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ANSWERS:

CH4001 Chemical, Biological & Plant Safety, Dec 2013


Q1.
(a)
PIAH3: High pressure indicator & alarm system 3
LCL1: Low level controller 1
(b) BPCSs
BPCS 1: High pressure control system: PCH1 PCV; PCH1 PIAH1
BPCS 2: Low oil level control system: LCL1 LCV1; LCL1 LIAL1
BPCS 3: Low water level control system: LCL2 LCV2; LCL2 LIAL2
BPCS4: Crude oil feed: RS MV
(C) Protection systems
Protection system 1: PCH2 ESD1; PCH2 PIAH2
Protection system 2: PCH3 ESD2; PCH3 PIAH3
(d) HAZOP
Deviation

Cause

Consequence
1

Safeguard

Recommendation

Deviation
Cause
Consequence
Safeguard
Recommendation

High Pressure
1. PCH1 --> PCV fails to open
2. PCH1 --> PIAH1 fails INDICATOR LOW
3. PCH1 --> PIAH1 fails NO ALARM
4. LCL1 --> LCV1 fails CLOSED
5. LCL2 --> LCV2 fails CLOSED
1. S1 High Pressure
2. S1 filled with liquids/Liquids overflow
3. S1 High Pressure RUPTURE
1. PCH2 --> ESD1
2. PCH2 --> PIAH2 HP INDICATOR; Operator CLOSES MV
3. PCH2 --> PIAH2 HP ALARM; Operator CLOSES MV
4. PCH3 --> ESD2
5. PCH3 --> PIAH3 HP INDICATOR; Operator CLOSES MV
6. PCH3 --> PIAH3 HP ALARM; Operator CLOSES MV
Gas out BYPASS
Oil Out BYPASS
Water out BYPASS
Safety relief valve
Low Pressure
1. RS--> MV fails CLOSED
1. No production
NIL
Low pressure indicator/alarm

(e) Fault Tree

Q2.
(a) Cut sets: T = [(A+C)(B+C)+D+E]FG=(AB+AC+BC+C+D+E)FG = ABFG + ACFG + BCFG + CFG + DFG +
EFG
Minimal cut sets: T = ABFG + CFG + DFG + EFG

(b) Path sets: T = {[(A+C)(B+C)+D+E]FG} = [(AC + BC)DE]+ F+ G = ACDE + BCDE + F+ G


Minimal path sets: T = ACDE + BCDE + F+ G
(c)
(i) Demand rate = (A+C)(B+C)+D+E = AB + C + D + E = 252.5 PMH
FDT = = FG = [(1/2)(5/1000000)(4000)][(1/2)(1/1000000)(8000) = 0.00004
(ii) Hazard rate = AB + c +D + E = 0.0101 PMH
(iii) Safe shutdown Rate = (Demand)[(1-F) + (demand)(F)(1-G) = 252.5 PMH

Q3
(a) (10 marks)
(i)

Reliability and availability both describe the probabilities of a component or system


works.

(ii) Reliability is an inherent property and depends solely on the design and manufacturing
quality of the component or system.
(iii) Reliability is improved by improving the product design and manufacturing quality.
(iv) Reliability is use-time dependent (function of use-time).
(v) Reliability is affected by the environmental conditions in which the product is used.
(vi) Availability is the fractional operational time of a product and it is not a function of time.
(vii) Availability depends on the reliability of the product and its maintenance
regime/strategy.
(viii) Availability can be improved through employing higher reliability product and better
maintenance strategy.

(b) (10 marks)

(b)

Combustion Reaction
CH4 + 2O2 --> CO2 + 2H2O
C2H6 + 3.5O2 --> 2CO2 + 3H2O
C7H16 + 11O2 --> 7CO2 + 8H2O
Mixture
Chemical
Methane
Ethane
Heptane
F. Mixture

Answer: LOC = zLEL

Vol
30%
20%
10%
60%

Z
2
3.5
11
4.0

LEL
5.0%
3.0%
1.0%
2.6%

10.6%

Q4.
Trichloroethylene
TLV TWA,
ppm

TLV STEL,
ppm

sat

P ,
cmHg

P ,
kPa

Rg, kPam /
kg-mol K

Water
Mo

Ko,
cm/s

10

25

131.40

68.52

91.3

8.3143

18

0.83

cm/s

sat

K = Ko(Mo/M)1/3

0.43

eqn 3-9

Cppm = (106)QmRgT/(kQvPM)

eqn 3-12

Qm = MKAPsat/(RgTL)

0.0104

eqn 3-14
LogP
A
B
C
T oK
Log T
LogP
P, cmHg
P, mmHg

193

Cppm = (10 )KAP /(kQvP)


A +B/T + CLogT
30.482609
-2936.227
-7.999975
298
2.474216264
0.835830005
6.85219959
68.5219959

m2

cm/s
Answer
(a):

Answer
(b):

sat

K = Ko(Mo/M)

0.5
1/3

0.43

kg/s

Qm

0.0104

m3/s

Qv

80

eqn 3-9

Cppm = (106)QmRgT/(kQvPM)

END

193