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An Endless Tajalli

A Historiography of Ibn Arabi

Ali Hussain

It is perhaps safe to assume that any contemporary specialist


in Islams intellectual and mystical traditions is familiar with
Muhyiddin Ibn Arabi (11651240).1 This igures thought has
proven to be a fecund intellectual soil for many Western specialists who authored biographies, expositions, commentaries and works in other genres all revolving around his life and
writings. Over the past decades, the research surrounding this
thinker has lourished as the overall understanding of medieval
Islamic mysticism of these specialists has deepened and published monographs in the genre have increased dramatically
in volume and range. Thus, whereas early works on Ibn Arabi
presented either a generic overview of his thought or translations of the shorter treatises and poems, published monographs
today on the Shaykh range from detailed expositional works
on speciic concepts in his thought to comparative studies that
engage Ibn Arabi in an intellectual dialogue with various philosophical trends in the modern world.
this study attempts to survey some of these major trends
and monographs published in the West on Ibn Arabi, particularly over the past three to four decades. These works include
authoritative references like chitticks Sui Path, chodkiewiczs
Seal or Addas Quest; detailed expositions like Haj Yousefs
Time; comparative studies like Almonds Suism and, lastly,
some novel literary appropriations of Ibn Arabis image, such
as Meddebs Tombeau. However, before delving into the task
at hand, it is worthwhile irst discussing a brief history of Ibn
1. Cf. Addas, Quest, 18, 287.

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IntroductIon

Ali Hussain

Arabi studies in the West prior to the period in focus in this


survey.
Considerable efforts to explore Ibn Arabis writings by Western specialists can be traced back to the beginning of the 20th
century. Nicholsons three major works Studies, The Mystics
and the translation of Tarjuman al-Ashwaq collectively explore
a wide array of themes and concepts prevalent in Ibn Arabis
prose and poetry.2 Hortens Mystische Texte and nybergs Kleinere
Schriften would continue nicholsons efforts, both offering German renditions of some of Ibn Arabis treatises and poetry.
Meanwhile, Aynis La Quintessence, in a similar fashion to
nicholsons The Mystics, presents an outline of Ibn Arabis key
philosophical and metaphysical concepts.
In the mid-20th century, other trends were developed among
Western specialists in their approach to Ibn Arabis thought
and works. Palacios three works in Spanish: Abenmasarra, La
Escatologia Musulmana and El Islam Cristianizado attempt to situate Ibn Arabis thought within the larger history of Europes
intellectual and philosophical traditions, Islamic and otherwise. In the genre of translations, Burckhardts French rendition of Fusus al-Hikam would inspire numerous later attempts
at translating this controversial and provocative work into
various Western languages. Also, Ralph Austins translation of
Ibn Arabis hagiographical works, Ruh al-Quds and Al-Durra
al-Fakhira, provided a unique insight into the latters perception of his milieu as he offers criticism of institutional Suism in
Eastern Islamdom and lamentation for its Western counterpart.
Worthy of mention in this regard also are works that explore
a speciic area of Ibn Arabis thought. Corbins LImagination
cratrice, published in 1958, remains an authoritative reference
2. Studies speciically discusses the theme of al-Insan al-Kamil and its
appropriation by later igures in the Akbari school, such as Abd al-Karim
al-Jili; cf, Studies, 77. On the other hand, The Mystics and Nicholsons
translation of Tarjuman al-Ashwaq both discuss Ibn Arabis poetry and the
theme of love predominant in this genre of writings. Moreover, Nicholson
debates in his translation of the Tarjuman the hostile position of another
Western specialist, Reinhart Dozy, in regards to Ibn Arabis authorship of
the Tarjuman; cf. Tarjuman al-Ashwaq, 9.

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among todays specialists on Ibn Arabis cosmological concept


known as the imaginal realm (alam al-khayal). Even though
Corbins writing displays a striking Shiite bias, his relective
exposition presents a novel, contextualized discussion of Ibn
Arabis ideas within the framework of Islamic Imamology.3 this
Shiite appropriation of Ibn Arabi is also prevalent in Corbins
other works, case in point being Histoire.
corbins works and the other endeavors mentioned above
roughly describe the topography of Western research on Ibn
Arabi in the irst half of the 20th century. Undoubtedly, these
works inluenced the current trends in Ibn Arabi studies among
Western specialists, which this survey aims to discuss. The
study will begin by examining a diverse sample of crucial monographs that have been published roughly during the past three
decades. Due to the limited space allowed, the emphasis will
be on monographs published in Western languages, primarily
English, with some brief mention of works in French, Spanish
and German. These works are organized in various categories:
expositions, translations, polemics, sources of inluence, biographies, comparative endeavors, bibliographies and study guides,
posteriority and, lastly, contemporary contextualizations. This
classiication should in turn aid in sketching an outline of what
have been the major intellectual trends and genres of works
explored so far by specialists in their endeavor to approach Ibn
Arabis life and thought.
A concluding section will then offer some thoughts, based
upon the main discussion, on some unexplored academic
directions where future research and studies on Ibn Arabi
might proceed. These proposed directions include some areas
of the Shaykhs thought that still require specialist attention:
for example, new translations of certain works of Ibn Arabis;
new endeavors to compare Ibn Arabis thought with other various intellectual or spiritual traditions; and lastly, new efforts
to increase the understanding and awareness of the various
3. This term is used often by Corbin in LImagination and other works,
such as Histoire de la Philosophie Islamique, to refer to the devotion in
Shiism to the twelve imams.

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sociopolitical, religious and cultural contexts within which Ibn


Arabis life and work developed.

Before delving into examining the sample of works in this section, I should offer some cautionary remarks regarding this
studys limitations. First, the monographs discussed are in
no way meant to be an exhaustive list of all the works published on Ibn Arabi. Considering the tremendous amount of
literary output available at the Muhyiddin Ibn Arabi Society
(MIAS) alone,4 not to mention also the practically innumerable
generic surveys on Islamic history, such as Hodgsons Venture5
or Schimmels Mystical Dimensions,6 that include some kind of
mention, albeit en passant, of Ibn Arabi, it would clearly be
an indomitable task to include all of these works in the ensuing discussion. Thus, the survey at hand is representative of
mostly English works, including some mention of monographs
in other key research languages, such as French, German and
Spanish.
Secondly, the choice of categories provided for this
bibliographical survey is certainly not the only possible classiication for the Shaykhs writings, which are rather dificult to
categorize. This is mostly due to the fact that Ibn Arabis metaphysical and intellectual framework is somewhat intertwined
and organic, which means that a discussion on one topic
is bound to involve many other themes and concepts that
is, exploring the theme of the perfect man (al-insan al-kamil)
inevitably requires mentioning the notion of manifestations
(tajalliyat) and other concepts in the cosmo-ontological framework of unity of being (wahdat al-wujud). Although this problem rarely presents itself in book-length monographs where the
author usually has enough space to fully explore a theme or a
4. At least 175 articles, aside from the book-length monographs.
5. Hodgson, Venture, vol. 2, 226, 228, 232, 238244, 246, 314, 331,
367, 334335, 462, 464, 465.
6. Schimmel, Mystical Dimensions, 263273, 279286.

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topic, it arises often in shorter papers where an amalgamation


of Akbari themes are almost always discussed.
Moreover, a reader familiar with Ibn Arabis thought will
note that while some of these categories and sub-categories
represent Ibn Arabis own motivations, such as prophetology
and sainthood, others relect contemporary interests, such as
feminism or universalism. Other categories still, such as epistemology or ontology, represent mostly a personal choice and do
not necessarily relect Ibn Arabis own motivations. Again, this
surveys choice of categorization relects mostly my own understanding of Ibn Arabis corpus, and is merely one of many
possible such classiications that inevitably vary according to
various personal motivations and commitments.
lastly, the scope of this survey is limited to works on Ibn
Arabi authored by Western academic specialists. However, one
could consider extending this type of research to also include
monographs on Ibn Arabi authored by religious scholars,
enthusiasts and academics from other regions in the world,
especially Islamdom.7 Incorporating these additional works
into a survey such as this might reveal some new contexts
within which Ibn Arabis thought and image is being reshaped
and appropriated.

ExPOSITIONS
Works that attempt to adumbrate and expound upon Ibn
Arabis thought and writings might very well be the most dificult set of monographs to classify. This is primarily due to the
fact that many of the authors in this genre tend to incorporate numerous Akbari themes in their writings, which in turn
makes these monographs dificult to categorize. Nevertheless, a
particular classiication was sought in order to sketch a coherent outline of those topics and concepts that have received the
7. In this regard, it is worthwhile referring to Kellers Sea. Keller is a
shaykh in the Shadhiliyya tariqa and in this work he presents both a traditionalist exposition on Ibn Arabis Weltanschauung and criticism of the
Western academic appropriation of the latter.

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most extensive coverage from specialists and those that are relatively understudied and still merit investigation.

the most pivotal works in this regard are chitticks monumental monographs: Sui Path (SPK) and Self-Disclosure (SDG).
Aside from the detailed commentaries, extensive translation
of numerous segments from the Futuhat and comprehensive
overview of Ibn Arabis thought, it is Chitticks sophisticated
methodology of rendering Ibn Arabis works into English that
is of utmost importance. The authors discussion on this issue,
found in the respective introductions of SPK8 and SDG,9 reveals
a crucial intellectual tension that inevitably faces any translator of Ibn Arabis works and those of other Muslim mystics.
this contentious dilemma is essentially the desire to present a
coherent outline of the Shaykhs thought to the reader while
simultaneously transmitting the perplexing and paradoxical
incoherence inherent in many of these writings. Therefore,
chitticks endeavors, more than just merely adumbrations of
Ibn Arabis thought, are most importantly a crucial insight into
the academic sensitivity needed to approach and translate such
monumental and sophisticated works as those of Ibn Arabi and
other Muslim mystics.

Sainthood
The theme of sainthood (walaya) inds extensive interest among
Western specialists, chodkiewiczs Seal being perhaps the most
pivotal monograph in this regard. The author of this work does
not just discuss Ibn Arabis views on sainthood or the controversial post of seal of saints (khatm al-walaya), but he also
expounds upon the intellectual genealogy of this concept going
back to al-Hakim al-tirmidhi, the 9th-century Muslim mystic

8. Chittick, Sui Path, ixxx.


9. Chittick, Self-Disclosure, xxxv.

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General, comprehensive overviews

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who purportedly introduced this concept.10 thus, in this sense,


Seal is not only an excellent resource for understanding Ibn
Arabis views on walaya, but also for situating his framework
within the larger tradition of Islamic mysticism.

The most profound insight into Ibn Arabis perception of Gods


sent messengers arguably occurs in his controversial and famed
work Fusus al-Hikam. Thus, in works like Nettlers Sui Metaphysics, one inds an extensive discussion on this very same topic
precisely as it is expounded upon in the Fusus. Similarly, Austins translation of this same work to be discussed below
includes an introduction at the beginning of every chapter that
provides a crucial insight into Ibn Arabis vision and methodology behind every prophetic igures esoteric realities and wisdoms, an approach which has been followed by other specialists,
namely Elmore in Quranic Wisdom. Aside from these works,
there have also been quite a few efforts that discuss Ibn Arabis
connection with and vision of speciic prophets. Thus, Glotons
Jsus, Shah-Kazemis Jesus and Hakims the Spirit all discuss
Ibn Arabis relationship with the igure of Christ. Meanwhile,
Hirtensteins lunar view and Brotherhood of Milk expound
upon Ibn Arabis association with two other prophetic igures,
Adam and Abraham, respectively.

Love and mercy


Ibn Arabi, as Corbin relates, is to be considered a prominent
igure in the cult of Fedeli dAmore.11 this hypothesis certainly
inds ample evidence in the Shaykhs writings. Thus, Austins
Meditations, Beneitos On the Divine love and Chitticks
The Divine Roots all revolve around Ibn Arabis conviction
that all forms and displays of love are in actuality manifestations of an essential longing for union with the divine. Of
10. Chodkiewicz, Seal, 2732.
11. Corbin, Alone/LImagination, 100101.

