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Chapter 1: A working basis

§1.2 Phonetics and Phonology
Orthographic symbols: letters of ordinary spelling
Can be placed between angled brackets <> or be shown in bold face
Square brackets []: concerning the sound of a letter
The sound [m] is:
1.
2.
3.
4.

A sound that can be prolonged
A sound made with the lips (bilabial)
A sound said through the nose (nasal)
A sound said with voice (voiced)

The sound [t] is:
1.
2.
3.
4.

A sound that cannot be prolonged
A sound that is made with the tongue-tip against the teeth-ridge (alveolar)
A sound where the air escapes from the mouth (oral)
A sound said without voice (voiceless)

An important part of phonetics is describing what speech sounds are like and how they are made.
Human beings are able to make a vast variety of sounds with their vocal apparatus, of which they use
no more than a small number of the possible available sounds in their language.
Phonology: the study of the selection and patterns of sounds in a single language. (phonologist)
Phonetics: the study of sounds in language in general. (Phonetician)
Linguistics: the science that is concerned with the general study of language.
Phonology and phonetics are components of linguistics
Linguist: a specialist in linguistics
Speech chain
1. Formulation in brain of speaker (psycholinguistics)
2. Articulatory mechanism of speaker (articulatory phonetics)
a. Feedback line (audio-feedback)
3. Disturbances in air molecules producing the speech signal (acoustic phonetics)
4. Reception of signal by listener (auditory phonetics)
5. Interpretation in brain of listener (psycholinguistics)
Audio-feedback: the constantly monitoring of our own speech by listening to our performance.

§1.3 What sort of English and what sort of Dutch?
Accents: number of ways in which any living language can be produced.
Dialects: the differences in grammar and the choice of vocabulary (lexis) in any living language.
Regional dialect: variation in dialect form one place to another.
Social dialect: differences in dialect between one social group and another.
o Prestige dialect: a standard variety of the language which is highly regarded even by
those who do not speak it, and which is associated with high status, education, and
wealth

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ABN (Algemeen Beschaafd Nederlands – Nederland)
AN (Algemeen Nederlands – België)
RP (Received Pronunciation – England)
Educated British English speech lacking regional characteristics
Affected speech: exaggerated forms which may sound unattractive to many people.
Old-fashioned speech: forms which were once prestigious but which can nowadays sound outdated.
Neutral speech: speech which is neither affected, nor old-fashioned.

Chapter 2: The Phoneme
§2.1 Phonemes and allophones
Utterance: any stretch of speech
Speech is a continuum: there is a constant change without sharp divisions between one state and the
next.
Task of phonetics: to divide up this continuum into smaller chunks which are easier to
describe (segmentation – smaller units of sound: segment)
o Segments do not usually operate in isolation
Minimal pair: a pair of words distinguished in meaning by a single sound difference.
Minimal set: more than 2 words distinguished in meaning by a single sound difference.
Phoneme: a member of a set of abstract units which together form the sound system of a given
language and through which contrasts of meaning are produced.
Are placed between slant brackets //
o Phonemic norm: the most frequently occurring realisation of a phoneme.
Phonemic inventory for Dutch: 22 vowels, 20 consonants
Phonemic inventory for English: 20 vowels, 24 consonants
Allophonic variation: each phoneme is really a compound of a number of different sounds which are
interpreted as one meaningful unit by a native speaker of the language.
Different sounds: allophones
A phoneme is being realised as a particular allophone.
Phonetic transcription: used to represent allophones
o Enclosed in square brackets
Phonetic similarity: the allophones of any given phoneme sound similar and are articulated in
a similar way.

§2.2 The Phoneme in Dutch and English
Idiolect: the speech of a single individual.
It’s  easy  for  native  speakers  to  interpret  each  other’s  phoneme  system.
There are always important differences between the phoneme system of one language and
that of another.
Sometimes  Dutch  and  English  people  can’t  hear  the  differences  in  each  other’s  vowel  
sounds.
o Dutch mat /ɑ/  - mot /ᴐ/ E not /ɒ/
o D  huid  /œy/  - hout /ɑu/   E out /aʊ/
o E men /e/ - man /æ/ D men /ԑ/
o E pull /ʊ/ - pool /u:/ D poel /u/

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ʒ/ o Dutch:  /b. and are not found at the end of a wordfinal stressed syllable o Represented by a single phonemic symbol o ə: shwa. except before /r/ English: /i:. a:/ o Free diphthongs: vowels which include a movement from one vowel sound to another Represented as two symbols Dutch has a set of free vowel sequences: combinations of free steady-state vowels D/e:u/ D/e:/ en D/u/ Dutch: /a:i. æ.k. aʊ. the syllable can be said to consist of an essential element at the centre Most of the time vowels are this essential element Syllable structure Dutch: from 0 to 3 consonants in syllable-initial position. ʊə.com .o Dutch learners have trouble with some of the consonants of English E then /ð/ .s. and from 0 to 4 consonants syllable-finally English has a similar syllable structure to that of Dutch Verspreiden niet toegestaan | Gedownload door: Irene Chan | E-mail adres: irene_chan3000@hotmail.g. e:u/ English: /eɪ. but differing in the energy used in their production.ʃ/ o Dutch: /p. ɑ:.  ʉ. ɪə.d.  œy. iu.  ɔ.dʒ. ʊ.den /d/ D den /d/ §2.d. being in most respects similar.x/ Lenis: weak and less energetic articulation o English: /b.ð. ɔɪ.v.  ɑu/ §2.(g). ԑ.(f̬).  ɔ:. e:. ø:. o:.y.  u:. ui.f.s. əʊ. u.ɣ/ There are 3 groups of vowels in English and Dutch Checked vowels o Vowels that are for the most part shorter. e. aɪ.  doesn’t  fit  in  the  categories. ə/ o Dutch: /ɪ. ԑə/ Dutch: /ԑi.4 The English and Dutch Phonemic systems Certain of the consonants in both English and Dutch function as pairs.tʃ. Fortis: strong.z.θ. ɑ.   o English: /ɪ.5 The Syllable Phonological elements: phoneme – syllable – word Syllable:  ‘natural’  phonological  unit   o We can define it in terms of how it functions in a given language o (Syllable) nucleus: In Dutch. y.z. ʌ.f.  ɜ:/ Dutch /i.k.u/ are typically short.t. ɒ. o:i. ə/ Free vowels o Longer than checked vowels and may occur in any context o Free steady-state vowels: consist of a single sound Represented by a symbol followed by a length mark D /i.t. yu. energetic articulation o English: /p.

