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material used for mixing with cement, bitumen(asphalt), lime, gypsum(plaster of Paris), or other
adhesive to form concrete or mortar.
gives volume, stability, resistance to wear or erosion, and other desired physical properties to the
finished product.


Fine Aggregates – are basically sands from the land or the marine environment. Fine aggregates
generally consist of natural sand or crushed stone with most particles passing through a 9.5mm sieve.
- Sand
- Crushed Limestones
- Granulated blast furnace slag (GBS) – a by-product slag material from the iron and steel
- Expanded perlite aggregate (EPA) – made from an amorphous alumino-silicate rock. It is a
heat and sound insulator, and lightweight material which
ensures economical benefits in constructions.
Coarse Aggregates – are granular material greater than 4.75mm, but generally range between 9.5mm
to 37.5mm in diameter.
- Mineral gravel
- Limestone aggregates
- Granite aggregates
- Crushed Coquina – Limestones + fragments of shells
- Slag aggregates – *slag – waste matter separated from metals




Constructional in general
- used to provide drainage, fill voids, protect pipes, and to provide hard surfaces
- used in water filtration and sewage treatment processes
* Water will percolate through a trench filled with aggregate more quickly than it will through the
surrounding soil, thus enabling an area to be drained of surface water.
- used frequently on alongside roads in order to disperse water collected from the asphalt surfacing
- The purpose of the aggregates within this mixture is to provide a rigid skeletal structure and to
reduce the space occupied by the cement paste.
Asphalt and Roadstone
- This category includes not just roads, but also pavements, airport runways, school playgrounds, car
parks, most footpaths or cycleways, and other similar structures.
* Although each type of structure will require some variation in the material, it is useful to look at the
basic structure of roads because they represent the bulk of the aggregate use in this category.

Railway ballast * Ballast . The molten glass. (or burnt dolomite) where the rock is heated in a kiln (thermally insulated chamber). .used to provide stability to a vehicle or structure. at approximately 1000ºC. with other minor additives.A substance manufactured from limestone and shale.Even once it seems to be solid. cement will continue to hydrate and chemically interlock.Virtually.Lime can be simply ground limestone or dolomite (which also contains magnesium) or burnt limestone. usually silica sand.-    In some circumstances. .  Glass -  Made from melting silica sand at a high temperature. It is then cooled quickly before crystallization can occur. Adhesiveness – the ability of a material to fix itself and cling to an entirely different material. and in some cases three months. where it spreads out evenly. . is poured continuously from a furnace onto a shallow bath of molten tin. .This generally consists of a tough igneous rock. it is loose and friable… but mixed with water. water-reducing retarders and accelerators.used to provide weather protection (known as rendering) . . . together with admixtures (chemicals to control setting and workability) and/or pigments if required. water reducers. so that a concrete structure will continue to gain in strength for at least a month. this is applied to fields to maintain the necessary growing conditions for crops or grassland. such as granite. ADHESIVES Two common characteristics of materials:   Cohesiveness – the ability of particles of a material to cling tightly to one another. in the presence of sodium as a flux.There are also types of mortar that can be used as internal plasters.It has unique properties: as a powder. at temperatures in excess of 1200ºC.Sand.To redress the balance. Agriculture * Agricultural Lime .used to bond bricks or concrete blocks together in walls . Industrial and other uses . is used to make moulds in a foundry. * Because of the way igneous rock is formed.Limestone is used as a flux in the extraction of iron from iron ore * Iron is extracted from ore by heating in a furnace . Cement . lime may also be added. but these should not be confused with the more normally used gypsum based. all of the cement produced is used in concrete. with large (40-50 mm size) angular pieces that lock together. after formation. it hydrates into a paste and then as it dries it sets hard and binds all the surrounding particles together. . it is highly resistant to pressure and does not break easily. plasters. * The most often used admixtures are air-entraining agents.

