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material used for mixing with cement, bitumen(asphalt), lime, gypsum(plaster of Paris), or other
adhesive to form concrete or mortar.
gives volume, stability, resistance to wear or erosion, and other desired physical properties to the
finished product.


Fine Aggregates are basically sands from the land or the marine environment. Fine aggregates
generally consist of natural sand or crushed stone with most particles passing through a 9.5mm sieve.
- Sand
- Crushed Limestones
- Granulated blast furnace slag (GBS) a by-product slag material from the iron and steel
- Expanded perlite aggregate (EPA) made from an amorphous alumino-silicate rock. It is a
heat and sound insulator, and lightweight material which
ensures economical benefits in constructions.
Coarse Aggregates are granular material greater than 4.75mm, but generally range between 9.5mm
to 37.5mm in diameter.
- Mineral gravel
- Limestone aggregates
- Granite aggregates
- Crushed Coquina Limestones + fragments of shells
- Slag aggregates *slag waste matter separated from metals




Constructional in general
- used to provide drainage, fill voids, protect pipes, and to provide hard surfaces
- used in water filtration and sewage treatment processes
* Water will percolate through a trench filled with aggregate more quickly than it will through the
surrounding soil, thus enabling an area to be drained of surface water.
- used frequently on alongside roads in order to disperse water collected from the asphalt surfacing
- The purpose of the aggregates within this mixture is to provide a rigid skeletal structure and to
reduce the space occupied by the cement paste.
Asphalt and Roadstone
- This category includes not just roads, but also pavements, airport runways, school playgrounds, car
parks, most footpaths or cycleways, and other similar structures.
* Although each type of structure will require some variation in the material, it is useful to look at the
basic structure of roads because they represent the bulk of the aggregate use in this category.

In some circumstances, lime may also be added, together with admixtures (chemicals to control
setting and workability) and/or pigments if required;
* The most often used admixtures are air-entraining agents, water reducers, water-reducing
retarders and accelerators.
- used to bond bricks or concrete blocks together in walls
- used to provide weather protection (known as rendering)
- There are also types of mortar that can be used as internal plasters, but these should not be
confused with the more normally used gypsum based, plasters.
Railway ballast
* Ballast - used to provide stability to a vehicle or structure.
- This generally consists of a tough igneous rock, such as granite, with large (40-50 mm size) angular
pieces that lock together.
* Because of the way igneous rock is formed, it is highly resistant to pressure and does not break
- A substance manufactured from limestone and shale, with other minor additives, at temperatures
in excess of 1200C.
- It has unique properties: as a powder, it is loose and friable but mixed with water, it hydrates into
a paste and then as it dries it sets hard and binds all the surrounding particles together.
- Even once it seems to be solid, cement will continue to hydrate and chemically interlock, so that a
concrete structure will continue to gain in strength for at least a month, and in some cases three
months, after formation.
- Virtually, all of the cement produced is used in concrete.
* Agricultural Lime - To redress the balance, this is applied to fields to maintain the necessary
growing conditions for crops or grassland.
- Lime can be simply ground limestone or dolomite (which also contains magnesium) or burnt
limestone, (or burnt dolomite) where the rock is heated in a kiln (thermally insulated chamber).


Made from melting silica sand at a high temperature, in the presence of sodium as a flux.
The molten glass, at approximately 1000C, is poured continuously from a furnace onto a shallow
bath of molten tin, where it spreads out evenly. It is then cooled quickly before crystallization can
Industrial and other uses
- Limestone is used as a flux in the extraction of iron from iron ore
* Iron is extracted from ore by heating in a furnace
- Sand, usually silica sand, is used to make moulds in a foundry.

Two common characteristics of materials:

Cohesiveness the ability of particles of a material to cling tightly to one another.

Adhesiveness the ability of a material to fix itself and cling to an entirely different material.