o o The rules for syllable structure are not exactly the same for Dutch and English. §3. indicate the minute articulatory detail of any particular sound. adjectives. Sentence stress: stress in connected speech. Tong-r or huig-r are both represented by the phoneme /r/ Transcriptions Broad: showing only a very small proportion of the phonetic variation that occurs – what is most important in the particular context. ndz/ Only in Dutch: initial cluster /kn/ Both English and Dutch have closed syllables – syllables ending in one or more consonants – and open syllables – syllables ending in a vowel.  n. as opposed to occurring in connected speech Has at least one stressed syllable: one syllable which has more prominence than the others. Lexical words (nouns. they are normally unstressed. bz. o Can partly be related to the energy with which a syllable is articulated. but  by  the  consonants  /m. § 2. Chapter 3: Transcription §3. Sometimes an alternative pronunciation with the shwa is also possible.2 Stress Word in citation form: spoken in isolation.  ŋ/  (nasals)  and  /l/  (lateral). potentially.com . inasmuch as there are different restrictions on the possible consonant clusters: combinations of consonants Only in English: initial cluster /hj/ and syllable-final clusters: /dz. vz. o Indicated  by  placing  a  mark  [‘]  before  the  syllable  concerned. prepositions.1 Phonemic and Phonetic transcription Phonetic transcription: a transcription which can. auxiliary verbs) are less likely to be stressed. gz. Narrow: showing a great deal of minor allophonic variation o More elaborate symbols and additional small marks: diacritics When even a single diacritic is shown. weak and contracted forms Verspreiden niet toegestaan | Gedownload door: Irene Chan | E-mail adres: irene_chan3000@hotmail. pronouns. o Demonstratives and wh-interrogatives are stressed with any frequency When wh-words and that are used as relatives. These consonants are termed syllabic consonants  and  are  marked  by  the  diacritic  [    ̩]  beneath  the  symbol  in   transcription. §3. o Word stress: stress in the isolated word. Tong-r: [r] Huig-r [R] Phonemic transcription: confined to representing phonemes and showing the distinctive contrasts. conjunctions.6 Syllabic consonants Certain consonants are capable of acting as the nuclear elements of syllables. the transcription must be enclosed in square brackets. The syllabic element is then not formed by the vowel. adverbs and main verbs) are most likely to be stressed.3 Strong. Grammatical words (determiners.

ə/ /ə/ often used before /ðə/ o To /tə.  l ̩/ o Would  (‘d) /əd. ðɪ (before vowels)/ o Some /səm/ unstressed. tʊ/ /tʊ.  l ̩/ o Shall  (‘ll) /ʃəl. Contracted from (CF): grammatical words combined with other grammatical words. jʊə(r)/ o He’s   /hi:z/ o She’s /ʃi:z/ o It’s   /ɪts/ Verspreiden niet toegestaan | Gedownload door: Irene Chan | E-mail adres: irene_chan3000@hotmail. d/ Pronouns o Them /ðəm. v/ o Had  (‘d) /əd/ Other auxiliary verbs o Do /də. d/ o Should  (‘d) /əd. Determiners o A /ə/ o An /ən.  n̩ / o The /ðə.Weak form (WF): the form characteristic of the unstressed position.  n̩ / o As /əz/ o Than /ðən/ SF hardly ever used o That /ðət/ Prepositions o At /ət/ o For /fə(r)/ with –r before vowels o From /frəm/ o Of /əv. and meaning an undefined amount Conjunctions o And /ənd. m/ o Are (‘re) /ə(r)/ with –r used before vowels o Is  (‘s)   /s. z/ o Was /wəz/ o Were /wə(r)/ with –r used before vowels Auxiliary verb have o Has  (‘s) /əz. s. dʊ/ o Does /dəz/ o Can /kən/ o Will (‘ll) /əl. z/ o Have  (‘ve) /əv.  ðm̩ / o Us /əs/ o Our /ɑ:/   also used in stressed context Negative particle o N’t   /nt/ Strong form (SF): the form characteristic of the stressed context. ən.com . tu:/ used before vowels Verb be o Am  (‘m)   /əm. Can be stressed and frequently are Be o I’m /aɪm/ o You’re   /jɔ:(r).

ðərə(r)/ /ðԑəl.4 The use of WFs and CFs - If a word is stressed for any reason. SFs are used at the end of the intonation group. even if the word is unstressed.o We’re   o They’re Have o I’ve o You’ve o He’s o She’s   o It’s   o We’ve   o They’ve   Shall/will o I’ll o You’ll o He’ll o She’ll   o It’ll   o We’ll   o They’ll   Had/would o I’d o You’d o He’d o She’d   o It’d o We’d   o They’d   Not o Aren’t o Weren’t   o Don’t o Shan’t o Won’t o Can’t o Mustn’t   o Daren’t   Let o Let’s   There o There’s   o There’re   o There’ll   o There’d /wi:ə(r)/ /ðԑə(r)/ /aɪv/ -> not necessarily used when main verb /ju:v/ /hiz/ -> cannot be used when main verb /ʃiz/ /ɪts/ /wi:v/ -> not necessarily used when main verb /ðeɪv/ /aɪl/ /ju:l/ /hi:l/ /ʃi:l/ /ɪtl ̩/ /wi:l/ /ðeɪl/ /aɪd/ /ju:d/ /hi:d/ /ʃi:d/ /itəd/ /wi:d/ /ðeɪd/ /ɑ:nt/ /wɜ:nt/ /dəʊnt/ /ʃɑ:nt/ /wəʊnt/ /kɑ:nt/ /mʌsn̩ t/ /dԑənt/ /lets/ /ðԑəz. ðez/ /ðԑərə(r). ðəl/ /ðԑəd. ðəz. ðerə(r). o Pronouns retain the WF even in final position.  /ðæt/ o The  relative  and  conjunction  ‘that’  has  always  the  WF.  /ðət/ WFs ending in shwa are not used before vowels Verspreiden niet toegestaan | Gedownload door: Irene Chan | E-mail adres: irene_chan3000@hotmail.com . ðəd/ §3. The  demonstrative  ‘that’  has  always  the  SF. a WF cannot be used.