. . * Solid glue is melted and applied hot.has moderate resistance to heat and good resistance to cold but poor resistance to water. .have good bond for paper and fair bind with wood.TYPES OF ADHESIVES        [ABCSACCNNNUPMREPS] Animal Glue * Available in either solid or liquid form. .subjected to attack from molds. shear. leather. but strength does not compare with those of animal or casein glues.has a good bond to paper and concrete and are used mainly for roofing applications and for laminating layers of wood fireboard.have good bond with paper or leather and fair bond with wood. . it is slow setting and allows time for adjustment to the glue joint.Thermoplastic materials made from asphalt emulsions or asphalt cutbacks.has good bonding power for wood-to-wood or paper-to-wood application and will develop the full strength of the wood in most situations. . .dries at room temperature Asphalt Cement . . . . paper or cloth developing up to 12000 psi in. .has fair resistance to both heat and cold but poor resistance to water. . .thermoplastic in nature and have good bond to wood. . .Animal glue has excellent bonding properties with wood.has moderate resistance to both heat and cold and good resistance to water.has relatively poor resistance to heat but good resistance to cold and good water resistance Cellulose Cement * A common solvent is ethyl acetate. .has only very moderate bonding power with wood.usually sold as a dry powder which is mixed with water.has good dry heat resistance and moderate resistance to cold. and other wood organisms. paper.dries from 150 to 200F Casein Glue . fungi. but strength does not compare with animal or casein glues. leather or glass.cures by air drying and setting Chlorinated-Rubber Adhesives * usually liquid * The usual solvent is ketone . . metal or glass.Made from protein materials. . . .cures by air drying at room temperature Blood-Aluminum Glue * This is a special animal glue made for use particularly with leather and paper. and is a dry powder to be mixed with water .dries to as low as 35 F with moderate pressure Starch and Dextrin Glues * Available in both dry and liquid state (the dry glue being mixed with water).has moderate resistance to water but does not perform well when subjected to high humidity or wetting and dying cycles. developing up to 1400 psi in shear with wood.have fair resistance to heat and cold but poor resistance to water.

.       . . . and in liquid form. and water.The thermosetting type will develop up to 400 psi shear and the thermoplastic type up to 600 psi.have excellent bond with wood or paper resistance to heat. shear strength up to 2800 psi are developed. .usually made as a liquid with separate catalyst . though they may have some thermosetting characteristics .have a good resistance to heat and cold and fair resistance to water. paper. in cementing gypsum board to studs and ceiling joists.thermosetting glues with excellent bond to wood and paper. .have fair resistance to heat and cold. metals. creep resistance is fairly good. and for laminating one layer of gypsum board to another Urea Formaldehyde Resin Glue * available in powder form to be mixed with water.has good bond with wood. while others require a hot press. ceramics.have a good bond with rubber or leather and fair bond with wood.cures under heat Neoprene-Rubber Adhesives .have moderate resistance to heat. cold. .used to cement plastic laminated to walls or flat surface. which requires the addition of a hardener . good resistance to water. These hot press glues are commonly used in the manufacture of plywoods. Phenolic Resin Glues . while its creep resistance is fairly good. Melamine Resins * Melamine-formaldehyde resin glues are manufactured as a powder mixed with water and may be either hot setting or intermediate-temperature-setting types . porcelain. with excellent bond to wood. . . cold. and water but poor resistance to creep. cold. creep resistance is good. glass and some plastics with strength up to 1200 psi in shear. developing strength of about 350 psi in tension with wood.has good resistance to heat and cold and excellent water resistance. leather.Wood welding can be done by applying a high-frequency electric current directly to joint for rapid curling. asbestos board. .made in both dry and liquid form .have excellent bond with wood. enamel and polyester film or sheet. but poor resistance to creep. creep and water are excellent. .have excellent resistance to heat.cured under hot press at 300 F Resorcinol Resins . Nitrile or Buna N Rubber Adhesive * available in both thermoplastic and thermosetting types . or glass. or paper having shear strength of up to 2800 psi. .Room temperature is sufficient for drying.essentially thermoplastic in nature.thermosetting in nature.have a good resistance to heat and cold and excellent resistance to water. creep.thermosetting glues manufactured as a powder with a separated catalyst.Some set at room temperature.cures by drying at room temperature Natural-Rubber Adhesives * usually latex emulsions or dissolved crepe rubber . . . .

