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Aerodynamics Lab work -3-Surface Pressure Distribution over a Cylinder

The flow past a two-dimensional cylinder is one of the most studied of aerodynamics. It
is relevant to many engineering applications. The flow pattern and the drag on a cylinder are
functions of the Reynolds number CD = f(Re), based on the cylinder diameter D and the
undisturbed free-stream velocity U. Recall that the Reynolds number represents the ratio of
inertial to viscous forces in the flow. The drag is usually expressed as a coefficient C d =
D/(V2d), where D is the drag force per unit span.
The open jet wind tunnel used in this experiment and uses the laboratory atmosphere as
the working fluid. The properties of the air in the lab vary depending on the weather so it is
important that you measure them (calibration), so that you should know what fluid you are
working with. From the point of view of the dynamics of the air, the important properties are its
density and viscosity (think of Bernoulli's equation and the Reynolds number).
Depending on the goals you choose for your measurement you will probably need to
measure the surface pressure distribution on the circular cylinder or, more specifically, the
distribution of surface pressure coefficient. The pressure coefficient is defined as Cp = (p p)/(U2) with p representing the pressure at the cylinder surface. Note that the denominator of
the pressure coefficient p - p is what is already being measured by the reference Pitot-static
system.
Aim: To measure the Coefficients of Pressure & Drag over the cylinder at different Reynolds
number.
Equipments:- low subsonic wind tunnel, multi manometer, cylinder model with pressure
tapings.
Location of Pressure port on the
Cylinder:
port No
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

Units in Deg
-40
-10
0
10
15
20
25
30
40
50
60
70
75
80
90
100
110
130
150
170

Determining the Coefficient of Pressure & Drag from surface-pressure measurements:CP = 1- 4Sin2 and
The drag on a real cylinder is, of course, not zero and can be estimated from a measured
pressure distribution as follows. Consider an element of the cylinder surface of length ds = rd
The force per unit span on the element due to a pressure normal to the element is

The drag component of this force is the component acting in the direction of the free-stream
velocity:

The integral of this around the cylinder circumference gives the total drag on the cylinder per
unit span d.

Now, it is conventional to work in terms of the non-dimensional drag coefficient,

and pressure coefficient,

where D is the cylinder diameter. We therefore have,

the second integral is zero, giving,

Procedure:Prepare the wind tunnel as per the given instruction in the manual for pressure
distribution of the cylinder. After the installation of the cylinder over which pressure distribution
is to be studied then connect the tube bundles from multi manometer to corresponding tube of the
cylinder model. Observe the safety precautions and fan blade clearance before the running the
tunnel.
Results:-

1) Flow visualization over the cylinder at different rpm and draw the
pictures, and specifically mention at what rpm we are viewing Karman
Vortex flow.
2) Calculate the Reynolds number at each rpm
3) Calculate the Coefficient of Pressure at each port of the cylinder by
using equations,
a) CP = 1- 4Sin2

-theoretical equation

b)

-experimental equation

4) Compare the theoretical and experimental values.


4) Calculate the Drag Coefficient of the Cylinder from rpm 300 to 1100.
5) Plot the graph between CP and (from 300 to 1100rpm)
6) Plot the graph between CD and Re (from 300 to 1100rpm)
7) Conclusion
Graphs:
Pressure Distribution
The various flow phenomena are reflected in the pressure distribution on the tube surface.
Following figure provides a few distributions of the pressure coefficient Cp and the changes in
the distributions are explained by the flow mechanisms.

Drag
The total drag is generated by the friction forces and pressure forces acting on the tube.
At very low Reynolds number, the drag is mainly due to friction. With an increase of Re D the
contribution of the inertia forces begin to grow so that at high Reynolds numbers the skin friction
constitutes just a few per cent of the total drag.

Table:-1
No

rpm 300 (Re=.), Initial reading of manometer (Hinitial)=

Port Angle ()

Hfinal

CP

CD

1
2
3

20
Table:-2
No

rpm 500 (Re=.),, Initial reading of manometer (Hinitial)=

Port Angle ()

Hfinal

CP

CD

1
2
3

20
Table:-3
No
1
2
3

20

rpm 800 (Re=.),, Initial reading of manometer (Hinitial)=

Port Angle ()

Hfinal

CP

CD

Table:-4
No
1
2
3

20

rpm 1100 (Re=.),, Initial reading of manometer (Hinitial)=

Port Angle ()

Hfinal

CP

CD