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Exoteric foundations
An emerging trend since the 1980s among specialists has been
the motivation to explore some of the exoteric (zahir) foundations of Ibn Arabis thought, in order to balance the somewhat
overemphasized esoteric (batin) aspect. The central work that
in a sense ushered in this trend is chodkiewiczs Ocean. This
intellectual excursion, much like the authors above-discussed
Seal, is a thorough and detailed work. Chodkiewicz explores
Ibn Arabis exotericism by highlighting the seemingly Quranic
organization of the latters magnum opus, Al-Futuhat al-Makkiyya
(The Meccan Revelations).12 Although chodkiewicz is unique
in his usage of such structural comparative methods in order to
explore Ibn Arabis exoteric foundations, other authors have
nonetheless contributed considerably to this genre. Particularly,
Winkels similar endeavor, Islam, is a discussion of Ibn Arabis
remarkably rich, yet surprisingly scarcely explored, discourse on
Islamic law (iqh).

Ethics
Specialist works revolving around Ibn Arabis views on ethics
usually take place under the heading of manners/etiquette
(adab). Knyshs Realms expounds upon and reveals Ibn Arabis
rather contentious perspective on this topic through the latters
12. Chodkiewicz, Ocean, 5977.

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course, this theme is very much related to the larger cosmoontological notion of breath of the merciful (nafas al-rahman)
the underlying fabric and very livelihood of the cosmos. It is
not surprising then to ind some of these same authors who discussed Ibn Arabis views on love also expound upon his cosmological and metaphysical conception of Mercy. Beneitos The
Presence, Chitticks The Anthropology and works by other
specialists, such as Haj Yousefs treasury, supplement and situate the discussion on love within the larger context of celestial
and ontological mercy.

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Eschatology
continuing with the above-mentioned theme of end of times,
there have been various works that speciically explore Ibn
Arabis eschatological views. For example, Morris The Mahdi
discusses the intellectual treatment of this highly messianic igure by Ibn Arabi as it occurs in Chapter 366 of the Futuhat.13
Similarly, chitticks Imaginal Worlds14 explores the themes of
the minor hour, death of a human being/microcosm (al-saa
al-sughra) and the major hour, death of the cosmos/macrocosm (al-saa al-kubra) through the Akbari prism of the isthmus
(alam al-barzakh) and the imaginal realm (alam al-khayal).

Feminism
A specialist familiar with Ibn Arabis writings most probably
is aware of the novel and somewhat provocative feminist elements in the Shaykhs anthropic and deistic views. Hakims
twofold perception and Shaikhs Sui Narratives are two of
these crucial works that explore the various appropriations of
this gender-sensitive topic by Ibn Arabi in his various monographs. Although both these authors discussions revolve
around the central cosmic role of women as a particular manifestation of God, Hakim attempts to speciically give a brief outline of the various roles a female subject plays in Ibn Arabis
thought, while Shaikh is motivated instead to situate a critical
13. Morris, The Mahdi, 1.
14. Chittick, Imaginal Worlds, 97113.

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cosmo-ontological foundations. Knysh explicates that although


certain human acts and traits might be considered evil in this
lower realm (al-hayat al-dunya) where divine command (taklif)
has jurisdiction, a more provocative reality presents itself in Ibn
Arabis eschatological views, whereby the essences of these very
same actions and traits are revealed as being utterly good, since
in actuality they were naught but the acts and attributes of the
divine, the only real actor in a wujudi framework like Ibn Arabis.

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analysis of this topic within the context of its appropriation by


other contemporary specialists, such as Nasr and Murata.15

James Morris works have been pivotal in exploring the central themes of moral discipline (tarbiya) and spiritual realization
(tahqiq) in Ibn Arabis Weltanschauung. In The Relective Heart,
communication and other expositions, Morris expounds
upon the quintessential motivation and intention underlying
Ibn Arabis works. Particularly, Morris reveals that the Shaykh
did not necessarily intend for his magnum opus to be read purely
as a philosophical treatise on cosmology or ontology. Rather,
Ibn Arabis underlying premise and supposition is that any
reader of his works would be very much engaged in the ongoing
process of tahqiq and tarbiya as relevant and pertaining to their
own context and set of predispositions.

Ontology
various works have also expounded upon Ibn Arabis views
regarding the beginning of existence on a microcosmic and
macrocosmic level. Hameen-Antillas Immutable Entities,
Mesbahis the unity and Abadis Aspects all revolve around
different aspects of Ibn Arabis ontology, from both a cosmological and anthropological perspective. like numerous other
themes, this topic is explored within the larger metaphysical
notion of unity of being (wahdat al-wujud), of which Ibn Arabis
thought is an example par excellence.

Epistemology
Ibn Arabis views on knowledge and knowing are intertwined with the notion of gnosis (marifa) and the two narrations (ahadith), of questionable authenticity, often quoted by
the Shaykh and other Muslim mystics: whomsoever knows
15. Shaikh, Sui Narratives, 203233.

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Spiritual pedagogy

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Universalism
Ibn Arabis hearts acceptance of every form has been extensively discussed by Western specialists, especially those belonging to the MIAS. The organizations original founder, Bulent
Rauf, consistently emphasized this aspect of Ibn Arabis
thought. The formers effort was continued in works like
youngs Universal Nature and Towards a Universal Point of
view, Twinchs Circle and Dadoos Religious Pluralism. It is
worth mentioning also that specialists discussing this speciic
topic usually tend to situate it in an overall contemporary context. Thus, for example, one inds in yiangous The Globalization an attempt to explore some of the major philosophical
movements and shifts in history, such as the Enlightenment,
Existentialism, Modernism and post-Modernism, through the
prism of Ibn Arabis understanding of universalism and unity.

TRANSlATIONS
this genre of works, as the title insinuates, includes the various
renditions of Ibn Arabis works from the original Arabic into
various Western languages mostly English, French, German
and Spanish.
Fusus al-Hikam there have been at least four renditions of
this controversial work throughout the past few decades. Two
notable English translations, the irst by Austin and the second

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himself, knows his lord (man arafa nafsahu arafa rabbahu)


and the purported saying of the divine: I was a hidden treasure
and loved to be known. Therefore, I created the cosmos so that
I may be known (kuntu kanzan makhiyyan, fa-ahbabtu an uraf,
fa-khalaqtu al-khalqa li-kay uraf). These two statements are the
basic framework underlying works like Houdards notes,
Kalins Knowing the Self and Abrahamovs theory, which
expound upon the human subjects search for knowledge and
the role of this anthropic voyage in the divines own love and
desire to witness Himself in the other.

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Al-Futuhat al-Makkiyya Although Ibn Arabis magnum


opus has not received a comprehensive translation which is
understandable considering its size and sophistication there
have been nonetheless various efforts to expose a larger base of
readers to this monumental work. Worthy of mention in this
regard is chodkiewiczs, chitticks, Morris and Grils masterful rendition, titled The Meccan Revelations, of selected excerpts
from the Futuhat. Also noteworthy are the individual efforts
by chittick, who translated two whole chapters, Shamash and
Hirtensteins collaborative effort to translate excerpts from the
Futuhats preface and the almost innumerable other renditions
that are dispersed throughout expositional works on Akbari
thought.16
Other works in prose there have been numerous notable
efforts to translate Ibn Arabis various prose writings other than
the Fusus or Futuhat. Worthy of mention are Elmores English
rendition of Anqa Mughrib (The Fabulous Gryphon); Morris
and al-Jerrahis translation of Ibn Arabis manual for spiritual
pedagogy Kunh ma la budda li-l-murid minh (What is indispensable for the Seeker); Austins previously-mentioned translation,
Suis, of Ibn Arabis crucial hagiographical works Ruh al-Quds
(The Holy Spirit) and Al-Durra al-Fakhira (The Glorious Pearl);
Hirtensteins translation of Hilyat al-Abdal (The Four Pillars of
Spiritual Transformation) and, jointly with Notcutt, translation
of Mishkat al-Anwar (Divine Sayings); Taji-Faroukis translation
of Al-Dawr al-Ala (A Prayer for Spiritual Elevation and Protection); Jaffrays translation of Al-Ittihad al-Kawni (Treatise on
Uniication); and numerous other similar endeavors.
16. Cf. the section on Expositions above.

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by Rauf the latter being in actuality a rendering of Hakkis


own Ottoman Turkish version were published in the 1980s.
In 2004, Dagli followed Austin and Raufs efforts with his own
English transcription titled The Ringstones. As regards translations in other Western languages, Gilis and Moulinets French
renditions are the latest important contributions.

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Poetry Perhaps the most noteworthy effort in this regard is


by Sells. This specialist has published numerous, critically analyzed, translated selections from Ibn Arabis poetry. Notable
among these are: Stations which includes some of the Shaykhs
own verses and those of other mystics like rumi; translation
of Qif bi-l-Manazil (At the Way Stations, Stay) and other selections from Tarjuman al-Ashwaq (Ardent Translator of Desires)
such as the famed and controversial Gentle now, doves of
the thornberry and Moringa thicket! Aside from Sells efforts,
McAuleys recently published Ibn Arabis Mystical Poetics is
probably the most substantial expositional work on Ibn Arabis
collection of poetry, namely his Diwan. Incidentally, selections from this same compendium of poetry have been translated and expounded upon by other specialists, such as Austin,
Hirtenstein and Deladrire.

POlEMICS
there have been a few key works published in the West that
explore the entrenched, longstanding tradition of polemics surrounding Ibn Arabis thought and writings, especially in Islamdom. Knyshs Ibn Arabi in the Later Islamic Tradition provides a
detailed look into the defensive and detractive tracts surrounding the Shaykh that have been authored since his passing.
What makes Knyshs endeavor particularly insightful is that the
author does not present an atomized or disconnected chronological recounting of these accounts; rather, a detailed investigation is given whereby the reader can tell not only how Ibn
Arabis persona and thought were re-imagined by these various
polemicists, but also how some of the cited accounts themselves
were whimsically appropriated to it their authors motivations
and commitments. In this regard, this effort remains one of the
most critical and comprehensive investigations into this historically charged aspect of Ibn Arabis works.
Also worthy of mention is Homerins Ibn Arabi in the
Peoples Assembly. Whereas Knysh gives a broad, chronological outline of the polemical debate surrounding Ibn Arabi,
Homerin explores closely one such event that took place

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in 1970s Egypt and which revolved around the vote by the


Peoples Assembly of Egypt (Majlis al-Shab al-Misri) to ban the
publishing of Ibn Arabis entire works. Homerins exposition
masterfully discusses how a controversy that initially began
with the motivation to publish Yahyas critical edition of the
Futuhat eventually developed into a full-scale national controversy revolving around freedom of the press and intellectual
rights. Most importantly of course, Ibn Arabi in the Peoples
Assembly provides yet another crucial insight into the polemicized and constantly re-appropriated image of Ibn Arabi in
contemporary Islamdom.
lastly, Morris An Arab Machiavelli is an investigation into
the subtle polemical strategies and methods by one of the
most famed Muslim historians and sociologists, Ibn Khaldun.
Whereas most readers of the latters Al-Muqaddima (The Prolegomena) would not perceive a visceral attack by the author
against Suism, Morris reveals through close inspection various aspects of this occidental Muslim polymaths writings that
belie not simply his criticism of Islams mystical tradition, but
speciically his wish to reformulate Suism according to his own
understanding of orthodoxy and moderation. Moreover, this
enterprise of religious fervor occurs, as Morris shows, within the
context of Ibn Khalduns political vision and hope for a utopian
Muslim society.17

SOURCES OF INFlUENCE
this genre represents perhaps the most crucial yet least explored
area of research in Ibn Arabi studies. The works in this category
investigate the possible sources of inluence on the greatest
master that helped shape his intellectual Weltanschauung.
In a similar fashion to chodkiewiczs endeavor in Seal,18
Radtkes A Forerunner explores the possible inluence this 9thcentury Muslim mystic had on Ibn Arabi, speciically in regards
to the notion of seal of sainthood (khatm al-walaya). The fact
17. Morris, An Arab Machiavelli, 47.
18. Cf. Expositions section above.

