available here. They are namely - Vibhakti, Kraka, Taddhita-pratyaya,
Str-pratyaya, Samsa and Lignusana.

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The consultation of Vykaraa-kaumud is specially restricted within the fourth part


of the book. From this section of the book, he firstly mentions the stras and then explains
them followingly. Sometimes he uses the original Pini stras and the Vrtikas of Ktyyana.
But in most cases, he offers the newly invented or modified or simplified stras for easier
understanding of all sorts of Sanskrit students on the basis of their standard. Such kind of
sixty (60) stras in Vibhakti Niraya (Endings), thirty-eight (38) stras in Kraka (Case), two
hundred fifty five (255) stras in Taddhita, sixty two (62) stras in Str-Pratyaya, two hundred
thirty five (235) stras in Samsa, and forty six (46) stras in Lignusana are created by
Vidysgara. So, he has created total six hundred ninty six (696) stras which are of his own.
Here, I am giving only ten specimen from these stras. The specimens are 1)
abhidheyamtre pratham (for first ending in the Sanskrit word or padam which shows name
primarilly), 2) kartari (for first ending in kart), 3) avyaya-yoge ca (for first ending in avyaya),
4) kriyvieae ca (second ending in kriyvieaa), 5) nikdekotkare (fifth ending in
comparison between inferior to superior) 6) heturutpatte (the source of hetu is apdna), 7)
kriysampdaka kartt (kartt is he who performs the work ), 8) ekapadbhva samsa
(definition of samsa), 9) tatpurua samndhikaraapada karmmadhraya (definition
of karmmadhraya), 10) lopa kvacinmadhyasya (elison of middle word in kaprthivdivat
samsa) etc.
2.3 A Glossary (English to Sanskrit)
It is the concluding portion of the said book in Appendix II where nearest meaning
or meanings in Sanskrit of neumerous English words are provided by Vidysgara. It is like a
small English to Sanskrit dictionary. It may somehow help a learner to be acquainted with the
possible nearest meaning of a word(s).
From a few sample of the stras it is evident that the stras are full of utility to the learners
in respect of explaining the ideas. So, Vykaraa-kaumud has played immense effect upon
the Sanskrit learning process, specially in Bengal as the book is mainly available in Bengali
medium. The few points are given as following :
1. It is a simlified presentation of the whole of Sanskrit grmmar through vernacular language,
Bengali. So the Bengali speaking pupils can easily understand Sanskrit grammar.
2. The self-created easier stras can arrest the readers mind and they become aware of
the main theme of the stras rapidly rather than that of Adhyy or Mugdhavodhavykaraam.
3. Vidysgara does not modify or simplify all the stras of Pini. Whenever he feels the
need of simplification, he has taken the job and represents the stras in simple manner.
4. Upto the first three parts of the book we can not see the direct mention of the stras. It
may be possible that he does not want to make the learners fearful at the very ouset of

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their learning of grammar and tries to increase the interest of the students. When learners
read and feels the need of grammar by reading first three chapters, he has suggested how
to prepare them to face the Sanskrit stras. So in the last part of the book he begins to
mention the stras and explains them.
5. Vykaraa-kaumud is a preparatory book of Sanskrit grammar. After gaining knowledge
of the said book, any learner can easily enter into the vast schools of Sanskrit grammar.
So the previous knowledge of Vykaraa-kaumud can help a learner to deal with
Adhyy or Mugdhavodha-vykaraam or any other Sanskrt grammar book(s).
6. Vidysgaras style of explainig grammar is a school itself.
7. His analysis of various chapters, presentation of declentional and conjugational forms,
given examples and simplified stras may be condidered as new.
8. Dhturpdara can create a great influence upon readers mind and they can catch up
with the conjugational process.
9. His much more stress is laid on abdarpa, Dhturpa, Pratyaya, Kraka-vibhakti and
Samsa for the benefit of the learners.

Transliteration

Vowels
Devangar
Letter

62

Bengali
Letter

Diacritical
Marks

Devangar
Letter

Bengali
Letter

Diacritical
Marks

A/a

E/e

I/i

Ai / ai

O/o

U/u

Au / au

A / A

A / A

bail - pDa

Consonants
Devangar
Letter

Bengali Letter

Diacritical
Marks
K/k
Kh / Kh
G/g
Gh / gh
/
C/c
Ch / ch
J/j
Jh / jh
/
/
h / h
/
h / h
/
T/t
Th / th
D/d

Devangar
Letter

Bengali Letter

Diacritical
Marks
Dh / dh
N/n
P/p
Ph / ph
B/b
Bh / bh
M /m
Y/y
R/r
L/l
V/v
/
/
S/s
H/h

III. CONCLUSION
The above discussion may lead to conclude that Vidysgar has simplified the hard
tenets of Sanskrit Grammar and made available two texts in Bengali. Those are basic texts on
Sanskrit Grammar made easy not only for the Sanskrit lovers but also for serious learners in
the discipline. The rhythmical style of the stra composition not only add beauty but also easy
for remembrance. Hence, he has provided a short-cut to easy learning of the hard tenets of
Adhyy and Siddhnta Kaumudi traditions. Simplication is needed when the tradition loses
its continuity. It may be for the degrading trends at the time. Hence, it was felt necessary by
this author for composing simpler texts called digest texts for the pupils. His contribution to the
field of Sanskrit Grammar is significant and examplary.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Basu, Devkumar. Vidysgar Racanval. Kolkata: Mandal Book House, 1971.
Ghosh, Vinay. Vidysgar O Bgl Samj. Kolkata: Orient Longman, 1984.
Guha, Aravinda (Indramitra). Karusgar Vidysgar. Kolkata: Ananda Publishers Private
Limited, 2001.

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Sen, Satyen and Gopal Haldar. Vidysgar Racansagraha. Kolkata: Vidyasagar Smarak
Jtya Samiti, 1972.
Sarma, Isvaracandra. Saskta-vykaraer Upakramaik. Calcutta: Kalikata Samskrta
Yantra, (Publishing year is not found & Title Page is lost).
Sarma, Isvaracandra. Vykaraa-kaumud (Part- I, II, III & IV). Calcutta: Kalikata Samskrta
Yantra, (Publishing year is not found & Title Page is lost).
Banerjee, Hiranmay. Ishwarachandra Vidyasagar Social Reformer and Educationist. New
Delhi: Sahitya Academy, 1970.
Mukhopadhyaya, Manik (Ed.). The Golden Book of Vidyasagar. Calcutta: All Bengal Vidyasagar
Death Centenery Committee, 1993.
Tripathi, Amalesh. Vidyasagar The Traditional Moderniser. New Delhi: Orient Longman,
1973.

Sidho-Kanho-Birsha University
Purulia, West Bengal, India.

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BALINESE LONTAR: ITS PHILOSOPHICAL BACKGROUND


AND ITS RITUAL PERFORMANCE1
Ida Bagus Putu Suamba
I. INTRODUCTION
The existence of lontar (palm leaf manuscript) in Balinese culture testifies that
Balinese people were fond of learning since 15th century A.D. when writing practices had
used palm leaf as medium. Prior to it, writing practices used mediums like stone, metal, silver,
gold, etc. as found in inscriptions. The appearance of lontars as medium of writing activities in
the archipelago enhanced more branches of learning and more genres of text were produced
despite the fact they had undergone decay or even damage due to some reasons, like climate,
temperature and bad maintenance etc.
There has been a learning and teaching tradition of various branches of knowledge
of which the role of a spiritual master (guru) is important. Lontars of various genres contain
records of Balinese mind in pursuing Ultimate Truth, which is believed fundamental in life. Arts,
culture, science, religion, spirituality, etc. are reflected on lontars. With this fact, knowledge
has been acknowledged to have an important role in Balinese culture. Balinese culture has been
developed in so far based on learning tradition.
Lontar is basically ritually embedded scripture especially on the genre of Kalpastra. Even in tutur genre, which is viewed as the core basis of ritual practices, still we can
find some portions which discuss ritual. Akara, mantra, or instruments for such ritual are
often mentioned in tutur texts. It is not exaggerated when sacred letters (akaras) have been
taken as an integral part of ritual practices. There is no yaja (ritual) accomplished without
the application of akara, mantra, yantra, maala and yoga since they build up an integral
part of it. It deals with ritual or action of both sacred and profane. In difference from western
tradition in which texts are viewed as merely a form of expression of human thoughts or ideas
or feeling, they are not directly related to something divine; whereas lontar as per Balinese
tradition is viewed as sacred and respected by Balinese. It is true that not all lontars as related to
religious matters, but they are considered expressions of human divinity as long as there is no
clear demarcation of sacred and profane. Knowledge either of spiritual or empirical in nature is
always associated with purity, which is attained only in the state of purity.
This paper attempts to throw some light on some aspects of lontar, which is supposed
to reveal its philosophical background and its ritual performance. It is often found in some
traditions that ritual performance with its intricateness and complexities are just performed for
fulfilling a quest of spiritual longing. It is difficult to see its interrelation between performative
1 A Revised paper presented in workshop on Holy Scriptures in the Heidelberg University, Germany , 26th November 2011.

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aspect of it and the possibility of having philosophical background on which a certain ritual
is performed. Of this interconnectedness, we will see lontar as ancient text as preserved in
Bali (Indonesia). Prior to having discussion on these two important points, however, general
information about lontar as material culture is required. It is so since it is ancient text which is
less people are interested in reading it. Further, reading a lontar is basically having a dialogue
to its writer /composer whose ideas and thoughts are reflected on it. When people are struggling
for better life in global world, universal values of ideas/thoughts preserved in lontar are worth
to study.
II. DISCUSSION
2.1 Definition of Lontar
At the outset, a little information about lontar is useful for us to understand the existence
and role it has as preserved well in Bali. Lontar or tal (in Balinese language) is actually a name
of palm leaf (Latin: Borassus flabellifer and another type is Coripha utan), which is used as the
medium on which script is inscribed using special knife (known in Balinese as pengrupak or
pengutik). It is more or less like pen in moderen stationary.Thus, lontar is ancient texts written
on palm leaves1. This plant is easy to grow in tropical or sub-tropical countries, like Indonesia.
However, in its development, lontar becomes name of ancient texts, which are expressed
through the medium of palm leaves irrespective of its content and kind. The process of making
a lontar, from flunking palm leaves to a lontar form, which is ready to be written, is quite
delicate which we cannot go into details in this juncture.
Amongst lontar traditions in the archipelago, Balinese lontars are written in Balinese
scripts even though the language used can be Sanskrit, Old Javanese and Balinese languages or
mix of them. Different scholars have attempted to classify this huge lontar2. Akara (scripts) used
can be divided into three groups, viz. (1) Akara-wreastra for writing Balinese kapara, e.g.
pipil, pangeling-eling, etc; (2) Akara-swalelita is used to write Old Javanese and/or Sanskrit,
e.g. kidung, kakawin, and parwa; and (3) Akara-modre for writing spiritual knowledge
(known in Balinese as kadhyatmikan - esotericism) and also for writing mantra (hymn)3. For
common people it is hard to understand the message of akara in the last classification; it is
simply no meaning at all for them. One is required having purification for using it in spiritual
ascendance. This group is usually used in the practice of divine power (akti).
2.2 Lontar and sacredness
Important questions can be raised in this context: Why lontar manuscript is regarded
as sacred for Balinese? Or, what make lontar sacred even though the subject or content of it
is not at all related to religion or spirituality? In modern times, why still people want to copy
the lontar into lontar rather than to paper or any other material? These questions are important

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to be considered with reference to sacredness and effectiveness of mantra or akara discussed


in the text. In other words why sacrifices so powerful in human life either spiritual or profane
when akara/mantra are taken into account as an integral part of a yaja ?
In Balinese culture, lontar is considered as sacred texts because it contains religious
and spiritual knowledge. This kind of knowledge is often associated with divinity to which
people always pay respects and looking for grace or protection. It also deals with secular one,
e.g. health, astronomy, astrology and literatures etc. These sorts of knowledge are required
for attaining abhyudaya (happy and prosperous life) and moka (freedom from bondage). In
short, it can be stated that for Balinese they believe that happy life can only be attained through
acquiring knowledge both of spiritual and secular one. Accordingly, lontars which behaves
as store house of various subject matters are highly respected and treated as sacred. And, as
per Balinese tradition, for reading to unearth its divine message, one should undergo a process
of purification, like pewintenan. This practice is not found in western tradition; the pursuit of
knowledge is not connected to religious practices. The reason of the purification practice in
Balinese tradition is that unless and until one is pure physically and spiritually, the one which is
divine having purity of nature cannot be attained. Achievement in attaining knowledge, in turn,
is aimed at having well being. The pursuit of knowledge should be based on purity and right
or good intention for the benefit of all. This is done in order to avoid the misuse of knowledge
for negative purposes.
On its sacredness, lontars are considered as abode of God of learning, i.e. Sarasvat
as she is sometimes addressed as the God of utterance (vk). What is printed on a lontar is
basically a representation of words of divine in nature. Thus, worshipping her once in every
six month according to Javano-Balinese calendar is performed through lontars. It is the
medium through which she is worshipped and asked for anugraha (divine grace), which is
required in life. It behaves as guiding manuals on various aspects of life, especially religion,
spiritual and culture. Owing to its role and significance, it is preserved and read by religious
leaders, like ped(priest of Brahmin class) in performing his duty (svadharma) to serve
the people. In ritual performance a ped always consults related lontar. Brahmin is always
associated with religious matters and they have responsibility to keep this tradition alive from
generation to generation despite the fact that not all Brahmins have profession as religious
leaders/teachers.
At the outset, there is no religious performance devoid of message or ideas taken from
a particular lontar. For rituals, a priest usually consults a class of literature belong to kalpastra. It is a huge class of literature, which covers paca-mah-yaja (five great sacrifices)
according to Hinduism as practised in Bali. When modern system of printing has not yet been
invented or has not reached the archipelago, lontar was the most widely used medium on which
various thoughts were written on it. It seemed that the appearance of lontar writing in ancient

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Bali came into existence around 14th century A.D when Bali had received intensive influence
from Javanese culture. Prior to it, stone was used especially when inscription was issued by
the ruler. Owing to its limited space and relatively hard to inscribe on stone, and also requires
times in the processing lontar preparing ready to be written, lontar was replacing the role of
stone as more or wider matters can be expressed through it. Irrespective of its lengthiness,
lontar also has disadvantage due to its strength in facing time. When it was not well prepared in
the process of making it, it is easy to decay. And, thus, the process of copying again and again
becomes the only way to preserve it. This happened continuously, especially on lontar which
has a great interest from readers, like Kakawin Rmyaa, Parvas and Tuturs, etc. However,
the process of copying from different person in different generations may cause its correctness
and originality are at risk. A lontar lover or collector will try to find the most original or oldest
version of a certain title or topic.
An interesting phenomenon happens in Bali nowadays is that even though Balinese also
adopt modern life style in global world, they still preserve lontar and some thoughts laboured
on religion and culture are written in lontar using Balinese scripts. Awig-awig (the local law)
of Dea-pakraman (traditional village) is a good example to illustrate the above remarks.
When everybody strives for the advancement of science and technology as one characteristic
of modern life, it seems that there is a feeling of longing to go back to ancient time. One still
inclines to past custom and tradition because one feels peaceful in his life. Keeping his thought
in lontar form is an evidence of this longing and at the same time one preserves lontar writing
and reading traditions. It is true that not all Balinese agree with this point, but lontar tradition
cannot be said as a dead tradition; instead it still has its role and significance in modern Balinese
life even though various new thoughts have reached in this land.
2.3 Lontar: textual and ritual traditions
Lontar tradition has been preserved through nyastra tradition, i.e. practice of reading,
writing, discussing and implementing the ideas/principles/values found in lontars. Accordingly,
the residence of a guru (spiritual master) becomes site of learning. It has been developed until
the present day through a traditional lineage of teaching and learning (parampar) in which
guru plays an important role. It is considered as the think-tank of Balinese culture. A person
who likes nyastra activity is well familiar with the existence and message revealed in lontar.
Brahmin and king in the past were used to have nyastra activity. It looked exclusive since only
they have good access to lontar reading and writing activities. However, the stress seemed to
be put on religious and spiritual knowledge rather than on empirical one in which sense organs
play their role.

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Further, there is interconnectedness between textual tradition and living Balinese


tradition. It means that lontar is a living tradition: it is not only read, interpreted and copied
in the course of history and culture but also new ones were created in the post-Majapahit
period (15th. cen. A.D.). During the reign of king Waturenggong of Sweca-pura kingdom in
Klungkung (16th cen. A.D.), Balinese literature grew and developed to its peak especially in the
genre of kidung. A number of poet-sages created their works which we can read even today.
This happens in the genre of kakawin, kidung (of poem) and awig-awig dea pakraman (law
of traditional village) (of prose). What is performed ritually or secularly is derived from lontar.
Or, ritual is an expression of message found in lontar. There is no ritual performed which is
devoid of lontar message, i.e. philosophical/theoretical foundation on which the building called
ritual (yaja) is erected. A person of nyastric in nature is the one who can read and interpret
its message. In religious practices, common people follow what is said by religious leaders.
2.4 The relationship between philosophy and ritual performance
As per Balinese religion there is a triple principle to which everyone should look at when
one acts either of religious or secular in nature. Understanding it will be helpful so that every
act we attempted is efficient, effective and purposeful in life. And the most important is that
when an act or ritual (yaja) is performed based on metaphysical principle (tattva) as conveyed
by lontar, it can be grouped into sttvic yaja, otherwise it belongs to rjasic or tmasic ritual,
which has less value or significance in life. When the last two rituals are performed the point
is almost nothing because it is devoid of value and knowledge; it is just a ceremony which is
spiritually baseless and meaningless. The greatness of a yaja (ritual) should not be viewed
from its physical or empirical appearances, but from its purity and sincerity. Triple principles
as mentioned above are metaphysics (tattva), ethics (sana/la/sula) and ritual (yaja).
Tattva is the basis on which sana is observed and yaja is performed. When we accept that
lontar as the store house of Balinese knowledge, we have to look from this angle. Consequently,
we will be able to see the interconnectedness between metaphysics (tattva) which is contained
in lontar and its counterpart in the form of observable ritual or actions.
An interesting point worth to mention in this juncture is philosophical foundation of
akti (divine power) and its performative efficacy found in ritual. One practises rituals because
one believes that one can acquire divine power (akti) either directly or indirectly. As per
Balinese tradition, when society is in trouble due to existence of some diseases, natural disaster
and calamities etc, they will perform ritual either individually or in group. As ritual will
cause/trigger power, all unhappiness, personal or social or natural problems, etc. in life both of
human being and nature can be cured. It does not mean that modern way of life is excluded in
Balinese life. Balinese adopt both ways, viz. spiritual and logical domains in life. It is better to
incorporate both rather than demarcated and treated them individually.

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For one who wishes to have akti, one should have knowledge of it and practises it
accordingly through prescribed action or ritual. It is impossible to trigger akti without ritual
whatever small it is4 . Here is the role of lontar as material text culture. Various elements taken
from nature (bhtas) are utilized in ritual, which is supposed to trigger akti that exists in
oneself. The utilization of sacred letter [akara, like vjkara and omkra (prama mantra)]
both in microcosm (human body) and macrocosm (the world) is one way to be practised for
acquiring akti. It is also worth to note that akti is like a sword; it can be used for either for
goodness or destruction. It depends on the one who will treat it. Owing to it, one should be
mature in yoga (as a method of conjoining individual self and the Supreme-self and way/
method to conjoin them) in which inner faculties, like consciousness (citta), ego (ahamkra),
mind (manas), senses indriyas), etc. can be controlled and all elements composing our body
are balanced and harmonised for happy life; otherwise possessing akti will be dangerous for
oneself and for others as well. A spiritually weak person is dangerous possessing akti. That
is the reason, the teaching contains in lontar especially the one grouped to pengiwa/penengen
(esotericism) is considered secret knowledge (rahasya-jna); it cannot be opened for public
learning. Mode of learning is individual and personal. When one wants to enter this kind of
teaching and learning tradition, one should undergo election and test to be fit for following
rigorous practices. These all are performed to purify oneself as only in the state of pure and
sacred akti as a form of knowledge can be acquired. For that purpose, one should learn it under
competent master (guru).
What is expressed in ritual which involves various art forms are basically philosophy
in reality; it is an extension of philosophy in action. When metaphysics attracts the learned one,
ritual (yaja) can be performed by everybody irrespective of age, capability and intellectuality
etc. It is religion of masses exercising its power for the well being of all.
2.5 Lontar and the arrival of various foreign thought currents
When lontar is facing challenge from various foreign thought currents either from
India like Upaniad and Bhagavad-gt etc. or any other parts of the world arrived in Bali in
the post independence period, there is a worry about its existence and strength to cope with
the problem. Balinese now are given options, and sometimes it sounds more interesting. As
an open society, Balinese also tries to see them; some becomes fanatic practitioner of the new
thoughts; some just for knowing only. In the first place, internal conversion cannot be avoided
both religiously and culturally. The danger will appear when Balinese culture is systematically
abolished either from internal as well as external side.
Of its preservation, lontar as the spirit of Balinese culture should be read and interpreted
through modern mode of learning and expression. With this effort, it still can perform its
philosophical foundation and performative ritual action.

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III. CONCLUSION
It is acclaimed that lontar is the core of Balinese culture and for ritualistic lontar,
tutur genre is viewed as the core basis on which ritual is performed. It records the dynamic of
Balinese minds and culture through ages. There is an interrelation between textual tradition and
ritual tradition as both basically a form of knowledge. One is abstract in type and the other is
concrete which can be practised by all. The truth of knowledge which is abstract can be proved
directly through performing ritual not only necessarily by reason. It is so since not only mind is
working but sense organs, which play an important role in acquiring empirical knowledge also
involves. In this regard, by performing ritual, one involves not only mind, but also body in the
form of actions. Through practising it one is undergoing purification and self-transformation
for better and of a higher plane of life. akti (divine) power is regarded as an effect produced
by performing rituals. This akti be used to purify macrocosm and microcosm as well.
Notes and References
1. Tim Penyusun Kamus Pusat Pembinaan dan Pengembangan Bahasa, Kamus Besar Bahasa
Indonesia, Balai Pustaka, 1990, p. 532.
2. Two classifications issued by the Gedong Kirtya of Singaraja and Pusat Dokumentasi
Kebudayaan Bali in Denpasar are two classifications, which are commonly used by
researchers. Both have some differences despite its similarity. Gedong Kirtya style is the
first attempt done in this regard (1928). Pusdok (1995) seems simpler with reference to
various subjects are treated in lontar.
3. Simpen AB, Pasang Akasara Bali. Denpasar: Dinas Pengajaran Propinsi Dati I Bali, 1979.
Another classification is done by Bagus (1980): Ordinary Balinese scripts for is used to
write common daily life affairs, like literatures, law, etc.; and sacred Balinese scripts it
belongs to Vjkara, and Modre. Vjkara consists of Ongkara, Rwa-bhineda, Triakaras,
Packaras, Pacabrahm, Dakaras, Caturdakara and Soakara. While Akaramodre is type of script (sometimes appears on drawing/picture) which is difficult to read.
4. There are mainly three grades of yaja (ritual) as practiced in Bali, viz. uttama (the biggest/
highest), madhya (medium) and kaniha (smallest/lowest). The success of yaja (ritual) is
not determined by its rank but on the sincerity and purity of the performer. With these facts,
people are given options which can be taken in accordance to ones limitations.