Air passes through the larynx . The lungs initiate the airstream (respiratory system) 2. ʒ.  ‘I  don’t  want  to  seem  ungrateful.  l/ and all vowels ‘s  /z/ o Following  /p. n.  peering  at  it  closely.  n.  ‘but  there’s  only  one  l  in  Philip  and  you’ve  put  in  two.  k. The /h/ is invariably used following a pause.  f. but CFs are occasionally used. l/ are regularly pronounced as syllabic consonants Have as a main verb is normally pronounced as a SF.’ Answer: PED p. which converts the energy of the airstream into a sound source: vibration in vocal folds in larynx (phonatory system) 3. dʒ/ is /ɪz/.  v. Verspreiden niet toegestaan | Gedownload door: Irene Chan | E-mail adres: irene_chan3000@hotmail.  ŋ. has /əz/ Some common grammatical words do not have a regular WF §3. ʃ.  t. Some years ago the El Vino wine bar decided to put up a plaque in honour of Philip Hope-Wallace. And so.5 Transcription sample The Guardian newspaper is famous for its misprints.  d. The sound source is amplified and has its character modified by the resonator in the cavities of the head (articulatory system) §4.2 The respiratory system Respiratory system Speech: controlled breathing o The lungs take in air (inhalation) rapidly and let it out (exhalation) slowly and under careful control o Ratio of breathings with speech is 1:8 in favour of exhalation Exists out of Lungs o Push out air by the action of the chest-wall muscles and the diaphragm. it was duly placed above his usual seat  on  the  wall  and  unveiled  at  a  small  ritual. who let the lungs partially collapse Necessary for production of sound Bronchial tubes Pulmonic egressive airstream: speech sounds made by using air that is pushed out of the lungs. there is even a Guardian misprint preserved in brass for posterity. mentioning his eminence as a wit. pronunciation with /h/ is optional. o Following  /b.  ð. z. e.com . 24 Chapter 4: The speech mechanism §4. at the beginning of a sentence WFs which include shwa preceding /m. Third  person  forms  of  have  and  be  follow  regular  rules  for  pronunciation  of  s  or  ‘s.  θ/   ‘s  /s/ o Following /s.  m. Nearly all speech sounds are made like this.  ‘We  were  careful  to  check  with  the  Guardian. its most faithful and probably wittiest habitué.g. raconteur and critic.  g. Why.’  said  the   recipient.1 Introduction Human speech mechanism 1.’  ‘How   can  that  be?’  gasped  the  management. tʃ.- - WFS of words which begin with h.

Vital factor in producing changes of pitch i.e.  ð/ Labio-dental articulation: lips articulate against the teeth E /f. d.com . b.  It  consists  of  three  cavities.§4. bilabial): are flexible in several directions and can be rounded or spread. m/ Allow air through. l/ D /r/ is frequently made by the tongue tapping against the alveolar ridge. n. the food is directed into the stomach via the oesophagus. This rapid vibration is called voice. z. When swallowing.  f̬/  or  E  /f.v/ Production of vowels Lips spread: D /i/ or E /i:/ Lips neutral: D /a:/ or E /ɑ:/ Lips rounded o Open rounding: E /ɑ/ o Close rounding: D /y/ o Rounding with consonants: E /w. ʃ. r. the throat) Oral cavity (space inside the mouth i. Pharyngeal cavity (space enclosed by the pharynx i. v/ o Alveolar ridge: sounds involving the alveolar ridge are called alveolar. s. tj/ Verspreiden niet toegestaan | Gedownload door: Irene Chan | E-mail adres: irene_chan3000@hotmail. ʧ/ o Teeth: obstacles to the airstream when it is directed against them by the positioning of the tongue. the higher the pitch Intonation: variation in pitch over a stretch of speech Glottis: The space between the vocal folds. o Phonation: the function of the larynx as a vibration source. while the vocal folds seal off the entrance to the trachea. Closed: bilabial /p. the way in which we perceive sounds as being high or low. §4. Alterations in the shape of the cavities are particularly important in making different types of vowel sounds.3 The Phonatory system Phonatory system Trachea: windpipe Larynx (Adam’s  appel):  a  framework  of  cartilages  containing  the  vocal  folds.e. o Frequency: variation in the speed of vibration of the vocal folds. o Hard palate Palatal: articulations involving the tongue and the hard palate /j/ Alveolo-palatal: large portion of the tongue rises to articulate with the front of the palate and the rear of the alveolar ridge D /sj. The higher the frequency.e.4 The articulatory system The articulatory system is formed by the area above the glottis known as the (supraglottal) vocal tract. the mouth) o Lips (labial. Sounds made by pressing the tongue against or moving towards the alveolar ridge: /t. o The vocal folds: can vibrate very rapidly. The upper front teeth are particularly important in the generation of the friction required for sounds like /s.  modifying  the  ‘buzz’  produced  by  the  vocal   folds.  which  act  as  resonators.z/ Dental articulation: tip of  the  tongue  is  held  close  to  the  front  teeth  /θ. being so close together that audible friction is produced: Spanish  [β] Lower  lip  held  close  to  upper  teeth:  D  /f.

(front and back) Tip of tongue is very sensitive and the tongue has an ability to detect movement (kinaesthetic sense) diminished near end of tongue The tongue can assume a variety of shapes Groove along the septum (mid-line) of tongue [s.  /m. Soft palate: can be raised to form a closure against the back of the pharynx.E /b/ lenis bilabial plosive .com . tip/blade touching alveolar ridge /d/: voiced.  ŋ/ Articulations: /n/: Voiced. soft palate lowered. the nose) The epiglottis: diverts the chewed-up food away from the vocal folds and the trachea.Palato-alveolar: tongue rising towards the alveolar ridge and the frontmost part of the hard palate E /ʃ. With the soft palate raised.  n. velar closure. g] have a velic and a velar closure. velar closure /ŋ/:  voiced.  g.Contains 2/3 descriptive terms o Energy of articulation o Place of articulation o Manner of articulation .  ŋ] [k.  people  can  make  a  nasal  sound. no velic closure Chapter 5: Classification of Consonants §5.   .1 Descriptive labels Descriptive label:  useful  ‘shorthand’  to  refer  to  consonants. ʒ. velic closure. o Uvula: a hanging lump of tissue at the back of the mouth Uvular trill [R] D /r/: uvular sound with the airstream channelled between the uvula and the back of the tongue o Tongue Tongue-body consists almost entirely of muscle Parts of the tongue: blade – tip – front – back – root o Tip: apex – apical o Blade: lamina – laminal o Root: radix – radical Dorsum: whole of the upper surface of the tongue is covered with a mucous membrane containing the taste nerve endings and the salvia-producing glands. ʧ. velic closure.e.E /s/ fortis alveolar fricative . dʒ/ o Soft palate (velum) Velic closure: soft palate raised against the back wall of the pharynx Part of the articulation of all non-nasal sounds Velar closure:  tongue  articulating  against  the  soft  palate  [k. z] /l/: the sides of the tongue are pressed Nasal cavity (space inside the nose i. people can make an oral sound. With the soft palate  lowered. tip/blade touching alveolar ridge /g/: voiced.E  /ŋ/     velar nasal Verspreiden niet toegestaan | Gedownload door: Irene Chan | E-mail adres: irene_chan3000@hotmail.