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that Ibn Arabi designated a lengthy section in the Futuhat


to answering a list of approximately 150 questions posed by
tirmidhi, who stipulated that only the seal of sainthood would
be able to correctly respond to these inquiries, further elevates
the importance of an intellectual connection between these
two pivotal Muslim mystics.
The enigmatic connection between Ibn Arabi and another
paragon of Islamic mysticism comes out in full force in Addas
exposition Abu Madyan and Ibn Arabi. The seemingly tremendous inluence Abu Madyan has on Ibn Arabis thought,
which is apparent in the formers extensive appearance in the
Futuhat, although the two igures never actually met, makes
this endeavor by Addas a particularly insightful look into the
Sui saints (awliya) unique understanding of authenticity and
the legitimacy to be found in the sayings of the pious predecessors (al-salaf al-salih), a theme that in itself was explored by
other specialists, such as Ernst in The Man. In much the same
way as Addas, Ernst sought to highlight Ibn Arabis creative
referencing and connection to yet another Muslim mystic and
pious predecessor, Bayazid al-Bistami.
Knyshs short essay on Ibn Arabi in The Literature of Al-Andalus presents an outline of the latters life in the Iberian Peninsula and the literary tradition of that region within which his
thought developed and matured. Knysh discusses some of the
central intellectual igures in Andalusia at the time, such as Ibn
Qasi and Ibn Barrajan, who might have possibly inluenced Ibn
Arabis views and writings.19 this in turn provides an insight
into the possibly larger extent of inluence that al-Andalus
intellectual milieu, extending back to igures like Ibn Masarra,
might have had on Ibn Arabi.
In this regard, Palacios Abenmasarra and Morris Ibn Masarra
both explore the thought and inluence of this controversial
mystic/philosopher on the Iberian Peninsula and consequently
Ibn Arabi himself. Meanwhile, Garridos various essays highlight
a speciic area where Ibn Masarra could have inspired his Andalusian successor, namely in the esoteric branch of mysticism
19. Knysh, Ibn Arabi in The Literature of Al-Andalus, 337341.

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known as science of [properties of] the letters (ilm al-huruf ).


taking all these efforts into consideration, it is clear that
there has been considerable progress in situating Ibn Arabi
within the larger intellectual heritage of the Iberian Peninsula.
Extending this research further to include other central igures,
such as Ibn tufayl or Ibn rushd alongside some of the major
inluences in Eastern Islamdom where Ibn Arabi resided in
the second half of his life such as Rasail Ikhwan ahl al-safa
(Treatises of the Brethren of Purity) or the works of al-Ghazali
and al-Suhrawardi the martyr (al-maqtul), will make more clear
and vivid the extent of the dialogue Ibn Arabi had with his
environment and milieu.

BIOGRAPHIES
related to the previous genre of works, there are also various
monographs that give a biographical outline of Ibn Arabis life,
including his various travels and teachers. The most detailed
and academically rigorous of these efforts is perhaps Addas
Quest. Aside from the actual contents of this work, the authors
introduction is equally crucial in its discussion of the tremendous bias present in the various medieval monographs that
were used as the literary references and sources for Quest. This
hegemonic partiality seems to be primarily due to the fact that
many of the Muslim historians who authored biographical
accounts of Ibn Arabi were either defenders, detractors or
disinterested spectators.20 Although Quest and Addas newer,
shorter and more condensed biography, Voyage are not comprehensive insights into Ibn Arabis intellectual dialogue with the
various traditions of Western and Eastern Islamdom, they are
nonetheless groundbreaking efforts and quintessential starting
points for other specialists to continue this authors effort.
Hirtensteins The Unlimited Merciier is a particularly novel,
contemporarily contextualized biography of the Greatest Master. As the author explicates in the preamble, his intention was
to provide an overview of Ibn Arabis life for the general, non20. Addas, Quest, 67.

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specialist reader.21 one would have to concur, after reading this


monograph, that Hirtensteins motivation was accomplished
brilliantly. What grants The Unlimited Merciier its novel and
captivating quality as a biographical narrative is the authors
consistency in bringing out the contemporary relevance of Ibn
Arabis thought by highlighting certain aspects of the latters
life and the relevance of these events for the modern reader.22
therefore, if Quest is an authoritative reference for specialists, then Hirtensteins endeavor is an excellent introductory
resource for general readers simply interested in an outline of
Ibn Arabis life and works.
other crucial contributions to the genre of biographies in the
West have been the various works of Gerald Elmore. His three
papers Early life, On the Road and Ibn al-Arabis Roots are
groundbreaking in both their interrogation of assumed facts
about Ibn Arabis early life23 in the Iberian Peninsula and investigation of the possible inluences of that regions various intellectual traditions on the development of the latters thought. In
this sense, Elmores efforts, alongside Addas and Hirtensteins
biographical works, form a quintessential corpus that aids in
better understanding and situating Ibn Arabis life within the
larger context of 12th/13th century Islamdom.

COMPARATIvE ENDEAvORS
A genre of works that has received extensive attention by specialists are those that attempt to engage Ibn Arabi in a dialogue
with other intellectual and mystical traditions, Islamic or otherwise. These comparative endeavors are so diverse and numerous that each major category deserves a separate discussion:
Mystical Traditions Expositions that fall under this category
include on the one hand works like Kalins Ibn Arabi and
21. Hirtenstein, The Unlimited Merciier, ix.
22. Ibid., 37, 402.
23. Elmore, Early Life, 347. Especially challenging the purported
bourgeois status of Ibn Arabis family.

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Oriental Traditions Perhaps the most crucial work in this


regard is Izutsus Suism which seeks to compare Ibn Arabis cosmological, ontological and anthropological outlook with the
Oriental Taoist mystical and philosophical tradition of lao Tzu.
Aside from the actual comparison, which peculiarly occupies
less than 20 pages of the 400-page work, it is perhaps Izutsus
remarkably lucid adumbration of Ibn Arabis thought which
grants Suism its importance among the academic community.
other notable works in this category include Muratas Chinese
Gleams and Unity of Being, both of which explore the Chinese
Muslim scholar liu Chihs endeavor to formulate an Islamic
cultural framework that is rooted and intertwined with the various Chinese intellectual traditions, case at point Confucianism.
Philosophy the specialist with perhaps the most pivotal contributions to this category is Salman Bashier. Among his various
works, Ibn Arabis Barzakh, Story and Standpoint eloquently
host an intellectual dialogue between Ibn Arabi and various
igures from Western philosophy, ranging from Plato to Rorty.
Also, Almonds Suism compares Ibn Arabis understanding of
logos with the post-Modernist philosophical school of deconstruction and the writings of its iconic founder and epigone
Jacques Derrida. Almond explores a series of novel comparisons
between seemingly similar derridean and Akbarian notions,
such as diffrence and al-Haqq (The Real) or lcriture and scripture. Thus, whereas most specialists endeavored a comparison
between Ibn Arabi and pre-modern Western intellectual personas, Almonds effort is unique in its attempt to engage the
Shaykh in a dialogue with a pivotal igure in 20th-century postModernist philosophy.

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Mulla Sadra and ohlanders the relationship, which explore


the similarities and differences between Ibn Arabis thought
and other mystical strands in the Islamic tradition, and on the
other hand works like Fentons The Hierarchy, lpez-Baralts
Saint John of the Cross and Ibn Arabi and Almonds Divine
needs, which compare Ibn Arabis thought with various mystical strands in the Judaeo-Christian religious traditions.

111

Religio Perennis In this perennialist school of ren Gunon


and Frithjof Schuon, numerous works have been published that
attempt to bring out the common intellectual components in
the worlds major spiritual, religious and philosophical traditions. Shah-Kazemis Paths is a perfect example of such a work.
this exposition hosts a dialogue about cosmology, ontology,
psychology and a slew of other philosophical topics between
three sages, each representative of his own respective worldrenowned spiritual tradition: the Muslim Ibn Arabi, Christian
Meister Eckhart and Hindu Shankara. Whatever a critics opinion might be of a devotion that attempts, at all costs, to reveal
an inherent, transcendent harmony between all spiritual and
religious traditions, Paths and other works by perennialists represent a unique attempt to bring Ibn Arabi into a discussion
between the longstanding spiritual and mystical traditions of
the world.

BIBlIOGRAPHIES AND STUDy GUIDES


The masterful endeavor by yahya in the 1960s to present a
bibliographic list of all the works authored by Ibn Arabi, his
LHistoire et Classiication, was continued in the efforts of other
specialists, such as notcutts A Handlist and Hirtensteins
Selected Major Works. Also, in this regard, the MIAS Archive
Project represents a crucial development in updating yahyas
classiication based upon a new analysis of manuscripts, mostly
found in Turkey. Hirtensteins and Clarks indings should shed
some light on how these manuscripts might reine specialists
understanding of Ibn Arabis corpus.
lastly, there have also been efforts to develop pedagogical manuals that instruct the reader on how to approach Ibn
Arabis works. Morris Rhetoric, How to Study, Harris Ibn
Arabis al-Istilah and MacEwans Beginning a Study are
examples of such endeavors.

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POSTERIORITy

General Overview Morris two key studies, Ibn Arabi and


his Interpreters and Except His Face are groundbreaking and
authoritative surveys of various Muslim and non-Muslim interpretations and reformulations of Ibn Arabis thought. Morris
investigates on the one hand Muslim thinkers like al-Jili, alQashani, and al-Jazairi, each of whom offered a personalized
treatment of Ibn Arabi, and on the other hand non-Muslim
specialists like Palacios, valsan and Ruspoli who translated various works of and about the Greatest Master.
Sadr al-Din al-Qunawi there have also been numerous works
revolving around this foremost disciple of Ibn Arabis, many of
which have been published in the Journal of the Muhyiddin Ibn
Arabi Society in a volume (JMIAS, vol. 49) specially dedicated to
al-Qunawi. These works mostly revolve around this disciples
contributions and inluence on the posterior propagation and
spread of Ibn Arabis thought. Thus, Chitticks The last Will,
The Central Point and Khalifas Al-Qunawis Discourse and
other monographs all explore the tremendous role this disciple had in propagating Akbari thought in various regions of
Islamdom.
Akbari school Aside from exploring al-Qunawis role in
spreading Ibn Arabis thought, there have also been efforts
to expound upon the various contributions of other thinkers
who were themselves disciples of Ibn Arabi or al-Qunawi. Chitticks Jami on Divine love explores certain mystical themes

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Considering the tremendous amount of inluence Ibn Arabis


writings and thought have had on Islamic mystical and intellectual traditions, it is natural to ind many monographs
authored on thinkers posterior to the Shaykh who propagated
and reformulated the latters works. The diverse endeavors by
Western authors in this genre range from general overviews of
Ibn Arabis inluence and interpretation by his posteriors to discussions on the formers fame in speciic regions of the world.

113

in the works of a poet who, together with Iraqi, might both


be considered as poets of the Akbari school par excellence. Grils
translation of Kitab al-Inbah and Hirtensteins partial English
translation of Ibn Sawdakins K. al-Wasail (I entrust to you a
bequest), alongside Proitlichs full German rendition of the
latter, both explore the theme of spiritual discipline (tarbiya) in
the writings of these direct disciples of Ibn Arabi who accompanied their teacher during his various travels. Also, Scattolins Key Concepts is a masterful translation of al-Farghanis
introduction and commentary on Ibn al-Farids famed poem.
This student of Ibn Arabis intellectual school offers an ontological narrative of the cosmos, thoroughly rooted in Akbari
thought, that provides an insight into the similarities between
Ibn Arabis and Ibn al-Farids respective worldviews.
Islamic Traditions A considerable number of monographs
have also been devoted to exploring the spread of the Shaykhs
thought in various Islamic intellectual and mystical traditions
all over Islamdom. For example, Godlas Molla Fanari and
Misbah al-uns, tahralis A General outline and Kilis the
Ibn Arabi of the Ottomans all explore the spread of Akbari
thought in Anatolia. On the other hand, liptons South Asian
Heir and Stavigs Ibn Arabis inluence in Muslim India both
explore the contemporaneous spread of Akbarism in the Asian
Subcontinent. McGregors Sanctity,24 chodkiewiczs diffusion,
Holbrooks Ibn Arabi and Ottoman Dervish Traditions and
Algars Relections speciically investigate Ibn Arabis inluence on Sui paths/organizations (al-turuq al-suiyya). lastly,
miscellaneous other works such as cornells Islamic Hermeticism, Weismanns God and Perfect Man, Tamaris The alim
and Benassas The Diffusion all explore the similar spread of
Ibn Arabis thought in other regions and among various thinkers in Islamdom.

24. This is a particularly novel contemporary study that explores Ibn


Arabis inluence on the tariqa Shadhiliyya in general and the Wafaiyya
branch of this tariqa speciically.