and be able to bridge joints between members without rupture. In order to be effective as a waterproofing membrane. shear strengths up to 1. as swimming pool waterproofing and under roof flashing. Another similar use is to seal the inside surface of wooden or concrete water tanks. TYPES OF SEALANTS   [LPSWLOSTE] Liquid Asphalt (Bitumen) .have excellent resistance to both heat and cold. the sealer prevents liquids from being withdrawn from the flooring or adhesive. .Some cure at room temperatures. cold and creep are good. the amount of catalyst added determines the type of curing required. developing shear strength up to 1950 psi with wood. . . metal. while others require moderate heat up to 200 F.cure at room temperature Sodium silicate adhesives .This has excellent adhesive qualities. SEALANTS – Products which are used to seal the surface of various materials against the penetration of water or other liquids or in some cases to prevent the escape of water through the surface. Another use is as a sealer or primer over a concrete slab before asphaltic tile adhesive is applied. It is used to coat the outer surface of concrete below ground level to prevent the penetration of water to the interior through pores in the concrete. curing is by hot press. Polyvinyl * resin adhesives. glass and masonry and are widely used in the manufacture of laminated curtain-wall panels of various kinds. cold and creep and are generally used where a water proof joint is required. . and water resistance are only fair. . manufactured in liquid form with a separate catalyst.Resistance to cold is good. These polysulfide-polymer sealers are two-component. they must have some adhesive qualities and the ability to fill the surface pores and form a continuous skin on the surface to which they are applied. up to 3900F while adding a strong catalyst results in glue which will cure at room temperature.liquids which have excellent bond with paper or glass and reasonably good bond with wood or metal. allowing it to become dry and hard. Epoxy resins . chemically curing materials which are produced for . and *maybe applied either by hand or by spray. In many applications. They are being used in exterior walls of foundations. in the 200°F range.Resistance to heat. while creep resistance and water resistance vary widely. they must be resilient enough to be able to expand over small cracks in the base surface without losing their effectiveness.-    have good bond with wood or paper. That is. is highly flexible. but heat. Here. while in others it needs only to be temporary.either in cutback form or as asphalt emulsion. .used in making repairs to broken concrete.thermosetting in nature.Adding a regular catalyst. have very good resistance to heat. sealers must be elastomeric in character. on roof decks. .has a good bond with wood or paper or vinyl plastics and reasonably good bond with metal. in the form of an emulsion . between two-course concrete slab floors.have excellent bond with wood. To do this.Some cure at room temperature. the adhesion should be permanent. while others requires moderate heat. creep. depending upon how the glue is compounded. case of movement at the joint. but water resistance is poor.000 psi are developed with wood . . Polysulfide Polymers . in.

