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Example Exercise 12.

Bond Predictions

Predict whether each of the following is held together by ionic or by covalent bonds:
(b) magnesium nitride, Mg3N2
(a) ammonia, NH3

Solution
A metal ion and nonmetal ion are attracted in ionic bonds; two or more nonmetal atoms are attracted in covalent bonds.
(a) Ammonia contains the nonmetals nitrogen and hydrogen. It follows that NH3 has covalent bonds.
(b) Magnesium nitride contains a metal (Mg) and a nonmetal (N). It follows that Mg3N2 has ionic bonds.

Practice Exercise
Predict whether each of the following is held together by ionic or by covalent bonds:
(b) sulfur dioxide, SO2
(a) aluminum oxide, Al2O3
Answers: (a) ionic; (b) covalent

Concept Exercise
What type of chemical bond results from the attraction between a metal cation and a nonmetal anion?
between two nonmetal atoms?
Answer: See Appendix G.

Introductory Chemistry: Concepts and Critical Thinking, 6th Edition


Charles H. Corwin

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Example Exercise 12.2

Electron Configuration of Ions

Which noble gas has an electron configuration identical to that of each of the following ions?
(a) lithium ion
(b) oxide ion
(c) calcium ion
(d) bromide ion

Solution
Refer to the group number in the periodic table for the number of valence electrons.
(a) Lithium (Group IA/1) forms an ion by losing 1 valence electron; Li+ has only 2 electrons remaining and is
isoelectronic with He.
(b) Oxygen (Group VIA/16) forms an ion by gaining 2 electrons; thus, O2 has 10 electrons and is isoelectronic
with Ne.
(c) Calcium (Group IIA/2) forms an ion by losing 2 electrons; Ca2+ has 18 electrons remaining and is isoelectronic
with Ar.
(d) Bromine (Group VIIA/17) forms an ion by gaining 1 electron; Br- has 36 electrons and is isoelectronic with Kr.

Practice Exercise
Which noble gas element has an electron configuration identical to that of each of the following ions?
(a) potassium ion
(b) nitride ion
(c) strontium ion
(d) iodide ion
Answers:
(b) N3 is isoelectronic with Ne.
(a) K+ is isoelectronic with Ar.
(d) I is isoelectronic with Xe.
(c) Sr2+ is isoelectronic with Kr.

Concept Exercise
Which noble gas is isoelectronic with a barium ion? with an iodide ion?
Answer: See Appendix G.
Introductory Chemistry: Concepts and Critical Thinking, 6th Edition
Charles H. Corwin

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Example Exercise 12.3

Characteristics of Ionic Bonds

Which of the following statements are true regarding an ionic bond between an iron ion and a sulfide ion in an FeS
formula unit?
(a) The iron atom loses electrons and the sulfur atom gains electrons.
(b) The iron atom has a larger radius than the iron ion.
(c) Iron and sulfide ions form a bond by electrostatic attraction.

Solution
All of these statements are true regarding an ionic bond.
(a) An iron atom loses electrons and a sulfur atom gains electrons.
(b) The radius of an iron atom is greater than its ionic radius.
(c) An ionic bond is from the attraction of positive and negative ions.

Practice Exercise
Which of the following statements are true regarding an ionic bond between a zinc ion and an oxide ion in a
ZnO formula unit?
(a) Zinc and oxygen form a bond by sharing electrons.
(b) The oxygen atom is larger in radius than the oxide ion.
(c) Zinc and oxide ions form a bond by the repulsion of ions.
Answer:
(a) False, zinc and oxygen bond by transferring electrons.
(b) False, the radius of an oxygen atom is smaller than its ionic radius.
(c) False, zinc and oxygen form a bond by the attraction of ions.

Introductory Chemistry: Concepts and Critical Thinking, 6th Edition


Charles H. Corwin

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Example Exercise 12.3

Characteristics of Ionic Bonds

Continued

Concept Exercise
Which of the following statements are true regarding the formation of an ionic bond between a metal and a nonmetal?
(a) The atomic radius of a metal atom is less than its ionic radius.
(b) The atomic radius of a nonmetal atom is greater than its ionic radius.
(c) Energy is released in the formation of an ionic bond.
Answer: See Appendix G.