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Western Traditions Few works have also discussed the spread


and inluence of Akbarism in the various occidental intellectual traditions of Europe and America. Frazees Ibn al-Arabi
and Spanish Mysticism, El-Moors the occult tradition and
Morris Ibn Arabi and the Far West discuss these diverse
appropriations and treatments of Ibn Arabi within the various
Occidental traditions over the past nine centuries.

Although this genre could be included in the initial section on


expositions, it is a rich area of research that merits its own section. There have been tremendous contributions by Western
specialists over the past few decades that do not merely compare Ibn Arabi with contemporary thinkers, as discussed in the
above section.25 rather, these diverse works range from those
that investigate modern movements and thinkers that have
appropriated the greatest masters thought to those that represent an authors attempt to view their own experiences through
the prism of Ibn Arabis Weltanschauung.
this personalized experiential exploration is clearly visible in
the works of various novelists and poets. Meddebs Tombeau is
a colorful self-relection by an author who seeks to make sense
of his own oriental and occidental lineage and heritage by
investigating his life experiences poetically through the prism
of both Ibn Arabis love poetry and Dantes affection for Beatrice.26 One inds a similar approach in the writings of Gamal
al-Ghitani, a famed contemporary Egyptian novelist. Al-Ghitanis originality and Knyshs discussion in Sui Motifs of the
formers Tajalliyat (Manifestations) both reveal a Sui-leaning
author who was mesmerized by Ibn Arabi and Islamic mysticism in general and therefore attempted to explore his own
experiences and hardships through the latters life and works.
Another crucial work in this genre is Taji-Faroukis Beshara
and Ibn Arabi. This historical study discusses the genesis of the
25. Cf. Comparative Endeavors section above.
26. Meddeb, Tombeau.

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CONTEMPORARy CONTExTUAlIzATIONS

115

MIAS and Beshara school going back to its epigone and founder,
Bulent Rauf. However, this work is not merely a chronological
adumbration of these two institutions intellectual and organizational development; rather, Taji-Farouki masterfully explores
the various 20th-century European sociopolitical, cultural,
spiritual and intellectual dynamics and how those shaped the
motivations and commitments of rauf and others who established this monumental paradigm for propagating, teaching
and researching Ibn Arabis thought in the West. The extraordinary success and importance of raufs efforts have seized the
attention of other scholars, most notably Jeffery-Street, who
authored another study on the history of the MIAS and Beshara
school entitled Ibn Arabi and the Contemporary West.
Ibn Arabis thought has also been the subject of various
surveys and discussions on contemporary thought philosophy, cosmology, psychology, etc. Perhaps the most prominent
work in this regard is coates Ibn Arabi and Modern Thought,
which explores modern theory in a wide array of topics ranging
from Webers sociological paradigms to Freudian psychology,
all the while contemporaneously viewing these various themes
through Ibn Arabis works. Similarly, Haj yousefs Time attempts
to view certain theories on cosmology and time in modern
physics, such as String Theory, through Ibn Arabis own view
of the cosmos as logos (kalam al-haqq).27 the theme of time and
the cosmos in Ibn Arabis thought was also investigated by the
likes of dagli in the time and carroll in timelessness. Moreover, these efforts in general are complemented by works like
Morris Contemporary Appeals and yiangous Human Potential, both of which give a brief outline of Ibn Arabis overall
contextual importance for the contemporary reader.

27. Intriguingly this seems to be only one of two works, the other being
Burckhardts Cl Spirituelle de lAstrologie Musulmane, that expounds upon
Ibn Arabis cosmology.

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Ali Hussain

this survey has discussed a sample of works authored by academic specialists on Ibn Arabi during the past thirty years.
these range from book-length monographs to short papers and
essays, mostly published through the MIAS. By presenting a
classiication of these works, this study has roughly sketched an
outline of the major recent intellectual trends among Western
specialists in approaching Ibn Arabis thought and works.
It is worthwhile at this point to note some of the intellectual lacunae present in the academic understanding of Ibn
Arabis thought that this survey might reveal. In order to have
an organized perspective on these gaps and possible new avenues of research, a separate discussion on each of the genres
mentioned above might be a more eficient and comprehensive approach to this problem. As previously mentioned, the
ensuing recommendations are based upon the surveyors own
research interests and understanding of the current research
surrounding Ibn Arabi in the West:
Expositions Ibn Arabis thought has certainly received extensive coverage by numerous specialists who adumbrated and
expounded upon various components of the formers works.
nevertheless, there remain certain aspects of Akbari thought
that are very much understudied and deserve further attention. First, Ibn Arabis exoteric foundations, as discussed in
chodkiewiczs Ocean and Winkels various works, need to be
further explored and analyzed. This is especially crucial considering the extensive, lengthy section in the Futuhat which
Ibn Arabi dedicates to the esoteric secrets of iqh (jurisdiction). Second, it is worthwhile researching further the Shaykhs
sophisticated etymology and linguistic approach. Although not
mentioned in the above discussion, works like lorys The Symbolism are indeed a step in this direction, which needs further
attention and continuation.
Translations A brief overview of this discussed sample reveals
that the Shaykhs works have received extensive attention from

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CONClUSION

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Polemics the sample of three works discussed in this section


reveal an intellectually rich area of research that is unfortunately not given enough emphasis. Most of the discussions on
the polemics surrounding Ibn Arabi are generally concerned
with the central detractors like Ibn Taymiyya, al-Fasi, or Ibn alAhdal, and key apologetics like al-Jili, al-Fayruzabadi or al-Nabulusi. However, there are numerous other less known igures
like al-Alusi and al-Aydarus who on the one hand had great
respect and high regard for Ibn Arabi, while on the other hand
were continuously struggling to keep novice students of religious knowledge (tullab al-ilm) and the lay populace (awamm)
away from reading the formers works out of the fear of misguidance and disorder (itna). Traces of these contentious motivations are predominantly visible in many of these works, and
the authors consequential attempts at conciliation often result
in creative and intriguing literary techniques that merit further
attention.
Sources of Inluence It is unfortunate that there is such a scarcity of works in this genre. This would be an especially intriguing historical aspect to delve into considering the extensive
travels of the Shaykh all over Eastern and Western Islamdom.
Moreover, certain key aspects of Ibn Arabis thought, such as
his usage of science of letters (ilm al-huruf ) and discussion
in the beginning of the Futuhat, allude to signiicant occultic
inluences on the Shaykh possibly by preceding Muslim esotericists, such as Ibn Qasi and Ibn Masarra or even igures from
other, non-Islamic traditions. thus, it is worthwhile to explore
these sources of inluence not as two, Occidental and Oriental, distinct strands, rather as an ongoing, possibly contentious,
intellectual dialogue that Ibn Arabi engaged in throughout his
travels and interactions.

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translators. Although Ibn Arabis magnum opus, as discussed,


has indeed been rendered into various Western languages by
quite a few specialists, it remains, as a monumental literary work
of Islamic mysticism, deserving of further attention and longterm vision for a comprehensive, contextualized transcription.

Ali Hussain

Biographies It is clear from the preceding discussion that


there have been crucial biographies of Ibn Arabi by Western
specialists. However, there still remain lacunae in the understanding of how the Andalusian mystic its into the larger
tradition and intellectual genealogy of the Iberian Peninsula.
Although Elmores works have contributed tremendously in
this direction with regards to Ibn Arabis life in the Occident,
extensive research is still needed to determine the inluences
of the oriental traditions on the Shaykhs thought during the
latter half of his life, as well as the changes in his intellectual
motivations and commitments after his geographical transition
from one region to the other.
Comparative Endeavors Alongside the numerous expositional works on Ibn Arabis thought, comparative endeavors
are perhaps the most extensively covered area of research. As
discussed, numerous works have been authored that compare
Akbari thought with all sorts of spiritual, religious or philosophic traditions. Perhaps the most intriguing igure in this
regard is Corbin and his intellectual infatuation with Ibn Arabis
leanings and inluences by Shiism. Considering the monumental works Shiite thinkers like Mulla Sadra have contributed
to Islamic mystical theosophy and the crucial impact Akbari
thought has had on these thinkers respective philosophies, it
is worthwhile extending the academic research and intellectual
dialogue between the various strands of Shii thought and Ibn
Arabis writings and thought.
Bibliographies and Study Guides Any specialist in Ibn
Arabis thought ought to be familiar with the monumental
philosophical framework, complex language and sophisticated rhetoric utilized by the author in his works, most especially the Fusus and Futuhat. It is worthwhile continuing and
combining the efforts mentioned in this section to develop a
comprehensive study guide for beginning readers who wish to
become acquainted with Ibn Arabis works. Without doubt,
the tremendous number of monographs published on Ibn
Arabi in the West so far is a monumental and diverse corpus

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119

Posteriority this has indeed been and remains a productive


area of research for Western specialists. However, the intellectual eflorescence of the European Renaissance and later movements in the Americas deserve further attention. Medieval
thinkers like Thomas Aquinas or Raymond lull, modern igures
like John locke and even post-modernist critical theorists such
as Derrida and Foucault, have a monumental corpus of writings
that might illuminate, through comparative studies, certain
aspects of Ibn Arabis thought and vice versa, thereby providing an insight into the possible inluence of the latter upon the
formers works.28
Contemporary Contextualizations clearly, this genre of
works continues to receive extensive literary emphasis from
todays specialists. What makes these various endeavors of contemporarily contextualizing Ibn Arabis thought different from
the previously discussed comparative expositions is, in each
case, the authors attempt to not merely compare the formers
works with modern thought, but rather to view the modern
world through the prism of Akbarism. This is truly an admirable intellectual and literary excursion. However, if a thorough
investigation of Ibn Arabis sources of inluence and intellectual
roots in 12th/13th-century Western and Eastern Islamdom were
attempted, a higher perception of the Shaykhs contemporary
importance would be achieved whereby not only an intellectual dialogue may be endeavored with his works and writings,
but more importantly perhaps a comprehension of the various
tools and hermeneutical processes that Ibn Arabi went through
28. The legitimacy of such an endeavor gains importance by the fact
that some of these same igures Locke and Aquinas have been shown
to share some intellectual similarities with other Muslim thinkers, mainly
al-Ghazali. Considering that the latter spent his entire life in Eastern Islamdom while Ibn Arabi lived the irst half of his in the Iberian Peninsula, it
is worthwhile investigating the possible dialogue these intellectuals might
have had with Ibn Arabis works.

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of works that can suficiently serve as a resource for such an


endeavor.

Ali Hussain

to simultaneously minimize the dissonance and maximize the


harmony between the various Islamic traditions theoretical
underpinnings and Islamdoms sociopolitical, cultural and religious dynamics at the time. This dialogue and discourse of Ibn
Arabi with his milieu is the subtle, underlying essence of all
his writings that remains to be investigated and interrogated by
specialists.
As mentioned in the introduction, the purpose of this survey
is not to give a comprehensive list and classiication of all the
contemporary academic works on Ibn Arabi or merely adumbrate the major intellectual trends followed by specialists in
approaching the Shaykhs works. Rather, the underlying purpose of this endeavor is to expose some yet unexplored areas
in Ibn Arabis thought that would hopefully provide specialists
with both new academic directions with which to approach the
Greatest Shaykh and the enthusiasm to extend the temporal
and quantitative scope of this project. If both of these motivations were even remotely achieved, then this endeavor might
indeed be considered a success.

