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The flow past a two-dimensional cylinder is one of the most studied of aerodynamics. It

is relevant to many engineering applications. The flow pattern and the drag on a cylinder are

functions of the Reynolds number CD = f(Re), based on the cylinder diameter D and the

undisturbed free-stream velocity U. Recall that the Reynolds number represents the ratio of

inertial to viscous forces in the flow. The drag is usually expressed as a coefficient C d =

D/(V2d), where D is the drag force per unit span.

The open jet wind tunnel used in this experiment and uses the laboratory atmosphere as

the working fluid. The properties of the air in the lab vary depending on the weather so it is

important that you measure them (calibration), so that you should know what fluid you are

working with. From the point of view of the dynamics of the air, the important properties are its

density and viscosity (think of Bernoulli's equation and the Reynolds number).

Depending on the goals you choose for your measurement you will probably need to

measure the surface pressure distribution on the circular cylinder or, more specifically, the

distribution of surface pressure coefficient. The pressure coefficient is defined as Cp = (p p)/(U2) with p representing the pressure at the cylinder surface. Note that the denominator of

the pressure coefficient p - p is what is already being measured by the reference Pitot-static

system.

Aim: To measure the Coefficients of Pressure & Drag over the cylinder at different Reynolds

number.

Equipments:- low subsonic wind tunnel, multi manometer, cylinder model with pressure

tapings.

Location of Pressure port on the

Cylinder:

port No

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

Units in Deg

-40

-10

0

10

15

20

25

30

40

50

60

70

75

80

90

100

110

130

150

170

Determining the Coefficient of Pressure & Drag from surface-pressure measurements:CP = 1- 4Sin2 and

The drag on a real cylinder is, of course, not zero and can be estimated from a measured

pressure distribution as follows. Consider an element of the cylinder surface of length ds = rd

The force per unit span on the element due to a pressure normal to the element is

The drag component of this force is the component acting in the direction of the free-stream

velocity:

The integral of this around the cylinder circumference gives the total drag on the cylinder per

unit span d.

Procedure:Prepare the wind tunnel as per the given instruction in the manual for pressure

distribution of the cylinder. After the installation of the cylinder over which pressure distribution

is to be studied then connect the tube bundles from multi manometer to corresponding tube of the

cylinder model. Observe the safety precautions and fan blade clearance before the running the

tunnel.

Results:-

1) Flow visualization over the cylinder at different rpm and draw the

pictures, and specifically mention at what rpm we are viewing Karman

Vortex flow.

2) Calculate the Reynolds number at each rpm

3) Calculate the Coefficient of Pressure at each port of the cylinder by

using equations,

a) CP = 1- 4Sin2

-theoretical equation

b)

-experimental equation

4) Calculate the Drag Coefficient of the Cylinder from rpm 300 to 1100.

5) Plot the graph between CP and (from 300 to 1100rpm)

6) Plot the graph between CD and Re (from 300 to 1100rpm)

7) Conclusion

Graphs:

Pressure Distribution

The various flow phenomena are reflected in the pressure distribution on the tube surface.

Following figure provides a few distributions of the pressure coefficient Cp and the changes in

the distributions are explained by the flow mechanisms.

Drag

The total drag is generated by the friction forces and pressure forces acting on the tube.

At very low Reynolds number, the drag is mainly due to friction. With an increase of Re D the

contribution of the inertia forces begin to grow so that at high Reynolds numbers the skin friction

constitutes just a few per cent of the total drag.

Table:-1

No

Port Angle ()

Hfinal

CP

CD

1

2

3

20

Table:-2

No

Port Angle ()

Hfinal

CP

CD

1

2

3

20

Table:-3

No

1

2

3

20

Port Angle ()

Hfinal

CP

CD

Table:-4

No

1

2

3

20

Port Angle ()

Hfinal

CP

CD

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