Animal Glue
* Available in either solid or liquid form.
* Solid glue is melted and applied hot; it is slow setting and allows time for adjustment to the glue
- Animal glue has excellent bonding properties with wood, leather, paper or cloth developing up to
12000 psi in. shear;
- has moderate resistance to heat and good resistance to cold but poor resistance to water;
- cures by air drying at room temperature
Blood-Aluminum Glue
* This is a special animal glue made for use particularly with leather and paper.
- has only very moderate bonding power with wood;
- usually sold as a dry powder which is mixed with water;
- has fair resistance to both heat and cold but poor resistance to water;
- dries from 150 to 200F
Casein Glue
- Made from protein materials, and is a dry powder to be mixed with water
- has good bonding power for wood-to-wood or paper-to-wood application and will develop the full
strength of the wood in most situations;
- has good dry heat resistance and moderate resistance to cold;
- has moderate resistance to water but does not perform well when subjected to high humidity or
wetting and dying cycles;
- subjected to attack from molds, fungi, and other wood organisms;
- dries to as low as 35 F with moderate pressure
Starch and Dextrin Glues
* Available in both dry and liquid state (the dry glue being mixed with water).
- have good bond with paper or leather and fair bond with wood, but strength does not compare
with those of animal or casein glues;
- have fair resistance to heat and cold but poor resistance to water;
- dries at room temperature
Asphalt Cement
- Thermoplastic materials made from asphalt emulsions or asphalt cutbacks.
- has a good bond to paper and concrete and are used mainly for roofing applications and for
laminating layers of wood fireboard;
- has relatively poor resistance to heat but good resistance to cold and good water resistance
Cellulose Cement
* A common solvent is ethyl acetate.
- thermoplastic in nature and have good bond to wood, paper, leather or glass, developing up to
1400 psi in shear with wood;
- has moderate resistance to both heat and cold and good resistance to water;
- cures by air drying and setting
Chlorinated-Rubber Adhesives
* usually liquid
* The usual solvent is ketone
- have good bond for paper and fair bind with wood, metal or glass, but strength does not compare
with animal or casein glues;

- have moderate resistance to heat, cold, and water but poor resistance to creep;
- cures by drying at room temperature
Natural-Rubber Adhesives
* usually latex emulsions or dissolved crepe rubber
- have a good bond with rubber or leather and fair bond with wood; ceramics, or glass, developing
strength of about 350 psi in tension with wood;
- have fair resistance to heat and cold, good resistance to water, but poor resistance to creep;
- Room temperature is sufficient for drying.
Nitrile or Buna N Rubber Adhesive
* available in both thermoplastic and thermosetting types
- The thermosetting type will develop up to 400 psi shear and the thermoplastic type up to 600 psi.
- has good bond with wood, paper, porcelain, enamel and polyester film or sheet;
- has good resistance to heat and cold and excellent water resistance, while its creep resistance is
fairly good;
- cures under heat
Neoprene-Rubber Adhesives
- essentially thermoplastic in nature, though they may have some thermosetting characteristics
- have excellent bond with wood, asbestos board, metals, glass and some plastics with strength up to
1200 psi in shear;
- have a good resistance to heat and cold and excellent resistance to water; creep resistance is fairly
- used to cement plastic laminated to walls or flat surface, in cementing gypsum board to studs and
ceiling joists, and for laminating one layer of gypsum board to another
Urea Formaldehyde Resin Glue
* available in powder form to be mixed with water, and in liquid form, which requires the addition of
a hardener
- thermosetting in nature, with excellent bond to wood, leather, or paper having shear strength of
up to 2800 psi;
- have a good resistance to heat and cold and fair resistance to water; creep resistance is good;
- Wood welding can be done by applying a high-frequency electric current directly to joint for rapid
Phenolic Resin Glues
- made in both dry and liquid form
- thermosetting glues with excellent bond to wood and paper; shear strength up to 2800 psi are
- have excellent resistance to heat, cold, creep, and water;
- Some set at room temperature, while others require a hot press. These hot press glues are
commonly used in the manufacture of plywoods.
Melamine Resins
* Melamine-formaldehyde resin glues are manufactured as a powder mixed with water and may be
either hot setting or intermediate-temperature-setting types
- thermosetting glues manufactured as a powder with a separated catalyst;
- have excellent bond with wood or paper resistance to heat, cold, creep and water are excellent;
- cured under hot press at 300 F
Resorcinol Resins
- usually made as a liquid with separate catalyst