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Abadi, Avraham. Aspects of Non-manifestation in the Modalities


of Being JMIAS 5 (1986), 1027.
Abrahamov, Binyamin. Ibn Arabis Theory of Knowledge, Parts I
and II, JMIAS 41, 42 (2007), I:130, II:122.
Addas, Claude. Abu Madyan and Ibn Arabi in Muhyiddin Ibn
Arabi: A Commemorative Volume, ed. S. Hirtenstein and M.
Tiernan. Shaftesbury, UK: Element Books (1993):
www.ibnarabisociety.org/articles/abumadyan.html
Quest For The Red Sulphur: The Life of Ibn Arabi. Cambridge:
Islamic Texts Society, 1993.
The Voyage of No Return. Cambridge: Islamic Texts Society, 2010.
Algar, Hamid. Relections of Ibn Arabi in Early Naqshbandi Tradition JMIAS 10 (1991), 4566: http://www.ibnarabisociety.org/
articles/naqshibandi.html
Almond, Ian. Divine Needs, Divine Illusions: Preliminary Remarks
towards a comparative Study of Meister Eckhart and Ibn
Arabi JMIAS 44 (2008), 6591.
Suism and Deconstruction: A comparative study of Derrida and Ibn
Arabi. New york: Routledge, 2004.
Asin Palacios, Miguel. Abenmasarra y su escuela: origenes de la ilosoia hispano-musulmana. Madrid: Editorial Maestre, 1914.
El Islam cristianizado: estudio del suismo a travs de las obras de
Abenarabi de Murcia. Madrid: Editorial Plutarco, 1931.
La escatologia musulmana en la Divina Comedia: seguida de la historia y critica de una polemica. Madrid: Editorial Maestre, 1961.
Austin, Ralph. Meditations on the vocabulary of love and Union
in Ibn Arabis Thought JMIAS 3 (1984), 619.
three one-line poems from the Diwan of Ibn Arabi JMIAS 16
(1994), vi.
Ayni, Mehmet. La Quintessence de la Philosophie dIbn Arabi. Paris:
P. Geuthner, 1926.
Bashier, Salman. Ibn Arabis Barzakh: The Concept of the Limit and
the Relationship between God and the World. New york: SUNy
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The Standpoint of Plato and Ibn Arabi on Skepticism JMIAS
30 (2001), 1934.
The Story of Islamic Philosophy: Ibn Tufayl, Ibn al-Arabi and
Others on the Limit between Naturalism and Traditionalism. New
york: SUNy Press, 2011.

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Ernst, Carl. The Man Without Attributes: Ibn Arabis Interpretation of Abu yazid al-Bistami JMIAS 13 (1993), 118: http://
www.ibnarabisociety.org/articles/abuyazid.html
Fenton, Paul. The Hierarchy of Saints in Jewish and Islamic Mysticism JMIAS 10 (1991), 1234.
Al-Ghitani, Gamal. Originality Under the Guardianship of Ibn
Arabi JMIAS 23 (1998), 18.
Garrido, Pilar. Edicin crtica del K. jawass al-huruf de Ibn Masarra
Grupo de investigacin Al-AndalusMaghreb Universidad de Cdiz
(2007).
Gilis, Charles-Andr. Le Livre des Chatons des Sagesses. Beyrouth: AlBouraq, 1998.
Gloton, Maurice. Jsus le ils de Marie dans le Quran et selon lenseignment dIbn Arabi Isa ibn Maryam. Beyrouth: Albouraq, 2006.
Godlas, Alan. Molla Fanari and the Misbah al-Uns: The Commentator and The Perfect Man Uluslararasi Molla Fanari Symposium:
www.ibnarabisociety.org/articlespdf/molla_fanari_by_godlas
.pdf
Gril, Denis. The Kitab al-inbah of Abdallah Badr al-Habashi: an
account of the spiritual teaching of Muhyiddin Ibn Arabi
JMIAS 15 (1994), 136: http://www.ibnarabisociety.org/articles/
habashi_text.html
Haj Yousef, Mohamed. Ibn Arabi: Time and Cosmology. New york:
Routledge, 2008.
Ibn Arabi: The Treasury of Absolute Mercy JMIAS 48 (2010):
5572.

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Hakim, Souad. Ibn Arabis Twofold Perception of Woman: Woman


as Human Being and Cosmic Principle JMIAS 39 (2006), 114:
http://www.ibnarabisociety.org/articles/women.html
The Spirit and the Son of the Spirit: a reading of Jesus (Isa)
according to Ibn Arabi JMIAS 31 (2002), 128: http://www.
ibnarabisociety.org/articles/spirit.html
Hameen-Anttila, Jaakko. The Immutable Entities and Time JMIAS
39 (2006), 1532: http://www.ibnarabisociety.org/articles/
immutable_entities.html
Harris, Rabia. Ibn Arabis al-Istilah al-Suiyyah: Translation of Sui
terminology JMIAS 3 (1984), 2754.
Hirtenstein, Stephen. The Brotherhood of Milk: Perspectives of
Knowledge in the Adamic clay JMIAS 33 (2002), 121: http://
www.ibnarabisociety.org/articles/brotherhood.html
Ibn Arabis Bequest and two other passages from the Kitab
al-Wasail by Ismail Ibn Sawdakin Newsletter of the Muhyiddin Ibn Arabi Society (1997): http://www.ibnarabisociety.org/
articles/ibnsawdakin.html
lunar view, Air-glow Blue: Ibn Arabis Conversations with
the Prophet Adam JMIAS 16 (1994), 5168.
Manuscripts of Ibn Arabis Works: Some Preliminary Notes
on al-Diwan al-kabir JMIAS 39 (2006), 111120: http://www.
ibnarabisociety.org/articles/mssdiwan.html
Selected major works of Ibn Arabi in The Unlimited Merciier:
The spiritual life and thought of Ibn Arabi. Oxford: Anqa Publishing, 1999.
The Unlimited Merciier: The spiritual life and thought of Ibn
Arabi. Oxford: Anqa Publishing, 1999.
Hodgson, Marshall. The Venture of Islam: Conscience and History in a
World Civilization. Chicago: University of Chicago, 1974.
Holbrook, victoria Rowe. Ibn Arabi and Ottoman Dervish Traditions: The Melami Supra-Order (Part One) JMIAS 9 (1991),
1835: http://www.ibnarabisociety.org/articles/melami1.html
Homerin, Emil. Ibn Arabi in the Peoples Assembly: Religion,
Press, and Politics in Sadats Egypt Middle East Journal 40 No.
3 (1986): 462477.
Horten, Max. Mystische texte aus dem Islam. Drei gedichte des Arabi
1210. Bonn: A. Marcus und E. Weber, 1912.
Houdard, Dom Sylvester. Notes on the more than human
saying: Unless you know yourself you cannot know God
JMIAS 11 (1992), 110: http://www.ibnarabisociety.org/articles/
notesonsaying.html

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124

125

Ibn al-Arab, Muhammad. Book of the Quintessence of What is


Indispensable for the Spiritual Seeker, trans. James Morris
(www.ibnarabisociety.org/articlespdf/sp_seeker.pdf)
Les Clefs dIbn Arabi: Commentaire intgral du kitab Fusus
al-hikam, le livre des chatons des sagesses dIbn Arabi, trans.
Philippe Moulinet (Beyrouth: Dar Albouraq, 2010).
Divine Sayings: 101 Hadith Qudsi: The Mishkat al-anwar of Ibn
Arabi, trans. Stephen Hirtenstein and Martin Notcutt (Oxford:
Anqa Publishing, 2010).
The Four Pillars of Spiritual Transformation: The Adornment of the
Spiritually Transformed (Hilyat al-abdal), trans. Stephen Hirtenstein (Oxford: Anqa Publishing, 2009).
Ibn Arabi: The Bezels of Wisdom, trans. Ralph Austin (New
Jersey: Paulist, 1980).
Ibn Arabis Book of the Fabulous Gryphon (Anqa
al-Mughrib), trans. Gerald Elmore (JMIAS 25 (1999), 6187:
http://www.ibnarabisociety.org/articles/anqamughrib.html)
Ibn Arabis Gentle Now, Doves of the Thornberry and Moringa
Thicket (the eleventh poem from the Tarjuman al-Ashwaq),
trans. Michael Sells (JMIAS 10 (1991)), 111.
Ismail Hakki Bursevis translation of and commentary on Fusus
al-hikam by Muhyiddin Ibn Arabi, trans. Bulent Rauf (Oxford:
Muhyiddin Ibn Arabi Society, 1986).
The Meccan Revelations, ed. Michel Chodkiewicz, trans. William
Chittick and James Morris (Pir Publications, 2002).
A Prayer for Spiritual Elevation and Protection, trans. Suha TajiFarouki (Oxford: Anqa Publishing, 2007).
Ringstones of Wisdom (Fusus al-Hikam), trans. Caner Dagli (Chicago: Kazi Publications, 2004).
Suis of Andalusia: Ibn Arabis The Ruh al-Quds and al-Durrat
al-Fakhirah, trans. Ralph Austin (Roxburgh: Beshara Publications, 1971).
Translation of an extract from the Preface to the Futuhat, trans.
layla Shamash and Stephen Hirtenstein (JMIAS 4 (1985)), 46.
Translation of What the Student Needs: Ibn Arabis Ma La
Budda Minhu Lil-Murid, trans. Tosun al-Jerrahi (JMIAS 5 (1986)),
2855.
two chapters from the Futuhat in Muhyiddin Ibn Arabi: A
Commemorative Volume, ed. S. Hirtenstein and M. Tiernan.
Shaftesbury, UK: Element Books, 1993: 90123.
The Universal Tree and the Four Birds, trans. Angela Jaffray
(Oxford: Anqa Publishing, 2006).
At the Way Stations, Stay: Ibn Arabis Poem 18 (Qif bi

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l-Manazil) from the Translation of Desires, trans. Michael Sells


(JMIAS 18 (1995)), 5765.
Izutsu, Toshihiko. Suism and Taoism: A Comparative Study of Key Philosophical Concepts. los Angeles: University of California, 1983.
Jeffery-Street, Isobel. Ibn Arabi and the Contemporary West. Shefield,
UK: Equinox Publishing, 2012.
al-Jerrahi, Tosun. Translation of What the Student Needs: Ibn
Arabis Ma La Budda Minhu Lil-Murid JMIAS 5 (1986), 2855.
Kalin, Ibrahim. From the Temporal Time to the Eternal Now: Ibn
al-Arabi and Mulla Sadra on Time JMIAS 41 (2007), 3162.
Knowing the Self and the Non-Self: Towards a Philosophy of
non-Subjectivism JMIAS 43 (2008), 93106.
Keller, Nuh. Sea Without Shore. Maryland: Amana Publications,
2011.
Kili, Mahmud. The Ibn al-Arabi of the Ottomans, Abdullah Salahaddin al-Ushshaqi 170582 JMIAS 26 (1999), 110120.
Khalifa, laila. Al-Qunawis Discourse: Inluences and differences
with respect to Ibn Arabi, the case of al-Fukuk and al-Fusus
JMIAS 49 (2011), 83106.
Knysh, Alexander. Ibn Arabi in The Literature of Al-Andalus. UK:
Cambridge University, 2000, 331345.
Ibn Arabi in the Later Islamic Tradition: The Making of a Polemical Image in Medieval Islam. New york: SUNy Press, 1999.
The Realms of Responsibility in Ibn Arabis al-Futuhat alMakkiyya JMIAS 31 (2002), 8799: http://www.ibnarabisociety
.org/articles/knyshresponsibility.html
Sui Motifs in Contemporary Arabic literature: The Case of
Ibn Arabi Muslim World 86 (1996): 3349.
lipton, G.A. Muhibb Allah Ilahabadi: South Asian Heir to Ibn
Arabi JMIAS 45 (2009), 89119.
lpez-Baralt, luce. Saint John of the Cross and Ibn Arabi: The
Heart or Qalb as the translucid and Ever-changing Mirror of
God JMIAS 28 (2000), 5790.
lory, Pierre. The Symbolism of letters and language in the Work
of Ibn Arabi JMIAS 23 (1998), 3242.
MacEwan, Richard. Beginning a study of the work of Ibn Arabi
JMIAS 1 (1982), 2025.
McAuley, Denis. Ibn Arabis Mystical Poetics. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012.
McGregor, Richard. Sanctity and Mysticism in Medieval Egypt: The
Wafa Sui Order and The Legacy of Ibn Arabi. New york: SUNy
Press, 2004.
Mesbahi, Mohamed. The Unity of Existence between the Ontological

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126

127

and Henological in Ibn Arabi JMIAS 37 (2005), 5166.