Politeknik Negeri, Denpasar,


Bali, Indonesia

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GURU PADMASAMBHAVA PATH MAKER OF


BUDDHISM IN SIKKIM
Dipankar Lama
I. INTRODUCTION
Lord Buddha is one of the many beings who became Buddha through the path of
Buddhism in the age of ours. He is the master who propagated the path popularly known as
Buddhism. In the 6th century B. C. the Tathgata showed the middle path and Guru Rinpochhe
was the path maker of Buddhism in the society of Sikkim.
Buddhism was brought to Sikkim by Guru Padmasambhava through Tibet in the 8th
century A.D. Guru Padmasambhava also known as Guru Rinpoche, who introduced Buddhism
to the people of Sikkim. He was the acarya of Nalanda Mahavihara and was well versed
Tantricism. Although he left no converts and erected no buildings, he is said to have hid away
in caves many holy books for the use of posterity and to have personally consecrated every
sacred spot in Sikkim. According to the legendary accounts, Guru Padmasambhava entered
Sikkim by the Lordly Pass Jo-la and he is said to have returned to Tibet by way of Je-lep Pass,
resting en-route on the Ku-phu and creating the Tuko-la by tearing up the rock to crush an
obnoxious demon.1

II. DISCUSSION
Now we propose to give an account of the life of Guru Padmasambhava on the basis
of material gleaned from various sources although versions given in them are so much full of
legends and grotesques that it is very difficult to disentangle historical facts from them.
No historical accounts are available for the early history of this great acarya of Nalanda.
However there are legendary sources about his early life. With regards to his birth, we find two
different versions in his biographies. According to them he had miraculous feature and he born
out of the lotus flower in the form of an eight-year-old child and was adopted by Indrabodhi,
the king of Uyna and according to other version he was born from the womb. Whatever may
be the fact, but this much is clear that no historians have doubted his historical status. He was
a famous acarya of Tantric school of Buddhism in Nalanda Mahavihara. He acquired great
learning and mystic powers. He contacted many great teachers including the renowned masters
of Nalanda Mahavihara. From his biography we learn that the Guru had invitation from great2
masters of different schools. For examples, he was taught by Prabhahasti in the three years
yogas of body, speech and mind; from the great master Garab Dorzee, he received heart drop
of the great perfection. From Sangye Sangwa he received the hundred emanation of the secret
heart and from the great crya r Siha he received the tantras of the supreme Heruka. From

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the great master Jampa Shenyen, he received the tantras and the Sadhana of the Lotus spirit.
Thus he had strong foundation for his future mission as an experienced and skilful teacher.3
The land of Sikkim was a barren land, full of rocks and empty valleys, infested with
thick forests and difficult to travel through. There were no human habitants. It was rather in
habitated by wild monkeys, leopards, tigers, gorillas, bears and other wild animals who roamed
the land. Samsaric gods, evil spirits and untamed deities lived in the land. The spirits of the
cliffs, rocks, water and the agas made it a dangerous and frightening place. In the 8th century
A.D., the time to spread the light of Dhamma to this land had come and also the one who is the
subjugator of all the evils, the miraculous and supremely powerful one who subjugated all the
evil doors, the antidote to all evils, Guru Padmasambhava came to Sikkim. He visited the whole
land, blessed it and proclaimed this hidden land as the most exulted place similar to the Copper
Colored Paradise. He named this land as, Heavenly Celestial Khay chos palkyi Demozong.
He made it widely known to the whole universe and opened the sacred doors to the hidden
land.4 But some other famous meanings are as follow:- the most widely accepted origin of the
name Sikkim is that it is a combination of two words in the Limbu Su, which means new,
and Khym, which means palace or house, in reference to the palace built by the states first
ruler, Phuntsong Namgyal. The Tibetan name for Sikkim is Denjong, which means the valley
of rice. The Lepchas, original inhabitants of Sikkim called it Nye-mae-el or paradise, and the
Bhutias call it Beymul Demazong, which means the hidden valley of rice.5
In the 8th century A.D. Guru Padmasambhava was invited by the king of Tibet Thri
srongduestan. He was invited there for the help of acarya ntarakita to propagate and
establish of Dhamma in Tibet. When he reached there, Padmasambhava constructed the first
monastery that is bSam Yes monastery. He took initiative for building this monastery. According
to Tibetan sources after the local devils and demigods were subdued by Padmasambhava,
he along with ntarakita, laid the foundation of the bSam Yes monastery and king Thri
srongduestan constructed it. This monastery was constructed on the model of Odantapuri
Mahavihara (Bihar Sharif, Nalanda).6
According to Buston,7 however, after Padmasambhava subdued the Tibetan demons,
ntarakita was invited to bSamYes and established his residence there. The crya
Bodhisattava in his tura, examined the ground, took the monastery of Odantapuri as a model
and made a plan containing the forms of the mount Sumeru, the 12 continents, both the sun
and the moon, all these surround by a circumference of iron. bSamYes was built according
to this plan. From Bustons account, therefore, it appears that the first real initiative of the
building of bSamYes was taken by ntarakita, though only after the great exploits of
Padmasambhava.8

III. CONCLUSION

Guru Padmasambhava was the founder of rNyingmapa sect. The rNyingmapa celebrate festivals of important events in the life of Guru Padmassambhava. Guru
Padmasambhava as the second Buddha of the rNying-mapas must be distinguished from his
aspect as the historical personage, the siddha Padmasambhava. He is regarded by the followers
of rNying-ma-pa, who adhere to his teachings strictly, as second Buddha. Padmasambhava,
however, is popular among all sects of Buddhists in Tibet as well as all the Himlayan regions
and reverenced by all. That is why his paintings and images occupy prominent places in

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monasteries and temples. Worship of Guru Padmasambhava is common feature in religious


and cultural life of Sikkim and finds expression in Lama Dances and other cultural activities.
He is regarded as tantric emanation of Goutam, the Buddha, by Buddhists of Sikkim and its
adjoining territories including Nepal and Bhutan.9
The rNyingma pa (The old School) represents the primitive and unreformed style of
Lamaism. It is more largely tinged with the indigenous pre-Buddhist religious practices and
celibacy and abstinence are rarely practices. In Sikkim there are three sub sects of rNyingma-pa viz. the Lhatsun-pa, to which belong most of the monasteries with Pemiongchi at the
head; the Kartok-pa with the monasteries of Kartok and Doling and the Nga dak pa with the
monasteries of Namchi, Tashiding, Sinon and Thangmochhe.10
At present there are 67 monasteries in addition, there are 132 Manilhakhang and
22 Lhakhang and Tsamkhang (hermitage or place of meditation) are there. Among these six
Tashiding is considered the most important.11 The Lepchas and Bhutias community of Sikkim
are the followers of Guru Padmasambhava. Buddhism is the state religion of Sikkim. The
precious Dhamma tradition has spread and continues since the time of the great crya. In the
monasteries Dhamma rituals and ceremonies are performed without interruption on the holy
days. Once a year monastic dances and rituals are performed as part of the Dhamma tradition
and practice in almost all the traditional monasteries in Sikkim.12
References:1. Waddell, L.A., Buddhism and Lamaism of Tibet, p. 46
2. Stein, R. A., Tibetan Civilization, pp. 37-105.
3. Ansari, A. Q., Padmasambhava: A Missionary of Nalanda, proceeding
Heritage of
Nalanda and its continuity, Nava Nalanda Mahavihara, 2000, p-111.
4. Dash, N. K., Tibetan Studies- Past and Present, p- 62.
5. Sikkim, Wikipedia, the free encyclopesia.org
6. Hoffman, H., The Religions of Tibet, p-47.
7. B-ston, II, p-189.
8. Chimpa, Lama and C. Alka, Atisa and Tibet, p- 239.
9. B. P. Singh, Padma-Bkai-than-yig, Biography of Padmasambhava, The BiharResearch
Society, Patna, P-xviii.
10. Waddel, L. A., Lamaism in Sikkim, p-10.
11. Ranju R. Dhamala, A Socio-Economic study of Pemayangtse Monastery in Sikkim,
The Region and Society of the Himlayas (Ed.) pp. 58-59
12. Lama, D., Guru Padmasambhava and Buddhism in Sikkim, Proceeding Buddhism and
Culture of North-East India, Nava Nalanda Mahavihara, 2005, p- 139.

Department of Tibetan Studies,


Nava Nalanda Mahavihara
(Deemed University)
Nalanda- 803111 Bihar, India

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GANDHIAN NON-VIOLENCE IN CURRENT PERSPECTIVES


Ravindra Kumar
I. INTRODUCTION
To cause pain or wish ill to or to take the life of any living being out of a danger or a
selfish intent is his. On the other hand after a calm and clean judgment to kill or cause pain
to living being with a view to its spiritual or physical benefit from a pure, selfless intent may be
the purest form of ahis. Each such case must be judged individually and on its own merits.
The final test as its violence or non-violence is after all the intent underlying the act.
M. K. Gandhi
Gandhis above statement is self-explanatory to clarify his viewpoint pertaining to
ahis [non-violence]. Besides, it is sufficient enough to elucidate significance of Gandhian
concept of ahis on the one hand and its adaptability on the other. Furthermore, it is fully
capable to prove the uniqueness and excellence of ahis in the current perspective. Above
all, it may serve as a guide to those who opt for ahis in its refined form under prevailing
situations of time in future.
How? In this context, it is feasible to acquire familiarity with the word-meaning of nonviolence, and simultaneously, with its foremost concepts prior to attempt any critical analysis.

II. DISCUSSION
2.1 Word Meaning
Non-violence is constituted by the two words: non and violence. The former non
is a prefix which, after its use with a word, simply explains negative or opposite state of the
word concerned. In my opinion nothing more is required to append or explain the role of the
concept.
The term violence is derived from the Latin word violare [present participle violans],
and its root may be traced to the Latin words vis [force] and fero [to carry].1 On basis of
the generally accepted explanation of above-mentioned terms [vis and fero] violence could
be interpreted as to do something by force. The currently prevalent English word violence
is itself observed in terms of expression of physical or verbal force against self or other. It is
synonymous to a compelling action against ones will. 2
The notion of violence has been variously defined and explained by scholars, thinkers
and philosophers of repute, from time-to-time. As almost all such explanations are available for
analysis, I do not deem it vital to say anything further in this regard except that non-violence is
a state just opposed to violence.

2.2 The Indian Etymology


According to the Indian etymology ahis [non-violence] comprises of the following
three elements:

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A
Hims and
A
Like the English word non, A in Indian parlance also conveys the negative state of
the concerned word. Plainly speaking, after its (A) placement as prefix to a word the opposite
connotation of the word becomes apparent. For example: asahayoga, asvkra or amarydita.
His as is evident, again with a [as a nominal suffix] divulges the state of his
[violence], i.e. an act of causing pain to others, and spoiling life in any form.
Since ancient times the Indian scholars have been elaborating upon his [violence]
comprehensively. More specifically, they have been analyzing it minutely from the wordmeaning perspective. Based upon these explanations and analysis of his [violence], they
have also been striving to define ahis [non-violence]. All such explanations and analysis are
available. Particularly, interpretations regarding word meaning of ahis are well before us to
urge and encourage reanalyzing and reinterpreting them according to the demand of time and
prevailing conditions of space, and preferably on the basis of the fundamental spirit in the root
of ahis.
2.3 Main Concepts
Consequently, many excellent, unique and worthy concepts of non-violence have
developed from time-to-time, both in the East and the West. Most of the concepts developing in
the East relate to India. The importance of ahis as a supreme human value has been explained
by Indian scholars and thinkers. Since ancient times they have analyzed it minutely with the
sole purpose of inspiring people to make it the basis of their day-to-day practices, because
despite existence, prosperity and peace in life are possible only through continuous practices
of non-violence.3 Therefore, having the East, and particularly Asia in the centre, discussing the
main Indian concepts relating to ahis first, will not be out of context.
2.4 Indian View
Ahis occupies its due place in philosophies related to all the four major Indian religiouscommunities -Hindu [Vedic], Jain, Buddhist and Sikh. In fact, ahis has been placed there in
the highest esteem as the supreme human value. Not only this, since ancient times ahis has
been playing a vital role in the lives of followers of religious-communities like Hindu-[Vedic],
Jain and Buddhist. In an all-inclusive manner it can be said that non-violence has been the
central point in day-to-day practices of almost all Indians. Hence, emergence of exemplary
concepts pertaining to ahis in the basic philosophies of all the four religious-communities
[or as generally said religions] in which, as known to all of us, three4 are ancient while one5 was
established some five centuries ago. Due to their uniqueness they necessitate a brief analysis.

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2.5 Vedic [Hindu] Philosophy


The Vedas are the fountain of that philosophy, which is popularly known as Hinduism
today. The Vedas6 are the oldest religious treatises of the world. And in my opinion ahis, as
a supreme human value, is established in all of them in general and in the gveda in particular.
Perhaps many of us may not be aware of the fact that ahis along with the principle of
Universalism and Human Unity emerges in the first loka of first skta of the first Maala of
the gveda.7 However, it is a different matter if prayers to God [or gods] were the chief basis
for desiring ahis at the time of composition of the Vedas and particularly the gveda in
prevailing situations, and spiritualism was the main source of realizing non-violence.
Besides the gveda, in the other three Vedas [the Yajurveda, the Smaveda and the
Atharvaveda] also ahis appears as a keen desire for affability with fellow beings, fearlessness,
and release from grieves and injuries.8
In the treatises of the later period, particularly the Upaniads, the Manusmti and
rmadbhagvadgt, ahis clearly appears as a Dharma, Jna [knowledge], Satya [truth], a
sense of duty and the supreme human value. The conclusion that we can draw from all mentions
in the Vedas and other Vedic literature about the concept of ahis is that it implies not to injure
and not to kill an innocent living being is non-violence and thus, complete abstinence from
violence is non-violence. Moreover, ahis must be an essential part of human behaviour.
A human being should be non-violent in theory and practice, both. And, finally non-violence
should be there as the basic spirit in the root of his every act.
2.6 Jainism
The concept of ahis in Jainism is undoubtedly unique and extraordinary. Here it is
more dominant in comparison to other Indian concepts relating to it. Moreover, it is completely
based upon the negative aspect of violence as is evident from a brief statement, in which it has
been said that nahis ahis.9
Jainism, as is well known, intrinsically revolves around ahis. Non-violence is accepted
as Brahman there. The scope of the concept of ahis under Jainism is so comprehensive that
it includes not causing even superfluous diversion of nature besides aversion from the slightest
violence towards the tiniest living creature. A human being is expected to strictly follow the
principle of ahis realizing the spirit in the root of the following loka:
ahis savvasattnam sad nivvekarika,
ahis savvasattesu param bambhamani diyam10
Meaning thereby: Non-violence, very dear to all living beings, is pacifying; is
Brahman.

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Therefore, keeping the perception of tmavat sarvabhteu11 firmly in mind one


must follow the principle of parasparopagraho jvnm12, and thus should come forward to
cooperate with others.
Along with any kind of violence, a killing by mistake [or knowingly/unknowingly] is
equally accountable in Jainism. It is a subject of reckoning. For, a human being is liable to
blame. In this regard, the following explanation of a verse from one of the Jain Stras is
adequate for corroboration:
The Arhatas and Bhagvats of the past and present, and future, all say thus, speak
thus, declare thus, explain thus: all breathing, existing, living sentient creatures
should not be slain, nor treated with his, nor tormented, nor driven away.
Just from the short statement, nor driven away, it is evident that the concept
of ahis in Jainism is really severe. Moreover, Jainisms laying more stress
on self-sacrifice, self-control and discipline makes its concept of non-violence
intricate and rather difficult for common people to follow it. That is why, despite
its being unique, its having based on negative aspect of violence it is difficult to
be accomplished by each and everyone.13
2.7 Buddhism
Although like Jainism, the concept of ahis in Buddhism is also connected to selfcontrol and discipline, 14 and to a large extent, with the unique principle of parasparopagraho
jvnm,15 but, neither Buddhism and nor Gautama Buddha himself brings non-violence
within the scope of superfluous rigidity. Despite accepting ahis as the supreme human
value16 and declaring it to be the most precious jewel of humanity, Buddhism lays more stress
on its practical aspects so that it could be feasible to common man. That is why; Buddhism
calls for making ahis an indivisible part of day-to-day human practices in its refined form as
per the demand of time. During the lifetime of Buddha, karu, i.e. compassion [union of pity
and friendliness] was the best and practical reflection of non-violence. It was loving kindness
towards all beings [metta]. Moreover, it was itself a dimension of the theory of ahis on the
one hand, and recognition to the right to live of each and every living being on the other. Besides
being an acid test of humanity, it was also the acceptability of principles of love and protection
of life. Moreover, it symbolized the revelation of Buddhist concept of non-violence.
2.8 Sikhism
Despite being complementary up to a large extent to the Vedic [Hindu]17philosophy and
accepting valour as its principal value, Sikhism18 stresses on harmony among human beings
and thus calls for mutual cooperation and approval in their day-to-day dealings or activities.

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Moreover, ahis of Sikhism can be observed in its stress on human-unity and fraternity on
the one hand, and in its commitment for defending the weak, helpless and women on the other.
A Sikh is expected to regard it as his foremost duty, and for its accomplishment, be ready to
sacrifice his life. Categorically, non-violence of Sikhism can be viewed in its call and teachings
for mutual cooperation, approval and harmony in human transactions, and the certainty of
defending others.
2.9 Other Eastern Concepts
Besides the above-mentioned four Indian concepts, non-violence can also be discerned in
the Confucian doctrine of no return of evil for evil19; Taoists emphasis on harmony, humility,
yielding to overcome, and seeking to cultivate the feminine side of human nature20; Christianitys
call for return of hatred by love; and Islams message of fraternity for fraternity. All these
concepts are imbibed with high morality and ethics and thus deeply embedded in non-violence.
All of them, having perceptions of human-unity, mutual cooperation, practices and harmony
in the centre, call for carrying out daily human practices. In brief, I venture to repeat, these
concepts can be viewed integrally connected with high moral values and ethics.
2.10 Western Concepts
The Western world, particularly Europe, also is not immune from concepts pertaining to
non-violence. Rather, some of the western concepts are quite ancient and like that of the East,
they too are well known and commendable. It is beneficial to mention a few of these. One
of those concepts relates to the Greek philosopher Aristotle [384-322 B.C]. He, as we know,
favoured fostering of attributes. He sought constant development of ethical values of a man so
that he could rise to a height.21 As it is possible only through non-violent tendencies, Aristotle
by his advocacy of development of attributes or virtues22 and ethical values in one way or the
other enriched the concept of non-violence. Moreover, he directly or indirectly followed that
Greek tradition, which could be linked to great philosophers like Socrates [470/469-399 B.C]
23
and Plato [428/427-348/347 B. C.].24
For an analysis of the western concept of non-violence, the name of German classical
thinker and epistemologist Immanuel Kant [1774-1804] is also worth mentioning. Kant, as
known to us, besides being the father of German classical philosophy, was himself a thinker
of peace. He stated that it was a practical imperative to treat humanity, whether in your own
person or in the person of any other, never simply as a means, but always at the same time as
an end.25
Supporting the three well-known principles promulgated by Gnaeus Domitius Annius
Ulpianus [170-223 A. D.], anglicized as Ulpian, a Roman Jurisprudent and statesman, that
live well as per your natural inclination, never transgress the rights of others, and give their
due rights to others26, Immanuel Kant stated that be not only the means for others but also an

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end.27 He laid enough stress on non-violation of others rights on the hand, and for developing
relations on the basis of equality on the other; and most particularly on ensuring others due
share. Thus, speaking about equal treatment and good behavior and especially taking on others
rights, Kant ensured a base to the concept of non-violence; however, his thoughts were focussed
on human beings rather than all living beings.
In this same chain the name of English philosopher and reformer Thomas Hill Green
[1836-1882] also emerges foremostly. His concept of non-violence is well evident from his
statement, particularly made in context of justice. He said, Justice is the habit of mind,
which leads us to respect those conditions in dealing with othersnot to interfere with them
so far as they already exist, and to bring them into existence so far as they are not found in
existence.28
Hence, Green presumed non-interference with the existence of living being, and along
with this in a positive sense, interference for the promotion of existence and its rise as justice.
This justice is undoubtedly complementary to the principle of non-violence, because notions
like the existence of living being and the promotion of existence stimulate the spirit of nonviolence.
Other significant Western concepts of non-violence can be found in the views of eminent
English Utilitarian thinkers like Jeremy Bentham [1748-1832] and John Stuart Mill [18061873]. Non-violence of these thinkers may be observed in their laying stress on realizing ones
moral duties towards other human beings on the one hand, and towards animals on the other.
They particularly emphasized the moral duty of man towards animals, because they too are
sensitive to the feelings of pain and pleasure. Furthermore, an important concept of non-violence
prevails in thoughts of the Scottish philosopher Adam Smith [1723-1790], 29 who accepting
negative virtue of not hurting ones neighbour as justice, favoured negation of all kinds of
violence. This according to Smith, is justice, and undoubtedly symbolic of non-violence.30
Moreover, in the views of an Alsatian-German-French theologician and one of the
thinkers of the modern age like Albert Schweitzer [1875-1965], who recognized reverence
for life as basic principle of ethics,31 also exists a sound concept of non-violence. Schweitzer
recognized the right to live as the first right32 and to honour the life as the first duty, not
only ones own but also of others,33 as is evident from his own statement in which he said,
Ethics grows out of the same root as world and life affirmation, for ethics, too, is nothing but
reverence for life. That is what gives me the fundamental principle of morality, namely, that
good consists in maintaining, promoting and enhancing life, and that destroying, injuring and
limiting life are evil.34
From the above brief survey and analysis of different concepts pertaining to non-violence
in the West and the East, particularly India, we reach at the conclusion that despite its being a
subject of constant realization and development, as Mahatma Gandhi also admitted35, ahis
has been a prime notion not only in the philosophies of religions, but also in the ideas and

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practices of thinkers and philosophers of repute since ancient times. It has been accepted as the
supreme human value since primordial age and at the same time has remained as a dynamic
force underlying human activities.
2.11 Gandhian Non-Violence
Gandhian concept of ahis not only epitomizes a fine coordination among the various
concepts of non-violence of India and the rest of Asia, but it also synthesizes different concepts
of the East and the West. Furthermore, besides retaining its own exclusive identity, it seems
to harmonize among the concepts of non-violence of the ancient, medieval and contemporary
periods, and also the modern time. That is why; I have firmly said time and again that Mahatma
Gandhi has accorded a wonderful dimension to the theory and practice of ahis. After Gautama
Buddha it is perhaps only Mahatma Gandhi who effectively and successfully adopted ahis
according to the demand of time and space in his lifetime. He brought the concept of ahis
completely out of the domain of extremism, and extended it to enlarge the basis of practices
effectively and uniquely in the political sphere. Moreover, he remains the source of inspiration
for so many others around the world even after he passed away, particularly for those who
desire success through non-violence in socio-political spheres.
It was the success of Gandhis non-violent measures, which astonished the great scientist
Albert Einstein [1879-1955] and made him to conclude, Generations to come, it may be,
will scarcely believe that such a one as this ever in flesh and blood walked upon this earth.36
Simultaneously, it encouraged the leader of African-American Community of the United States
of America Martin Luther King Junior [1929-1968], who had first perceived cowardice in
non-violence. But once having examined the Gandhian technique of ahis, he reached at the
conclusion, even after a decade of Gandhis passing away, that Gandhis way was undoubtedly
extraordinary, and replete with real potential. He admitted that the Gandhian method of nonviolence was one of the sacred and the most potent weapons available to oppressed people in
their fight for freedom.37
As is evident from Gandhis statement quoted in the beginning of this text, he accorded a
new dimension to the concept of non-violence. There is inherent dynamism in his concept. It has
the practicability in its root. Furthermore, it provides for its refinement as per the requirements
of time and space.
Along with the above-mentioned statement of the Mahatma, some of his other known
statements and writings on the subject apparently reveal harmony and coordination of his
concept of ahis with the other concepts related to it, and it does not matter if they represent
India or other nations of Asia, or the rest of the world. Not only this, they clarify the undisputed
relevance and adaptability of Gandhian concept of non-violence in the current perspective.
In one of his articles on non-violence, Mahatma Gandhi wrote, Non-violence is not a
rough thing as it has been enunciated. Undoubtedly, it is a part of non-violence to abstain from