As the wax continues to oxidize it becomes hard and brittle and flakes or is worn off the concrete by traffic. They penetrate into and are absorbed by the wood fibers so that the vehicle in paints and varnish will not be similarly absorbed. m with a membrane of 60 mils thickness.sealers used to seal wood surfaces before the application of paint or varnish. It must have low volatility. These products are commonly known as wall sizing. ft. It must be able to form a tough. It must have good movement capability that is. brick and tile masonry to prevent the penetration of water into the surface. It must be able to stretch or elongate with changes that may occur in the width of the joint. Similar sealers are used to seal wood which will not be painted against moisture penetration.       either hand or machine mixing. wood.are used as sealers over concrete. . Solution of sodium silicate . which will expand and contract the base without cracking. The hand-mix sealer has a work life of approximately 4 hours and curing time of 24 hours at 75°F. while the interior of the mass remains flexible. Other waxes are used to make sealers for concrete and terrazzo floors which prevent the penetration of oil and grease into the floor surface. Synthetic plastic products . The machine-mixed variety will have a work life of about 5 minutes and curing time of approximately 45 minutes. Thin solutions of Animal and Casein glues -are used to coat the surface of plaster and gypsum board under paint. It must remain workable over a considerable range of temperature. this has a recovery of 0 to 10 percent. The sodium silicate forms a gel-like film on the surface to prevent water penetration. The silicone sealers are particularly valuable for such applications because they are colorless and do not affect the application of the wall.sealers for wood which form a film over the surface and allow better bonding of synthetic lacquers to wood. The thin liquid adheres to and seals the old surface and provides good bond for the new application. The wax oxidizes to form a continuous film prevents the evaporation of water from concrete in this case the adhesion is only temporary. elastic skin over the surface. it must have movement in either extension or compression from that mean.used to seal the inside surface of concrete liquid containers. It must have very low sensitivity to water. mastic glazing and caulking compounds. The absorption of water by masonry walls often leads to staining and efflorescence. linseed-oil-isobutylene caulks. CAULKING COMPOUND PROPERTIES OF CAULKING MATERIALS          It must be able to adhere to the surface with which it comes in contact. Wax compounds . or about 3 to 5 sq. It must be able to provide good service performance. FIVE GROUPS OF CAULKING COMPOUND  [MEEEPl] Mastics – group of caulking compounds include linseed-oil-putty. It must be able to recover well after having been extended or compressed.used as sealers over concrete. One gallon of prepared sealer will cover approximately 25 sq. Epoxy-resin formulation . Liquid silicones .made in the form of emulsions to be sprayed over the surface of newly placed concrete. Similar sealers are used under concrete surface repairs. Oils and Turpentines . or old terrazzo surfaces before epoxyresin terrazzo is applied.

Polysulfide elastomers – has two types. Both may have fillers and stabilizers combined with them and give good results where a skin is not required. Solvents . Like under flashings. and in hidden joints between wood and masonry. one is a two-component type of caulking. MATERIALS FOR CAULKING  [L-OPDNDMFAPSBC] Linseed-oil putty (most common) – used almost exclusively for glazing wooden sash. and butadiene – styrene copolymers. which helps the caulking to maintain its position or shape prior to set.usually a very low finely powdered limestone which gives the caulking body. Plastics – include high-molecular weight caulking materials which are specially treated to be extruded as plastic or cellular sheets or strips. It is normally applied by a caulking gun. They are non-oxidizing and set through the evaporation of the solvent. with similar properties as mastic caulking. This has a recovery of 10 to 49 percent. Elastomers – include one and two part polysulfides containing 100 percent solids one part silicone with 100 percent solids. Filler . consisting of a base compound and an accelerator. Silicone mastic caulking – one component product which cures on exposure to air. * The caulking materials described above are oxidizing types and are used in exposed areas where painting over their surface may be desirable. It is made by mixing very finely ground calcium carbonate with raw linseed oil. * Mastic glazing and caulking compounds are composed of a number of materials blended to produce a substance which has a much longer life than putty and which may have an elongation rate of up to 10 percent. The disadvantage of using this is that special adhesives are required to join strips. and may not be available in the field. one and two part urethanes with 100 percent solids. Cellular sponge sheet and strips – produced from high-molecular weight materials. They are made up of: 1. Drier-used to accelerate the formation of a surface skin and is usually a metallic salt. Nondrying oil . neoprene and hypalon mastic caulkings – are solvent types made with fillers and pigments and are thus available in a range of colors.used to adjust workability. 4. Elastoplastics – include neoprene and hypolon caulks with a solvent base.    Elastomastics – include butyl caulks having a solvent base. It has excellent adhesion and can be used where high elongation properties are required. acrylic caulks with solvent or emulsion base. but its life can be extended by priming the sash before glazing and by frequent painting.often an asbestos fiber. Putty tends to become hard and brittle with age. . between lapped joints. Drying oil . The rate of curing being increased with increasing temperature and humidity. 2. vinyl chloride polymers. 3. and reduces shrinkage. Butyl. 5. and acrylic caulks which are 100% solids and one part polymercaptan.a vegetable oil such as soya-bean or linseed oil to provide the cohesion and absorbs oxygen from air to produce a dry film. Mineral stabilizer . This caulking is available in a number of colors.a hydrocarbon-oil is included to plasticize and to help the material maintain its flexibility with age. 6.      Asphalt and polybutene caulking compounds – are mastic materials. It cures by polymerization.