Meddeb, Abderwahab. Tombeau of Ibn Arabi and White Traverses.
New york: Fordham University, 2010.
Morris, James. An Arab Machiavelli?: Rhetoric, Philosophy and
Politics in Ibn Khalduns Critique of Suism Proceedings of
Harvard Ibn Khaldun Conference (2003), 149.
Communication and Spiritual Pedagogy: Exploring the Methods of Investigation (tahqiq) in classical Islamic thought in
Time, Space and Motion in Islam. Washington: Islamic Thought
and Science Institute, 2003.
Contemporary Appeals of Ibn Arabis Thought JMIAS 48
(2010), 7396.
Except His Face: The Political and Aesthetic Dimensions of
Ibn Arabis legacy JMIAS 23 (1998), 113.
How to Study the Futuhat: Ibn Arabis Own Advice in
Muhyiddin Ibn Arabi: A Commemorative Volume, ed. S. Hirtenstein and M. Tiernan. Shaftesbury, UK: Element Books, 1993,
7389.
Ibn Arabi and his Interpreters Journal of the American Oriental Society vol. 106 (1986): 539551, 733756. vol. 107 (1987):
101119.
Ibn Arabi in the Far West: visible and Invisible Inluences
JMIAS 29 (2001), 87122.
Ibn Masarra: A Reconsideration of the Primary Sources.
the Mahdi and His Helpers in Ibn Arabi: The Meccan Revelations. New york: Pir, 2002.
The Relective Heart: Discovering Spiritual Intelligence in Ibn
Arabis Meccan Illuminations. louisville: Fons vitae, 2005.
Rhetoric and Realization in Ibn Arabi: How Can We Communicate His Meanings Today? The Proceedings of the International
Conference on Ibn Arabi and the World Today (2002): http://
www.ibnarabisociety.org/articles/spiritualpractice.html
Murata, Sachiko. Chinese Gleams of Sui Light: Wang Tai-yus Great
Learning of the Pure and Real and Liu Chihs Displaying the Concealment of the Real Realm. New york: SUNy Press, 2000.
The Unity of Being in liu Chihs Islamic Neoconfucianism JMIAS 36 (2004), 3958: http://www.ibnarabisociety.org/
articles/islamicneoconfucianism.html
Nettler, Ronald. Sui Metaphysics and Quranic Prophets: Ibn Arabis
Thought and Method in the Fusus al-Hikam. Cambridge: Islamic
Texts Society, 2003.
Nicholson, Reynold. The Mystics of Islam. london: G. Bell and Sons,
1914.

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Studies in Islamic Mysticism. Cambridge: The University Press, 1921.


The Tarjuman al-ashwaq, a collection of mystical odes, by
Muhyiddin ibn al-Arabi. london: Royal Asiatic Society, 1911.
Notcutt, Martin. Ibn Arabi: A Handlist of Printed Materials: Parts I
and II JMIAS 34 (1984,1985), I:5564, II:6574.
Nyberg, H.S. Kleinere Schriften des Ibn al-Arabi. leiden: E.J. Brill, 1919.
Ohlander, Eric. Between Historiography, Hagiography and Polemic:
The Relationship between Abu Hafs Umar al-Suhrawardi and
Ibn Arabi JMIAS 34 (2003), 5982.
Proitlich, Manfred. Die Terminologie Ibn Arabis Im Kitab Wasail
As-Sail Des Ibn Saudakin: Text, Ubersetzung Und Analyse. Germany: K. Schwarz, 1973.
Radtke, Bernd. A Forerunner of Ibn Arabi: Hakim Tirmidhi on
Sainthood JMIAS 8 (1989), 4249: http://www.ibnarabisociety
.org/articles/hakimtirmidhi.html
Rauf, Bulent. Concerning the Universality of Ibn Arabi JMIAS 4
(1985), 13: http://www.ibnarbisociety.org/articles/universality
_ibnarabi.html
Scattolin, Giuseppe. The Key Concepts of al-Farghanis Commentary on Ibn al-Farids Sui Poem, al-Taiyyat al-Kubra JMIAS 39
(2006), 3383.
Schimmel, Annemarie. Mystical Dimensions of Islam. North Carolina: University of North Carolina, 1975.
Sells, Michael. Stations of Desire: Love Elegies from Ibn Arabi and New
Poems. Jerusalem: Ibis Editions, 2000.
Shah-Kazemi, reza. Jesus in the Quran: Selfhood and Compassion: An Akbari Perspective JMIAS 29 (2001), 5776: http://
www.ibnarabisociety.org/articles/rezashah.html
Paths to Transcendence According to Shankara, Ibn Arabi and
Meister Eckhart. Bloomington: World Wisdom, 2006.
Shaikh, Sadiyya. Sui Narratives of Intimacy: Ibn Arabi, Gender, and
Sexuality. North Carolina: University of North Carolina, 2012.
Shamash, layla and Stephen Hirtenstein. Translation of an extract
from the Preface to the Futuhat JMIAS 4 (1985), 46.
Stavig, Gopal. Ibn Arabis inluence in Muslim India JMIAS 45
(2009), 121132.
Tahrali, Mustafa. A General Outline of the Inluence of Ibn Arabi on
the ottoman Era JMIAS 26 (1999): http://www.ibnarabisociety
.org/articles/ottomanera.html
Taji-Farouki, Suha. Beshara and Ibn Arabi: A Movement of Sui
Spirituality in the Modern World. Oxford: Anqa Publishing, 2007.
Tamari, Steve. The alim as Public Intellectual: Abd al-Ghani alnabulusi as a Scholar-Activist JMIAS 48 (2010), 121140.

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129

Twinch, Cecilia. The Circle of Inclusion JMIAS 40 (2006), 89100.


Weismann, Itzchak. God and the Perfect Man in the Experience of
Abd al-Qadir al-Jazairi JMIAS 30 (2001), 5572.
Winkel, Eric. Islam and the Living Law: The Ibn al-Arabi Approach.
USA: Oxford University Press, 1996.
yahya, Osman. LHistoire et Classiication de lOeuvre dIbn Arabi.
France: Institut Franais de Damas, 1964.
yiangou, Nikos. Ibn Arabi, Human Potential and the Postmodern
Self JMIAS 50 (2011), 97116.
yiangou, Peter. The Globalization of Consciousness JMIAS 44
(2008), 3952.
young, Peter. Ibn Arabi: towards a universal point of view MIAS
Symposium (1999): http://www.ibnarabisociety.org/articles/
pyoung.html
universal nature JMIAS 6 (1987), 2132.

Works not mentioned within the text of the survey


this section is an extended reference list for works that were not
mentioned in the survey, yet are nevertheless crucial monographs
that amply represent the classiication discussed above. It should
also be noted that this extended bibliography is presented and
organized topically according to the categories of the classiication.
Also, any subcategories marked with an asterisk (*) signify genres
that were altogether left out of the survey due to limitations of
space and scope.

Expositions
General comprehensive surveys
Aii, Abul Ela. The Mystical Philosophy of Muhyid Din-Ibnul Arabi.
New york: AMS Press, 1974.
Al-Attas, Mohammad. Prolegomena to the Metaphysics of Islam: An
exposition of the fundamental elements of the worldview of Islam.
Kuala lumpur: International Institute of Islamic Thought and
Civilization (ISTAC), 1995.
Chittick, William. Ibn Arabi: Heir to the Prophets. Oxford: Oneworld, 2007.
Corbin, Henry. History of Islamic Philosophy. New york: Kegan Paul
International, 1962.
Husaini, Abdul Qadir. The Pantheistic Monism of Ibn al-Arabi.
lahore: Sh. Muhammad Ashraf, 1970.

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Sainthood
Abadi, Avraham. The Seal of Saints: A Prophet and an Heir JMIAS
11 (1992), 2337.
Beneito, Pablo. The Time of Deeds and the Time of Spiritual Knowledge: The past and future of gnosis and sainthood in Ibn
Arabis Kitab al-Isfar JMIAS 50 (2011), 3444.
Elmore, Gerald. The Uwaysi Spirit of Autodidactic Sainthood as the
Breath of the Merciful JMIAS 28 (2000), 3556.
Hakim, Souad. The Way of Walaya (Sainthood or Friendship of
God) JMIAS 18 (1995), 2340: http://www.ibnarabisociety.org/
articles/wayofwalaya.html
Hirtenstein, Stephen. Universal and Divine Sainthood JMIAS 4
(1985), 723.
Houdard, Dom Sylvester. The Golden Bricks of Ibn Arabi JMIAS
8 (1989), 5058.
Prophetology
Singh, D.E. An onto-epistemological model: Adam-Muhammad as
the traditional symbols of humanitys all-comprehending epistemic potential Muslim World 94 no. 2 (2004), 275302.
Love and mercy
Addas, Claude. The experience and doctrine of love in Ibn Arabi
JMIAS 32 (2002), 2544: http://www.ibnarabisociety.org/articles/
addas1.html
Austin, Ralph. The lady Nizam an Image of love and Knowledge JMIAS 7 (1988), 3548: http://www.ibnarabisociety.org/
articles/nizam.html
On Knowing the Station of love JMIAS 8 (1989), 14: http://
www.ibnarabisociety.org/articles/poemsfutuhat78.html
Beneito, Pablo. The Servant of the loving One: On the Adoption
of the character traits of al-Wadud JMIAS 32 (2002), 124:
http://www.ibnarabisociety.org/articles/alwadud.html
Gloton, Maurice. The Quranic Inspiration of Ibn Arabis vocabulary
of love: Etymological links and Doctrinal Development JMIAS
27 (2000), 3752: http://www.ibnarbisociety.org/articles/gloton
vocabulary.html

Journal of the Muhyiddin Ibn Arabi Society, Vol. 52, 2012

landau, Rom. The Philosophy of Ibn Arabi. london: Allen & Unwin,
1959.
Nasr, S. Hossein. Three Muslim Sages: Avicenna, Suhrawardi, Ibn
Arabi. New york: Caravan Books, 1964.
Radtke, Bernd. Neue Kritische Gange: zu Stand und Aufgaben der Suikforschung. Utrecht: Houtsma Stichling, 2005.

131

Gril, Denis. love letters to the Kaba: A presentation of Ibn


Arabis Taj al-Rasail JMIAS 17 (1995), 4054: http://www.
ibnarabisociety.org/articles/tajalrasail.html
Halpern, Manfred. Rediscovering Ibn Arabis path to Wisdom,
Compassionate love and Justice in Contrast with Our Other
Three Choices of life JMIAS 29 (2001), 4556.
Hirtenstein, Stephen. Muhyiddin Ibn Arabi: The Treasure of Compassion Beshara Magazine 12 (1990): http://www.ibnarabisociety
.org/articles/treasureofcompassion.html
Morris, James. Ibn Arabis Short Course on love JMIAS 50
(2011), 122.
Shamash, layla. The Cosmology of Compassion or Macrocosm in
the Microcosm JMIAS 28 (2000), 1834.
Exoteric Foundations
Gril, Denis. Hadith in the work of Ibn Arabi: the uninterrupted
chain of prophecy JMIAS 50 (2011), 4576.
Winkel, Eric. Ibn Arabis Fiqh: Three Cases from the Futuhat
JMIAS 13 (1993), 5474: http://www.ibnarabisociety.org/articles/
ibnarabiiqh.html
Ethics
Addas, Claude. The Paradox of the Duty of Perfection in the
Doctrine of Ibn Arabi JMIAS 15 (1994), 3749: http://www.
ibnarabisociety.org/articles/dutyofperfection.html
Gril, Denis. Adab and Revelation: One of the Foundations of the
Hermeneutics of Ibn Arabi in Muhyiddin Ibn Arabi: A Commemorative Volume, ed. S. Hirtenstein and M. Tiernan. Shaftesbury, UK: Element Books, 1993, 228263.
Hall, Elton. Ibn Arabi and the Perfectibility of Man JMIAS 16
(1994), 6981.
Morris, James. Freedoms and Responsibilities: Ibn Arabi and the
Political Dimension of Spiritual Realization, Part I JMIAS
38 (2005), 122: http://dcollectionsbc.edu/R/?func=collections
-result&collection_id=1685
Seeking Gods Face: Ibn Arabi on Right Action and Theophanic vision Parts 1 and 2, JMIAS 16, 17 (19941995), 1:1
38, 2:139.
Rundgren, Frithiof. On the Dignity of Man JMIAS 6 (1987), 720:
http://www.ibnarabisociety.org/articles/dignityofman.html
Eschatology
Atlagh, Ryad. Paradoxes of a Mausoleum JMIAS 22 (1997), 124.