P: Labio-dental .P: Alveolar ridge Palato-alveolar .A: lip .2 Place of articulation Place of articulation: place in the vocal tract where the sound is articulated. o Is touched: [t] and [k] o Active close to passive: [s] and [x] o Slight movement toward passive: E /r/ o Distinction between passive and active not possible: [h.Passive articulator: the point towards which the active articulator is directed.P: hard palate Verspreiden niet toegestaan | Gedownload door: Irene Chan | E-mail adres: irene_chan3000@hotmail.P: alveolar ridge/front of palate Palatal .P: teeth Dental .A: tip of tongue .A: lips . b.A: front of tongue . . p. .A: tip of tongue .P: teeth Alveolar .consonants p t k ʧ f θ s ʃ descriptive label fortis bilabial plosive fortis alveolar plosive fortis velar plosive fortis palato-alveolar affricate fortis labio-dental fricative fortis dental fricative fortis alveolar fricative fortis palato-alveolar fricative consonants h m n ŋ l r w j descriptive label glottal fricative bilabial nasal alveolar nasal velar nasal lateral approximant post-alveolar approximant labial-velar approximant palatal approximant consonants b d g ʤ v ð z ʒ descriptive label lenis bilabial plosive lenis alveolar plosive lenis velar plosive lenis palato-alveolar affricate lenis labio-dental fricative lenis dental fricative lenis alveolar fricative lenis palato-alveolar fricative §5.com . m] Bilabial .A: blade/front of tongue .Active articulator: the organ that moves in the articulation.

but is allowed to escape through a narrowing. Stricture: the positioning of the active and passive articulators so as to block. Belgium Scots. percussive movements made by the active articulator as it strikes the passive articulator. k/ when initial in a stressed syllable have strong aspiration. which results in homorganic friction – friction at the same point of articulation as the stop closure. Alveolar trill: Dutch tong-r Uvular trill: Dutch huig-r Tap: a single rapid movement of a percussive type Alveolar tap: [ɾ] in Noord-Holland.Fortis plosives /p.4 Energy of Articulation Fortis: articulation is tense. energetic and voiceless Lenis: articulation weaker. less energetic and potentially voiced Fortis/lenis contrast in English: . When the articulators part. often also heard in final position o Lenis: plosives are unaspirated . complete closure o Trills and taps: Trill: series of rapid. hinder or alter in some way the passage of the stream of air from the lungs. Affricates: the closure is released rather slowly. . o Nasals: soft palate lowered. there is a brief period of close approximation.Close approximation: forms narrowing giving rise to friction o Fricatives: the airstream is not blocked. Lateral fricative: distance between the lowered sides and roof is only narrow and forceful airstream §5. north eastern provinces of the Netherlands. o Lateral approximant: the central part of the tongue forms a closure with the roof of the mouth. Liverpool .Vowels are shortened before a final fortis consonant o Vowels have full length before a final lenis consonant .3 Manner of Articulation Manner of articulation: concerned with how the airstream is modified by the articulators. t. .Fortis: Syllable-final stops often have a reinforcing glottal stop (preglottalisation) Verspreiden niet toegestaan | Gedownload door: Irene Chan | E-mail adres: irene_chan3000@hotmail. This gives rise to air turbulence.Open approximation: forms no obstruction but changes shape of vocal tract. but one or both sides remain lowered. thus altering nature of resonance o Central approximants: the space between the articulators is sufficiently large to allow the escape of the airstream without any audible friction. which results in an audible burst of noise. which results in audible friction. complete closure Plosive: air after stop is released with explosive force – plosion – by sudden parting of the articulators.Complete closure: forms obstruction which blocks airstream o Stops: the soft palate is raised.Velar Glottal - A: back of tongue P: Velum A: Glottis P: - §5.com .

k. Dutch loses a fortis/lenis contrast as a result of assimilation §6. particularly plosives. lenis consonants are only fully voiced between vowels or other voiced sounds. voicing does not begin until some way into the articulation. which means that a checked vowel before a lenis consonant is as long as or longer than a free vowel before a fortis. Initial devoicing: at the beginning of a syllable. if preceded by silence or a voiceless sound. ʧ/ are often reinforced by a preceding glottal stop.2 Vowel length as an indicator of the fortis/lenis contrast in syllable-final position Vowels are shortened before fortis consonants but maintain full length before lenis consonants. In Dutch and English. t. Oppositions in Dutch less clear in the fricative series Dutch has no word-final fortis/lenis contrasts. the English fortis plosives /p. the fortis consonants are always voiceless.com . checked and free. the vowels of English are also long. The glottal stop [ʔ] is formed by closing the vocal folds completely for a brief period o Formed before or during the articulation of the stop Aspiration: initially in a stressed syllable. Special significance in stressed monosyllabic (single syllable) words. lenis consonants lose voicing early in the articulation. Diactrics: Partially  devoiced:  [˚] Voiceless:  [˳] Verspreiden niet toegestaan | Gedownload door: Irene Chan | E-mail adres: irene_chan3000@hotmail. Before lenis consonants full length is heard with all the vowels. t. before a voiceless consonant or pause. Final devoicing: in syllable-final position. Pre-fortis clipping: the shortening effect Also applies to a nasal or lateral preceding fortis consonants §6.o Lenis: syllable-final stops never have a reinforcing glottal stop Chapter 6: Fortis/lenis contrast in Dutch and English §6.4 voicing of lenis consonants In other languages. the contrast between the two groups of consonants may not be one of energy but rather one of voicing. whereas in English the fortis/lenis contrast can occur in final position Very often. We can give an approximate indication of length using the diacritics o [˘]:  extra  short   o [ˈ]:  half-long o [:]: extra long In open syllables.3 Fortis/lenis contrast in English stops Pre-glottalisation/glottal reinforcement: in final position.1 contrastive overview - More signals for the fortis/lenis contrast in English than in Dutch. k/ are strongly aspirated Brief period of voicelessness following the plosive [ʰ] §6. the lenis consonants are potentially voiced. the English fortis stops /p. In English.