Introductory Chemistry: Concepts and Critical Thinking, 6th Edition


Charles H. Corwin

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Example Exercise 12.4

Characteristics of Covalent Bonds

Which of the following statements are true regarding a covalent bond between a hydrogen atom and an oxygen
atom in an H2O molecule?
(a) Valence electrons are shared by hydrogen and oxygen atoms.
(b) The HO bond length is less than the sum of the two atomic radii.
(c) Breaking the bond between HO requires energy.

Solution
All of the previous statements regarding a covalent bond in a molecule are true.
(a) Valence electrons are shared by the two nonmetal atoms.
(b) The bond length is less than the sum of the two atomic radii.
(c) The breaking of a covalent bond requires energy.

Practice Exercise
Which of the following statements are true regarding a covalent bond between a hydrogen atom and a sulfur
atom in an H2S molecule?
(a) Valence electrons are transferred from hydrogen to sulfur.
(b) The HS bond length equals the sum of the two atomic radii.
(c) Forming a bond between HS requires energy.
Answer:
(a) False, valence electrons are shared by hydrogen and sulfur.
(b) False, the bond length is less than the sum of the two atomic radii.
(c) False, the forming of a covalent bond releases energy.

Introductory Chemistry: Concepts and Critical Thinking, 6th Edition


Charles H. Corwin

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Example Exercise 12.4

Characteristics of Covalent Bonds

Continued

Concept Exercise
Which of the following statements are true regarding the formation of a covalent bond between two
nonmetal atoms?
(a) Bonding electrons are shared between two nonmetal atoms.
(b) The bond length is less than the sum of the two atomic radii.
(c) The bond energy is the energy require to break a covalent bond.
Answer: See Appendix G.

Introductory Chemistry: Concepts and Critical Thinking, 6th Edition


Charles H. Corwin

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Example Exercise 12.5

Electron Dot FormulasSingle Bonds

Draw the electron dot formula and the structural formula for a chloroform molecule, CHCl3.

Solution
Carbon is the central atom in the chloroform molecule and is indicated in bold. The
total number of valence electrons is 4 e + 1 e + 3(7 e ) = 26 e. The number of
electron pairs is 13 (26/2 = 13). We begin by placing 4 electron pairs around the
carbon and adding the one H and three Cl atoms.

We have 13 electron pairs minus the 4 pairs we used for the carbon. Since 9 electron
pairs remain, lets place 3 pairs around each chlorine.

Introductory Chemistry: Concepts and Critical Thinking, 6th Edition


Charles H. Corwin

Chloroform, CHCl3

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Example Exercise 12.5

Electron Dot FormulasSingle Bonds

Continued
Each atom is surrounded by an octet of electrons, except hydrogen, which has two. This is the correct electron dot
formula. In the corresponding structural formula we replace each bonding electron pair by a single dash. The
structural formula is

Note that the structural formula is free to rotate. We could have also written the hydrogen atom below or at the
side of the carbon atom.

Practice Exercise
Draw the electron dot formula and the structural formula for a molecule of SiHClBrI.
Answers:

Introductory Chemistry: Concepts and Critical Thinking, 6th Edition


Charles H. Corwin

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Example Exercise 12.5

Electron Dot FormulasSingle Bonds

Continued

Concept Exercise
Draw the electron dot formula for H2S. How many pairs of nonbonding electrons are in a hydrogen sulfide
molecule?

Answer: See Appendix G.

Introductory Chemistry: Concepts and Critical Thinking, 6th Edition


Charles H. Corwin

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Example Exercise 12.6

Electron Dot FormulasDouble Bonds

Draw the electron dot formula and the structural formula for a carbon dioxide molecule, CO2.

Solution
Carbon is the central atom in the carbon dioxide molecule as indicated in bold. The total number of valence electrons
is 4 e + 2(6 e) = 16 e. The number of electron pairs is 8 (16/2 = 8). We begin by placing 4 electron pairs around
the carbon and adding the two O atoms.