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hurting some living being, but it is only an iota pertaining to its identity. The principle of nonviolence is also shattered by every evil thought, false utterance, hatred or wishing something
bad unto someone. It is also shattered per possession of necessary worldly things.38
Similarly, in another article on this subject he pointed out, When a person claims to be
non-violent, he is expected not be angry with one who has injured him. He will not wish him
harm; he will wish him well; he will not swear at him; he will not cause him any physical hurt.
He will put up with all the injury to which he is subjected by the wrong-doer. Thus non-violence
is complete innocence. Complete non-violence is complete absence of ill-will against all that
lives. It therefore embraces sub-human life not excluding noxious insects or beastsNonviolence is therefore in its active good-will towards all life39
After studying and analyzing the above two statements of the Mahatma carefully and
minutely, and simultaneously keeping in mind his statement quoted at the outset of this article
about non-violence, we arrive at some concrete conclusions. Foremost among them is that the
Mahatma undoubtedly represents the general Indian concept of non-violence, which particularly
and essentially includes the concepts of ahis of Vedic-Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism and
Sikhism.40 In my view it comprises of the following four points:
The domain of ahis [non-violence] encompasses not only human-beings but all living
beings;
In spite of being eternal, natural and the primary human value, ahis is a subject of
practice as per the demand of time and space;
ahis is an active value; it has nothing to do with cowardice and it is an ornament of
the brave; and
ahis is not a subject to be practiced occasionally; in theory and in practice it is all
timely.
But, when the Mahatma particularly says that the principle of non-violence is also
shattered by every evil thought, false utterance, hate or wishing something bad unto someone
and it is a part of non-violence to abstain from hurting some living being, but it is only an
iota pertaining to its identity, he clearly arrives near the Vedic concept. At the same time he
also appears to relate it to the Jain concept of ahis. This undoubtedly leads to more nearness
to Jainism when his views that complete non-violence is complete absence of ill will against
that lives and non-violence is therefore good will towards all life are examined. But, the
Mahatma seems to differ from negative Jain ahis when he makes intent behind the act the
acid test of violence and non-violence, or when he lays stress on evaluating non-violence on the
basis of tendency and pursuance towards spiritual or physical benefit unto everyone. 41
While writing and speaking about non-violence, the Mahatma has also laid great emphasis
on protection, pardon, pity and self-control. In Gandhis opinion constant development of these

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virtues is, in fact, the realization of ahis. This belief of the Mahatma brings him again
nearer to Jainism, Buddhism, and the general Indian concept of non-violence. Moreover, when
he speaks that, the principle of non-violence also shattered per possession of necessary
worldly things, he, along with Indian, arrives near the Asian concepts on the one hand, and to
an extent closer to the Western concepts of ahis on the other. Moreover, Mahatma Gandhi
by combining love and friendliness with non-violence confirms universalism. He also appears
to synthesize between East and the West; and old and new concepts of ahis.
For Gandhi ahis is dynamic. It is an active force. Its scope is comprehensive. In
his own words: ahis is a comprehensive principle. We are helpless mortals caught in the
conflagration of his. The saying that life lives on life has a deep meaning in it. Man cannot for
a moment live without consciously or unconsciously committing outward his. The very fact
of his living-eating, drinking and moving about-necessarily involves some his, destruction
of life, be it ever so minute. A votary of ahis therefore remains true to this faith if the spring
of all his actions is compassion, if he shuns to the best of his ability the destruction of the tiniest
creature, tries to save it, and thus incessantly strives to be free from the deadly coil of his.
He will be constantly growing in self-restraint and compassion, but he never becomes entirely
free from his.42
Hence, despite bringing harmony among different ideas pertaining to non-violence,
Mahatma Gandhis own related concept seems to be constructive and worth mentioning.
Moreover, Gandhis making the intent behind the act the acid test of his or ahis and his
laying stress on reviewing each and every case relating to violence or non-violence on its own
merits independently makes it all the more commendable.

2.12 Significance in Current Perspectives


Change is inevitable. Nothing is beyond the law of change. Every sphere of human life is
within its range. We ourselves witness change at local, national and international levels. Todays
world seems quite different from what it was just twenty-five or fifty years ago. Unprecedented
development and constantly growing cooperation among people at all levels and in all walks
of life is an effect of the process of this inevitable law of change. Simultaneously, rising
competition and self-interests, and resultantly mens indulgence in violent activities is also a
consequence of this very process. In fact, it is a natural process. It cannot be denied. Rather,
accepting it as a reality, there is the need of making it conducive in larger public interest. In this
regard, Gandhian concept pertaining to non-violence can be accepted as an ideal. Particularly
in the current perspectives when dangerous clouds loom large around in the sky, and when the
whole world seems gripped by many destructive tendencies, Gandhian ahis becomes more
relevant than even the times of Gandhi. It calls for its refinement and application as per the
needs of time and space.

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III. CONCLUSION
As we have discussed, Gandhian non-violence brings harmony among various concepts
pertaining to it 43 on the one hand, and establishes unity in them on the other. Moreover, as per
its position 44 it seems to be emerging as an essential condition of existence and human progress.
Even, for those, who in a situation contrary to non-violence, take the course of violence and
thus indulging in violent activities, connect their acts in one way or the other with the safety of
existence and progress, Gandhian ahis becomes significant, because it brings common men
within its fold. Furthermore, it becomes the subject of practice for all. Concomitantly, it calls
for general welfare, mutual acceptance and harmony. Therefore, it clearly seems capable, to a
large extent, in controlling dangerous violent tendencies, and transforming the hearts of those
involved in violence.
Categorically, for Gandhi ahis is dynamic; it is truly an active force of the highest
order, and indeed soul force.45 Moreover, it is completely free from any prejudices. Despite its
going slow and achieving less than expectations, it has never come in a state of isolation. Rather,
its eternal nature is going ahead. Sincerity, acceptance of the situation in current perspective,
and readiness to compromise, are among those of its chief features, which are undoubtedly very
significant in the global context of the day. And, when these characteristics join the acid test of
Gandhian non-violence, its practicability enhances multi-folds. This state of affairs assigns a
unique position to Gandhian non-violence and exhorts the people to think over it seriously and
adopt it in their day-to-day practices to make human life more prosperous and peaceful.
Notes and References:
1. http://answers.google.com/answers/threadview/id/730980.html.
2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Violence.
3. That is why; a person like Mahatma Gandhi went to the extent of saying, The is, who
discovered the law of non-violence in the midst of violence, were greater geniuses than
Newton. They were themselves greater warriors than Wellington. Having themselves known
the use of arms they realized their uselessness, and taught a weary world that its salvation
laid not through violence but through non-violence. [Young India, August 11, 1920]
4. Vedic [Hinduism or the Santana], Jainism and Buddhism.
5. Sikhism.
6. Four [the gveda, the Yajurveda, the Smaveda and the Atharvaveda] in number.
7. See the fourth verse of the first loka of the first skta of the first Maala of the gveda
[Daynanda Bhya [commentary], in which he explains his to be an evil].
8. See the Yajurveda 36:18, and the Atharvaveda 19:60:1:2 and 19:15:16 respectively.
9. Complete absence of violence is non-violence.
10. Quoted from Isimasiai Suttai in Ravindra Kumars Non-Violence and Its Philosophy, p. 14.
11. This is, at the time of feeling of violence originating against someone, one should see,

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keeping oneself in ones place. [Kumar, Ravindra. 2002. Theory and Practice of Gandhian
Non-Violence. New Delhi, India: Mittal Publications, p. 7]
12. Desiring mutual cooperation willingly, because this makes the life worth living, prosperous
and peaceful. [Ibid.]
13. Kumar, Ravindra. 2003. Non-Violence and Its Philosophy. Meerut [India]: Dynamic, p.
14.
14. As is evident from the Dhammapada [verse 225], meaning: Who practice non-violence
and control [their] body, they attain the unchangeable place [Nirva], and they have no
reason to suffer thereafter, i.e. ahisaka ye munayo nichcham kyena samvuta/teyanti
achchutam thanam yattha gantva na sochare//
15. Which can be observed from the verses of [Dhammapada: 129 and 130] in which Gautama
Buddha says, All quiver at punishment, all shudder death; so, considering all equal [to
him], a man should not kill [anyone], nor should he has a desire to do so. All are afraid
of punishment, and all love life; so, considering all equal [to him], a man should not take
life of anyone, nor should he has a desire to do so, i.e. sabbe tasanti dandassa sabbe
bhayanti machchuno/attanam upamam katva na haneyya na ghataye// sabbetasantidandas
sasabbe samjivitampiyam/attanamupamamkatva na haneyya na ghataye//
16. As it is clear from one of the declarations of the Buddha [Dhammapada: 270] in which he
says, A man is not [an Aryan] noble because he injures living beings; but he is [an Aryan]
noble because he is [completely] non-violent and he has pity on all that live, i.e. na ten
ariyahoti yen pananihimsati/ ahis sabbapananamariyotipavuchchati//
17. Or the Santana.
18. Founded by Guru Nanak Dev [1469-1539 A. D.] during the fifteenth-sixteenth century A.
D. in the Punjab Province.
19. As Confucius himself has said, If a man hurts me, I will return him my affection and good
will; the more he hurts me, the kinder I must be; the perfume of goodness reaches me and
the sad air of evil blows towards him. [Kumar, Ravindra. 2003. Non-Violence and Its
Philosophy. Meerut [India]: Dynamic, p. 25]
20. http://www.bsu.edu/libraries/virtualpress/wolfe/word/taoismandnonviolence.
21. History of Political Doctrines [Volume-1], p. 174.
22. This is a character trait or quality valued as being always good in and of itself.
23. In this regard Socrates believed that the best way for people to live is to focus on selfdevelopment rather than the pursuit of material wealth and side-by-side his invitation to
people to try to concentrate more on friendships and a sense of true community, which
according to him is the best way for people to grow together as a populace, is worth
mentioning here. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Socrates]

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24. This can be viewed in Platos theory of justice that is implied to the principles of noninterference and will to fulfill the duties, etc.
25. Kumar, Ravindra. 2002. Theory and Practice of Gandhian Non-Violence. New Delhi
[India]: Mittal Publications, p. 9.
26. History of Political Doctrines [Volume-1], p. 259.
27. Ibid.
28. Kumar, Ravindra. 2002. Theory and Practice of Gandhian Non-Violence. New Delhi
[India]: Mittal Publications, p. 10.
29. The author of the famous works like The Theory of Moral Sentiments and An Inquiry into
the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, which is considered by many as the first
modern work of economics, and for, Adam Smith is considered as the father of modern
economics.
30. Kumar, Ravindra. 2002. Theory and Practice of Gandhian Non-Violence. New Delhi
[India]: Mittal Publications, p. 10.
31. Ibid, p. 11.
32. Ibid.
33. Ibid.
34. Ibid.
35. Gandhi, M. K. [ed.]. 1940, August 11. Harijan Sewak Weekly. Ahmedabad: Navajivan [In this
regard Mahatma Gandhi has particularly written that all historical evidences clearly specify
that since beginning man has continuously treaded the path of ahis. He has also pointed
out that if we accept the reality of mans inclination of his going ahead on the pathway to
non-violence, it easily proves that he has to go further on the same pathway]
36. en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Albert_Einstein.
37. Kumar, Ravindra. 2009. Non-Cooperation. Meerut [India]: World Peace Movement
Trust.
38. Kumar, Ravindra. 2002. Theory and Practice of Gandhian Non-Violence. New Delhi
[India]: Mittal Publications, p. 25 [Originally quoted from MangalPrabhat. 1945]
39. Gandhi, M. K. [ed.]. 1922, March 2. Young India Weekly. Ahmedabad: Navajivan.
40. Kumar, Ravindra. 2010. India and Mahatma Gandhi. New Delhi [India]: Kalpaz
Publications.
41. Kumar, Ravindra. 2002. Theory and Practice of Gandhian Non-Violence. New Delhi
[India]: Mittal Publications, p. 25.
42. Ibid, p. 26.

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43. It doesnt matter if they are from the East or the West, or if they represent the ancient or
medieval periods, or the modern age.
44. Being the supreme human value.
45. In this regard the Mahatma wrote, It is soul force or the power of Godhead within us.
Imperfect man cannot grasp the whole of the Essence- he would not be able to bear its full
blaze, but even an infinitesimal fraction of it, when it becomes active within us, can work
wonders.

23 - B, Lane - 2, Manasarovar
Civil lines, Meerut, India

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SAMUDRAMANTHANA: CALCULATION ASCERTAINED


San Sarin
I. INTRODUCTION

II. DISCUSSION
2.1 The Fundamental Data

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2.2

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2.3

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III. CONCLUSION

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

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53, Rue Roger Dehasque


95400 Arnouville, France

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THE CONCEPT OF WORD, MEANING AND THEIR


RELATIONSHIP IN SANSKRIT GRAMMAR
Banamali Biswal
I. INTRODUCTION

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II. DISCUSSION

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III. CONCLUSION

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Rastriya Sanskrit Vidyapeeth


G.N. Jha Campus
Allahabad-2 (U.P.), India

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AKTI IN PURA : A STUDY OF GENDER


Ida Ayu Tary Puspa
I. INTRODUCTION
Fundamental principle in Hinduism is equality between men both men and women.
Described in Hindu literature, Hindu Gods like Brahma, Viu and iva has a partner in
carrying out their respective functions. Brahma paired with Goddess Sarasvat, Viu with
Lakm Goddess paired and unpaired iva with Goddess Drg. So Hindu Gods revere the
tangible woman called by the name of akti, aktivarpa. Sarasvat is the goddess of knowledge
and wisdom. The Sanskrit word sara means essence and swa means self said that Sarasvat
means the essence of self. Goddess Sarasvat is generally depicted with four arms. On two
hands holding a book and flower arrangements while the front two hands playing the guitar
(v). Placed his right foot on his left leg. Using swan as a vehicle and there was a peacock
beside her. Dressed in white sitting or standing on a lotus.
Goddess Lakm is the goddess of wealth and prosperity, both material and spiritual.
Lakm Sanskrit word meaning destination. Goddess Lakm symbolizes lifes purpose,
including the prosperity and spiritual well-being. Goddess Lakm depicted with four hands,
wears a red dress with golden lines and sitting on a lotus. Has a gold coin, half lotus blossom
and golden lotus bloom in his hand, an owl and four elephants seen at his side.
Goddess Drg is the goddess who was worshiped by many Hindus. The Sanskrit word
Drg means a fort or a place that is protected so it is difficult to achieve. Mother Drg is
also called noble, protecting mankind from evil and misery by destroying evil forces such as
selfishness, jealousy, prejudice and hate. Goddess Drg is described as having eight or sixteen
hand in hand with bringing a lot of weapons in his hands. Dressed in red as a symbol to destroy
evil and protect the pain and suffering by evil forces.
In everyday life people give great respect to women. Community worship to the goddess
that can help human life in this world, such as Dev r (Goddess of Rice) which is the source
of human life, as proof of worship and thank you also goes to Goddess Sarasvat (Goddess)
knowledge is represented as a four-armed woman, standing on a lotus flower. He is a symbol of
women who Haras exemplary because the beads at first hand, he worship Ida Sang Hyang Widhi
Wasa, with palm leaves in the hands of both la steeped in science, with a musical instrument
in the hands of third and proclaimed he enjoyed the beauty and art and a flowers in the fourth
hand he cast a luster and softness.
Suryani (2003:43-45) states that Goddess Sarasvat standing on a lotus flower symbolizing
a woman he is able to stand up in any situation. Goddess Drg has extraordinary magical
powers, which could give it the strength and destroy life. Dew r Sedana, the Goddess is
affecting the economy of ones money. Tasks undertaken by the Goddess that which is sacred to
the god is the same god corresponding manifestations. To implement the teachings of Hinduism,
it is usually busy making offerings for women and offered to the gods and Sang Hyang Widhi
Wasa, when the religious ceremony which was held a grand ceremony which involves a large
family or a surrounding community, the duty of women only make offerings while that set

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the course of the ceremony, the ceremony preparing and cooking and serving food are men
involved here are not only husband and wife, but also the children who had puberty.
No religious ceremony that did not involve women. This implies that women have a role
in this world, both domestic roles as housewives and public role as a person who works outside
the home. Domestic chores is tough, but noble because therein lies the fate of children, families
and nations. In the era of globalization is entering more and more women working in the public
sector than for financial gain is due to the advancement of education so that they implement the
knowledge gained in step real-actualization. Here the women eventually double play, on the
one hand women should be able to carry out domestic duties and on the other hand also had a
public duty diving (Tary Puspa, 2006:4).
Men and women like the image of the god and goddess. If the man is the flame, then
the energy that radiates out from the flame, in the form of heat and light is a bright woman.
Womens events in everyday life that is far from the womb Hindu literature is the male gaze.
The views of men who are too busy drowning in fantastic stories about the nature of women
and their superiority over women. Hence, a lot of men who feel that women are weak creatures
and the male-female power becomes weaker due to the dominance of men over women. Thats
what gave rise to gender inequalities because women have the right to exist should not be under
man to master. As a result of patriarchal culture in Bali that discredit women, then there are
families who do not want to send their daughters because it is pointless for she would become
the property of the man who married her. If that happens there will be a gender gap for women
in education, while at the human side of Balinese Hindu Goddess Sarasvat is also worshiped
as the goddess of knowledge.
Departing from the above the importance of understanding the Hindu scriptures Vedas
and other Hindu literature as puras which includes the existence of the supernatural. In this
research, the magic will be examined from the puras pura-containing form of magic to
uncover the magic and meaning and the role of gender equality of the akti contained in the
puras.

2.1 akti
The word akti comes from the word meaning aknoti or have the strength to be strong
and often have a sense of energy or power effective, while also means energy that permeates
everything. The magic word was associated with the strength of the Gods. This powerful force
called personified as the wife of the Gods. Special word akti (with capital letters) means
Goddess Drg, wife of Lord iva (Liebert, 1976:246) akti word in the dictionary Indonesian
Javanese (Mandiwarsito, 1978:285) means (1) sticky, loyal to, keep, hold firm (2) terms
(which requested/required/demanded). In this research, the akti in question is in a sense as
Sarasvat, r Lakm and Drg is the personification of Brahma, Viu and iva.

2.2 Pura
Pura important and strategic position in the sort order of the Vedas and Hindu literature.
Itihsa scriptures and Puras can be classified as an area of immense religious knowledge.
The books are arranged by the i (human origin) are intended to describe the sacred teachings
of the Vedas are so broad, full content of spiritual, philosophical, moral, educational and others.

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By understanding Itihsa and Puras, as mandated by Vyu Pura: itihsa purbhym


vedam samupavhayet vedo vibhetyalparutd mamyam prahariyati
Translation: Veda should be explained through history (Itihsa) and Vedic history and
deva-deva kings (Pura). Veda fears that ignorant people read it. Veda thinks that he (the fool)
would hit him.
Mishra (Titib, 2004: 14) states that the word is derived from the temple Pura + ana
being said puras. Pur means ancient or ancient times and ana meant to say. So it is ancient
history puras. Pura also means telling the story of gods, kings and i i-fashioned.
Pura also means ancient story, the narrator of history, collection. Each story contains a core
dogma Puras. The word temple in Pura contains two terms, namely the past and future.
Paita-priests who do not understand this secret be amazed once they read the stories of the
kings (world leader) in the future described in the books puras.

2.3 Gender
The word gender is a word to group words into masculine, feminine and neuter genders
or to appoint men and women and no sex (Hornby, 1958:516). During its development, the
word gender has cultural implications, namely by Barker (2004:204) described as cultural
assumptions and practices that govern the social construction of men, women, their social
relations. Fakih (2007:170) states that the word gender comes from the English which means
a cultural understanding of what and how men and women should behave. Gender and society
give meaning to gender as sex differences are not biological and nature of God. Biological
differences in gender (sex) is the nature of God and therefore is permanently and universally
different. Gender is differencess behavioral or behavioral differences between men and women
are socially constructed, the difference is not nature or not created by God, but were created
by bum men and women through social and cultural processes. Gender differences in the birth
gender roles such as nurses, caregivers and educators of children, in fact it is not causing a
problem, or do not need to be sued.