an [i] or [j] type articulation superimposed on a primary articulation . . Nasalisation: addition of the resonance of the nasal cavity to an articulation of higher rank. . . Stricture at the glottis (glottal stop) a.  r/  do  not  undergo  devoicing  in  the  manner   described following or preceding pause.Represented  with  the  diacritic  [  ̴]  and  termed  dark   . The nasals /m. Velarisation d. letters – secondary) : 1.Vowels preceding nasals are nasalised .2 Types of secondary articulation Labialisation: adds lip-rounding to the primary articulation. Oral stricture of open approximation a. n. Rank scale of articulation (numbers – primary. Besides the main articulation. Chapter 7: Secondary Articulation §7.1 Rank Scale of Articulation The production of a speech sound involves often more than one stricture occurring simultaneously. the first typically has partial devoicing and the second is completely voiceless. Labialisation b. .com . glottalisation 4.Primary articulation: the narrower stricture . tongue assumes an [u]-like shape.  ŋ/.Represented  with  the  diacritic  [ˤ]  after  symbol   . Resonance of the nasal cavity a.Represented  with  the  diacritic  [ˠ]  after  symbol . we can still hear a clear contrast.Represented  with  the  diacritic  [˜]  above  the  symbol . pharyngealisation 3.Even if lenis consonants are devoiced.Represented  with  the  diacritic  [ˀ]  before  the  symbol.  lateral  /l/  and  approximants  /w.Represented with the diacritic  [  ̴]  and  termed  dark .  j. there may be an additional articulation which can be considered of less significance. Nasalisation §7.English final /l/ Pharyngealisation: back of tongue retracted towards the pharynx wall . Palatalization c. If a pair of lenis consonants occurs before silence or a voiceless sound.Dutch final /l/ Glottalisation: addition of a reinforcing glottal stop to an oral stop -> pre-glottalisation of the fortis stops in syllable-final position .Secondary articulation The strictures in the oral cavity are taken to rank above those in the reminder of the vocal tract. Verspreiden niet toegestaan | Gedownload door: Irene Chan | E-mail adres: irene_chan3000@hotmail.E /l/ can become nasalised when it occurs between two nasals.Represented  with  the  diacritic  [ʷ]  after  the  symbol   Palatalization: front of the tongue raised towards the hard palate.Represented  with  the  diacritic  [ʲ]  after  the  symbol Velarisation: back of tongue brought up towards the velum. Oral stricture of complete closure or close approximation 2.

Verspreiden niet toegestaan | Gedownload door: Irene Chan | E-mail adres: irene_chan3000@hotmail.2 Complementary distribution Phoneme /l/ has the following allophones: Clear [l]: occurs before vowels Dark (velarized) [l  ̴]:  occurs  before  a  consonant  or  a  pause Voiceless  (fricative)  [l ̥]:  occurs  at  the  beginning of a word when it follows /p/ or /k/ Complementary distribution: the allophones are the complements of each other. Free variation: the occurrence of one realisation or another appears to be a matter of chance.4 neutralisation Sometimes 2 phonemes may show overlap in phonetic realisation. The opposition between /m/ and /n/ has than undergone a phoneme neutralisation. In the final analysis. native-speaker intuition must be regarded as the most decisive factor of all in determining the allocation of allophones to phonemic categories. D /m/ and D /n/: when they occur before a labio-dental. §9. /h/: voiceless glottal fricative /ŋ/:  voiced  velar  nasal   o They would not be considered as members of the same phoneme by native speakers of the language concerned. The choosing of a variation may depend on the background of the people somebody is in company with at the time.3 Simultaneous occurrence and double articulation Simultaneous occurrence: more than one secondary articulation can occur simultaneously Double articulation: two places of articulation are employed which cannot be distinguished in terms of the narrowness of the stricture . they are therefore in complementary distribution.E/w/ has two strictures of open approximation o Lips o Velum Chapter 9: Back to the phoneme §9. we can assign it to either. their realisation may be a labio-dental nasal [ɱ].§7.com . They do not belong to the same phoneme for 2 reasons o They lack any sort of phonetic similarity. or possibly the formality of the circumstances. and they are also similar in their acoustic make-up. §9.3 difficulties of determining a phoneme inventory Pre-vocalically: occurs before a vowel Post-vocalically: occurs after a vowel D /h/ only occurs pre-vocalically  and  D  /ŋ/  only  occurs  post-vocalically. §9. Because it can belong to both the phoneme /m/ as /n/. where one occurs the other cannot.1 Phonetic similarity Allophones have a phonetic similarity: they are usually articulated by the speech organs in similar ways.

/p.com . §10. producing the effect of a buzz (glottal tone/voice) Man: 130 puffs per second Woman: 230 puffs per second o The higher the frequency. coffee and caddie: there comes an happy i.2 Voiced Voicing: Placed together leaving a small aperture. d. §9. the airstream escapes in a series of very high-speed puffs. Set wide apart 2. The  difference  between  /Ʌ  .4 Glottal stop [Ɂ] Verspreiden niet toegestaan | Gedownload door: Irene Chan | E-mail adres: irene_chan3000@hotmail.5 Different Phoneme systems in different varieties of the language. RP. g/ It appears to with city. k/ almost become /b. Placed together leaving a small aperture 3. Fortis stops and fortis fricatives are always voiceless. in common with Irish. §10. Scottish and American speech has /h/.ʊ/ is lost in the north of England and in some southern Irish English. There are 3 positions of the vocal folds and the arytenoid cartilages: 1. the higher is the perceived pitch Can be changed by: Changes in the tension of the vocal folds Differences in the force of the airstream produced by the lungs §10. Chapter 10: Phonation and states of the glottis §10. You can examine the larnyx with a laryngoscope. Held completely together leaving no space between Glottis: gap between the open vocal folds or arytenoids. Because of the repeated rapid contact (vibration) and parting of the vocal folds.1 structure of the larynx One of the important functions of het larnyx is voicing. t.3 Voiceless Voiceless: Set wide apart. Lenis stops and fricatives are potentially voiced but vary according to context. There’s  no  /Ʌ/  in  their  system.   Welsh English has an additional phoneme contrast /u: .ɪu/ as compared with most other varieties of English. The arytenoid cartilages control the positioning of the vocal folds. The broad varieties of most accents in England and Wales do not possess this phoneme.This neutralisation appears also with the realisation of stops in syllable-initial clusters after E/s/.