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Feminism
Austin, Ralph. The Feminine Dimension in Ibn Arabis Thought
JMIAS 2 (1984), 514.
Murata, Sachiko. Women of light in Suism A journal of Tradition and Modernity 12 (2003): http://www.ibnarabisociety.org/
articles/womenolight.html
Spiritual Pedagogy
Austin, Ralph. Aspects of Mystical Prayer in Ibn Arabis Thought
in Prayer & Contemplation, ed. S. Hirtenstein. Oxford: MIAS,
1993, 617.
Cass, Aaron. Stillness, Motion, and the non-existence of the Traveller in The Journey of the Heart, ed. J. Mercer. Oxford: MIAS,
1996, 2540.
Haizovic, Reid. Arif The Illuminated as Tekke and city of God
Within us JMIAS 34 (2003), 83101.
Hakim, Souad. Invocation and Illumination according to Ibn
Arabi in Prayer & Contemplation, ed. S. Hirtenstein. Oxford:
MIAS, 1993, 1841.
Khalifa, laila. Ibn Arab: linitation la futuwwa: illuminations, conqutes, tasawwuf et prophtie. Beyrouth: Albouraq, 2001.
Morris, James. Ibn Arabis Esotericism: The Problem of Spiritual
Authority Studia Islamica lxxI (1990), 3764.
Introducing Ibn Arabis Book of Spiritual Advice JMIAS 28
(2000), 118.
listening for God: Prayer and the Heart in the Futuhat JMIAS 13
(1993), 1953: http://www.ibnarabisociety.org/articlesmorris.html
Shamash, layla. People of the Night in Prayer & Contemplation, ed.
S. Hirtenstein. Oxford: MIAS, 1993, 4252.
Twinch, Cecilia. The Beauty of Oneness Witnessed in the Emptiness of the Heart JMIAS 25 (1999), 3450, MIAS Symposium
(1997): http://www.ibnarabisociety.org/articles/twinch.html
Winkel, Eric. Holding on and letting go: Emotional Qualities of
Subconscious remembrance JMIAS 23 (1998), 4352.

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Chodkiewicz, Michel. The Banner of Praise in Praise, ed. S. Hirtenstein. Oxford: MIAS, 1997, 4558: http://www.ibnarabisociety.
org/articles/bannerofpraise.html
Gilis, Charles-Andr. La Prire sur le dfunt (salat al-janaza): dans
lenseignement dIbn Arab. Beyrouth: Albouraq, 2001.
Morris, James. Ibn Arabis Messianic Secret: From the Mahdi to
the Imamate of Every Soul JMIAS 30 (2001), 118.
Seeing Past the Shadows: Ibn Arabis Divine Comedy JMIAS
12 (1992), 5069.

133

Ontology
Anguita, Gracia lopez. On the Inner Knowledge of Spirits Made
of an Igneous Mixture: Chapter 9 of the Futuhat al-Makkiyya
JMIAS 44 (2008), 124: http://www.ibnarabisociety.org/articles/
futuhat_ch009.html
Beneito, Pablo. The Ark of Creation: The markab Motif in Suism
JMIAS 40 (2006), 2157.
Elmore, Gerald. Four Texts of Ibn Arabi on the Creative SelfManifestation of the divine names JMIAS 29 (2001), 143:
http://www.ibnarabisociety.org/articlespdf/fourtexts.pdf
the Genesis of Man in chapter Seven of the Futuhat
al-Makkiyya JMIAS 37 (2005), 150.
Hirtenstein, Stephen. Aspects of Time and light JMIAS 6 (1987),
3349.
Netton, Ian. Theophany as Paradox: Ibn al-Arabis Account of
al-Khadir in His Fusus al-Hikam JMIAS 11 (1992), 1122.
Rahmati, Fateme. Der Mensch als Spiegelbild Gottes in der Mystik Ibn
Arabis. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2007.
yahia, Osman. Theophanies and lights in the Thought of Ibn
Arabi JMIAS 10 (1991), 3544: http://www.ibnarabisociety
.org/articles/osmanyahya.html
Epistemology
Chodkiewicz, Michel. The vision of God according to Ibn Arabi
in Prayer & Contemplation, ed. S. Hirtenstein. Oxford: MIAS,
1993, 5367: http://www.ibnarabisociety.org/articles/visionof
god.html
Hall, Elton. Gnosis: Images of the Real JMIAS 12 (1992), 3449.
Kakaie, Ghasem. Know yourself, according to Quran and Sunna:
Ibn Arabis view JMIAS 42 (2007), 3957.
zine, Mohammed. Ibn Arabi gnosologie et manifestation de ltre:
Ibn Arabi et la perception mystique du savoir. Alger: Editions ElIkhtilef, 2010.
Universalism
Clark, Jane. Universal Meanings in Ibn Arabis Fusus al-hikam: Some
comments on the chapter of Moses JMIAS 38 (2005), 105129:
http://www.ibnarabisociety.org/articles/clarkmoses.html
Cornell, vincent. Practical Suism: An Akbarian Foundation for a
liberal Theology of Difference JMIAS 36 (2004), 5984: http://
www.ibnarabisociety.org/articles/cornellpracticalsuism.html
El-Moor, Jereer. The Fool for love (Foll Per Amor) as Follower of
universal religion JMIAS 35 (2004), 4774.

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Textual Analysis*
Chittick, William. The Chapter Headings of the Fusus JMIAS 2
(1984), 4194: http://www.ibnarbisociety.org/articlespdf/fusus
chapterheadings.pdf
Ibn Arabis own Summary of the Fusus: the Imprint of the
Bezels of the Wisdom JMIAS 1 (1982), 3193: http://www.
ibnarabisociety.org/articlespdf/naqshalfusus.pdf
Gril, Denis. The Enigma of the Shajara al-numaniyya il-dawla
al-Uthmaniyya, attributed to Ibn Arabi JMIAS 43 (2008), 5174:
http://www.ibnarabisociety.org/articles/shajaranumaniyya.html
Hirtenstein, Stephen. Day of the One: A presentation of Ibn
Arabis Prayer for Sunday in Praise, ed. S. Hirtenstein. Oxford:
MIAS, 1997, 318.
Morris, James. Introduction to the Meccan Revelations in The Meccan Revelations. New york: Pir Inc., 2002.
Notcutt, Martin. An Introduction to Ibn Arabis Mishkat al-Anwar,
in Divine Sayings: The Mishkat al-Anwar of Ibn Arabi. Oxford:
Anqa Publishing, 2004, 119.
Manuscripts*
Clark, Jane. Manuscripts of Ibn Arabis Works: Some Notes on
the Manuscript veliyuddin 51 JMIAS 40 (2006), 101115: http://
www.ibnarabisociety.org/articles/mssveliyuddin51.html
Hirtenstein, Stephen. Manuscripts of Ibn Arabis Works: Names
and Titles of Ibn Arabi JMIAS 41 (2007), 109129.
Journey*
Chodkiewicz, Michel. The Endless voyage in The Journey of the
Heart, ed. J. Mercer. Oxford: MIAS, 1996, 7184: http://www.
ibnarabisociety.org/articles/endlessvoyage.html
Gril, Denis. The Journey through the Circles of Inner Being according to Ibn Arabis Mawaqi al-nujum JMIAS 40 (2006), 120:
http://www.ibnarabisociety.org/articles/journeyofbeing.html
Hakim, Souad. The Resources of the Human Spirit: A journey through
the spiritual experience of Ibn Arabi JMIAS 45 (2009), 2143.

Journal of the Muhyiddin Ibn Arabi Society, Vol. 52, 2012

Hirtenstein, Stephen. O Marvel! A paradigm shift towards integration JMIAS 46 (2009), 5766.
Noer, Kautsar. The Encompassing Heart: Uniied vision for a Uniied World JMIAS 43 (2008), 7591.
yiangou, Peter. The Globalisation of Consiousness JMIAS 44
(2008), 3951.

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135

Animals*
Chittick, William. The Wisdom of Animals JMIAS 46 (2009), 2737:
http://www.ibnarabisociety.org/articles/wisdom-of-animals.html
Khan, Pasha. Nothing But Animals: The Hierarchy of Creatures
in the ringstones of Wisdom JMIAS 43 (2008), 2950: http://
www.ibnarabisociety.org/articles/nothing-but-animals.html
Stations*
Abadi, Avraham. The Station of Proximity JMIAS 20 (1996), 114.
Benassa, Omar. The Degrees of the Station of No-Station: Regarding the End of the Journey JMIAS 37 (2005), 6797: http://
www.ibnarabisociety.org/articles/nostation.html
Cohen, Marty. Stations of No Station JMIAS 31 (2002), 4556.
Rauf, Bulent. Union and Ibn Arabi JMIAS 3 (1984), 2026: http://
www.ibnarabisociety.org/articles/union_ibnarabi.html
young, Peter. Concerning the Station of Purity JMIAS 8 (1989),
3341.
Imagination*
Addas, Claude. The Ship of Stone in The Journey of the Heart, ed. J.
Mercer. Oxford: MIAS, 1996, 524: http://www.ibnarabisociety
.org/articles/shipofstone.html
Austin, Ralph. Image and Presence in the Thought of Ibn Arabi
JMIAS 12 (1992), 114: http://www.ibnarabisociety.org/articles/
imageandpresence.html
Corbin, Henry. Alone with the Alone: Creative Imagination in the
Suism of Ibn Arabi. New Jersey: Princeton, 1969.
Harris, Rabia. The Relevance of Retreat: A Relection on the Religious Imagination JMIAS 25 (1999), 133.
young, Peter. Between the yea and the Nay JMIAS 2 (1984), 14.
Language*
Dupr, Adam. Expression and the Inexpressible JMIAS 8 (1989),
5969.
Twinch, Cecilia. Penetrating Meaning JMIAS 20 (1996), 6779.

Journal of the Muhyiddin Ibn Arabi Society, Vol. 52, 2012

Jassemi, Bahram. The Dimensions of the Mystical Journey JMIAS


38 (2005), 91103: http://www.ibnarabisociety.org/articles/
mysticaljourney.html
Morris, James. He moves you through the land and sea... learning from the earthly journey in The Journey of the Heart, ed. J.
Mercer. Oxford: MIAS, 1996, 4170.

Ali Hussain

Miscellaneous*
Abrahamov, Binyamin. Abandoning the Station (tark al-maqam),
as Relecting Ibn al-Arabis Principle of Relativity JMIAS 47
(2010), 2346.
Addas, Claude. The Muhammadian House: Ibn Arabis concept of
ahl al-bayt JMIAS 50 (2011), 7795.
Batubara, Chuzaimah. Towards the Straight Path of God: Ibn Arabis
conception of Soul JMIAS 27 (2000), 2136.
Chittick, William. Presence with God JMIAS 20 (1996), 1532.
Chodkiewicz, Michel. We Will Show Them Our Signs ... JMIAS
50 (2011), 2333.
Derin, Suleyman. Whoever loses himself inds Me, and whoever
inds Me never loses Me again JMIAS 42 (2007), 2338.
Elmore, Gerald. Hamd al-hamd: The paradox of praise in Ibn
al-Arabis doctrine of Oneness in Praise, ed. S. Hirtenstein.
Oxford: MIAS, 1997, 5993.
Gril, Denis. Commentaries on the Fatiha and Experience of the
Being According to Ibn Arabi JMIAS 20 (1996), 3352: http://
www.ibnarabisociety.org/articles/fatiha_commentaries.html
there is no word in the world that does not indicate His praise
in Praise, ed. S. Hirtenstein. Oxford: MIAS, 1997, 3143: http://
www.ibnarabisociety.org/articles/indicatehispraise.html
Hakim, Souad. Unity of Being in Ibn Arabi: A Humanist Perspective JMIAS 36 (2004), 1537: http://www.ibnarabisociety.org/
articles/unityofbeing.html
Hirtenstein, Stephen. Between the Secret Chamber and the
Well-trodden Path: Ibn Arabis exposition of the wajh al-khass
JMIAS 18 (1995), 4156.
The land of the Olive: Between East and West Orientations
towards the Sun of Unity in the work of Ibn Arabi JMIAS 40
(2006), 6788.
The Mystics Kaba: the cubic wisdom of the Heart according
to Ibn Arabi JMIAS 48 (2010), 1944.
Jaffray, Angela. Watered with One Water: Ibn Arabi on the One and
the Many JMIAS 43 (2008), 120: http://www.ibnarabisociety
.org/articles/watered.html
Kaukua, Jari. I in the Eye of God: Ibn Arabi on the Divine Human
Self JMIAS 47 (2010), 122.
Mangera, Huzayfa. Three Dimensions of the Ruh JMIAS 38 (2005),
2350: http://www.ibnarabisociety.org/articles/dimensionsofruh
.html
Rustom, Mohammed. Ibn Arabi on Proximity and Distance:
Chapters 260 and 261 of the Futuhat JMIAS 41 (2007), 93107.