The number of remaining electron pairs is 8 4 = 4 pairs. We can add 2 pairs


to each oxygen.

Carbon Dioxide CO2

Each oxygen atom shares six electrons, two less than an octet. We can use the nonbonding electron pairs around
carbon to complete the octet around oxygen. We move one pair to the oxygen on the left, and the other pair to the
oxygen on the right to complete the octet around each oxygen. Each carbonoxygen bond shares two electron pairs.

Now the octet rule is satisfied for each atom. This is the correct electron dot formula. There are two electron pairs
between each oxygen and carbon. Thus, there are two double bonds in the carbon dioxide molecule. In the structural
formula each double bond is indicated by a double dash.

Introductory Chemistry: Concepts and Critical Thinking, 6th Edition


Charles H. Corwin

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Example Exercise 12.6

Electron Dot FormulasDouble Bonds

Continued

Practice Exercise
Draw the electron dot formula and the structural formula for a molecule of SiO2.
Answers:

Concept Exercise
Draw the electron dot formula for SO2. How many pairs of nonbonding electrons are in a sulfur dioxide
molecule?

Answer: See Appendix G.

Introductory Chemistry: Concepts and Critical Thinking, 6th Edition


Charles H. Corwin

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Example Exercise 12.7

Electron Dot Formulas of Polyatomic Ions

Draw the electron dot formula and the structural formula for the sulfate ion, SO42.

Solution
The total number of valence electrons is the sum of each atom plus 2 for the negative charge: 6 e + 4(6 e)
+ 2 e = 32 e. The number of electron pairs is 16 (32/2 = 16). We begin by placing 4 electron pairs around
the central sulfur atom and attaching the four oxygen atoms as follows:

We have 12 remaining electron pairs, and so we place 3 electron pairs around each oxygen atom.

Notice that each atom is surrounded by an octet of electrons. This is the correct electron dot formula. In the
structural formula each bonding electron pair is replaced by a single dash. The structural formula is

Introductory Chemistry: Concepts and Critical Thinking, 6th Edition


Charles H. Corwin

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Example Exercise 12.7

Electron Dot Formulas of Polyatomic Ions

Continued

Practice Exercise
Draw the electron dot formula and the structural formula for the nitrite ion, NO2.
Answers:

Concept Exercise
Draw the electron dot formula for the polyatomic sulfite ion, SO32. How many pairs of nonbonding
electrons are in a sulfite ion?
Answer: See Appendix G.

Introductory Chemistry: Concepts and Critical Thinking, 6th Edition


Charles H. Corwin

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Example Exercise 12.8

Electronegativity Predictions

Predict which element in each of the following pairs is more electronegative according to the general
electronegativity trends in the periodic table:
(a) N or O
(b) Br or Se
(c) F or Cl
(d) Si or C

Solution
According to the trends in the periodic table, elements that lie to the right in a series or at the top of a group
are more electronegative.
(a) O is more electronegative than N.
(b) Br is more electronegative than Se.
(c) F is more electronegative than Cl.
(d) C is more electronegative than Si.

Practice Exercise
Predict which element in each of the following pairs is more electronegative according to the general trends
in the periodic table:
(a) H or Cl
(b) Br or I
(c) P or S
(d) As or Sb
Answers:
(a) Cl
(c) S

(b)
(d)

Br
As

Concept Exercise
State the general trends in the periodic table for increasing electronegativity.
Answer: See Appendix G.
Introductory Chemistry: Concepts and Critical Thinking, 6th Edition
Charles H. Corwin

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Example Exercise 12.9

Delta Notation for Polar Bonds

Calculate the electronegativity difference and apply delta notation to the bond between carbon and oxygen, CO.