where speakers habitually go into creaky voice at the end of most utterances. §10. The creaky voice is employed regularly in English.com .6 Whisper Whisper: The  vocal  folds  are  brought  together. It’s  produced  by  keeping  the  arytenoids  pressed  together. but not in English and Dutch. like a succession of glottal stops.  and  allowing  the  anterior  portion  of  the   vocal folds to vibrate at slow speed. In Hindi and Bengali. Creaky voice: the creak with voice combined. the blocked air rushes out. In many languages the glottal stop is a phoneme. In Dutch the glottal stop is regularly heard before a stressed syllable beginning with a vowel.k/ The glottal stop cannot have a voiced counterpart. Verspreiden niet toegestaan | Gedownload door: Irene Chan | E-mail adres: irene_chan3000@hotmail. whereas D/h/ tends to be breathy voiced in all contexts.5 Creak and Creaky voice Creak: a rather slow vibration (40 per second) with the vocal folds.7 Breathy Voice Breathy voice: this larynx state is a combination of the states for voice and whisper. The airstream coming from the lungs is temporarily blocked. Stage whisper: produced by increasing further the force of the airstream and applying some constriction to the pharynx.Glottal stop: held completely together leaving no space between. [Ɂ]  in  English Occurs before many initial vowels Reinforcement to fortis stop consonants in many context In certain English dialects it occurs as a replacement for /t/. In Danish the creaky voice has a phonemic function: many words with otherwise the same phoneme structure are distinguished on the basis of whether or not they are uttered with creaky voice (stØd) §10.  There’s  a  gap  between  the   arytenoids. giving rise to plosion. since the vocal folds are tight together for the articulation and so cannot vibrate. On the release of the closure. §10. It is produced by the posterior portion of the vocal folds vibrating at relatively high speed for voice while the anterior portion vibrates much more slowly to produce the creak. An airstream passes through this gap at fairly high velocity.  without  vibrating. breathy voice is utilised phonemically E/h/ between vowels is often said with breathy voice. It is produced by combining the normal voice of the vocal folds with the escape of air through the gap between the arytenoids. and in certain context for /p. giving rise to air turbulence and friction noise at this point.

In connected speech the tongue has a retracted post-dental tongue position a little behind the front teeth. Verspreiden niet toegestaan | Gedownload door: Irene Chan | E-mail adres: irene_chan3000@hotmail.   without friction.Main allophonic variation o /f/: fortis voiceless labio-dental fricative [f] Point of contact may vary Front vowels: more forward on the lip (like /v/) Back vowels: retracted (like /v/) Some speakers may produce an affricate articulation in /pf/ sequences (i. which means that the airstream escapes in a diffuse manner over the whole surface of the tongue.Description o They are both groove fricatives. v/ . it can also be inter-dental. thus.1 Fricative Systems in English and Dutch Dutch lacks dental fricatives and has no sounds similar to E  /θ.e. 15: English Fricative Consonants §15. especially in unstressed syllables. z/ . whilst the sides of the tongue are held against the upper side teeth. It easily undergoes assimilation and elision.Description o The lower lip makes a light contact with the upper front teeth .description o They are both slit fricatives. . giving rise to friction between the tongue-bade and the alveolar ridge. inter-dental  [θ̟]) Fortis  voiceless  dental  fricative  [θ] o /ð/: when energetic pronounced. which means that the airstream is channelled through a groove along the mid-line of the tongue. ./f  . o The tip/blade of the tongue rises to the alveolar ridge.e.Main allophonic variation o /θ/:  the  tongue-tip often has contact with the rear of the upper teeth and may even protrude (i.  ð/ .ɣ/ this opposition occurs only between vowel in Dutch and is absent for many speakers . The alveolo-palatal fricatives [ɕ. many  speakers  produce  a  bilabial  affricate  [bβ]  for  /bv/ Dental  fricatives  /θ.  ð/. f̬/  this  contrast  is  not  consistent  in  Dutch .Ch. In  Dutch. /ð/   is  normally  an  approximant  [ð̞ ]  (especially  when  initial  in  unstressed  syllables).com . than. thither Lenis voiced dental fricative [ð] if between voiced sounds Devoiced  [ð̥ ]  if  final  before  pause  or  voiceless  sounds Alveolar fricatives /s. personal pronouns (also the archaic ones) and then. ʑ] result from the sequences /sj. and in connected speech the energy is reduced even further.  no  lenis  fricatives  exist  in  word-final context. zj/ Labio-dental fricatives /f./x . demonstratives. Initial /ð/ occurs only in the definite article./s – z/ this energy contrast is the only stable one.  the  lenis/fortis  contrast  doesn’t  play  a  significant  role. [pɸ]) o /v/: Lenis voiced labio-dental fricative [v] Between voiced sounds there is full voicing Initial /v/ has slight devoicing Final  /v/  is  strongly  devoiced  ([v̥])  and  often  realised  without  any voicing at all.