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137

Twinch, Cecilia. The Wisdom of the Heart: A turning sphere, a


travelling star JMIAS 46 (2009), 3955.
yiangou, Alison. Theres No Time like The Present! JMIAS 41
(2007), 6373. http://www.ibnarabisociety.org/articles/no-time
-like-present.html

al-Futuhat al-Makkiyya
Ruspoli, Stphane. lalchimie du bonheur parfait: Mohyiddin Ibn
Arabi. Paris: Berg, 1981.
Other Prose Writings
Abadi, Avraham. Translation of Ibn Arabis The Book of Alif (or) The
Book of Unity JMIAS 2 (1984), 1540.
Translation of Ibn Arabis Theophany of Perfection JMIAS 1
(1982), 2629.
Palacios, Miguel Asin. Vidas de santones andaluces: la Epistola de la santidad de Ibn Arabi de Murcia. Madrid: Impr. de E. Maestre, 1933.
Austin, Ralph. The Mystery of Prayer: A poem from al-Futuhat
al-Makkiyya in Prayer & Contemplation, ed. S. Hirtenstein.
Oxford: MIAS, 1993, 1.
Beneito, Pablo and Stephen Hirtenstein. Ibn Arabis Treatise on
the Knowledge of the Night of Power and Its Timing JMIAS 27
(2000), 119.
The Seven Days of the Heart: Prayers for the days and nights
of the week (Awrad al-usbu), review by J. Clark. JMIAS 30
(2001), 107112.
Elmore, Gerald. Ibn Arabis Testament on the Mantle of Initiation
(al-Khirqah) JMIAS 26 (1999), 133: www.ibnarabisociety.org/
articlespdf/nasab.pdf
A Selection of Texts on the Theme of Praise from some Gnomic
Works by Ibn al-Arabi JMIAS 23 (1998), 5885.
Fenton, Paul. The Hidden Secret Concerning the Tomb of Ibn
Arabi: A treatise by Abd al-Ghani an-Nabulusi JMIAS 22
(1997), 2540.

Journal of the Muhyiddin Ibn Arabi Society, Vol. 52, 2012

Translations
Fusus al-Hikam
Burckhardt, Titus. La Sagesses des Prophtes (Fusus al-Hikam). Paris:
A. Michel, 1955.
Gilis, Charles-Andr. Le Livre des chatons des sagesses. Beyrouth: AlBouraq, 1998.
Koler, Hans. Fusus al-Hikam. Das Buch der Siegelringsteine der
Weisheitssprche. Graz: Akadem, 1970.

Ali Hussain

Gilis, Charles-Andr. The Secrets of the fast. Beirut: Editions AlBouraq, 1999.
Gril, Denis. Le dvoilement des effets du voyage. Paris: Editions de
lclat, 1994.
Hakim, Souad and Pablo Beneito. Las Contemplaciones de los
misterios. Murcia: Regional de Murcia, 1996.
Hirtenstein, Stephen and layla Shamash. Translation of Kitab
al-fana i-l mushahadah JMIAS 9 (1991), 117.
Morris, James. The Spiritual Ascension: Ibn Arabi and the Miraj
Journal of the American Oriental Society 107 (1987): 629652.
Rizvi, Sajjad. A Treatise Attributed to Shaykh Muhyi al-Din on the
Ultimate Reality (Haqiqat al-haqaiq) JMIAS 35 (2004), 124.
Ruspoli, Stphane. Le livre des thophanies dIbn Arabi: introduction philosophique, commentaire et traduction annote du Kitab
al-tajalliyat. Paris: Cerf, 2000.
Poetry
Cass, Aaron. The Ransom and the Ruin Ibn Arabi Symposium on
Poetry 1998: http://www.ibnarabisociety.org/articles/cass.html
Elmore, Gerald. A Poem by Ibn Arabi, The Kiss JMIAS 24 (1998), v.
Hameen-Antilla, Jaakko. Journey through desert, Journey towards
God: The use of Metaphors of Movement and Space in Ibn
Arabis Tarjuman al-Ashwaq JMIAS 37 (2005), 99125.
Hirtenstein, Stephen. A Poem by Ibn Arabi JMIAS 20 (1996).
lings, Martin. Sui Poems: A Medieval Anthology. Cambridge: Islamic
Texts Society, 2004.
McAuley, Denis. See Him in a tree, and see Him in a stone: Ibn
Arabis ultra-monorhyme in comparative perspective JMIAS
47 (2010), 6386.
Sells, Michael. Ibn Arabis Poem 18 (Qif bi l-Manazil) From the
Translation of Desires JMIAS 18 (1995), 5765: http://www.
ibnarabisociety.org/articles/sellstarjuman.html
http://www.ibnarabisociety.org/articles/sellswaystations.html
Mystical Languages of Unsaying. Chicago: University of Chicago, 1994.
Poem: Dead on the Trail in Dhat al-Ada JMIAS 50 (2011), vii.

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138

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139

Polemics
Knysh, Alexander. Ibn Arabi in the yemen: His Admirers and
detractors JMIAS 11 (1992), 3863.
Massignon, louis. La passion de Husayn ibn Mansur Hallaj: martyr
mystique de lIslam excut Bagdad le 26 mars 922. Paris: Gallimard, 1975.
Sirry, M. Jamal al-Din al-Qasimi and the Salai Approach to Suism
Brill Academic Publishers 51 no. 1 (2011), 75108.

Chodkiewicz, Michel. Miraj al-kalima: from the Risala Qushayriyya


to the Futuhat Makkiyya JMIAS 45 (2009), 119.
Garrido, Pilar. The Science of letters in Ibn Masarra: Uniied Word,
Uniied World JMIAS 47 (2010), 4761.
Twinch, Cecilia. Created for Compassion: Ibn Arabis work on
dhul-nun the Egyptian JMIAS 47 (2010), 109129.

Comparative Endeavors
Mystical Traditions
Dobie, Robert. Logos & Revelation: Ibn Arabi, Meister Eckhart, and
mystical hermeneutics. Washington: Catholic University of
America Press, 2010.
Dupr, Adam. Muhyiddin Ibn Arabi and St. Albertus Magnus of
cologne JMIAS 1 (1982), 1225.
Frazee, Charles. Ibn al-Arabi and Spanish Mysticism of the Sixteenth Century Numen 14 no. 1 (1967): 229.
Kakaie, Ghasem. Interreligious Dialogue: Ibn Arabi and Meister
Eckhart JMIAS 45 (2009), 4563: http://www.ibnarabisociety
.org/articles/interreligious-dialogue.html
Pacheco, Jos Anton-. Ibn Arabi and Swedenborg: Proposals for a
Figurative Philosophy JMIAS 42 (2007), 5970.
Smirnov, Andrey. Nicholas of Cusa and Ibn Arabi: Two Philosophies of Mysticism Philosophy East and West 43 no. 1 (1993):
6585.
zargar, Cyrus. Sui Aesthetics: Beauty, Love and the Human Form in
the Writings of Ibn Arabi. South Carolina: University of South
Carolina, 2011.
Sui Tradition
Benassa, Omar. The Unity of the School of Ibn Arabi and Rumi
JMIAS 44 (2008), 5364.

Journal of the Muhyiddin Ibn Arabi Society, Vol. 52, 2012

Sources of Inluence

140

Ali Hussain

Ceyhan, Semih. Al-Qunawis inluence on the Ottoman Mathnawi


Commentary Tradition: History, intellectual context and the
case of Abdullah al-Bosnawi JMIAS 49 (2011), 3568.
Sai, Omid. Did the Two Oceans Meet? JMIAS 26 (1999), 5588.

Miscellaneous*
Keller, Carl-A. Praise as a means to mystical advancement, according to Ibn Arabi and other religious traditions in Praise, ed. S.
Hirtenstein. Oxford: MIAS, 1997, 1929.
Neumann, Wolfgang. Der Mensch und sein Doppelgnger: Alter
ego-vorstellungen in Mesoamerika und im Suismus des Ibn
Arabi. Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner verlag GmbH, 1981.

Posteriority
Sadr al-Din Qunawi
Aladdin, Bakri. The Mystery of Destiny (sirr al-qadar) in Ibn Arabi
and al-Qunawi JMIAS 49 (2011), 129146.
Ceyhan, Semih. Al-Qunawis Inluence on the Ottoman Mathnawi
Commentary Tradition: History, intellectual context and the
case of Abdullah al-Bosnawi JMIAS 49 (2011), 3568.
Chittick, William. Qunawi on the One Wujud JMIAS 49 (2011),
111128.
Clark, Jane. Early Best-sellers in the Akbarian Tradition: The Dissemination of Ibn Arabis Teaching through Sadr al-din
al-Qunawi JMIAS 33 (2003), 2253: www.ibnarabisociety.org/
articlespdf/bestsellers.pdf
Towards a Biography of Sadr al-Din al-Qunawi JMIAS 49
(2011), 134.
Hirtenstein, Stephen. The Image of Guidance: Sadr al-Din alQunawi as hadith commentator JMIAS 49 (2011), 6982.
Hirtenstein, Stephen, and Hulya Kucuk. Sadr al-Din al-Qunawis
al-Nusus: considerations of al-Haqq and tahqiq JMIAS 49
(2011), 107116.
Sahin, Bekir. The library of Sadruddin al-Qunawi JMIAS 49 (2011),
147154.

Journal of the Muhyiddin Ibn Arabi Society, Vol. 52, 2012

Philosophy
Golan, Michael. A Brief Sketch of a Guide for the Bewildered:
Perplexity in the thought of al-Ghazali, Ibn Arabi and the
modern philosophy JMIAS 48 (2010), 97120.
Khatami, Mahmoud. Descartes and Ibn Arabi on The Illuminative
Path to the Self JMIAS 31 (2002), 2943.

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141

Islamic Traditions
Addas, Claude. At the distance of two bows length or even
closer: The igure of the Prophet in the work of Abd al-Karim
Jili (Part One) JMIAS 45 (2009), 6588.
Ballanfat, Paul. Reality and Image in the Tafsir of Kubra and razi
JMIAS 35 (2004), 75108: http:/www.ibnarabisociety.org/
articles/realityandimage.html
Chittick, William. Notes on Ibn al-Arabis inluence in the subcontinent The Muslim World 82 no. 34 (1992): 218241.
Culme-Seymour, Angela. Bulent and the Blue Fusus JMIAS 26
(1999), 3442.
Haizovic, Reid. A Bosnian Commentator on the Fusus al-hikam
JMIAS 47 (2010), 87107.
langhi, Fatima Ahmad. Ajami Mysteries of Sitt Ajam Bint al-Nais:
a Feminine Hermeneutic of an Heiress of Ibn Arabi JMIAS 46
(2009), 67101.
Ryan, Christopher. The life and Interesting Times of Osman Fazli
JMIAS 43 (2008), 107127.
Shelley, Christopher. Abdullah Effendi: Commentator on the Fusus
al-Hikam JMIAS 17 (1995), 7985.
Weismann, Itzchak. A Taste of Modernity: Suism, Salaiyya, and Arabism in Late Ottoman Damascus. leiden, 2000.

Contemporary Contextualizations
Brown, vahid. A Counter-History of Islam: Ibn Arabi within the
Spiritual topography of Henry corbin JMIAS 32 (2002), 4565.
Buchman, D. Structuralism reconsidered: Ibn al-Arabi and cultural
variation in Muslim societies Muslim World 94 no. 1 (2004):
131138.
Coates, Peter. By Way of Essential Meaning JMIAS 36 (2004), 113.
Kili, Mahmud. The Importance of Reviving a Traditional Understanding of Islam in the Modern World JMIAS 40 (2006),
5966.

Journal of the Muhyiddin Ibn Arabi Society, Vol. 52, 2012

Akbari School
Hirtenstein, Stephen. Malatyan soil, Akbarian fruit: From Ibn
Arabi to Niyazi Misri JMIAS 51 (2012), 103132.
Ko, Turan. All-Comprehensiveness According to Daud al-Qaysari,
and its Implications JMIAS 27 (2000), 5362.
Rustom, Mohammed. Dawud al-Qaysari: Notes on his life, Inluence and Relections on the Muhammadan Reality JMIAS 38
(2005), 5164.