III. DISCUSSION
3.1 The form of akti in the Puras
In the form of sacred icons depicted in the form of women as wives of the gods. Kedewatan
goddess names such as Drg, Lakm, Sarasvat, Kl, Ca, Cmu, Tripursundar,
Rjarajesvar, Lalit, Kualini and Prvat is the akti names are paired with certain gods
flow. In the Vaiava stream for example, sacred Viu manifested as Lakm. Meanwhile,
in the flow of tangible akti goddess iva (Redig, 2008: 107) According to several books
puras, Goddess of magic or a form that has two or somya nta form (quiet) and form krodha
(awesome). Classified as a form of akti that nta include Prvat (Um), Sat, Gaur and so
on, then that belong to the form krodha is Drg, Kl, Karl, Kauaki, Caik and so on
(Santiko, 1992:1).
In the book Dev Pura, Goddess (ivas akti) has three qualities, namely Sttvika
(nta), rjasika (krodha) and tmasika or krura (scary, ruthless). Drg krodha still be
included in the quality, but the time and put in quality Karl tmasika or krura (Kumar in
Santiko, 1992:1)

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In addition there are three more other qualities which later became the name itself. Three
qualities are will be cchakti, became kriyakti activities and knowledge into jnaakti.
Another important thing is also expressed Goddess (also called Gaur) than as a sacred iva
is also sacred Brahm (Sarasvat) and sacred Viu (Lakm). These three Gaur, Lakm and
Sarasvat called Tripurusasundar (Sivananda, 1993:259).
In some sources (Santiko, 1992:213-215) mentions that akti (Goddess) manifest
themselves into three levels of manifestation. The first form, called the highest. This form no
one knows because it is confidential and is not accessible to human reason. The second form
is called skma, the situation is delicate and soft, which is a mantra. The third form is sthula,
in the form of physical, akti situation is for those who still have not been able to imagine the
existence of the first and second The universe that we see and experience is a bundle of energy,
either wrapped or not. It is a discovery of modern science, which incidentally has undermined
the distinction between matter and energy.
According to him, there is one fundamental energy behind all of matter and energy.
However, it seems still far from the discovery of the relationship between matter and mind
on the one hand and life on the other side. Although it seems different poles, whether they are
also a manifestation of the same basic energy? Get it happens that the same energy or matter,
at one level of vibration is called matter, on the other, mind but others are life? Modern
science or modern scientists, mostly to dedicate attention on tangible material universe is may
not even be ready to recognize this responsibility. Which is based on the Hindu philosophy of
Vednta and the group of works based on Vednta and is more commonly known as Tantra
really formulate it. (Tantra is a broad torso and Hindu religious literature is devoted to the
Mother of God expressed confidence). Source and sustainer of all creation, whether at the
level of matter or life or mind, is one and only one. akti (= energy) Brahman (the Absolute)
of Vednta and Tantra akti or Dev is the same. When the energy that exist in a static state,
without evolution or involution, when the universe was created even though not in the form of
seeds, it is called Brahman. When he began to expand into this creation, nurture it and absorb
it back into itself, it is called akti. When Brahman is coiled serpent sleeping, akti is the same
snake in motion. When Brahman proverbial words, akti is the meaning. When akti like fire,
is a power burner. Both are inseparable: one in two and two in one.
akti can be interpreted as energy. In Hindu mythological literature as well as in the
books of Tantra, energy is always depicted as female devat, Dev, as a companion of the devat
partner. Every member of the Trimrti have akti or Dev as a running mate: Sarasvat of Brahma,
Viu and Lakm from Prvat from iva. However, the trust-mother who has developed some
of the more prominent recent perennial centered around Prvat, the consort of iva. -Mother
worship and faith-mother was not foreign to Vedic religion as some people predicted. Aditi
concept as the mother of the devas, the personification of nature and Ambhrnniskta as well
Rtriskta of gveda clearly contain the origin of Mother-worship.
* Being Goddess Sarasvat. Sarasvat is the akti, power and co-creator Brahma.
Therefore, he is the producer, the mother of all creation. The true sense of the word Sarasvat
is her flowing. In the gveda, he expressed a river and a master devat. Because of that, he
was associated with fertility and purification. Here are some of the names used to describe
it: arad (giver of essence), Vagvar (ruler of the words), Brhm (companion Brahma),

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Mah Vidy (knowledge primary) and so forth. Here it is clear that the concept of Sarasvat,
which was developed by mythological literature lately have been there before. He is running
can also express the words when used in an allegorical sense. Hence Sarasvat states power
and intelligence as the origin of the emergence of the organized creation. Figure of Goddess
Sarasvat with attributes that wears regarded as the personification and all knowledge - arts,
sciences, crafts and skills. Knowledge is the antithesis of the darkness of ignorance. Therefore,
he is depicted as pure white. He is a statement of all the sciences, arts, crafts and skills, he
should be unbelievably beautiful and generous. Wearing white seamless clothes and sitting on
a flower Padma seat, on four hands holding a V (lute), Akaml (prayer beads) and Pustaka
(book). While this is very common, there are a few other variations. Some objects appear
is Pa (noose), Akua (elephant hook), Padma (lotus), Trident, Sakha (conch), chakra
(wheel) and so forth. Once in a while he is shown with five faces or with eight arms. Even the
three blue eyes or neck is not foreign. In this case he is Mahsarasvat, aspects of Drg or
Prvat. Although no vehicle is declared a separate transporter, Hasa or swan, as a vehicle
of Brahma consort, also usually attributed to him. In literarur and popular mythologis picture,
a peacock is also seen as a vehicle of his mounts. Speaking of perlambangnya a companion
Brahma the creator, he stated power and intelligence, which in the absence of her creation can
not happen. To indicate that this intelligence is extraordinary and entirely pure, he is described
as white and dazzling. As usual, showing its four arms are not hindered in any way or to-maha
meresapinya.
As dev knowledge, only natural that Sarasvat is shown holding a book in his left hand.
Book states all secular science. Mere intellectual knowledge without heart softened by feelings,
emotions and higher conscience, it would be a fuse sawdust. Thus he holds a Vn (lute), which
is always played, seeking to demonstrate the need for the arts. Then there Akaml (beads)
were clasped right hands; which symbolizes all spiritual sciences including tapas or yoga,
meditation and Japa of the earth. Sarasvat states of knowledge. Prti is the personification of
compassion. Krti and nti give fame and peace where Tui and Pui confer pleasure and
power.
For Hindus, especially the women who have finished cooking food in the kitchen should
besyukur for the gift bestowed by Hyang Widhi, then powered offerings saiban. In addition to
the worship of Goddess Sarasvat. It is better if the morning before cooking, the women pray
to Goddess Sarasvat. This is done with an attitude of prayer bajrsana (kneeling), both legs
folded back, both occupied heel, back foot flat on the floor) and then perform simple yoga
movements. In addition to physical fitness, but also for mentality and spiritual health.
True human being should be able to be more patient than the giants. Morals, values,
norms declined, as a result of defamation against beauty (women). Therefore, lets guarded
and maintained with the beauty of women, for human dignity and glory of the whole universe.
In Vedic civilization, Goddess Sarasvat used as a symbol of Sciences, which is celebrated
every Hari Raya Saraswat, coinciding with the anicara Umanis wuku watugunung. Goddess
Sarasvat appeared so beautiful, standing on a lotus flower in full bloom with a red colour. Lotus
flower pollen stuck beauty, graceful fragrant with wisdom accompanied by a swan and peacock
symbolizes authority. Various accessories such as fiddle, genitri, lotus and sungu, add to the
beauty of Goddess Sarasvat He performed the pj is O Sarasvat namastubyam varade
kmarupii vidyrambham kariymi siddhirbhavatu me sad Stuti and Stava 839.1.

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Translation: Hyang O Sarasvat in the form of a penganugerah Thy blessings,


manifest in the form of highly coveted. May activities do always successful slave over thy
varnugraha.
He symbolized in Bali with a pocket Sarasvat lizard, lizard because when referred to in
the Vedic conception of divinity is totemism. Geckos believed by Hindus as animal signs of
the times. As Goddess Vagvar, then every person who is being accompanied by the sound
of talking lizards, that person will mention Hyang Sarasvat. This belief is believed that what
he says is true. Sarasvat Day celebrations should be done in the morning, when the mind and
body have not been contaminated by the things that interrupted the intention to worship him.
Sarasvats day celebration in the form of worship performed in the morning and until noon
only because it is believed that morning to provide an atmosphere which causes the mind to
worship him terkonentrasi. Each institution will definitely put a statue of Goddess Sarasvat on
the front page of the school. In the form of sculpture or statue of Goddess Sarasvat depicted
standing as a highly elegant and unpretentious with a smile on his lips. For Hindu women in
order to reflect and make diharaapkan Goddess Sarasvat as a guide in life with the sturdy and
tough demeanor understated figure.
* Being Lakm. Lakm more than Sarasvat is worshiped as the Goddess of prosperity
as the preserver Viu companion in this globalization era. r or Lakm needed in this life as
the Goddess of luck, wealth and beauty. r often associated with pre-Hindu devat associated
with fertility, water and agriculture. Then he combined with the beauty of Goddess Lakm Veda
In a first embodiment according to the scriptures Puras, she is the daughter of the sage Bgu
with his wife Khyti. Then he emerged from the ocean of milk when stirring. As a companion
Viu, he will always be born accompanying manifestations of Viu. When Viu incarnated
into Vmana, Paraurma, Rma and Ka, she appeared as Padma (Kamala), Dharani, St
and Rukmi. He is inseparably connected with Viu, as well as the words of meaning or
knowledge from intellect, or good deeds of virtue. He (Viu) states that all men are and he
(Lakm) declare everything that is female. Lakm is usually depicted as very beautiful and
fascinating at a flower stand and holding lotus flowers.
Padma on her hands. Perhaps this is why she is called Padma or Kamala. He was also
honored with a series of lotus flowers. Often seen elephants on each side and the water poured
into her pitcher, pitcher given by the girls heavenly. The color is described in berbnagai rather
dark colors, pink, yellow or white gold. While accompanied by Viu, he looks just by two
hand. Bi; worshiped in a separate shrines for Lakm he rarely is seen sitting on a lotus flower
throne, with four arms holding four lotus, Sakha, Amtakalaa (stoneware ambrosia) and
fruit bilva. Sometimes other types of fruits, mahliga (orange) looks Bilva fruit than when
seen with eight hands will take a bow, arrows, a mace and chakra ditambahlkan. It really is
Mahlakm, aspect of Drg. If Lakm portrayed it means hes dark-skinned as a companion
Viu, Deva dark-skinned. . When golden yellow, it shows itself as the source of all wealth.
White when it shows purest form of Prakti (nature) as the origin of the feast of the development
universe. With pink skin showing compassion for form living beings because He is the mother
of everything. Four states his power to bestow four purpose of life: Dharma (righteousness),
Artha (wealth), Kma (pleasure, desire) and Moka (freedom).

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Lakm depicted with an owl as a horse. this suggests that it is better to appreciate the poor
bird and compassionate employer. In Sanskrit owl is Uluka which is also one of the names of the
king Indra Deva. Therefore Lakm Dev luck not find a better person to drive it, other than the
king of the Gods that be a form of all the wealth, power and the glory of the living things that can be
desired in this life. At the same time, here is a warning given to the searchers kekeyaan secular rather
than spiritual wealth, by comparing the glory of Indra on bird ugliness rough and sometimes blind.
In Bali, the worship of Goddess r done by most Hindus especially those who live in an
agrarian culture. Ranging from working the fields to harvest, it is still being done to worship
Dew r the hope of getting fertility of rice planted. Hindu community in Bali will place Dew
r after harvest to make a caterpillar-r of young coconut leaves and put them together as the
rice harvest in jineng. Also in search of fortune in the form of wealth, then in Bali is worshiped
as the Goddess r Sedana even commemorate the feast is done every six months because this
ritual is performed on the buda pawukon cemeng klawu. At that time, the Hindus will deliver
to the offerings in the form sesayut equipped with tipat sari, tipat bagia and tipat dampul. It
symbolizes that all income earned from work mesari, bring happiness and the work will be
collected to make the lives of Hindus can to do.
* Being Prvat Prvat is the companion of power and iva, deva division and destruction.
The majority of the dev Hinduism is a variety of aspects and Prvat .. When several names like
Prvat, Haimvat Girij and Dkyani declared origin of the Himlayas or Daka (one of the
ancestors of the human race), lam names like iva, Mrdani, Rudri and Sarvi emphasizing
its aspects as a companion iva Prvat. But others such as Apara and Um has particular
reference to a particular story in the Puras literature. One of the earliest references to this
devat found in Kenopaniad 3. 12, in which he declared that illuminates Haimvat Um
Indra, king of the devas, of Brahman, the Absolute or God. Reference is enough to conclude
that the dev worship is very ancient.
According to the Puras statement, the incarnation pertama her, she is Dkyani,
daughter of Daka and Prasti and married to iva. Unable to understand the greatness of iva,
Daka cursed her one time and started spilling hateful to him. When he was carrying out a
noble sacrifice, one of a top official who was not invited was iva himself. In contrary to the
advice, Dkyani go where the ceremony uninvited and feel ignored, ended his life by burning
himself in apiyoga. Hence, he came to be known as the Sail, the innocent. Next he was reborn
as Prvat, the daughter Himavan and Mena. After conducting in-depth Tapah iva and he
managed to make it fun to take it again as a running mate.
During the performance of some of these austerities, although he refused to eat the leaves
dry to support life, so as to obtain the appearance of her mother Apara Men who could not
bear to watch his beloved daughter suffer in doing Tapah, trying to prevent it with the words,
Um (my dear, do not do like this!), which later became another name (Um). As the daughter
of Himlayas (abode of snow) he later became Gaur (white). As the mother of the universe, he
was Amb and Ambik, where these two words means mother.
iva like a companion, he also has two aspects: the soft and frightening. As he stated
Prvat or Um gentle aspect; whereby in this aspect he is usually seen with iva. Then he
only has two arms, the right holding a blue lotus and the left hanging freely by his side. Statue

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decorated with luxury. When expressed independently her looks with four arms, two hands
holding lotus red and blue are the other two demonstrated Varada and Abhaya Mudr.
Although all women devat called akti of her male partner, said akti and Dev are more
special or even exclusive to that used for the states akti iva, Prvat aspect innumerable. With
regard iva as Mahdeva, the Supreme Lord, Prvat claimed power that creates, maintains and
destroys the universe. Himlayan states ka or ether, the first fundamental substance. Mena
stated intelligence. Therefore Prvat as his offspring expressed awareness of the substance of
the universe. That is why he is also called Um (the light, brilliant).
At the subjective level, Um-Haimvat states Vidy Brahma or spiritual wisdom, to
achieve union with iva or God. A companion iva, who is also called Rudra, which is scary,
he also has a frightening aspect which requires a separate study. Interesting to note that the
emblem Vaiava - Sakha and Chakra - often also seen in the hands, although the books
puras Viu portrayed her as a sister, its possible because Viu is considered as the active
power of iva, so that this symbol of the hands of Dev. This suspicion is strengthened by the
fact that in Haryardha Mrti of iva, the left half is in the form of Viu and Ardhanrvara,
Dev is the left half.
* Drg. Drg is an aspect widely Milky most widely revered. Overall Pura,
Dev-Bhgavatam, has been dedicated to him. Other works, which is more famous than the
Dev-Bhgavatam, but practically it contains the same material in its simplest form, is Dev
mahatmyam. He is also known as Drgsaptaat or forming part of the temple and other famous
Pura, Mrkaeya pura. This work is highly regarded, where every sloka thereof deemed
to be a mantra (sacred formula) of the Dev and repetition is believed to give any requested his
devotees.
The true meaning of the word Drg is difficult to reach and hard to recognize. Became
the personification of the overall power of the devas, he was known to be harder to reach
reasonable. Yet. as the mother of the universe, he is the embodiment of tender affection, if
requested. Next is Mahisuramardin, devat which took form as a result of the gathering
forces of all devas, are oppressed by giant Mahisura. Viu, iva and Brahm was furious at
the act of misconduct and the Mahisura Dev was born from their wrath, which is followed
by a lower devat wrath. Strength of the devas formed limbs and right multiplication of the
weapons they form its arsenal. Armed with heavy weapons and with a terrible riding a lion, he
challenged Mahisura and destroy it along with his troops.
The story is followed by a very beautiful hymns which itself incorporated poetic elegance
and spirit of devotion and instinct. He is a mysterious force, with which the entire universe
impregnated and turned on. He is the embodiment of all the wealth, power, beauty and virtue.
He is the embodiment of yaja (sacrifice), Parvidy (highest knowledge relating to spirits), as
well Aparvidy (knowledge of secular science), He is the one who gives wealth-both material
and spiritual - eliminating trouble and eliminate crime. Beauty as well as bravery, unmatched.
The devas can not enjoy the freedom for some time. They soon conquered by Giant umbha
and Niumbha. Then they had to run and invoke the Himlayas kepegunungan Dev back. This
praise, which is known as Aparjitstotra praised him as unconquerable . Immanence in
all living things is the main theme of this praise. Powers and activities of all beings are merely

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manifestations of his power alone. In response to this prayer, he is manifesting itself as Kauiki
Drg, Prvat that arise from the body, which he had himself become Kl, the dark, after
this manifestation. Drg dazzling beauty world and draw attention umbha Niumbha, which
sends wedding proposal via a slave. Unfortunately for them, at a moment of weakness and
kebodohon she has vowed to marry those who are able to defeat him in battle. Any attempt
to pull him away forcibly ending the giant disaster. Heads roll, the Giants like Dhmralocana
attacks, Caa, Mua and Raktabja unbearable. Times, scary black dev emerging from
his forehead Dev, Caa and Mua behead so get Cmu name for himself. Only war
with lasting Raktabja require some special effort by the Dev, as she has a mysterious power
to reproduce itself through droplets of blood spilled in the war. Even Saptamtk emerging
from the body to fight seemingly helpless. Kl Dev was the one who arranged for a wide
sticks her tongue out and drank all the blood that gushed from Raktabja, thus preventing the
emergence of more and more of the Giants and allow Drg to eradicate. The rest becomes
easier. Niumbha easily killed after a playful fight. umbha are now upset, accusing him of
asking for help others. With a mocking laugh, pull all the Dev and intangible emanation
itself, which shows that he is always one without a second. In a decisive battle, the giant ruler
umbha, easily killed, thus freeing the world of great terror. Its followed by another piece
of prayer, praise dazzling poetic, simple elegance. Known as Nryaistuti he begins with
passionate plea to my mother by the devas who are grateful for the hospitality and generosity.
Praises the ruling and described it as the mother of all creation. He is a physical universe. He
is the mysterious power of Viu (Vaiavakti), the initial cause and also the power that
destroys creatures. Only with fun alone one can hope to obtain spiritual liberation. All the arts
and sciences, as well as women in general is its manifestation. He settled as intelligence in the
hearts of human beings.
He is a time devouring everything. He is the personification of all that is good and
beneficial. Hes always busy in protecting their children. Saptamtk actually an aspect, a
scary time, with a string of human skulls hanging off her neck, also the other aspects. When
pleased, he could cure all diseases. When let down, he can destroy all that we care and that we
want to have. The devotees are always free from difficulty. He is the main truth that all the work
described in the scriptures.
The works were also described other manifestations such as Vindhyavsin (who lives
in the Vindhya), Raktadanta (toothed red), Sataksi (edged hundreds), kambhari (maintainer
vegetables), Drg (slayer of giants Drgma), Bhma (terrible) and Bhrmar or Bhramarmb
(which has the shape of a bee). The Dev as described in this work has three main manifestations,
namely: Mahkl, Mahlakm and Mahsarasvat. These aspects should not be confused
with devat Parana, Prvat, Lakm and Sarasvat. He actually three main manifestations of
Mhesvar, Single Power President, in accordance with trigua, Tamas, Rajas and Sattva.
The first, Mahkl, has ten faces and ten feet. Hes a dark blue, like a jewel Nlamai. She
adorned with jewels and on her tenth bear arms and the following objects: sword, disc, mace,
arrows, bows, metal bats, spears, catapults, human heads and shells. Tmasika aspect as the
personification of the Dev, he also Yoganidr, which has made sleeping Viu. Pleaded to him
that Brahm, Viu told him to leave so as to destroy the giant Madhu and Kaiabha.

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He is the personification of My, the mysterious power of Viu. Except when he


pleased and outright interestingly, Viu is in the din were not going to wake up and destroy
the evil forces that are trying to destroy us. It seems to be taken from the story of Brahma,
Madhu and Kaiabha. Mahlakm, second, Rjasika aspects of the Dev is depicted as red
as coral reefs. On the eighteenth his hand, he holds a rosary, pot-war, mace, spear, sword,
shield, conch, bell, wine cup, trident, noose and Sudarana Chakra. Born and combination of
fury and power of all devas, she is the personification not only power but also the will to fight
the forces of evil. That is why he was shown red, the color of blood, the color of war. It was
he who destroys Mahisura. Stories about Mahisura has several implications. Mahisura,
male buffalo, declared law of the jungle that is probably true. He is a ruthless cruel force that
does not tolerate any opposition that purpose alone cared strings attached. He even began to
attack the devas, but only if they are separated. But he fell before they combine kejuatan and
will to fight, which is actually expressed by the Dev, Mahisuramardin lesson of this story is
very clear at the community level to be penjelasan.lagi. Or can ignore the social implications?
At the subjective level, expressed Mahisura stubborn stupidity and selfishness. Subjugation
and conquest is only possible when the Sdhaka (spiritual aspirant) to collect all the energy
together and fight it with a strong will. Therefore, God helps those who help themselves, the
intervention of God in the power of his help was always there. Mahsarasvat is the third devat
stating Sttvika aspects and the Dev. Hes brilliant like the autumn months and has eight arms
holding the bell, trident, ploughshare, conch, pestle, cakra, bow and arrows. It was he who
embodies the physical layer of Prvat, also known as Drg Kauiki. He is the personification
of perfection and physical beauty. He is a power of work and organizational rules. Section
with respect to kegagah courage is the longest part. Dhmralocana, Caa, Mua, Raktabja,
Niumbha and umbha are giant leaders who destroyed him. All these giant known as the
Asuras, is a perfect example of people who are very selfish, which rejoice in a life of pleasure
and the organs of the body senses.
Symbolically they declare a state of the various stages and ego. When Dhmralocana
(whose eyes were smoky) declared a state of ignorance and selfishness coarsest, Raktabja
declared a state of more subtle doubling itself and our difficulties. While Mua is a gentle
look of our ego (mua-tender; Low), Caa is a more sinister side thereof (= cruel jokes,
terrible). umbha and Niumbha stated brighter aspects of selfhood (umbh = shine).
Dhmralocana destroyed by Hukra, just a frown! Caa and Mua very despicable
to be handled directly by the-Dev. Because of the time, which is horrible, end it on command.
Raktabja require better handling skills. She was streng source who first destroyed before
destroy. Regarding umbha and Niumbha, the Dev is required to give a straight fight. Lower
state of ignorance as exemplified Dhmralocana, Caa and Mua, must be destroyed by a
sudden burst of energy and rough handling. More cunning state, which resulted in doubling
the endless desire expressed by Raktabja must be handled wisely by finding the root cause,
by pushing it as soon as they appear. Enlightened selfishness if one can use such disclosure,
which is also self, requires a direct struggle. It may be a struggle that takes a long time and the
blessings of the Dev is absolutely necessary for success.