have good bond with wood or paper, developing shear strength up to 1950 psi with wood;
have very good resistance to heat, cold and creep and are generally used where a water proof joint
is required;
- Some cure at room temperatures, while others require moderate heat up to 200 F.
Epoxy resins
- thermosetting in nature, manufactured in liquid form with a separate catalyst; the amount of
catalyst added determines the type of curing required.
- have excellent bond with wood, metal, glass and masonry and are widely used in the manufacture
of laminated curtain-wall panels of various kinds;
- used in making repairs to broken concrete;
- have excellent resistance to both heat and cold, while creep resistance and water resistance vary
widely, depending upon how the glue is compounded;
- Adding a regular catalyst, curing is by hot press, up to 3900F while adding a strong catalyst results
in glue which will cure at room temperature.
* resin adhesives, in the form of an emulsion
- has a good bond with wood or paper or vinyl plastics and reasonably good bond with metal; shear
strengths up to 1,000 psi are developed with wood
- Resistance to cold is good, but heat, creep, and water resistance are only fair.
- cure at room temperature
Sodium silicate adhesives
- liquids which have excellent bond with paper or glass and reasonably good bond with wood or
- Resistance to heat, cold and creep are good, but water resistance is poor.
- Some cure at room temperature, while others requires moderate heat, in the 200F range.

SEALANTS Products which are used to seal the surface of various materials against the penetration of
water or other liquids or in some cases to prevent the escape of water through the surface. To
do this, they must have some adhesive qualities and the ability to fill the surface pores and
form a continuous skin on the surface to which they are applied. In many applications, the
adhesion should be permanent, while in others it needs only to be temporary.


Liquid Asphalt (Bitumen) - either in cutback form or as asphalt emulsion. It is used to coat the outer
surface of concrete below ground level to prevent the penetration of water to the interior through
pores in the concrete. Another similar use is to seal the inside surface of wooden or concrete water
tanks. Another use is as a sealer or primer over a concrete slab before asphaltic tile adhesive is applied.
Here, the sealer prevents liquids from being withdrawn from the flooring or adhesive, allowing it to
become dry and hard. In order to be effective as a waterproofing membrane, sealers must be
elastomeric in character. That is, they must be resilient enough to be able to expand over small cracks
in the base surface without losing their effectiveness, and be able to bridge joints between members
without rupture, in. case of movement at the joint.
Polysulfide Polymers - This has excellent adhesive qualities, is highly flexible, and *maybe applied
either by hand or by spray. They are being used in exterior walls of foundations, between two-course
concrete slab floors, on roof decks, as swimming pool waterproofing and under roof flashing. These
polysulfide-polymer sealers are two-component, chemically curing materials which are produced for

either hand or machine mixing. The hand-mix sealer has a work life of approximately 4 hours and
curing time of 24 hours at 75F. The machine-mixed variety will have a work life of about 5 minutes
and curing time of approximately 45 minutes. One gallon of prepared sealer will cover approximately
25 sq. ft. or about 3 to 5 sq. m with a membrane of 60 mils thickness, which will expand and contract
the base without cracking.
Solution of sodium silicate - used to seal the inside surface of concrete liquid containers. The sodium
silicate forms a gel-like film on the surface to prevent water penetration.
Wax compounds - made in the form of emulsions to be sprayed over the surface of newly placed
concrete. The wax oxidizes to form a continuous film prevents the evaporation of water from concrete
in this case the adhesion is only temporary. As the wax continues to oxidize it becomes hard and brittle
and flakes or is worn off the concrete by traffic. Other waxes are used to make sealers for concrete and
terrazzo floors which prevent the penetration of oil and grease into the floor surface.
Liquid silicones - are used as sealers over concrete, brick and tile masonry to prevent the penetration
of water into the surface. The absorption of water by masonry walls often leads to staining and
efflorescence. The silicone sealers are particularly valuable for such applications because they are
colorless and do not affect the application of the wall.
Oils and Turpentines - sealers used to seal wood surfaces before the application of paint or varnish.
They penetrate into and are absorbed by the wood fibers so that the vehicle in paints and varnish will
not be similarly absorbed. Similar sealers are used to seal wood which will not be painted against
moisture penetration.
Synthetic plastic products - sealers for wood which form a film over the surface and allow better
bonding of synthetic lacquers to wood.
Thin solutions of Animal and Casein glues -are used to coat the surface of plaster and gypsum board
under paint. These products are commonly known as wall sizing.
Epoxy-resin formulation - used as sealers over concrete, wood, or old terrazzo surfaces before epoxyresin terrazzo is applied. The thin liquid adheres to and seals the old surface and provides good bond
for the new application. Similar sealers are used under concrete surface repairs.