Pronunciation /prənʌnsɪ’eɪʃn̩/  . Between  vowels  there’s  full  voicing. The approach stage: the articulators come together and form a closure. Stages of the stop: 1. voicing may be heard throughout the stop or. The release stage: the closure is released. Voiced glottal fricative [ɦ] between vowels and voiced sounds. 2.- Main allophonic variation o /s/: fortis voiceless alveolar fricative [s] o /z/: lenis voiced alveolar fricative [z].ʒ/ . Glottal fricative /h/ . ʒ/ .Main allophonic variation o /ʃ/: fortis voiceless labialised palato-alveolar fricative [ʃʷ] o /ʒ/: lenis voiced labialised palato-alveolar fricative [ʒʷ] between voiced sounds.E/s. giving rise to a plosion.Distribution o /ʒ/ occurs only between vowels.2 Fortis/Lenis Opposition in Stops Factors that are significant in the fortis/lenis contrast in stops.association /əsəʊsɪ’eɪʃn̩/ Palato-alveolar fricatives /ʃ. but can also be syllable-initial or syllable-final in recent French loanwords.description o the articulators are in the position for the following vowel sound and a strong airstream produces friction both at the glottis and throughout the vocal tract. z/ are liable to be assimilated to /ʃ. . . Initial /z/ may have slight devoicing Final  /z/  is  strongly  devoiced  [z̥]  and  is  often  realised  without  any  voicing  at   all . Result: an equalisation of air pressure in the vocal tract and the atmosphere.Description o Groove fricatives like /s. A larger portion of the tongue rises to form the narrowing with the alveolar ridge and the front of the hard palate.Voicing o In fortis stops (voiceless) the hold stage is a brief period of silence. Ch. Very strong outer lip-rounding. 3.1 Stages of a Stop Stops include plosives and affricates. .Distribution: /h/ occurs only preceding vowels . . ʒ/ before palatal and palate-alveolar consonants. only in a portion of the articulation. but the depression is much shallower and the extent of the stricture is larger. The hold stage: the air is compressed behind the closure. o In lenis stops. . §16. Verspreiden niet toegestaan | Gedownload door: Irene Chan | E-mail adres: irene_chan3000@hotmail. 16 English stop consonants §16. Devoiced [ʒ̊ ] when not between voiced sounds. z/. All the information about place of articulation is in the approach and release stages.com .main allophonic variation o /h/: voiceless glottal fricative [h].A clear distinction is made within the word between /sj -ʃ/ and /zj .

The vowel preceding a final lenis is always lengthened. . This devoicing is not found where /s/ is the first element in a threeconsonant cluster. o Where the approximants follow a fortis plosive as part of an initial cluster in a stressed syllable. k/. o In clusters preceded by /s/ aspiration is minimal. o The sequence is normally as follows: Vocal fold vibration for preceding vowel ceases Vocal folds close tightly together just before the hold stage of the stop (sometimes during the hold stage) Vocal folds part and relax Oral closure is inaudibly released. and are frequently completely devoiced.com . t. remaining for a brief period relatively close to each other. instead they are devoiced and have added friction. k/ can be completely replaced by a glottal when followed by a homorganic stop or nasal . o Preceding silence or voiceless sounds. there is little or no aspiration. o Effect: cutting off sharply the voicing of the preceding vowel (slight creaky voice quality in final part of the vowel -> vowel is shortened) o Found in the following contexts Syllable-final fortis stops are regularly pre-glottalised before another consonant /tʃ/ has optional glottalisation in all contexts except syllable-initial In the following contexts.Sometimes in the case of /t/./tʃ/ is never replaced by a glottal. the voice does not usually begin until well into the hold stage.Aspiration [ʰ]  (lack  of  aspiration:  [˭] o Heard in English initial fortis plosives /p.3 Types of Release and Approach Affricate release . then friction is heard in the release stage Verspreiden niet toegestaan | Gedownload door: Irene Chan | E-mail adres: irene_chan3000@hotmail.o If preceded by silence or voiceless sounds. where these occur in stressed syllables. voice will continue through all stages.If the articulators do not part immediately. there may be complete replacement by [ʔ]  before  another   consonant  or  before  syllabic  /n̩ / . English stops have initial devoicing. §16. o Between vowels (or other voiced sounds). non-glottalised forms are also frequent: Before pause Before /h/ Word-finally preceding a vowel Pre-glottalised forms are never used: With any lenis consonant With any consonant other than a stop Word-medially between vowels (except /tʃ/) Preceding  syllabic  dark  [  l  ̴] Glottal replacement: . . o Brief period of voicelessness after the release of the stop.Sometimes /p.Pre-glottalisation (glottal reinforcement) o The addition of a reinforcing glottal stop at or before the hold stage of syllable-final fortis stops. English stops have final devoicing in the hold and release stages.

gl. may also be accompanied by glottalisation. so releasing the velar closure (inaudible) o The tip/blade lowers from the alveolar ridge with audible plosion (release stage of /d/) . [d̪ ð]  – lenis dental affricate Bilabial affricates: /pf.Nasal approach: the articulators are already in the position for the alveolar stop and it is merely necessary for the soft palate to rise o Examples:  /nt/. /tʃ. the compressed airstream escapes over the lowered sides of the tongue. bl/ can have lateral escape: the tongue position for a lateral approximant /l/ is taken up during the hold stage of the stop.Generally in cases where a fortis stop is first in the sequence there will also be glottal reinforcement.  ribbon  /’rɪbm̩ /. kt.Examples: /pt.  /nd/. d/ in clusters give rise to sequences which are. nasal release can be heard in cases when bilabials or velars precede /n/ and this will result in place assimilation o Open  /’əʊpm̩ /.  /ŋg/ . o /tr/  .[ts] – fortis alveolar affricate o /dz/ . ptʃ. affricate articulations./kl. Lateral release .  bβ] Nasal release . d/  is  also  heard  in  final  /tn.- This friction is homorganic: at the same place of articulation as the stop Relative slow release as opposed to the rapid release of the plosive stops.Nasal release of /t.4 Overlapping Stops Overlapping stop: a plosive consonant is immediately followed by a stop .  dn/  leading  into  a  syllabic  nasal  /tn̩ .  /mp/.Articulation sequence for the cluster /gd/: o The back of the tongue approaches the velum for /g/ and makes a firm closure o The closure is maintained (giving hold stage of /g/) o The tip/blade rises to form a second closure at the alveolar ridge (inaudible) o The back of the tongue lowers.In  this  case.Lateral approach: the change from alveolar lateral to alveolar stop is effected by raising the sides of the tongue §16. Verspreiden niet toegestaan | Gedownload door: Irene Chan | E-mail adres: irene_chan3000@hotmail. pd.    /ŋk/. . [t̪θ]  – fortis dental affricate o /dð/  .  the   second stop has an inaudible approach. pl. /t. dʒ/: phoneme affricates. in phonetic terms. the soft palate lowers. On the release of the bilabial or velar closure.  represented  phonetically  by  the  [˺]. gd. .When a plosive is followed by a homorganic nasal.Nasal release cited with fortis plosives.  the  first  stop  has  inaudible  release.[dz] – lenis alveolar affricate o /tθ/  . bg. gdʒ/ .  dn̩ / .  /mb/. [d̲ ɹ]̝ – lenis post-alveolar affricate o /ts/ ./t/ and /d/ can have lateral release: the alveolar closure is released by lowering the sides of the tongue o Following /t/.com . bv/ .[pɸ. [t̲ɹ]̥ – fortis post-alveolar affricate o /dr/  . pk. Nasal and lateral approach . there is initial devoicing of /l/ .  darken  /’dɑ:kŋ̩/ .In more rapid speech. which allows the airstream to pass out through the nasal cavity.Lateral release in English often leads into syllabic laterals Lateral escape .