Solution
From Figure 12.9, we find that the electronegativity value of C is 2.5 and of O is 3.5. By convention, we always
subtract the lesser value from the greater. The difference between the two elements is 3.5 2.5 = 1.0. The result
shows that the CO bond is slightly polarized.
Since O is the more electronegative element, the bonding electron pair is drawn away from the C atom and toward
the O atom. The O atom thus becomes slightly negatively charged, whereas the C atom becomes slightly
positively charged. Applying the delta convention, we have

Practice Exercise
From the trends in the periodic table, apply
delta notation and label each atom in the
following polar covalent bonds:
(b) BrF
(a) NO
Answers:
Figure 12.9 Electronegativity Values for the Elements
The Pauling electronegativity value for an element is shown
below the symbol. In general, electronegativity increases
across a period and up a group.
Introductory Chemistry: Concepts and Critical Thinking, 6th Edition
Charles H. Corwin

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Example Exercise 12.9

Delta Notation for Polar Bonds

Continued

Concept Exercise
Refer to the electronegativity values in Figure 12.9 and predict which of the following bonds is most polar:
HN, HO, or HF.
Answer: See Appendix G.

Figure 12.9 Electronegativity Values for the Elements


The Pauling electronegativity value for an element is shown
below the symbol. In general, electronegativity increases
across a period and up a group.
Introductory Chemistry: Concepts and Critical Thinking, 6th Edition
Charles H. Corwin

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Example Exercise 12.10

Polar versus Nonpolar Bonds

Classify each of the following as a polar or a nonpolar bond:


(a) ClCl
(b) ClN
(d) ClH
(c) ClBr

Solution
From Figure 12.9 we find the following electronegativity values: Cl = 3.0, N = 3.0, Br = 2.8, and H = 2.1.
(a) The ClCl bond
(3.0 3.0 = 0) is nonpolar.
(b) The ClN bond
(3.0 3.0 = 0) is nonpolar.
(c) The ClBr bond
(3.0 2.8 = 0.2) is slightly polar.
(d) The ClH bond
(3.0 2.1 = 0.9) is polar.

Practice Exercise
Classify each of the following as
a polar or a nonpolar bond:
(b)
CO
(a) CC
(d)
CH
(c) CS
Answers:
(a) nonpolar; (b) polar;
(c) nonpolar; (d) slightly polar
Introductory Chemistry: Concepts and Critical Thinking, 6th Edition
Charles H. Corwin

Figure 12.9 Electronegativity Values for the Elements


The Pauling electronegativity value for an element is
shown below the symbol. In general, electronegativity
increases across a period and up a group.
2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Example Exercise 12.10

Polar versus Nonpolar Bonds

Continued

Concept Exercise
Refer to the electronegativity values in Figure 12.9 and predict which of the following bonds is most
nonpolar: CN, CO, or CI.
Answer: See Appendix G.

Introductory Chemistry: Concepts and Critical Thinking, 6th Edition


Charles H. Corwin

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Example Exercise 12.11

Coordinate Covalent Bonds

Burning yellow sulfur powder produces sulfur dioxide, SO2. Sulfur dioxide is a colorless gas with a suffocating
odor. It is used to kill insect larvae and produces the odor released when a match is ignited. Draw the electron dot
formula for SO2. Then show the formation of a coordinate covalent bond in SO3.

Solution
The total number of valence electrons in one molecule of SO2 is 6 e + 2(6 e) = 18 e. By trial and error,
we find that the electron dot formula for SO2 has a double bond. Since the sulfur atom has a nonbonding
electron pair, it can bond to an additional oxygen atom. A diagram of the formation of the coordinate
covalent bond is as follows:

Practice Exercise
A nitrogen molecule can form a coordinate covalent bond with an oxygen atom to give nitrous oxide, N2O.
Draw the electron dot formula for a nitrogen molecule and attach an oxygen atom.
Answers:

Introductory Chemistry: Concepts and Critical Thinking, 6th Edition


Charles H. Corwin

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Example Exercise 12.11

Coordinate Covalent Bonds

Continued

Concept Exercise
Draw the electron dot formula for HClO and determine if the molecule contains a coordinate covalent bond.
Answer: See Appendix G.

Introductory Chemistry: Concepts and Critical Thinking, 6th Edition


Charles H. Corwin

2011 Pearson Education, Inc.