It must be able to adhere to the surface with which it comes in contact.

It must remain workable over a considerable range of temperature.
It must be able to form a tough, elastic skin over the surface, while the interior of the mass remains
It must be able to stretch or elongate with changes that may occur in the width of the joint.
It must have good movement capability that is, it must have movement in either extension or
compression from that mean.
It must be able to recover well after having been extended or compressed.
It must have very low sensitivity to water.
It must have low volatility.
It must be able to provide good service performance.



Mastics group of caulking compounds include linseed-oil-putty, linseed-oil-isobutylene caulks, mastic

glazing and caulking compounds, this has a recovery of 0 to 10 percent.

Elastomastics include butyl caulks having a solvent base, acrylic caulks with solvent or emulsion base,
and acrylic caulks which are 100% solids and one part polymercaptan. This has a recovery of 10 to 49
Elastomers include one and two part polysulfides containing 100 percent solids one part silicone with
100 percent solids, one and two part urethanes with 100 percent solids, vinyl chloride polymers, and
butadiene styrene copolymers.
Elastoplastics include neoprene and hypolon caulks with a solvent base.
Plastics include high-molecular weight caulking materials which are specially treated to be extruded
as plastic or cellular sheets or strips.



Linseed-oil putty (most common) used almost exclusively for glazing wooden sash. It is made by
mixing very finely ground calcium carbonate with raw linseed oil. Putty tends to become hard and
brittle with age, but its life can be extended by priming the sash before glazing and by frequent
* Mastic glazing and caulking compounds are composed of a number of materials blended to produce a
substance which has a much longer life than putty and which may have an elongation rate of up to 10
percent. They are made up of:
1. Drying oil - a vegetable oil such as soya-bean or linseed oil to provide the cohesion and
absorbs oxygen from air to produce a dry film.
2. Nondrying oil - a hydrocarbon-oil is included to plasticize and to help the material maintain
its flexibility with age.
3. Drier-used to accelerate the formation of a surface skin and is usually a metallic salt.
4. Solvents - used to adjust workability.
5. Mineral stabilizer - often an asbestos fiber, which helps the caulking to maintain its position
or shape prior to set.
6. Filler - usually a very low finely powdered limestone which gives the caulking body, and
reduces shrinkage.
* The caulking materials described above are oxidizing types and are used in exposed areas where
painting over their surface may be desirable.

Asphalt and polybutene caulking compounds are mastic materials. They are non-oxidizing and set
through the evaporation of the solvent. Both may have fillers and stabilizers combined with them and
give good results where a skin is not required. Like under flashings, between lapped joints, and in
hidden joints between wood and masonry.
Polysulfide elastomers has two types; one is a two-component type of caulking, consisting of a base
compound and an accelerator. It cures by polymerization. The rate of curing being increased with
increasing temperature and humidity. It is normally applied by a caulking gun.
Silicone mastic caulking one component product which cures on exposure to air. It has excellent
adhesion and can be used where high elongation properties are required. This caulking is available in a
number of colors.
Butyl, neoprene and hypalon mastic caulkings are solvent types made with fillers and pigments and
are thus available in a range of colors.
Cellular sponge sheet and strips produced from high-molecular weight materials, with similar
properties as mastic caulking. The disadvantage of using this is that special adhesives are required to
join strips, and may not be available in the field.