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Drg aspects stated in the scriptures Puras and Religion is his army. For example:
ailaputr, Kuma, Ktyyan, Kemkar, Harasiddhi, Vanadrg, Vindhyavsin,
Jayadrg and others. They will be more attractive in the iconography and the applicant wishes
to obtain other kinds of worship are met by different aspects. Drg statues can have four or
eight or ten, eighteen or even twenty arms. Her eyes are usually three. Hair shaped like a crown
(called Karaamukua). He was given a beautiful red dress and some ornaments. Among the
objects are held, the more common are: conch, disc, trident, bow, arrows, swords, daggers,
shields, beads, wine bowls and bells. He may be in a state of standing on a flower or Padma
riding on the buffalo or lion.
Lion, king of the jungle, as his steeds, declared best animal creation. He also expressed
greed for food, so the greed of the objects of enjoyment which unavoidably leads to lust. To be
God (devat), one must keep hewaniahnya instincts under control. This seems to be a lesson
that we can draw from the image Simhavahini (riders lion).
The worshiping of Drg in : Drg Kutr Pura village of Gianyar, Bali, and the rituals
performed by Hindus have the belief that :
1. Drg in Kutr often enabled by the pemedek or people who came as a means to worship in
the hope of obtaining pangidepati. Purpose, among others, the people who came to be smart,
each subject received seep in, in order to improve the raddh and bhakti and quiet running
svadharma or duties and obligations
2. As a place to beg salvation because they assume that the Goddess Drg Mahisuramardin
in Kutr believed to be protective or rescue the people.
3 Goddess Drg is considered that always helps in treating the disease. Although in modern
times to the doctor for medical treatment are common, but the use of alternative medicine
therapies including not least also the confidence to use it. It turns out that trust is the real
therapy can provide healing illness. Because of such reasons, it is not uncommon for people
to ask to Drg Mahisuramardin in Kutr safety.
According Sokaningsih (2007: 76) Drg pj can generally be divided into two,
namely:

1. Individual worship

The worship of Drg or Drg pj, people use in the writing of the Bali literature. Worship
is done with the goal of defeating the enemy. This cult was first discovered in the book
Dev Pura. The ceremony was conducted on eight and 9 months vina, currently 8th
in the light of present houses and wood to place statues of Drg made of gold, silver,
land or timber, mantras uttered by the king who made the ceremony continued until past
midnight mnerus then sacrificed animals for animal spirits, spirits goal that it does not
disrupt the ceremony. Furthermore, the king baths to purify himself. The Priest spells are
spells abhicra, king stabs his statues made of flour or clay in front of the statue of Drg
(Santiko in Sokaningsih, 2007:77). In addition to the book Dev Pura, this ceremony is
also discussed in the pura books like Agni Pura, Garua Pura, Mrkaeya Pura.
For example at the end of the Mrkaeya Pura mention of Drg worship by the king

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and merchants Suratha Samadha by making statues of the Goddess and placed at the edge of
the river is worshiped for three months, Drg sannagt satisfied and king Suratha can repel
enemies.
2. By Adoration Society This worship is called Drg pj mantra name or nava pratka pj
with nine kinds of leaves. Drg as the10th embodiment of nine leaves was dumped into
the river. After they called party with Sabarotsaya. The ceremony was conducted jointly
by the society irrespective of caste. There is also worshiping of Drg and the goal is to
ask for protection from the bad guys and the enemy. Also it aims to seek out and conquer
the enemy. In addition it is to obtain the ultimate goal in human life, namely artha, kma,
dharma and moka religious obligation.
3.2 Role of the Milky against the Gods Dev proved the importance of the history of the entire
sekta-sekta and philosophical schools of Santana Dharma (Gatwood, 1985 in Hindu Media
in August 2011). Dev visible presence throughout India a long literary tradition. In the g
Veda.10.7.2 least 40 mentioned include Sarasvat Dev (Dev wisdom), U (dawn Dev) and
Aditi are described as without birth. akti word itself appears in the gveda about 12 times.
Two derivatives of the word aktivat and akman each appear twice and five times. Part
of the gveda is known as Dev Skta as a cosmic principle. akti is directly referred to as the
Great Dev (Atharva Veda 1.6.1. akti also appears in Itihsa-Itihsa atai Indian epic. ..... There
is also the Rmyaa she is called the Goddess and respected all people (Sarma, 1974 in Media
Hindu August 2011 )). In the Mahbhrata, the other great epic of India, mentioned there are
two songs for memukiakannya. Various manifestations of Dev is very clear is everywhere
in all Hindu scriptures known as the Puras. Indeed Goddess Bhgavata Pura entirely
dedicated to him. Feminine power reflected therein. Tribute to Santana Dharma akti is not
limited to the literary heritage of the holy religion. Various schools of philosophy Veda (Sad
Darsana) also took this principle seriously enough. Mmmsaka, for example, is one of the
schools of philosophy which argues that akti is not less than the power inherent in all things.
Naiyyika flow akti attempted to explain in terms of a function or property from any cause.
Of the philosophical school of Vednta, the philosophical tradition of Indias most important,
akti is ...... understood as the activity of the reasons that reveals itself in the form of a result
(Dev, 1987). From various schools of philosophy Vedas, however most influential streams in
helping to formulate the theory of akti is the Skhya school of philosophy.
In the Mrkaeya Pura (2001:30) states that when there is fighting Deva with asuras,
the asuras then arrive at Lakm Dev, wife of Viu who was with the sage Dattatreya who
is none other than one of the incarnations of Viu. Lakm is very beautiful and graceful it
makes the asuras instantly forget their enemies, namely the Devas. They decided to kidnap
the Dev and took her to a stretcher that they raise in their shoulders and getting ready to go
to court. Sage Dattatreya later told the Devas that this is the right time for the Devas to attack
them. If Lakm was at the foot of a person, then it means that person will get wealth and luxury
homes. If Lakm is in the lap of someone, then that person will get a child and if Lakm is in
someones heart, then he will get whatever he wants. But if Lakm is above the head, then it
means that the person will be abandoned by him and in big trouble. By kjarena it happened on
the asura, then this is the time to menterang them. The Deva did not want to waste it krsrmpatan

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immediately attacked the asuras with a variety of weapons at their disposal.


According to mythology, Drg is a war hero who defends the interests of the Gods.
He described his battle against the god damn enemies always gained the victory. Sometimes
on his victory, he was given the nickname by name defeated enemy. He was named Drg
as defeating a giant named Drg. Duega giant killing, told in the Skanda Pura (Wilkin,
1972:297). The short story as follows. Drg giant son Ruru, doing penance closely. Thanks
to his meditation, he became very great, mastered the third world. Lord Indra and other Gods
are under his control. The gods who are in sprga dousirnya disirih reside in the forest. They
all gathered were told to worship himself. Wife forced sages nelakukan also worship him.
Dispensed religious ceremonies. Finally, all the gods fear. Because of the fear of the gods
surrender all his possessions to the giant. Brahma for example, his surrender in the form of the
Vedas, Goddess of the Earth cast all his produce. Because of her condition, fruits and flowers
do not follow the seasons, making rivers flow is reversed, the stars lose its light and the fire
loses its heat energy. Thus, the state of the world being turned made.
Seeing the condition of turmoil, the gods begged iva to state of the world back to
normal. To normalize the state of the world, commanded iva Prvat Drg to destroy the giant.
Prvat went to see the giant Drg. Finally going proxy war between them, each is showing
his prowess, both in terms of weaponry and supernatural power. In the battle, a giant Drg
several times changed its form. He had become the buffalo, elephant and so forth. Nevertheless
akhirnyas he killed also by Prvat. Thanks to his victory Prvat veneration of the Gods.
Mythology in the show that Drg is a war hero who secure haven from destruction.
His job as a war hero was also indicated by the myth of his birth. Birth myths contained in
Markendya Pura. The short story can be told as follows; The gods always get interference
from the giants. When there is a war between the gods with the giants. Troops of the Gods led
by Indra (King of the Gods), while the forces led by the asuras Mahsura (king of the giants).
Therefore, extraordinary miracle, forces the gods easily subdued by Mahsura. At that time
Lord Indras a losing battle. Position as king in heaven is replaced by Mahisura. Brahma
was not pleased to see it. Finally, he complained to iva and Viu in order to restore the
fortunes of the Gods as before. Heard this complaint, iva and Viu are very angry. Therefore
angry heat of the light exit face both the Deity. Not long after the lights appear as well hot
of each face God who is present at the time. Light-the light was collected, like a mountain
that glitters is not infinite heat. The light suddenly turned into a very beautiful goddess. He is
Drg who is also known by the name of the temple or Caik. The gods are very pleased to
see the Goddess. They each gave gifts of weapons and jewelry to Drg. After receiving all
kinds of gifts, Drg went to war against the armies Mahesura. The army killed all of them by
Drg. Therefore, inevitably Mahsura should come forward against Drg, then there was
a duel. In battle, many times Mahsura transfigured. The first time was transfigured into a
buffalo, then turned into a lion, next to an elephant and finally back to being a strong and fierce
buffalo. Drg jumped onto the back of a buffalo, then pressed his neck and stabbed him with
a spear. Because of pain, Mahsura transformed from invisible. Mahsura eventually killed
by Drg. Thanks to its success, Drg gets tribute and praise of the gods.
Mythology mythology of the above, there are two things that must be observed, first
birth Drg is meant to get rid of the enemies of God. Second, Drg no other is the energy of

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the Gods themselves in terms of the myth of his birth. Basically, all women born from Prakti
so if a woman is hurt or harmed her, then that means injuring or hurting Prakti. Show respect to
a woman means showing respect for Prakti. Goddess Drg is worshiped beside themselves as
rulers over women, he is also a hero. Mentioned in the Mahbhrata Arjuna worshiped Goddess
Drg in order to win the war Baratayuda. In Bali Goddess Drg is worshiped and made a
shrine at Pura Drg Kutri Talking about Drg, it will not be separated from the sect who lived
in Bali for Drg included in Vairava sect. In Vairava or Tantric sect whose focus is the worship
of the sacred. As the Hindu Gods in order to fulfill his duty to give light to all life sacred, then
it will be complete when he performed together with his magic capable of providing power
to energize both at the time of creating, maintaining and memralina. The presence of magic
in every activity of the Gods feel fit because God was wise to position a Goddess to a God of
Hindu This is true of gender in respect of a goddess who was a feminist.
The cult of the goddess sacred, especially in Bali is mostly done to the magic of the two
gods are Brahm and Lord Viu with akti Goddess Sarasvat and Goddess r, Lakm. What
about the goddess Drg, while the assumption that we worship Goddess Drg is considered
worship to invoke black magic (akti ileng-ileng) unlike the case with India which also held
celebrations Vijay Daam festival Drg pj. Why in Bali to be biased? This is what should
be corrected about the Tantric akaran Bhairava or what some people interpreted literally and
less deep. As a sect who lived in Bali and even now we are still carrying out other sects in the
Hindu religion is not just aiva Sidhanta, according Gorys, sects that exist in the Bali nine
Sidhanta like iva, iva Pupata, Bhairava, Vaiava, Buddha (Soghata), Brahmins, is, Sora
(Srya) and Gnapatya. MPU Kuturan effort to unify the sects will cause dissension, suspected
in one sect to organize the life of the Balinese people were still leaving the worship not only
to the one who called aiva Sidhanta. In the life of Balinese Hindu society, they still worship
Srya (Sora) with Nyurya Sewana and Nyurya Namakra pastors and worship of Srya Bali
on both of Paca worship worship. Hindus in Bali still adore Gapatya to invoke all odds in
order to vanish by making offerings and mecaru i Gaa. Even in every school in addition to
displaying a statue of Goddess Sarasvat as the Goddess of knowledge also display a statue of
Gaea (Gnapatya). Speaking caru and red drum in the ceremony can not be separated from
Vairava yaja because Hindus in Bali is still there on the magical level by offering dripping
blood spills on the ground, it will cause the power of the ceremony is held. Caru ceremony
with preparations containing blood, including the Balinese who love to eat lawar the blood
contains too is religion tantrik. So in fact the Hindus in Bali are still carrying out the teachings
of Hinduism which leads to Tantrayna or Bhairava. If it so how to Goddess Drg? Drg
is worshiped true for strength or magic is not magic in the sense have knowledge, pleaded
tku and magical. Tku is strength (inner power), the power of spiritual (spiritual power),
or supernatural powers (magical power). Believed that tku can provide intelligence to do a
job on the side make it more authoritative and charismatic. Caksu derived from the Sanskrit
word which means the eye or vision, then it becomes tku object in the object because in Bali
there are sacred structures called pelinggih tku. Tku needed by everyone not just the artist
because it is tku spirit or spirits that can be honed continue to be a person not only has the
physical strength, the mental attitude, but most importantly have the power to say metaksu
spirit to do to appeal to both the Goddess and nyama patpat we are Banapati Raja is often
called the Queen of the Ratu Wayan akti Pengadangan.

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Tantric trail (Bhairava) in Bali is no good can be seen in the archaeological sites as well
as Pura Pura Kebo Edan Drg Kutr or how to implement the teachings of the Balinese Hindu.
The most important thing is how to give meaning to this Tantric cult of the Goddess Drg magic
so get a grasp gayut be a challenge. Because of an error by the understanding of the two roads
that can be done to practice her faith is considered pawritti flow niwritti deemed right and left
flow. Right-stressed or control the flow of the operation of the organs of the senses while leftist
liberating sense touched by the way as much as possible to the object. Thus niwritti positioned
on the side of the dark. As a result of the misguided notion that, then Pancatattwa or also
called Paca Makra (Five Ma) finally has a negative meaning as 1) Madya (liquor), 2) Msa
(meat), 3) Matsya (fish), 4) Mudr (gesture hand, whole grains) and 5) Maithuna (Sex). When
ditelesuri meaning further turns in Tantrayna not allowed to eat and drink until excessively
drunk let alone intercourse. In Tantric also mentioned that a true hero is not a big man physically
nor the greedy for food and drinks, but is one who is able to control the senses. Thus, a more
precise meaning of this is Paca Ma as a symbol of the ritual instruments. Critically, it can be
interpreted that the foods and drinks that bergizilah that can build physical and spiritual well
as any of the saints who need to have excellent strength. Not to drink intoxicating beverages
which may, but is a drink that can make you feel intoxicated universal happiness through yoga.
Msa element is energy self-identified with Brahman itself, while Matsya sattwika defined
knowledge as the knowledge of sadness and happiness will be felt together. Mudr means to
stop crime and meaningful maithuna unite kualini which is at the mldhra cakra lotus
shaped lidded thousand that exist in oil. If iadevat including the Goddess Drg drawing his
magic creepy, then once again it is a symbol. Benerji say white, yellow, red mixed with black
to color the Goddess Kl is pictured munching creature figure is a symbol that all creatures of
various colors (types) will return to Him is Brahman who hold us all.

3.3 Meaning of Gender Equality and Justice


3.3.1 Meaning of Gender Struggle Drg birth myths have been described previously.
Drg birth of the myth of the birth of Drg apparently intended to fight against the giants,
the enemies of the Gods. Why is Drg, is not she a goddess?, Which has a gentle body, has
the character of patience, which is ethically inappropriate plunge into battle? What ethics that
apply here? Men (of the Gods), usually have a body physically stronger. Therefore, based on
the construction of culturally specific culture (patriarchy perhaps) more worthy men to bear
arms, advancing to the battlefield. But the myth, it Durgalah displayed on the battlefield. This
clearly shows that women are also capable of taking over the role of men With that myth is not
an exaggeration to say that women are able to take over the role of men, even looks superior
because the men are facing the giants (the enemy of the gods) who memorandum bena all men.
. This is the struggle icons of feminism or sign in calling for gender equality .
The issue is whether this time women are not equal to men? Apparently there is a
cultural phenomenon that seeks to make womens be subordinate to men .. The emergence of
social movement known as feminisme aims to examine the position of women in society and
to fight for their interests (Barker, 2004:404). Of the phenomenon, it is understandable that

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communities patriarchal adherents of many women castrate. They are culturally constructed
(idealized) being female subordination. On the other hand the role of women, despite significant
importance or do not enjoy being marginalized by cultures patriarki. Protrusion patriarchal
culture in the form of icons, there are examples such as the veneration of tradition pallus
prehistoric times, the worship of iva as ivaliga, or iva as depicted Vairava naked. All of
this is patriartki codes.
3.3.2 Meaning of Equality Mrkaeya Pura outlines how noble and his magic
woman. In addition to elevating par with men, women also reached the top rank with saving
her husband. Learning from civilization devat, that a goddess to save the Gods. Sacred statues
sometimes depicted alongside iva. When side by side with iva, he realized in wujid somya.
In this case depicted seated together. iva sitting on his seat and Um seated on the lap of iva.
Such a form of statues called Ummahevara.
When iva depicted sitting with akti, meaning that it is there that iva-akti is a
representation of this macrocosm. This can be shown by a myth sewbagaimana contained in
the books of puras. The myth is as follows. iva has two sons are Gaea and Krtikeya.
Both are mature enough to get married. However they should get married one by one. . To
determine who should get married first, was made a requirement by iva in the form of duty
around the world seven times. For the fastest to complete the task, given permission to marry
first. It turns out that both of them the fastest to complete the task it was Gaea. Therefore
set out to circumnavigate the globe when Krtikeya, Gaea remained in the house, thinking
that he did not have to go far around the world because the literature says when iva and Um
(Prvat) is a representation of the real world. After a moment of reflection and worship Gaea
iva and Prvat, who was sitting together while surrounded him seven times, after that please
be allowed to marry first. iva Gaea can not reject the application and give permission first
marriage (Redig, 1996:30). This means that iva Prvat represents the macrocosm.
The myth Ummahevara above shows a phenomenon macrocosm. In this regard the
macrocosm reality consists of two different aspects (Purua and Prakti) in Hindu philosophy.
Purua is the spiritual aspect of life that provides the worlds energy while Prakti is the
material cause of the world. The second aspect of this form of icons can also be described in
the form of yon phallus. Here is associated with the phallus and yoni with Prakti purua. iva
with magic in drawing as Ummahevara or as yon phallus clearly shows the union of two
different aspects. Although fused, this is still distinguishable. But the depiction of iva-akti
as Ardhanrvar is barely distinguishable. This means two different things that can not be
separated and should be united for the sake of the balance of the world. Similarly, ncreatures
in this world should live together in various aspects of life. Thus, it would appear harmony.
Everything is harmonious satiu certainly not more important than the others. This is what is
called equality. Hindus used Phallus to worship God in manifestation as iva. Phallus is a

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symbol of the mountain known as Ligcala which means phallus that remains motionless.
Phallus and the mountain according to Hindu belief is used as a symbol of the universe as the
abode of Ida Sang Hyang Wasa Widhi. In the Padma Pura states that Sang Hyang iva the
supreme God understands Siwaisme unimaginable that God himself, his body shape half men
and half women, while in the Brahma Pura, Lord Brahm sacrifices half of his body to create
or be the magic that his Goddess Sarasvat. This implies that, she actually is not a maledominated. Women are equal partners to men. In conjunction with the creation, Sarasvat is a
sacred science that gave birth to Brahm (the celebration of the decline of science), for human
intelligence. Women (mothers) magic for men (husbands). Without magic, then human life
would not evolve. Similarly, other gods such as Viu is Dev r his magic to create fertility
and Lord iva, Goddess Drg is his magic to the process of return to the origin of all life. In
domestic life associated with konep Dampati (one house two masters) is often said that the wife
and husband are soul mates. Attributed the existence of Lord Brahm, is not only part of his
body that he created a powerful, but his soul was split in two.

III. CONCLUSION
Conclusions From the description on the front, makadalam this study can be summarized
as follows Appropriate book puras, the Sarasvat mantra as having the form of a beautiful
woman dressed in white with four hands. Fourth, each hand holding genitri, wina, keropak
and lotus flowers. Meaning of the word sr flowing, then the Goddess Sarasvat is the goddess
of knowledge that science dijharapkan it will flow to the rest Hindus. Goddess Lakm is the
Goddess of prosperity. In Bali he was also given the name implies Dew r r Sedana fertility
and the Goddess as Goddess of prosperity. Goddess Prvat/Drg is sacred iva. There is
duality in magic as well as he would be Prvat/Um, but when krodha she will be Drg.
Powerful role of the god big enough because without the presence of the Goddess, God
can not perform their duties as Avatra Viu as Rma with St and her partner with her partner
Radha Krishna. Goddess Drg with Gods help to defeat a giant Drg Mahisuramardin
Drg Goddess Lakm while also helping the Gods to defeat the giant. So as a powerful
Goddess has helped the Gods to fight the enemies that attack saga. The struggle and the meaning
of gender equality was shown that Brahm made himself half to create Sarasvat. So it is clear
that Hindu women have equal standing with men. So even with another goddess like Sarasvat
and Lakm. Goddess Sarasvat depicted as a beautiful woman so that science pengetrahuan it
interesting to learn,
Suggestions From the Puras we are taught to venerate and honor women. By doing
that we show respect and glorify to women. In Bali with patriarchy still marginalize to women
can make Hinduism as a stepping stone so that the Balinese Hindu women receive fair treatment
as a woman with dignity. With diperlakukannya as befits women may be living in a household
Dampati inside.

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Sokaningsih, I Made. 2007. Upacara Pemujaan Drg Mahisuramardini. Surabaya:


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Denpasar State Hindu Dharma Institute,


Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia

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Tri Hita Karaa:


A COMMUNICATION FORM OF UNIVERSAL BROTHERHOOD
(Perspective of Balinese Tradition and Concept of Hindu Religion)
I Ketut Donder
I. INTRODUCTION
Various traditional arts activities, such as: sculpture, carving, painting, drama, dance,
traditional song, food, and so on are all available in Bali. Furthermore, there is also a tradition
of rice field irrigation management system called Subak, it is only in Bali. Therefore, from
the date of June 29, 2012 Subak has been declared a world cultural heritage by the the United
Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). In addition to, there
are the tradition of Hindus life in Bali which are unique and sacred. The uniqueness and the
sacredness of that traditions were applied into the three of dimensional spatial concepts, which
are universal, commonly called Tri Hita Karaa Concept.
The term of Tri Hita Karaa originally comes from the Sanskrit, that is from the word
tri means three, and hita means: pleasing; healthy; generous; prosperity, and the word
karaa means the act; deed; feeling; cause. Thus, Tri Hita Karaa is: three good deeds or
actions that cause us to get the well-being. The Tri Hita Karaa is a balance attitude for life
among the worship of God; through to serve human beings and to develop compassion for the
environment. The concept of an ideal life is applied to the 11th century to organize the Hindus
in Bali. In the 11th century, Mpu Kuturan2 were accompanying King Bali to organize the Hindus
in Bali, with the concept of manut linging Sang Hyang Aji, meaning: organize life based on
the teachings of the Vedic scriptures.
It should be recognized objectively or honestly that there are hundreds of thousands of
islands and cultures in Indonesia, but only Bali island which has a spatial concept that applies
the concept of Sakala (real or physical) and Nikala (unreal or unphysical) relate with the
Sacred and the Propane theory or concept of outward and inward. A Concept of Development
Planning which includes the physical and spiritual development. Therefore spatial builds upon
the concept of Tri Hita Karaa which assume that behind every spatial have meaning, all spatial
are connected with the concept of real and unreal or the concept of outward and inward;
even more so that each spatial, location (loka) is connected with the manifestation of God.
The concept of Tri Hita Karaa is used to organize Bali island that was designed in 11th
century by Mpu Kuturan. On that century the population was not as crowded as Bali today.
Balinese population more crowded because many outsiders come to Bali to find a job, and
then after they get succesful, they buy land and build houses in Bali. They do not follow the
development of spatial patterns based on the concept of Tri Hita Karaa. To maintain the
concept of spatial patterns of the Bali island well, it is very important to establish the National
Agency of Development that suitable with the Tri Hita Karaa patterns, involving religious
intelectual and spiritual of Hindu, environmental experts, and other experts. This effort as the
needs of this times that can prevent (slow down) the lifestyle of Bali, is looking increasingly
materialistic.

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II. DISCUSSION
Indonesia formerly known as Nusantara. Since the 4th century AD to 15th century AD,
actually Nusantara might be called as Hindu country. Because, more than a thousand years, the
Nusantara controled by the Hindu kings. Early in the 4th century, has been established Hindu
kingdom called Mulawarman in Borneo (now is called Kalimantan). Because, Nusantara is
very wide, so in some areas appeared several kingdoms. The end of the triumph of Hinduism
in Indonesia is the kingdom of Majapahit in East Java that influenced widely at Nusantara.
Although more than a thousand years Nusantara ruled by Hindu kings, but not suspected since
the 1478 M Majapahit kingdom was destroyed by the forces of Islam (Muljana, 1968:41).
Since then, the influence of Hindu religion declined and almost disappeared altogether.
Fortunately, there is Bali island, this island preserve Hindu itself. Since the collapse of the
Hindu kingdom Majapaahit in 1478 AD, until Indonesias independence in 1945, Hindus in
Nusantara did not receive adequate protection and care, even the Hindu religion just recognized
by the Government of the Republic of Indonesia on 5th September 1958, long after Indonesian
independence (Ardhana, 2002:94)1.
Bali is a small island among the thousands of islands in Indonesia, the population
approximately 3.5 million. More than 85% of the populations of Bali island are Hindu, as a
remnant of the past glory of Hindu, who was overthrown by Islam in 1478 AD. Since Islam
ruled in Nusantara, the fate of the Hindu religion is like dissappeared, we must say thanks to
the Bali island, because without Bali island then we would not seen the Hindu in Indonesia.
On this island, Hinduism survives, grow and develop, so we can see today the Hindu religion
in Indonesia. Now, the Bali island is also known by the nickname of Hindu island, island of
the Gods, Paradise Island, the island of Thousand Temples, and so on. Every name makes the
island of Bali is very famous throughout the world. Even the Bali island as the number one of
the tourism places in Indonesia. Bali every day crowded with tourists from various countries.
From the beginning, Hindus did not get the service priority from the government of
Indonesia. However, because the Hindus in Bali have a wealth of tradition based on Hindu
values, then the Hindus in Bali were developed highly advance beyond other areas. With a
variety of its uniqueness, Bali became the number one of tourist destination in Indonesia, and
Bali given largest Foreign Exchange, from the tourism sector. Tourists from various countries
will never be bored living in Bali, because many unique things not found in other countries, all
of them can be founded every day in Bali.

