Reinforced beam

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Reinforced beam

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Note: Over-reinforced typically means the tensile steel does not yield at failure.

for this example, over-reinforced means the section is not tension

controlled per ACI standards even though the steel does yield

Given:

fc = 6,000 psi

fy = 60 ksi

Required:

Assumptions:

1.

2.

section 10.2.3)

3.

4.

Next, well calculate d, the depth from the extreme compression fiber to the center of reinforcement in the tensile zone.

d = h Clear Spacing dstirrup dreinforcement - Clear Spacing Between Bars/2

d = 24 1.5 0.5 - 1 - 1/2

d = 20.5

Next, we want to use equilibrium to solve for a, the depth of the Whitney stress block

C=T

C = 0.85 x fc x b x a

T = fs x As

fs = stress in the steel (we make the assumption that the steel yields, and will later

confirm if it does).

Solve for a:

Now that we know the depth of the stress block, we can calculate c, the depth to the

neutral axis.

a = 6.196

1 is a factor that relates the depth of the Whitney stress block to the depth of the

neutral axis based on the concrete strength. It is defined in 10.2.7.3

1 = 0.65 0.85 - ((fc 4000psi)/1000)) x 0.05 0.85

1 = 0.85 ((6000psi 4000psi)/1000) x 0.05 = 0.75

c = a / 1 = 6.196/0.75

c = 8.261

With c, we can calculate the strain in the extreme tensile steel using similar triangles.

With this strain calculated, we can check our assumption that the steel yields, and

determine if the section is tension controlled.

First, lets calculate dt, the depth from the extreme compression fiber to the extreme

tensile steel

dt = 24 - 1.5 - 0.5 - 1/2 = 21.5

c/c = dt/(c + t)

t = (dt x c)/c c = (21.5 x 0.003)/8.261 0.003

t = 0.0048

Determine if the section is tension controlled:

Per ACI section 10.3.4 a beam is considered tension controlled if the strain in the extreme tension steel is greater than 0.005.

The calculated steel strain in our section is 0.0048 which is less than 0.005 therefore this beam section is not tension controlled.

Per ACI section 10.3.5 t at nominal strength for flexural members shall not be less than 0.004 (0.0048 is acceptable)

The strain for our section is between the limit for compression controlled (.002 per ACI section 10.3.3) and the limit for tensioned controlled

sections, 0.005. Therefore, we must interpolate to determine our factor in accordance with ACI 9.3.2.2

(0.9 - 0.65)/(0.005 - 0.002) = ( - 0.65)/(0.0048 - 0.002)

= 0.88

Determine the strain at which the steel yields and check our assumption that the steel in fact yielded:

E = fy/y

E = Youngs modulus which is generally accepted to be 29,000 ksi for steel

fy = steel yield stress

y = yield strain

y = 60ksi / 29,000 ksi = 0.00207

When we checked if the section was tensioned controlled, we check the strain at the extreme layer of steel. We must calculate the strain at the

centroid of the tensile steel to determine if it yields:

t = 0.0044

0.0044 is greater than 0.00207 therefore our assumptions are correct and the steel yields prior to failure

Next, lets determine if the beam section satisfies the minimum steel requirements of ACI:

As, min = ((3 x square root(fc))/fy) x bw x d (200/fy) x bw x d

As a side note, the 200/fy minimum controls when fc is less than 4,500 psi

As, min = ((3 x squareroot(6,000 psi))/60,000psi) x 12 x 20.5

As,min = 0.95 in2

As = 8 x 0.79 in2 = 6.32 in2 > 0.95 in2 therefore we satisfy the minimum steel requirements of ACI

Using moment equilibrium, we can calculate the moment capacity by taking the moment about the center of the tensile force, or the center of the

compressive force.

Mn = x T x (d a/2)

= 0.88 as we previously calculated

T = Asfy

Mn = 0.88 x 6.32 in2 x 60 ksi (20.5in - 6.196in / 2)

Mn = 5,807 kip*in = 483.9 kip*ft

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