Republic of Indonesian independence on August 17, 1945 with the principle of Pancasila,
which upholds the values of Belief in God Almighty. But since the independence day of Indonesia, the goverment give umbrella for the Muslims, Christians and Catholics only; while
Hindus and Buddhists do not get recognition. Through the struggle of the Balinese Hindu
leaders then since September 5, 1958 (13 years after independence), Hindu religion is given
official service from the Indonesian government, with establishment of Hindu Religion Section at the Ministry of Religious Affairs in the Republic of Indonesia.

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2.1 Basic Concept of Tri Hita Karaa


Balis island got many nicknames, some of them are positive nicknames and the others
are negative. There are popular nicknames and the others less popular. Balis island dubbed
the island of the Gods; the Island of heaven; the Island of Tourism: The Island of Thousand
temples; The Spiritual island; the Island of Culture; the Island of Art; the Island of Peace, etc.
There is also the bad nickname, as the Island of Cockfighting, and the Island of Leak (black
magic). One of the nicknames is very important to explain in this article that Bali is as an island
of Tri Hita Karaa. In the curriculum of Traditional Architecture in Indonesia, the concept of
Tri Hita Karaas Hindu (Bali) has become an integral part of subjects in the curriculum of
Architecture.
Truly, if explored carefully, the concept of Tri Hita Karaa comes from the Vedic or
Hindu teachings such as Vatsu literature and other literature. Then arranged in such away by
a Hindu priest at 11th century AD, he was named Mpu Kuturan2. Since the eleventh century
until the present day, the concept of Tri Hita Karaa as guidelines, in constructing residential
buildings of Hindus in Bali. Both the buildings to stay for families as well as for buildings
used for public services, all based on the concept of Tri Hita Karaa. According to the Vedas,
everything in this world has a common origin (ie God). The universe is described from the
Garbha enormous content of God the Almighty, as declared in the following loka; etadyonn
bhtn sarvty upadhraya, aham ktsnasya jagata prabhava pralayas tath Know that
all beings have their birth in this. I am the origin of all this world and its dissolution as well
(Bhagavadgt VII.6). Also described in another loka; bhumir ponalo vyu kham mano
buddhir eva ca, ahamkra itiyam me bhinn praktir aadh Earth, water, fire, air, ether, mind
and understanding and self sense this is the eightfold division of My nature (Bhagavadgt
VII.4). There was also another loka elaborate; apareyam itas tv anym praktim viddhi me
parm, jivabhtam mahbho yayedam dhryate jagat This is My lower nature. Know My
other and higher nature which is the soul, by which this world is upheld, O Mighty-armed
(Arjuna)(Bhagavadgt VII.5). In the loka of Bhagavadgt VII.5 is very clearly outlined
that ahaprakti eight basic elements of the universe, namely: (1) land, (2) water, (3) fires,
(4) air, (5) ether, (6) mind, (7) intelect; (8) ego; eighth element are prakti nature of matter.
This loka states that the three elements, namely prakti; mind, Budhi, and ego are grouped into
prakrti lower than the Soul.
There was also a loka which states; praktim svm avaabhya visjmi puna-puna,
bhta-grmam imam ktsnam avasm praktir vast Taking hold of nature which is My own,
I send forth again and again all this multitude of beings which are helpless, being under the
control of nature (Prakti)(Bhagavdgt IX.8).
There is another loka which states as follows; maydhykea prakti syate sacaracaram
2 Mpu Kuturan was a prominent priest in East Java, imported by Raja Bali, Dharma Udayana, who

ruled Bali in the year of 910 Saka (988 M). Mpu Kuturan given task as Chairman of the Advisory
Council of the King, with the rank of Senapati, so that Mpu Kuturan also known as Senapati Kuturan.
When Mpu Kuturan accompanying Dharma Raja Udayana, on that time he composed the concept
to manage the Hindus in Bali by the concept of Tri Hita Karaa, that harmonius life with the God,
humans, and environment.

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hetunnena kaunteya jagad viparivartate Under My guidance, nature (prakti) gives birth
to all things, moving and Linmovcing and by this means, O Son of Kunt (Arjuna), the world
revolves (Bhagavadgt IX.10).

Figure : This Picture is given by Ir. I Wayan Winarta, whos a Architect at Bali.
As looked at the above figure that all of the Balinese planed their home
by the concept of Tri Hita Karaa
On the other loka, mentioned: udbhava ca bhaviyatm . (I am) the origin of
things that are yet to be (Bhagavadgt X.34). On the other loka again, stated: bjam mm
sarvabhtnm viddhi prtha santanam, buddhir buddhimatm asmi tejas tejasvinm aham
Know Me. O Prtha (Arjuna), to be the eternal seed of all existences. I am the intelligence
of the intelligent; I am the splendour of the splendid (Bhagavadgt VII.10). Another loka
states: yac c pi sarvabhtnm bjam tad aham arjuna, na tad asti vin yatsyn may bhtam
carcaram And futher, whatsoever is seed of all existences that am I, O Arjuna; nor is there
anything, moving or unmoving that can exist without Me (Bhagavadgt X.39). On the other

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loka there is the statement: pit ham asya jagato mt dht-pitmaha, vedya pavitram
omkra k, sma yajur eva ca I am the father of this world, the mother, the supporter and the
grandsire, I am the object of knowledge, the purifier. I am the syllable Aum and I am the k,
the sma and the yajus as well (Bhagavdgt IX.17). Also there is another loka statement,
stating: aham sarvasya prabhavo matta sarva pravartate, iti matv bhajante mm budh
bhva-samanvit I am the origin of all; from Me all (the whole creation) proceeds. Knowing
this, the wise worship Me, endowed with conviction (Bhagavadgt X.8). There is also a
statement loka stating that God is the soul of every being, as stated: aham tm gudkesa
sarva bhtasaya sthitah, aham dis ca madhyam ca bht-sm anta eva ca I, O Gukea
(Arjuna), I am the self seated in the hearts of all creatures. I am the beginning, the middle and
the very end of beings (Bhagavdgt X.20). Meanwhile there is also a loka statement that God
is the consciousness of the matter, as stated: bhtnm asmi cetan I am mind and of beings I
am consciousness (Bhagavadgt X.22).
Based on the descriptions in the above loka, obtained a very clear understanding that
there are two elements or components that must always exist in this world, the Creator and the
created. Between these two elements; Creator and creature, when viewed from the point of
advaita philosophy, then there is only a very thin difference. That is the Creator seen outside
as well as in the creation, while the creation is a form of coarse or outer form of the Creator.
When compared to the two terms are virtually indistinguishable. In the non-dualist philosophy
(advaita) said that the God and creation are not separate while the dualist philosophy (dvaita),
creator and creation is completely separate.
Although it seems the philosophy is different, but about two things, namely about God
and creation remain the same in issue in the philosophy of it. Based on the description of some
of the above loka, it is clear that the entire universe is derived from one source or content,
because it is appropriate that the universe as one big family it may be prased like this (sarva
bhuta kuumbakam). Because everything in the world or in this universe has a common origin,
it is appropriate to human beings with each other calling each other with a cordial greeting call.
In Indonesia, the word used affectionately calls saudara its mean brother. Word saudara
in fact, this comes from the Sanskrit word is the word; sa = one, udara = content. When we
called the other with the word saudara (brother), the phrase was actually to remind us to
our origin, that God the Almighty. If an understanding of the meaning of the word saudara
(brother) sink deeply in the heart of each person, then surely the cosmic consciousness , as
well as the brotherhood of the universe or the universal family will also be soon realized, this
is the concept of Tri Hita Karaa (Donder, 2007:400).
2.2 Explanation of Tri Hita Karaa Concept
Based on the description of the basic concepts of Tri Hita Karaa above, it is feasible
to build a harmonious relationship with God as the ultimate source of all that exists. That was
the first of a realization of the concept of Tri Hita Karaa is building a relationship between
man and God. Subsequently, a second, man was created not alone, but be friendly or in pairs,
so people also have to establish a harmonious relationship between one man and another man.
And the third, God also supply all human needs, on this earth, which is equipped with a variety

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of creatures, like animals, and plants; as a human living environment. Therefore, humans need
to build a harmonious relationship between man and the environment. In this world, peace,
happiness, and prosperity, will be realized only if the three-dimensional pattern of a harmonious
relationship is perfect. Tri Hita Karaa pattern of relationships can be described as follows.
Tri Hita Karaa scheme described by the Tri-koa (triangle scheme) gives a signal to
people that the pattern of relationships that created in the concept of Tri Hita Karaa cored
on the basic principle of divinity. It means that the pattern of relationships Tri Hita Karaa
is always based on the belief that: (1) all human activity is based on the teachings that come
from God, (2) all human activities are known or witnessed by God, (3) of all human activity
is intended as an offering to God. Based on the pattern of relationships that are formatted in
the concept of Tri Hita Karaa, theoretically, the concept is to ensure the realization of the
religious community. With the pattern of religious community gives the ease of application of
religious teachings.

Figure: Sketch of Tri Hita Karaa



Has been the general opinion that the Hindu community in Bali is a religious community;
friendly, and most important is that the Hindu community in Bali is believed to be humble,
honest and trustworthy people3. This last predicate is predicate that can boast of Hindus in
Bali, because at the moment of Indonesia which has been hit by a crisis of honesty, but the
Hindu (Bali) are still believed, by both private and government agencies. The main cause of the
3

Nicknames to the people of Bali as the simple, honest and trustworthy community obtained
from the island of Bali visitors, both rating various countries or domestic tourists as well.
However, the good impression this time began to decrease because many outsiders living in
Bali.

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success of the Hindu community in Bali in making the community an honest and trustworthy
is the pervasiveness of the concept of Tri Hita Karaa into the hearts of the Bali people,
which links all the activities of society to the Lord. Hence, the Hindu community in Bali, form
communities are centered on God, then the socialization process of teaching the concept of
karmaphala can be implemented easily. This happens because in the minds of the community
have been implanted belief that God would give the fruit of every human action. Good deeds
will bear good and bad deeds will bear bad.
This is what led to the Hindu community in Bali, although the lack of understanding of
the knowledge of Hindu theology, but the quality of human behavior or social behavior until
now is still considered to be superior in Indonesia. So we can say that the concept of Tri Hita
Karaa and the concept of Karma Phala is first and foremost factor that led to the Hindu
community in Bali can bring the community an honest and trustworthy by the public around
the world, until now.
3.1 Explanation and Application of Tri Hita Karaa Concept in Bali
For the sake of the realization of the concept of Tri Hita Karaa into practical action, we
need further elaboration on the concept of Tri Hita Karaa is contained in Tri Koa (triangle).
The main key to the concept of Tri Hita Karaa is the concept of cleanliness sakala and nikala
(physical and spiritual, or physical and spiritual). This concept is consistent with the concept
of Tri Kya Pariudha, namely the doctrine of the three acts that have purified the mind
(mnasika); words (vcika) and deeds (kyika). The concept of Tri Hita Karaa has been the
ideal concept of the arranging dea pakraman life or traditional village in Bali, which is built
on the concept of Hindu religion.
Each Pakraman is a manifestation of one big family community that is limited by the
boundaries of the village which preserved or protected by Sakala and Nikala concepts. Under
Pakraman structure, there are organizations banjar, as sub Pakraman. All abstract events,
which are hard to solve by Pakraman citizens, or citizens of banjar is seen as something related
to the abstract nature. To cope cases of noetic (strange, supernatural, abstract) that occur in
one village or the banjar, the Hindu community in Bali made a religious ritual. The ritual was
called tawur or caru (sacrifice) conducted in the village or the banjar that conducted by the
citizen of village or banjar. It is believed by Hindus in Bali, can realize a sense of peaceful to
citizens of Pakraman and citizens of banjar.
2.3.1 The concept Parhyangan (Sanctuary Zone)
Resilience of the concept of Tri Hita Karaa on the Balis island, supported by the
inner consciousness and demands to the presence of kahyangan (the holy places, temples)
in every Pakraman in Bali. The concept of kahyangan is the sacred function as well as in
form; sanggah pamerajan (family shrine); sanggah paibon and sanggah panti (family shrine
is greater); and kahyangan desa (where all members of the public worship in one village).

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Placement pattern of kahyangan, it is determined based on the traditional architecture of its


own procedures that were in fact oriented to the concept of place hulu-teben (upstreamdownstream) or can be likened to the concept of head and leg. In addition, the concept of the
kaja-kangin (South East) as the upstream direction (luan, head); while Kelod-Kauh (North
West) is teben direction (downstream, feet). This concept of upstream-downstream, mainly
bear with the zoning concept into two zones, the sacral zone and propane zone. This zone is
also similar to the concept of Kaja-Kelod South-North as described by Eiseman (1992:2)
The existence of heaven (holy places) in each village, have consequences for the religious
obligation that coincided with the observance by all the villagers collectively. This gives effect
to the establishment of a very strong bond which is the basis of religious moral guidance to any
citizen or member of krama in a village in Bali. In everyday life, the application of this concept
was evident in the lives in the implementation of Hindus in Bali, whether its application in
one scope of village; banjar and family. All of it is aimed at bringing balance and harmony in
society.
2.3.2 The Concept Pawongan (Zone Settlements)
Each member in a village in Bali has contributed to create the orderly, safe and peaceful
life. To the awareness of every member of society is necessary to the implementation of
obligations undertaken by each of the villagers. In order to realize the effort that each village
autonomy are entitled and obliged to make awig-awig (rules) that serve as guidelines to regulate
society. At first awig-awig is an unwritten rule, but gradually many making writen an awigawig. Each member of the village shall comply with the awig-awig. In the awig-awig there are
guidelines that can be used as guidelines in a village community or a banjar. In the awig-awig
has listed three basic harmonious relationships, which must be created by every member of
society, namely: (1) harmony between the individual with God, (2) harmony between members
of the community with one another, (3) harmony among the members community with a village
environment.
Awig-awig is also not only regulating the issue of rights and obligations of each member
of the village, but also includes sanctions. These sanctions form; fines, the physical, moral
sanctions (spiritual). There are hard consequences if awig-awig violated by members of
society. Therefore, each member of a village community; like or dislike must comply the awigawig. All of that means to make binding which allows the realization of oneness and unity on
the basis of kinship and cooperativeness that is deliberation to reach a consensus. The basis
of the spirit awig-awig is salulung sabhyantaka (joy and grief together). Commitment to the
concept of the family universe, clearly inspired by the teachings of Tat tvam asi (thou art I)
and the teachings Vasudhaiva Kuumbakam (all beings is the family). This is all the underlying
principles of family harmony of the universe, which is popular, referred to as the concept of
Tri Hita Karaa, in Bali. The concept of Tri Hita Karaa is still effectively used as a reference
Dea Pakraman arrangement (the residence of Hindus) in Bali.

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As efforts to achieve security and peace for every member of society, it takes a good
leader. Leadership villages in Bali, commonly implemented in a familiarity, this system delivers
the people to the stable and dynamic life at the same time. The term of stable is a quiet and safe
condition of society; it is possible for every member of the community to do activities without
being disturbed. While the definition of dynamic is freedom of every members of society to
perform the activity and creativity. Thus the process of change to progress still occurs with the
support of environmental stability factors.
To realize a stable and dynamic society, we made efforts to provide understanding
through the organization sangkep (meetings) are held regularly and continuously. Meetings are
the official forum at the village level or banjar to implement democratic principles in society.
Meetings are held in the hall Wantilan or banjar. Wantilan and banjar hall is a building for
community meetings. In this place, everyone has the opportunity to issue opinions. In addition,
Wantilan and banjar hall also has other functions related to the programs and interests of village.
Wantilan and banjar hall also serves as a place of yaja (ritual). Wantilan and banjar hall in
its function as a means to hold meeting to get agreement, it is equipped with facilities kulkul
hall (the place wooden bell). Kulkul in Hindu society (Bali) has a central function, because with
hearing the sound clues of kulkul (wooden bell), the members of society have been able to find
out what kind of events that occurred (Titib, 2002:111).
2.3.3 The concept Palemahan (Zone Yard)
Palemahan is the village areas which also has other names such as karang dea; karang
ayahan; karang druwen dea (it mean land of village), considered as a unit of Tri Hita Karaa.
In the Palemahan environment, there should be setting good village governance, so it shows
parts or units in the structural region from larger to smaller clearly. As an example of a village
consists of several banjar, and each banjar consists of several sub banjar or tempek. The
smaller units than the village are one integrated system under the rule Dea Pakraman (religious
character of village).
In accordance with the concept of Tri Hita Karaa, generally every yard of village, and
every community members yard has been designed in the pattern of distribution of the yard
(site plan) which refers to the concept of Tri Maala, namely Uttama maala (main zone
or upper zone); madhya maala (middle zone); and kaniha maala (outer zone). At every
yard found a distinction between: the upper zone is a place pemerajan (sacral zone). In the
middle zone of the maala is an area where building a house (semi-public zone), while in
the zone kaniha maala (outer zone) as tebe zone (public zone) that can be used for social
activities. Every yard should have a gate to the street, and there should not any yard without
gate to to exit.

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Figure: Spatial Plan Compound of House in Bali4


Balinese houses are designed based on religious concepts created by the Mpu Kuturan,
looks very unique. Called unique because Balinese houses is not a single unity that under
one roof. Balinese houses are divided into separate spaces; the spatial patterns are arranged
according to the concept of wind direction and the axis of mount Agung. This occurs because
the existing hierarchy requires different strata in the arrangement of spaces in the house. As
well as the bed of parents and children should be separate, and also the distance between the
kitchen and family shrines.
To understand the spatial hierarchy of residential house in Bali, we must understand the
existence of nine of the wind, namely: the north, south, east and west. For Balinese people,
the east with the axis of Mount Agung is the premier location in the concept of home stay in
Bali, so the location is usually used to put a place of worship or in Bali called pamerajan. To
determine the pattern of a traditional Balinese house space then we should recognize the parts
of space in traditional Balinese house, which could be seen at the above picture:
Description:
1. Pamerajan is a place used for a family ceremony. And at the traditional villages, each
family usually has pamerajan located in the Northeast to nine plots of spatial pattern
2. Umah Meten is the space normally used for the head of the family to take a rest so the
position should be quite respectable
4 Figure: Spatial Plan of House in Bali planned that way, so that air circulation is very good at the Balinese housing. But this spatial pattern requires wide land. Now it has pursued the concept of Tri Hita Karaa is developing
vertically.

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3. Bale Sakepat is the bale which usually used for bedding children or other family
member who is junior.
4. Bale Sanga poles are commonly used as a space to receive guests
5. Bale Dangin is typically used to sit around making art objects or knit clothes for
children and husband.
6. Jineng (barns) as a place to store the harvest, in the form of rice and other crops.
7. Paon (Kitchen) is a place to cook for the family.
8. Aling-aling is the entrance that gives different direction so the people who coming
in sideways not straight away. This means that the view from the outside do not go
straight into.
9. Angkul-angkul is gate which as the entrance in yard.
Arrangement on spatial planning of yard in each member of villagers has been planned
in such way based on the consideration of the Sakala and Nikala concept. Therefore, the width
of the road; worth of buildings, etc., have been calculated so as not to interfere when there is
the ceremony of Pit Yaja and other activities of the community. It makes possible to bring
the corpse, or when carrying the harvest; or carry other items. There is also the obligation of
society to create a wall of the yard in accordance with the guidelines that have to maulu kaja
is oriented toward the south or toward the mountains. Therefore, any person who occupies
their yard must make a wall at the north side. This means that every person does not need to
create a wall at the south side. The wall on the southern boundary of the neighbors yard is the
neighbours task. That is the relationship between the residents in one area of Pakraman in
Bali, so that one person who has a yard and garden really has a family system as a whole unity.
The concept of this arrangement is very good and noble, although at the application level often
encounter obstacles, caused by factors of lacking understanding of one another.
Building layout settings such as village markets, wantilan, kahyangan (a place of prayer),
ketra (grave), and banjar hall in a village area, also setting the house on every yard is based
on the concept of magic, so that all are believed have influence on its inhabitants (Titib et al,
2002:112).
2.4 Bali is The Island with Cosmic Living Concepts
Bali island spatial concept refer to the concept of Tri Hita Karaa, making every inch of
land is designated as a place to live, must be considered with the availability of locations that
serve as Parahyangan, as a place to worship of God. The concept of Tri Hita Karaa binds
every resident of Bali, to provide a sacred space. Every inch of building development in Bali
has spiritual style, that involves the consideration of the inclusion of a spirit or soul that exist
in every state of matter, objects, or buildings.
Through consideration of such concept, it makes every inch of land in Bali is seen as
something has spirit and sacred value. That is why that makes Bali as the only island among
the thousands of islands in the archipelago, has own traits or characteristics. Bali is an islandspirited, life island, the island is covered by the spirits of the devas, the island is guarded by
devas, the spirits of the ancestors. It makes Bali as a sacred island. The concept is what makes

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Bali since Dutch colonial times until now to be known throughout the entire world. Infinite
number of foreign tourists came to Bali to feel the vibrations of Bali cosmic spiritual, and some
even fall asleep; do not want to return to their country.
Unfortunately today there are many concerns over the Bali, for the sanctity of the island
of Bali is increasingly reduced. The tourists direct or indirectly have been taking part in diluting
the sanctity of Bali, since Bali as the main purpose of tourism of Indonesia, so a lot of sacred
lands and beaches in Bali trodden by the feet of foreigners with half-naked body. Maybe it
makes devas angry and leave Bali. Maybe thats why that disaster, disease, and changes in
behavior patterns that lead to immoral, unmoral have been increasing in Bali. This proves that
the deva probably already tired of looking at the behavior of the people who set foot in Bali,
with no heed to the concept of the sacred.
Ignoring Bali, from the sacred concept will bring a greater catastrophe. The Indonesian
people may still remember, when planning a series of bombings carried out by a group of
people in 1983. When the bomb detonated at Borobudur, the bomb was blast, so some Buddha
statues were destroyed, after that they were planning a bombing in Bali. But at that time, the
sacred vibrations of Bali is still able to reject the catastrophe. Finally, the bus was boarded by
bombers, exploded and killed all its passengers in the bus, until the bus was also shattered.
However, later in the early 2000s, Bali has twice been bombarded with bombs, as if the event
itself is a ritual ceremony Caru Labuh Gentuh (sacrifice) with hundreds of people as a means
(tool) of caru.
Such disaster might come again, if the attitude of the people who live in Bali and who
came to Bali to ignore the concept of the sacral. Only the concept of sacral will be able to
allow the presence of re-deva and his holy energy. Consideration of the benefits a few sheets of
dollars, should be considered as the second reason, not the number one if Bali still want to be
expected as the Island of the Gods. Materialistic attitudes have changed in the evolution of the
spiritualist and naturalist attitude. Based on the concept of Hindu cosmology (Donder, 2007),
attitudes and behavior patterns of men that cause human get a disaster or avoid a disaster. With
make friendship with nature, so nature will protects us, the attitude of blackmail, exploitation,
dredge, abusive, and hostile to nature are the attitude will make some parts of nature become
angry, because nature itself has thoughts and feelings. Cosmic mind or cosmic consciousness
should also be a consideration for people in their act.
Have to admitted that the concept of belief in the sacred and the hallowed is a powerful
concept to inhibit the growth of human selfishness. The concept of hallowed develop the
attitude of fear; and sacred concepts develop respect. The attitude of fear and respect can
control the unreasonable desire. If Bali is expected to remain stable, then Bali must continue
to maintain, preserve, or maintain the implementation of the concept of sacred and hallowed.
Only packaging the concept, should be given the arguments of science, which involves the role
of concepts and theories of science in an attempt to explain the sacred and the hallowed.
Truly the people of Bali are still believed to hold the tradition of the sacred and the
hallowed, eventhough many people feel embarrassed. This is probably because both of these
(sacred and hallowed) get the spotlight from the most of other religions. In the opinion of nonHindu, they have a view that at this advanced century, the belief in the sacred and the hallowed,

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regarded as superstitious and nonsense. Until now the Balinese believe with the existence of a
sacred tree. Perhaps it seems trivial, but the value is positive and the practical are very useful,
namely the cancellation of intention to cut the tree. Because it is automatically manifested in
the mental, that the tree was considered sacred. On the other hand who do not believe in the
sacred or the hallowed tree, the threat of imprisonment not make them afraid to thieve the
timber (illegal logging). Truly, belief in something that is sacred and the hallowed is quite
effective as a means of preserving the environment naturaly.
Furthermore the sacred concept also has a positive value, namely with understanding
that certain objects have a sacred value, and so many objects of high artistic value and have a
high price is not stolen or destroyed. Hindu community in Bali is famous throughout the world,
as well as today Bali is still preserved the attitude of trust with the sacred and the hallowed.
This leads to the island of Bali also get the nickname as the mystical island. Whatever the
nickname given, which clearly Bali has a different cosmos pattern among thousands of islands
in the archipelago, and in the world. Bali is a unique island, a spirit island. As the spirit island,
it can be able communicated with the language of the soul. Enlightened souls will be able to
communicate well, with every grain of atomic particles that exist on the island of Bali. Dark
souls, who are not enlightened, will not be able to communicate with any particles on the
island of Bali. For people who darkened by selfishness and ego, only see Bali as an asset of
merchandise, which brought wealth.
The important thing to consider is do not let the grains of soil, water droplets, air granules
are rampage and protest against human behavior. In Hindu cosmology (Donder, 2007); soil,
water, fire, air has a soul because behind it there is the Supreme Soul as a controller. When the
soil, water, and air are tired, bored and sick of seeing patterns of human behavior, then they will
speak in its own language, in such circumstances, there is no force that can stop it. Nothing can
stop the earthquakes, landslides, floods, and tsunamis. Before all that happens, all the atomic
particles that exist in the soil, water, and air should be encouraged to make dialogue with the
cosmic language.
III. CONCLUSION
Tri Hita Karaa is the concept of the arrangement of Hindus life in Bali is based on
the teachings of Hindu, oriented on the three dimensional effort to create harmony. The
harmony of these three dimensions consists of; the first harmony is between man and God;
the second harmony is between man and man, and the third is harmony between humans and
the environment. Implementation of the concept of Tri Hita Karaa is a guideline for the
conduct of Hindus in Bali, so that the island of Bali and the Balinese people base their lives
on the harmony of the universe. The application of the concept of Tri Hita Karaa into a
spatial pattern of the island of Bali has been a source of happiness physically and spiritually
for communities around the island of Bali. Many researchers and spiritualist who have come
to Bali, admitted that the island of Bali shine a remarkable spiritual aura. Therefore, they said
Bali deserves to get nickname as a spiritual island or the island of the Gods.
Spiritual aura of the island of Bali trusted by the tourists can provide peace of mind. The
fact is supported by the panoramic views of the island of Bali, green space, the religious and

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friendly community. Because the information about the spiritual aura of the island of Bali has
spread throughout the world; today many more tourists visiting Bali. Many tourists who messed
up his mind in his country, then they come to Bali to relieve tension and get peace of mind on
the island of Bali. Recorded every year, tourists come to Bali for more than 3 million people,
while the population of Bali island around 3.5 million. That means, one of Bali will be faced
with one tourist. Although tourists gives many advantages materially, but spiritually Balinese
Hindus are varilly injured, because of the a tourism development priority. Therefore, many
things that used to be good, neat, and orderly and sacred worth, and then changed to propane
for the money. Apparently, Bali will slowly change from a spiritual community become a
materialistic society. That means that the world will lose the spiritual assets that can eliminate
the tension of mind.
People around the world at any time require a place to breathe fresh air; breathe a
spiritual atmosphere; to restore physical and mental freshness. Therefore, if the international
community does not want to miss the places that can provide spiritual refreshment, then the
international community must preserve the nuances of spritualitis places, like the island of Bali
and other places around the world. Because the concept of Tri Hita Karaa as the base of the
Balinese spirituality; the international community must also maintain and preserve the concept
of Tri Hita Karaa is a spatial pattern of the island of Bali. And the international community
come to Bali do not undermine the existing order.
Suggestion, the concept of Tri Hita Karaa is used to organize the island of Bali is
designed in the eleventh century by the Mpu Kuturan. In this century, the population is crowded
as seen in Bali today. Balinese people are increasingly crowded because many outsiders come
to Bali to find a job, and then after they managed to buy land and build houses in Bali. They
do not follow the development of spatial patterns based on the concept of Tri Hita Karaa. To
maintain the concept of spatial patterns of the island of Bali which is good, it is deemed very
important to establish the National Agency of Development of the Tri Hita Karaa patterns
involving religious scholars and spiritual of Hindu, environmental experts, and other experts.
This effort as the need of this time that can prevent (slow down) the lifestyle of Bali, is looking
increasingly materialistic.
Because the Balinese land is very small in size, so the concept of Tri Hita Karaa in
ancient time which applied by horizontal style and this time and in the future must be applied
in vertical style without losing their sacral sense.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Ardhana, I.B. Suparta, 2002. Sejarah Permbangan Agama Hindu di Indonesia History of
Hinduism in Indonesia, Surabaya: Paramita ISBN: 979-722-032-X
Donder, I Ketut, 2006. Brahmavidy Teologi Kasih Semesta Brahmavidy - Universal
Theology of Love, Surabaya: Paramita ISBN.979-722-293-4
Donder, I Ketut, 2007. Kosmologi Hindu Hindu CosmologySurabaya: Paramita ISBN: 978979-722-387-8
Donder, I Ketut, 2010. Teologi Theology Surabaya: Paramita:ISBN:978-979-722-800-2
Donder. I Ketut, 2012. Teologi Sosial Perspektif Hindu Social Theology in Hindu

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Perspective Surabaya: Paramita ISBN : 978-602-204-190-0


Donder, I Ketut, 2012, The Essence of Animal Sacrifice in Balinese Hindu Rituals: Discourse
Around Theological, Philosophical, Mythological, Ritual and Scientific Phenomena,
International Journal of Multidisciplinary Educational Research, Vol. 1, Issue 4,
September 2012, p.1-27. ISSN: 2277-7881
Eiseman, Fred B, 1992. Bali: Sekala and Nikala Volume I: Essays on Religion, Ritual, and
Art. ISBN:0.94.5971.03.6
Eiseman, Fred B, 1992. Bali: Sekala and Nikala Volume II: Essays on Society, Tradition, and
Craft. ISBN:0.94.5971.05.2
Muljana, Slamet, 1968. Runtuhnya Kerajaan Hindu Djawa dan Timbulnja Negara Islam
di Nusantara The Collapse of the Hindu kingdom of Java and the emergence of
Islamic Countries, in Nusantara, Djakarta: Bhratara
Nurkancana, Wayan, 1998. Menguak Tabir Perkembangan Hindu Uncover of the Hindu
Development, Denpasar: Bali Post
Prime, Ranchore, 2006. Ecology, Surabaya: Paramita, ISBN:979-722-324-8
Radhakrishnan, S., 2008. The Principal Upaniad, Surabaya: Paramita. ISBN.978-979-722643-5
Surada, I Made, 2007. Kamus Sanskerta Indonesia Sanskrit Indonesia Dictionary,
Surabaya: Paramita. ISBN: 978-979-722-486-8
Titib, I Made, 2002. Agama Hindu Hindu ReligionJakarta C.V. Pelita
Wiana, I Ketut, 2004. Makna Upacara Yajna dalam Agama Hindu I,II, The Meaning of
Yaja ceremony in Hindu Religion, Surabaya: Paramita
Wiana, I Ketut, 2004. Mengapa Bali Disebut Bali? Why Bali, is Called Bali Surabaya:
Paramita ISBN:979-722-125-3
Wiana, I Ketut, 2007. Tri Hita Karaa, Surabaya: Paramita ISBN:978-979-722-376-2

Denpasar State Hindu Dharma Institute, Denpasar,


Bali, Indonesia

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TREATMENT OF VALUES IN YOGA PHILOSOPHY


Shantipriya Devi
I. INTRODUCTION
The Indian tradition has contributed much towards the development of human values
through ite great Epics and Vedic teaching.Everybody accepts its richness and universal outlook
in solving conflicts.The philosophical systems have done much in this regard too.The practice
of yoga draws the attention of human beings in the present society, which reflects the very idea
of how it can be acceptable to everybody. Now a days every one is busy both physically and
mentally and invite problems. Such problems are of different types, such as tensions social
disharmony, violence stress misunderstanding non-acceptability, ego and jealousy, hatred and
terrorism etc. Due to such problems the human beings are in a stress and unhappy , hence there
is unhappiness and uneasiness within every individual. There is no values in our daily life and
yoga can find useful to lead the individual and our society through perfect teaching.
II. DISCUSSION
2.1 Need of Values
Everyone in this world is now stressed, imbalanced and leading a stressful life.
Everywhere, there is the erosion of human values. Day by day people forget the quality
of humanness . Every one of us wants that the world should be in a better place to live
in. But how far one tries to solve this problem?We normally realize that, our problems
are due to human apathy, non-co-operation, selfishness, intolerance, crudely, pride, injustice,
irresponsibility, carelessness, hatred, anger, violent behaviour and negative aspects.
To solve our problems, everyone of us needs a change in our attitude, which will be of
helping in protecting moral, social, and spiritual values.
2.2 Practice
The values must be practiced and one should always be in a state satisfaction.
The practice of yoga is universal in nature. Yoga has certain solutions to offer right type
of training of the mind.Yoga is nothing but controlling the mind 1. The agayoga has
the function to enhance our personality by developing human values2. In this regard
the human values are those key factors, which can bring harmony, peace and individual
training . But yamas are the key factors for values in our life. Yoga has human values and
has an impact in society. Out of these eight steps of yoga, the first one is most important and it
must be strictly followed and Patajali introduced such a practice. These values are universal.
The Stra says that these forms of abstention are basic rules of conduct.They must be practiced
without any restrictions as to time, place, purpose or caste considerations (II.31).

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2.3 Yama
The word yama means the activity of the control of the body, speech and mind.Abstention
is a great value among all values. By this the person will strengthen their muscles and they will
develop greater will power. They will concentrate their scattered mind. This abstention protects
us from the lure of sense objects. This is the social code of conduct. This abstention is named
yama in Patajali Yogastra (Yo. su). The first step of yama consists of restraining harmful
physical urges and wholesome thought and impulses. This restraint eventually helps to develop
tremendous will power. Yama consists of the following five practices3 : 1. Non killing or Non
violence; 2. Truthfulness; 3. Non-Stealing or Non-theft; 4. Celibacy or Continence; 5. Nonacceptance of unnecessary gifts or Non-accumulation. This As the first aspect of the eightfold
discipline, Patajali has given a code of social conduct. This code is purely psychological and
ethical.
2.4 Ahis
To take up the rules themselves the first vow is concerned with non-violence
psychologically. Patajali has prescribed this attitude only because we can not all of a sudden
start loving all those whom perhaps we have been hating all the while. Hence , as a first stage
of pure positive love, we must realise the futility of hatred and attitude of violence -Vysa has
rightly noted that this is the most important rule and in case of conflicts, the other rules are
to be subordinated to this fundamental rule and not vice versa. Violence is based on tension
and it adds to further tensions. Of course, as body and mind form an integrated whole, one
can not have an attitude of non-violence and go on violating in the physical deeds. Hence,
the commentators have rightly described non-violence on three levels viz-physical, vocal
and mental. The Practice of non-violence is of three types namely-mental level, vocal level
and physical level. In view of its motives, intensity and consequences . Hence the conscious
attempts to build up a good moral character can never be looked upon as undesirable from the
view point of psychology. Patajali has prescribed a norm by which one can judge whether one
has sufficiently advanced in the practice of non-violence. According to him, when perfection
is reached in the practice of non-violence, not only does the practioner given up all ideas of
enmity in his own mind but even others are unable to entertain any such feeling in his vicinity4.
Enmity has to be stopped in all these three levels.Actually speaking enmity has no definition as
it can occur to any one and any time5.
2.5. Satya
Satya is regarded as the highest value among all types. Truthfulness means truthfulness
in thought, speech and action. It is important because it controls human behaviour. Our words
and thoughts must be truthful. It must always be in conformity with the facts. This is the true
nature of spirituality.
Thought----------------Speech------------------Action
Truthfulness among the students leads to a careful and punctual life. With the basis of

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these truthfulness in speech, thought and action, one can perform ones duty with perfection. It
generates great mental strength. The major obstacle of this truthfulness is selfishness. According
to Patajali truthfulness is the second vow of our code of social conduct6. If we tell false we
get more frustrations. But falsehood requires another falsehood to conceal it and it goes on ad
infinitum. According to Patajali there are five kinds of thought waves some painful, others
are not painful. Here we have to notice that what seems painful is not really painful, and what
seems not painful is really painful. So truthfulness has a great value in our life and education.
False hood adds infinitive falsehood. But truth, on the contrary is much more natural and does
not require any further psychological effort. Patajali declares that when one reaches perfection
in such a practice of truth, the mind becomes the very basis of the actions and their results.
A word of such a practitioner of truth gets a wonderful power and makes the thing follow it7.
Truth becomes a part and parcel of our nature and every word uttered by us proves to be true.
2.6 Asteya
Stealing is an extremely selfish work. -During the adolescent periods the boys and girls
have a tremendous change in their physical, psychological emotion and social aspects.They
confine themselves in various negative emotional moods like anger, jealousy, worry, material
love. Such extreme selfishness leads to stealing. In examinations most of the students have
faith in malpractice. This is one type of severe stealing. Pupils come to educate themselves, but
this single work of stealing leads them in the opposite direction . And for this single negative
value all forms of exploitation, profiteering, black-marketing, corruption and bribery spread
all over the society. Anyone coveting wealth is actually poor. A person with no craving for
wealth is truly its master and is the wealthiest of people. Patajali has given a norm viz -when
the practice of non-theft becomes firm and perfect, all jewels and valuables come to him. Some
may ask how it is possible that valuable things will came to us without any human agency. That
valuable things are the inner powers is mentioned in Patajalis Yogastra chapter III or in the
Vibhtipda. Such powers can be achieved evidently when the attitude of non-theft becomes
firm and perfect. Non-theft leads to selfless-ness. It minimizes our wants and concentrates our
wants on one object. This leads to power and by this power we can buy the whole universe(
II.37). So the value of non theft leads to tremendous progress in our life.
2.7 Brahmacarya
According to Freudian Psychology sex instinct is inherited in each and every human
being from mothers womb. In childhood stage this sex instinct is not in a mature form but
in adolescent period it becomes mature. Now-a-days, it is a remarkable disturbance in the
educational system. Students disturb themselves for this type of love. For this pupils deviate
from their study and they become antisocial. This makes a man an animal. Society becomes
polluted for this reason. This is the root cause of all inhuman activities. Patajalis code of
social conduct is celibacy. Celibacy is conservation of sexual energy(II.38). Other than the
conservation of precious physical and mental energy. Celibacy has many wonderful benefits. It
enhances vigour, increases the capacity of the brain, sharpens memory and enables the celibate
person to understand the deeper and subtler meaning of the scriptures. According to Patajali

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just remaining unmarried and avoiding direct sexual intercourse cannot be said to be real
continence. According to Indian thought, intercourse is possible at several levels. Mentally
brooding on sex or constantly speaking about it is also a type of intercourse. The erotic actions
or taking pleasure in seeing, hearing or reading the sexual pictures, songs, literature etc., is
also considered to be as harmful or even more harmful than the actual physical intercourse.
Now-a-days we find that these types of things are spreading among the students of schools
and colleges. So we have to inculcate the value of Brahmacarya (Celibacy) in them by the
practice of Yoga. In ancient Indian student-life was called Brahmacaryrama. Yoga is the
only scientific technique for the sublimation of sex instinct. We call it as Yoga therapy. It gets
transmitted into great psychic power which can be used to fight with the force of passion. In the
yogic words it is ojas-akti. So by celibacy we can get great power and this will be very much
beneficial for our students in our educational system.
2.8 Aparigraha
Accepting unnecessary gifts cause loss of freedom. Those who receive gifts become
obliged to the giver. Unscrupulous people sometimes give gifts, secretly intending to obligate
the recipients. The recipients may feel obliged to return the favour by doing even unethical
things. Obligation is a form of slavery. It robs people of their freedom and generates mental
degradation. A serious student must avoid accepting unnecessary gifts, as far as practicable.
It removes the negative value, greed. Moreover, by non-accumulation we develop the virtue
of non-attachment for things of bodily enjoyment. This non-attachment leads to self study. It
means when a man becomes steadfast in his abstention from greed, he gains knowledge of
his past, present and future existence8. This can be represented in the following divisions -supernatural power, purification of human body and mind, self study, non attachment and non
accumulation.
As such, education becomes the basis of personality development on all dimensions
moral, mental and emotional. Since time immemorial Value Education has drawn the attention
of all. This very concept, when applied to the simple syllabus every child can be benefitted.
2.9 Ethical Knowledge
Then Patajali discusses many aspects of ethical prospects for life. He puts forth the
idea of purity in every now and then for almost every work. He says when one is pure then there
arises indifference towards the body and disgust for all attachment to bodily pleasure9. The
ethical knowledge is the first where the value education is based its root. The reason behind
such a thought is that, without morality and without ethics, no student, in real sense, can be
considered to be healthy in mental and physical terms, because for it, self-control and good
character is essential. A person, who is not a moralist and who does not differentiate between
right and wrong, cannot rise to the essential level of a true student. Then, the attainment of
spiritual growth that has been described by the scriptures and Yoga science as an essential
part of education, can only be gained through morality and ethics. Seeing it through another
viewpoint also proves the same thing because when we consider education as a means of
attaining salvation (moka) and also as a support on the pathway to liberation, then we cannot

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differentiate it from Spiritualism.


Every ancient Hindu text emphasizes on growth of moral values and character.Hence
each government must ensure that morality and righteousness always be considered as an
essential and un-differentiable part of education so that every student shall gain in terms of
knowledge and spirituality. In such case where students should gain education under the strict
rules of high morals, self-control and right thinking. This includes their respect towards mother,
father, teachers and elders, adorations towards younger, following of worthy and exemplary
social traditions and constant awareness towards their duties and responsibilities.This kind of
education brings the values of forbearance, tolerance and reverence in ones character. And
in turn, these values are an indivisible part of ethics. All teachers must be trained to impart
morality and ethics to students both at school and college levels. It is necessary that a teacher
should be an example, to be followed, before society and students. This can only be done when
he himself leads his life with high standards of morality and strong character. An ideal teacher
should be free from any addiction. He needs to be polite and should set an ideal example of
simple living and high thinking. This is values in life to be effectively taken from the Yoga
system of philosophy.
2.10 Values for Present Day Education
It is seen now a days that in present form of education moral values are undermined
and neglected. For which we get degradation in all levels of educational institutions.The
medical, Engineering and technical degrees are considered as higher than others and seen as
the requirement of society. If moral standard of the student is not raised then they may not be
best citizens of society. In order to be a dood citizen one has to be a good student too. The Yoga
practices train one to be a good human being. Hence there is a need of yoga in schools and
higher levels of education. In fact both moral and technical knowledge right from the days of
primary level of education must go hand in hand.One is handicapped without the other. Hence
it can prove to be a milestone even in this modern era of technological education.
This is indeed the view-point of yoga system pertaining to value education if applied in a
wider perspective. The worth of this lies in the fact that education should necessarily be helpful
in building the inner quality of everybody10. Along with this, to make the mind free from lust
the main cause of problems in human life and for to attain mastery over mind and passion,
practice of ethical values and observance of morality is necessary. The yoga system provides
everything in detail. There are strict observances called niyamas which are purity, contentment,
modification, study and devotion to God11. These are also form the basic structure of the values
in Yoga system.Hence foundations of education should be laid on morality and ethics and
yoga provides a scientific way to achieve this goal. Hence the yogic value education is very
important not only in India but in the whole world as well. Everybody can be benefitted out of
it as it deals with our life directly.
III.CONCLUSION
The conclusion may be drawn from the above discussion as follows. Spirituality is
something universal, a life science. The spiritual quest culminates in a new birth, a new person,

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characterized by physical well-being, mental stillness, emotional stability, intellectual clarity,


serenity and compassion in other words a unique combination of rare and admirable qualities
that present a further evolution of the human being.
Human values are universal values irrespective of caste, creed, sex religion, time and
place. It always gives positive results. It impacts sound body and sound mind. Yoga influences
the outer and the inner behaviour of a person and brings the total transformation in the life of a
practictioner. It exceeds the geographical boundary and reaches to the inner core of the heart of a
person. It is universal in nature. The Yogic values are the fundamental basic principles on which
the human civilization has started and continued till death. This will also prove quite fruitful for
the future generation. The practictioner has to take in a true spirit and implement those in his
daily life. This will lead to individual transformation when the individual transforms other in
his society. Once the society is transformed it will have a positive view on the construction of
the country. And when the country is transformed, it will ultimately transform the universe.
Footnotes and References
1. Patajali Yogastra, I.1
2. Ibid.II.29.
3. Ibid.II.30.
4. Ibid,II.35.
5. The society is facing a lot of enimical behavior every where. It destroys our intellect and
forget who we are. So anybody under such situation can do anything to anybody which
presently happening all over the world. Only Yoga practice can save the world from such
chaos and war.
6. Ibid.II.36.
7. Truth has enormous power. It can be covered for a small period but cannot be always
covered. Some day or other it will come out from any bodies mouth or action. Many great
people have experimented this fact.
8. Ibid.II.39.
9. Ibid.II.40.
10. Ibid II.41.
11. Ibid.II.32. (These are not discussed here keeping in view the length of this paper).
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Anantharama, T.R.; Ancient Yoga and Modern Science. Second Edition, Bhuvan Chandel, 36,
Tughalakabad institution Area, M. B. Road, New Delhi 110 062, 2000.
Bhatia, K. K.; Nanda, S.K; Education, 5th Edition, Kalyani Publishers, RajinderNagar,
Ludhiana- 141 008, 1997
Das, M ; Health and Physical Education, 13th Edition, Satya Narayan Book Store, Cuttack,
1998
Dasgupta, S.N.; A History of Indian Philosophy, Motilal Banarasidass, Delhi, 1992

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Hiriyanna, M.; Outlines of Indian Philosophy, Motilal Banarasidass, Delhi, 1994


Kenghe, Dr. C. T.; Yoga as Depth Psychology and Para - Psychology, Vol. 11, First Edition,
Bharat Manisha Varanasi, 1976
Krishnamurty, V.S.; Spiritualize to Lead A stress - free life, First Edition, T. R. Publications,
Private Limited, T.R Nagar, Chennai-600 017, 1999
Mishra Narayana, Patajali Yogadaranam, Bharatiya Vidya Prakasana, Delhi, 1998.
Nayak, B.K., History of Indian Education, Kitab Mahal, Cuttack, 2001.
Nayak, Gouranga Ch., Indian Philosophy, First Edition, The Odisha State Bureau of Text Book
Preparation and production, Bhubaneswar, 1995.
Radhakrishan, S., Indian Philosophy, 9th Edition, London, George Allen and Unwin Ltd., New
York, 1971.
Rajadhyaksha, N.D., The six system of Indian Philosophy, Bharatiya Book Corporation, I.U.B.,
Jawaharnagar, Bunglow Road, Delhi-110007, 1986.
Ramakrishna Matha, Healthy Mind and Healthy Body, Mylapore, Chennai-4.
Sharma Chandradhar, A Critical Survey of Indian Philosophy, 9th Edition, Motilal Banarasidass,
Delhi, 1994.
Swami Bhaskarananda, Meditation, Mind and Patajalis Yoga, The Vedanta Society of
Western,Washington, 2001.

Department of Sanskrit,
Utkal University, Vanivihar,
Bhubanesvar, Odisha, India

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A BRIEF SKETCH OF THE HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF


THE SKHYA PHILOSOPHY
Tiwi Etika
I. INTRODUCTION
Skhya is one of the oldest systems of the Indian philosophy. Having its roots in the
Veda-s, it has influenced almost all other Indian orthodox and heterodox schools. Thus, the
basic tenets of the Skhya system can be traced in some form or other especially in the Yoga,
Nyya, Vaieika, and Vednta systems; as well as in Jainism and Buddhism. A great sage
named Kapila is considered to have founded the Skhya system of thought. It is generally held
by some people that Kapila formulated the Skhya system in a work entitled Skhyastra.
But after a thorough research it is discovered that this book is of a late date. (Prasad Jwala,
1986: 75)
In fact, two different readings of a presently extinct book is available nowof which
the first reading, named Skhyastra was presented by Aniruddha, while the second reading
named Skhyapravacanastra was presented by Vijnabhiku. The name and form of the
concerned original book is yet to be discovered. It is a mystery whether Kapila had at all
written any text or not. From the text Skhyakrik, composed by varaka, we come to
know that Kapila is the first and best learned person (dividvna, agrya muni), who, out of
compassion to the suffering human beings, imparted the most sacred and perfect knowledge
called Skhya to his disciple suri, and thereafter, suri passed this knowledge down to
Pacaikha, who is considered to have written a book named ahitantra, which also is not
available now. From Pacaikha this most sacred and perfect knowledge, called Skhya, was
extended in many forms to many learned persons. Following this tradition varaka was able
to write a small but comprehensive text initially named Skhyasaptati, which is now famous
as Skhyakrik. At present Skhyakrik is claimed to contain all the essential principles,
topics and elements, except stories and criticisms of opponent views discussed in details in the
first authentic, but presently extinct, text named ahitntra. Hence Skhyakrik is treated
as the presently available ancient-most authentic text.
etat pavitram agryam munir surayenukampay pradadau |
surir api pacaikhya tena ca bahudh kta tantram ||
(Krik-70)
Unfortunately, all three teachers, mentioned above, are lost to antiquity. Pacaikha
however, is referred to as the author of a massive treatise named ahitantra. The view attributed
to Pacaikha in the Mokadharma suggests two alternative facts: one, that there was more
than one Pacaikha, and two, that the name Pacaikha was a revered name in the tradition
to which a variety of views were ascribed. Moreover, the claim that Pacaikha is the author
of the ahitantra is contradicted by the counter-reference that the authorship of ahitantra
goes to Vryaya. It seems to be reasonable to support, however, that Pacaikha was a

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revered teacher of Skhya and that Skhya has not been a fixed philosophical system, but
as a general methodology for attainment of salvation by reasoning and knowledge. It is also the
reasonable to support that Skhya represents an ancient chain of teachers (guruparampar)
beginning from the first learned (dividvna) and great sage (agrya muni) Kapila.
In course of time, a great number of commentaries, interpretations and expositions of
the said Skhya texts appeared. Of these, the most important commentaries on Skhyakrik
are namely:
Tattvakaumud (of Vcapapati Mira),
Gauapdabhya,
Mharavtti,
Yuktidpik (of unknown parentage), and
Jayamagal (of Sakara).
Besides these, the commentaries written on the two different readings of the extinct
unknown text, which deserve special mention, are namely
Skhyastravtti written by Anirudha on the reading of the said extinct unknown text
named Skhyastra and
Skhyapravacanabhya written by Vijnabhiku on the reading of the said extinct
unknown text named Skhyapravacanastra.
The Skhyakrik and its commentaries provide the systematic classical presentation of
the Skhya of system. Hence, most of the modern Skhya scholars call this kind of presentation
Classical Smkhya. Whereas, for them, Skhyastra and its commentary Skhyastravtti
as well as Skhyapravacanastra and its commentaries i.e. Skhyapravacanabhya
constitute the letter Skhya presentation. Besides these, many concepts, technical words and
phrases related to Skhya thought are found scattered in many ancient texts and commentaries
like Veda-s and Upaniad-s, Crvka and Sustruta Sahit-s, Mahbhrata and other Puras etc. These are called Proto-Skhya or Early Skhya.
II. DISCUSSION
2.1 Meaning of the Term Skhya
The term Skhya appears, for first time, in the vetvatara Upaniad with the usually
associated word Yoga, indicating a metaphysical inquiry that leads the aspirant to the knowledge
of the root cause of things and beings of the world (tat kraam skhyayogdhigamyam
jtv devam mucayate sarvapai vetvetara Upaniad, VI.13).The meaning and
purpose in which the word Skhya has been used in some Upaniad-s are somehow like
the following in the Chndogya, Kaha, vetvatara Upaniad-s, the word Skhya simply
means the way of salvation by attaining perfect knowledge, not any system of metaphysical
truth. Skhya as a methodology for attaining salvation by attaining perfect knowledge
through various psychological analysis of experience that appears in such Upaniad-s and has
tater on become dominant spirit in the Jaina and Buddhist system of meditation. Controversies

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based on difference in perspectives and opinions regarding the different issues of the Skhya
system including the major issue of the enumeration of elements as stated above appears to
be expanding from era to era. There is also a sharp difference of opinions and interpretations,
regarding to the meaning of the word Skhya among thinkers or scholars:
The knowledge of the separation of the purua from the prakti is understood in Skhya
as the true or right knowledge (Hiriyana, 2005: 106). Sakara thus uses the word Skhya
in the senses of right knowledge. In his commentary on the Viusahasranma he interprets
the word Skhya in the sense of knowledge of the true nature of the pure spirit (Hiriyana,
2003: 3).
The medieval philosopher as Radhakrishnan in his book Indian Philosophy (second edition)
says that the word Skhya has been derived from sakhy, which means number,
and hence the name Skhya is justified as being appropriate to a system that gives an
analytical enumeration of the principle of the cosmos. It is however a common tendency in
all Hindu systems of thought, for him, to enumerate the elements. In some early texts the
word Skhya has been used in the sense of philosophical reflection and not simply in the
sense of numerical reckoning. In fact, having expounded by careful reflection on the nature
of purua and the other entities this system has acquired its significant title (Radhakrishna,
2008: 227).
Chandradhar Sharma, thus, tries to explain the word skhya as having double meaning, e.g.
right knowledge as well as number. Having referred to the Skhya concept depicted in
the rmadbhagavadgt, Chandradhar Sharma mentions that although the word Skhya
has been used in many senses in different contexts it basically means samyak khyti or jna,
and therefore, it cannot be interpreted in any manner except pursuit of true knowledge
(Chandradhar Sharma, 1964: 150.
According to Hiriyanna, the word Skhya, which is derived from the Sanskrit word
Sakhy meaning reflection, stands for the method of realizing the ultimate elements
through knowledge (Hiriyana, 2005: 106).
Anima Sen Gupta observes that in certain contexts the word Skhya has been used in the
sense of the path of philosophic wisdom leading to the realization of the essential nature of
the soul or tman, and hence she thinks, the wise men follow of this path of knowledge for
attaining liberation from the miseries of the world (Anima Sen Gupta, 1986: 75).
From all these explanations ultimately the word Skhya appears to convey a systematic,
precise, exhaustive and comprehensive metaphysical inquiry into the nature of the
consciousness and the rest of the universe. This meaning, for T.G. Mainkar raises certain
expectations that are amply fulfilled by the system (Mainkar, 1972: 4).
Franklin Edgerton maintains, in his book The Beginnings of Indian Philosophy, that the
derivative of Skhya must be understood as the method based on reason. For him it is the
rationalizing, reflective, speculative and philosophical method (Gerald J. Larson, 1979: 2).
According to Garbe, the term Skhya stands for that system, which emphasizes the
enumeration of the fundamental elements and evolutes or emergent (Gerald J. Larson, 1979:
3).

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Jacobi has offered two interpretations of the word Skhya. For him, Skhya
on the one hand refers to those who define a concept by setting forth or enumerating its
content and
on the other hand, to those who investigate or analyze the various categories of existence
(Gerald J. Larson, 1979: 3).
Eliade suggests that the term Skhya, refers to those who seek the ultimate discrimination
or discernment of the difference between prakti and purua. He also understands the
word in terms of the ultimate goal of salvation set forth in the system (Gerald J. Larson,
1979: 3).
Giving importance to the usage of the term Skhya in the older texts Edgerton suggests
that Skhya refers to the notion of reasoning. In the older texts, he says, the term Skhya
is not a technical designation for a specific system of thought; rather it refers to those who
seek salvation by knowledge. Although occasionally one finds the term used with reference
to various mathematical meanings, it is not the central significance of the word for Edgerton.
Skhya, he thinks, must be understood as a natural term to describe the method based on
reason, more technically speakingthe rationalizing, reflective, speculative, philosophical
method. It is the method of gaining salvation through knowledge (Gerald J. Larson, 1979:
3).
Gerald J. Larson rightly observes that Skhya was probably used and understood in a
variety of ways by different writers and traditions, thus making it impossible to limit the term
to any one technical meaning. Besides stating the reason behind the differences of opinion in
understanding the meaning of the word Skhya Larson speaks of three dimensions of the
meaning of the word Skhya in his book Classical Skhya. The term Skhya, for him,
is derived from the root, khy, together with the prefix, sam, meaning reckoning, summing
up, enumeration, calculation etc. He agrees with Ram Shankar Bhattacharya on the point
that the term Skhya is used both as an adjective and as a noun.
As an adjective the term Skhya refers to any enumerated set or grouping that can
presumably be used in any inquiry, in which enumeration or calculation is a prominent
feature. For example, mathematics, grammar, prosody, psychology, medicine and so
forth.
As a masculine noun, the term refers to someone (person), who calculates, enumerates or
discriminates properly.
As a neuter noun, the term refers to the specific system of dualistic philosophy that
proceeds by enumerating the contents of experience and the world for attaining complete
and permanent liberation (moka, kaivalya) from sorrow, frustration and rebirth (Gerald
J. Larson & Bhattacharya, 2006: 3).
2.2 Phases in the Development of Skhya
Besides these three dimensions of meaning of the word Skhya, right from the ancient
period, there is a historical development of the meaning of the word Skhya depending on the
three identifiable phases of the development of Skhya. This historical development of the
meaning of the word Skhya roughly corresponds to these three basic meaning-dimensions.

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The historical development of Skhya can briefly be characterized as follows:


The first phase in the development of Skhya:
It begins from the oldest learned traditions of ancient India right from the Vedic period
(about 1500 BC), in which phase Skhya used to mean enumerations of the contents of a
particular subject matter by means of systematic reasoning, as for example, the principles
medicine stated in the Carakasahit and Suutasahit, the principles of statecraft narrated
in Kauilyas Arthatra, and so forth. The Arthatra of Kauilya refers to Skhya as one
of the three traditions of nvkikithe enumeration of the contents of a particular subject
matter by means of systematic reasoning.
The Second phase in the development of Skhya:
This phase begins from the period of oldest pre-Buddhistic Upaniad-s (about eighth
or seventh centuries B.C.). It can be traced through the traditions of the early ascetic
spirituality in South Asia, like the various monastics (ramaa and yati groups), the early
Jaina and Buddhist movements; and then reaching a culmination in the sorts of speculative
thinking one finds in the Mokadharma and Bhagavadgt portions of the Mahbhrata
the cosmological descriptions of a specific type. In this second period, the notion has been
linked to a methodology of reasoning resulting in spiritual knowledge (vidy, jna, viveka)
associated with meditation that leads to liberation from the cycle of sorrow, frustration and
rebirth. It is primarily in this second period that Skhya becomes a prominent notion in
those environments, in which meditation, spiritual exercise, and religious understanding of
cosmology develop as the crucial subject matters.
In this ancient period there is only a Proto-Skhya, when philosophical Skhya is
gradually distilling itself out of the diffuse and varied intellectual heritage. Taken overall,
then, it is heuristically permissible, according to some thinkers, to refer to this second period
of development of Skhya as Kapila-Pacaikha-Skhya, which, owing to its association
with tantra from the oldest period, is referred to as Kapila-Pacaikha-Tantra, or simply as
Kapila-Tantra.
The third phase in the development of Skhya :
It marks the beginning of the technical philosophical tradition and coincides with
the end of the second period, namely, from about the last century B.C. through the first few
centuries A.D. until recently varakas Skhyakrik and its commentaries come into
being.
Edgerton in 1924 claimed that Skhya as a technical philosophical system was not
really in existence prior to varakas Skhyakrik. But the gradual availability of three
sources clearly indicate that Skhya as a technical system existed prior to varaka, and
that varakas own formulation comes at the end of normative period of formulation rather
than at the beginning. These three sources are:
The publication of a commentary of unknown parentage on the Skhyakrik named
Yuktidpik (at first edited by P. B.Chakravarti in 1938, and later on edited by R.C. Pandey
in 1967).

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The reconstruction of a pre-Krik interpretation of Skhya epistemology based on the


quotations from older Skhya text cited in opponent texts, like that of Dinga and others.
And
The reconstruction of an established Skhya philosophical system from the earliest Puras and the Mokadharma, by P. Hacker.
From the Yuktidpik it becomes clear, that, there was a tradition of Skhya as a philosophical
system in the early centuries of the Common Era, which attempted:
to define classify and establish certain instruments of knowledge (prama-s),
to construct a sequence for making inferences made up of ten members (davayav
nyya),
to fix the number and order of the basic elements,
to develop the notions of prakti, the three gua-s, the transformation of the gua-s
(guaparima), and the pre-existence of effect in the cause (satkrya),
to accept, after much controversy, one primordial prakti but a plurality of puruas,
to continue a rich fabric of internal debate involving such teachers as Paurika, Pacdhikaraa,
Patajali, Vryaya and varaka,
to maintain a vigorous polemic of external debate with certain Buddhist philosophers and
with the followers of early Vaieika,
to identify itself with a tradition initiated through ahitantra (a single text or multiple
versions of a text bearing the same name), which apparently referred to a scheme of sixty
topics made up of ten principal topics (maulikrtha), and finally,
to receive its final normative and systematic formulation in varakas Skhyakrik,
which, though a brief text, nevertheless encompassed all of the important issues of the system
in a concise and cogent fashion.
Frauwallner speculates that an older Skhya epistemology was developed from a
revised version of ahitantra at the beginning of the fourth century of the Common Era. From
his reconstruction it becomes clear that a pre-krik philosophical Skhya was dealing with
a definition of perception like rotrdi-vtti and a definition of inference like sambandhd
ekasmt pratyakt easiddhir anumnam.
Finally, from Hackers reconstruction it becomes clear that, there was an older Skhya
ontology-cosmology, which formed the bases for varakas normative conceptualization in
the Skhyakrik.
Apparently, this philosophical tradition of Skhya appears to coincide with the
development of comparable conceptualizations within traditions of early Buddhist thought and
early Vaieika. It is tempting to suggest that this Skhya philosophical tradition is the oldest
one among the technical schools of Indian philosophy (Hindu, Buddha and Jaina) and all the
systems of Indian philosophy have arisen out of an earlier Skhya philosophical environment.
This claim may not, however, be accepted by all to be a legitimate one.
Although Yuktidipik refers to a number of older Skhya philosophical teachers, it is
difficult to ascertain even rough approximation of their dates.
Paurika, a probable older teacher, has evidently accepted a plurality of prakti-s along

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with a plurality of purua-s. His views have been finally rejected during the final stages of
development.
Pacdhikaraa, another probable an older teacher, has accepted only ten organs instead
of the normative thirteen. Moreover, he appears to have had a presently rejected somewhat
eccentric view concerning the subtle body.
Patajali (a different figure than the compiler of the Yogastra and/or the grammarian) is
another older teacher, whose unique views, such as the existence of a new subtle body for
each rebirth and the non-existence of egoistic as a separate basic principle apart from the
intellect have been discounted in the final formulation of the Skhya system.
Up to this point, there has been no available Skhya textual tradition. The historical
account stated above has been based on reconstructions and occasional references in the
ancient literature. Still we have been able to identify at least heuristically three phases in the
development of Skhya that roughly correspond to the three basic meanings of the term,
namely: (1) Skhya as any enumerated set or grouping (tantra), (2) Skhya as a method
properly employed by a discriminating person (Kapila-tantra), and (3) Skhya as an early
tradition of dualist philosophizing (sahitantra). This attains a normative formulation in the
work of varaka, from where there is an identifiable textual tradition, and as a result the
task of writing the history of Skhya easier basing the same on somewhat firmer ground
(Gerald J. Larson & Bhattacharya, 2006: 9-11).
2.3 Stages of the Development of Skhya System
In contemporary Indian culture, Skhya system is no longer a famous alive praxis. But
as a very old system of Indian philosophy, it represents an important tradition of Indian thought.
Contents and traces of this thought can be found in a vast range of ancient Indian literature,
which includes the Suti-s, Smti-s, Upaniad-s, and Pura-s. The origin and the course of
development of Skhya thought have been classified by different thinkers in different ways.
G. J. Larsons view in his book Classical Skhya Larson remarks that the texts relating
to the development of Skhya system of thought may be arranged conveniently into four
basic periods of the under-designated kinds:



Ancient Skhya speculations


Proto-Skhya speculations
Classical Skhya speculation
Renaissance or later Skhya speculation

2.3.1 Ancient Skhya speculations


This period begins from the eighth or ninth century B.C. It includes the speculative
Vedic hymns and the prose Upaniad. Skhya is not found in this period in the form of a very
systematic philosophy. Skhya thought in this ancient period is purely in a state of infancy.
2.3.2 Proto-Skhya speculations
This period extends from the fourth century B.C. through the first century A.D. It includes
such texts as the middle Upaniads, the Carakasahit, the Buddhacarita, the Bhagavadgt,

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and the speculative passages from the mokadharma portion of the Mahbhrata. This period
marks a time of amazing intellectual growth. During this period the religious quest has been
given a rational and systematic foundation.
2.3.3 Classical Skhya speculation
This includes, for Larson, the Skhyakrik, the Yogastra and related commentaries.
This ranges from about the first century A.D. to the eleventh century A.D. A great variety of
doctrines within the developing can be found in this period. varakas text Skhyakrik
was composed in that period and it continues to remain as the authoritative interpretation of the
system for many centuries.
2.3.4 Renaissance or later Skhya speculation
This ranges from about the sixteenth century A.D to the seventeenth century. It includes the
readings of an extinct text provided by Aniruddha and Vijnabhiku named skhyastra and
skhyapramavacanastra respectively and their corresponding commentaries Mahdevas
commentary together with the tattvasamsastra is also included in this period. According to
Larson, it is a comparatively modern presentation of the system. These late texts are markedly
influenced by the Vednta. For example, Vijnabhiku devotes much energy to showing that
Skhya can be reconciled in the orthodox point of view (Gerald J. Larson, 1979: 75-153).
III. CONCLUSION
My observation for convenience, the developments of the Skhya thought should be
distinguished in three different stages, namely:
Early Skhya or the Pre-Krik Skhya,
Classical Skhya and
Latter Skhya.
1 Early Skhya or the Pre-Krik Skhya
Skhya thought available in a scattered form in the ancient literature of India, like
the Veda-s, the Upaniad-s, the Pura-s, the Caraka Sahit, the Mahbhrata, the Gt,
the Buddacarita, the Yogastra of Patajali and the Yogabhya of Vysa may be called
Early Skhya.
2 Classical Skhya
The philosophical system based on the Skhyakrik of varaka and its
commentaries may be called Classical Skhya.
3 Latter Skhya
The late texts like skhyapravacanastra or skhyastra and the concerned
commentaries, as stated by Larson, constitute the stage of Latter Skhya. These late texts
must be used with proper care to ensure that Skhya concepts are not mixed with the
Vedntic ones and Skhyakrik is not interpreted from Vedntic point of view.

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The Skhya thought has been shaped and reshaped through these three different
stages of development. The systematic form of Skhya has emerges for the first time in
varakas Skhyakrikthe only presently available most authentic text that gives a
precise, but comprehensive picture of this philosophical system. A number of commentaries
have been written on this book to provide proper interpretation of this text, such as:
the Tattvakaumud of Vcaspati Mira,
the Bhya of Gauapda,
the Vtti of Mahara,
the Yuktidpik of unknown parentage,
Jayamagal of akara etc.
Besides these, another extinct text of late date, which is wrongly considered as the
work of Kapila, is now available in two different readings, e.g. the reading of Vijnabhiku
entitled Skhyapravacanastra, and that of Aniruddha entitled Skhyastra. Vijnabhiku
has written a bhya on the Skhyapravacanastra and Aniruddha has written vtti on
the Skhyastra entitled Skhyapravacanabhya and Skhyastravtti respectively
(Satischandra C & Direndramohan D, 2008: 253-254).
The Skhyakrik and its commentaries refer to Kapila as the founder of the
philosophical system, who out of compassion passed the great knowledgeSkhya to suri.
suri again passed this great knowledge to Pacaikha, from whom they said great knowledge
has expanded to the learned persons.
etat pavitram agryam munir surayenukampay pradadau |
surir api pacaikhya tena ca bahudh kta tantram ||
Krik LXX
Unfortunately, all three teachers, mentioned above, are lost to antiquity. Pacaikha
however, is referred to as the author of a massive treatise named ahitantra. The views attributed
to Pacaikha in the Mokadharma suggests two alternative facts: one, that there was more
than one Pacaikha, and two, that the name Pacaikha was a revered name in the tradition
to which a variety of views were ascribed. Moreover, the claim that Pacaikha is the author
of the ahitantra is contradicted by the counter-reference that the authorship of ahitantra
goes to Vragaya. It seems to be reasonable to support, however, that Pacaikha was a
revered teacher of Skhya and that Skhya has not been a fixed philosophical system, but
as a general methodology for attainment of salvation by reasoning and knowledge. It is also the
reasonable to support that Skhya represents an ancient chain of teachers (guruparampar)
beginning from the first learned (dividvna) and great sage (agrya muni) Kapila (Prasad
Jwala, 1986: 75).

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BIBLIOGRAPHY
Anima Sen Gupta. 1986. The Evolution of the Skhya School of Thought. Munshiram
Manoharlal, New Delhi 2nd. Rev. Ed. New Delhi
Chandradhar Sharma. 1964. A Critical Survey of Indian Philosophy. Motilal Banarsidass Delhi.
Varanasi Patna
Gerald J. Larson. 1979. Classical Skhya. Ross/Erikson, Santa Barbara, @ Motilal
Barnasidass. New Delhi
Gerald J. Larson & Bhattacharya. 2006. Encyclopaedia of Indian Philosophy Vol. IV. Montilal
Barnasidass Publisher Private Limited. Delhi
Hiriyana. 2005. The Essential of Indian Philosophy. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private
Limited. Delhi
Mainkar T.G. 1977. Skhyakrik of varaka with Gauapdabhya. Oriental Book
Agency Poona
Prasad Jwala. 1986. Indian Epistemology. Munshiram Manoharlal, New Delhi 2nd. Rev. Ed.
New Delhi
Radhakrisnan S. 1998. Indian Philosophy Vol. II. 4th Impression. Oxford Indian Paperbacks.
Satischandra C & Dhirendramohan Datta. 2008. An Introdution to Indian Philosophy. University
of Calcutta. Kolkata

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