b. . g/ do not occur in syllable. o Where there is an affricate/affricate sequence or an affricate/plosive sequence the two stops retain all their stages. §16. d:] o A prolonged hold stage is also found in plosive/affricate sequences.  b/  are  labio-dental  [p̠. .com . Such a stop is always alveolar and in the case of (voiceless) /t/ is realised merely by a period of silence. this can be regarded as glottal replacement. b/ are palatalised  [pʲ.6 Stop Systems in English and Dutch The English phonemes /p.Result in a single but prolonged hold stage. with only one approach stage and one release stage o Prolonged shops /pp. k.Where the first of a sequence of homorganic stops is a fortis.dd/ can be shown phonetically as [p:.Where there is an energy contrast in the sequence the vocal folds either begin or cease vibrating during the hold stage. b/ .  bʲ]  before  /j/   o /p. .final position (except as the result of assimilation) Bilabial plosives /p.Description: the closure is formed by the tip/blade of the tongue against the alveolar ridge . .  v/ Alveolar plosives /t. Since there is only one hold stage.Main allophonic variation o /t/: fortis voiceless alveolar plosive Strongly  aspirated  [tʰ]  or  with  weak  affrication  [tˢ]  when  initial  in  stressed   syllables. tʃ.  b̠]  before  /f. d. t. The Dutch lenis stops /b. g.bb. the central consonant lacks both audible approach and release stages. Unaspirated  [t˭]  in  /s/  clusters   In colloquial RP. intervocalic /t/ is frequently realised as a very brief tap [ɾ] o /d/: lenis voiced alveolar plosive [d] in between voiced sounds Verspreiden niet toegestaan | Gedownload door: Irene Chan | E-mail adres: irene_chan3000@hotmail. dʒ/ occur in all positions. Generally pre-glottalised  [ˀp]  when  syllable-final before consonants Unaspirated  [p˭]  in  clusters  beginning  with  /s/ o /b/: lenis voiced bilabial plosive [b] between voiced sounds Partially devoiced  [b̥]  in  initial  position   Strongly  devoiced  [b̥]  in  final  position   o /p. §16.Description: the airstream is compressed behind a closure formed at the lips and then released with force.Main allophonic variation o /p/: fortis voiceless bilabial plosive Strongly  aspirated  [pʰ]  when  initial  in  stressed  syllables. this will be subject to glottal reinforcement. Generally pre-glottalised  [ˀt]  or  replaced  by  a  glottal  when  syllable-final before consonants. d.5 Sequences of Homorganic Stops Sequences of homorganic stops: two stops made at the same place of articulation. b:. d/ .- In a sequence of three stops.

such sequences are formed from /t.1 Nasals Bilabial. dr/ in English are post-alveolar affricates.  especially  before  /w/:  [kʷ. . sequences of homorganic stops are typically reduced to a single stop . The airstream is compressed behind this closure and released relatively slowly. 17: English Nasal and Approximant Consonants §17.   Velar plosives /k. the fortis/lenis contrast is frequently neutralised . g/ Advanced  before  front  vowels:  [k̟. d/ may be labialised  [tʷ.  dʷ]  especially  before  /w/   patalised  [tʲ.Description: a closure is formed between a large area of the tip.Dutch syllable-final fortis stops do not have pre-glottalisation Contact with other consonants .Dutch fortis plosives do not have aspiration but have tenser articulation than their lenis counterparts . .Dutch lenis stops do not occur word-finally . In Dutch./tr.  g̟] Retracted  before  back  vowels:  [k̠.  dʲ]  before  /j/   dental  [t̪.Partially  devoiced  [d̥ ]  in  initial  position   Strongly  devoiced  [d̥ ]  in  final  position   o /t.Main allophonic variation o /k/: fortis voiceless velar plosive Initial:  strongly  aspirated  [kʰ] Syllable-final before consonants: pre-glottalised  [ˀk] /s/  clusters:  unaspirated  [k˭] Before  /j/:  Palatised  [kʲ] o /g/: lenis voiced velar plosive [g] between voiced sounds Partially  devoiced  [g̥]  in initial position Strongly  devoiced  [g̥]  in  final  position   o Velar closure for /k.In connected speech.In Dutch. giving rise to homorganic friction. d/ followed either by a uvular /r/ or by an alveolar tap or trill Ch.description: the back of the tongue rises to form a closure against the velum.7 Comparison with Dutch Energy contrast .  d̪ ]  adjacent  to  dentals.  alveolar  and  velar  nasals  /m.Main allophonic variation o /tf/: fortis voiceless labialised palato-alveolar affricate [tʃʷ] May be pre-glottalised when syllable-final  [ˀtʃ] o /dʒ/: lenis voiced labialised palato-alveolar affricate [dʒʷ] if between voiced sounds Initial: partially  devoiced  [d̥ ʒ] Final:  strongly  devoiced  [d̥ ʒ] §16.  g̠]   Labialised.  gʷ] Palate-alveolar affricates /tʃ.com .  ŋ/   Verspreiden niet toegestaan | Gedownload door: Irene Chan | E-mail adres: irene_chan3000@hotmail. g/ . dʒ/ . blade and the front of the tongue with the alveolar ridge and the front of the hard palate.  n.

 n̥ ]   Before /j/ and /ɪə/:  palatalised  [mʲ.  /l/  is  nasalised  [l] o Before  rounded  vowels  and  /w/:  labialised  [lʷ] o Before and after dentals: dental  [l ̪] Palatal approximant /j/ .  k/  in  a  stressed  syllable:  voiceless  fricative  [l ̥] Corresponds to the aspiration of the fortis plosives found in other contexts. n/ Following  /s/  in  initial  clusters:  partially  devoiced  [m̥ . giving a back-central vowel [ʊ]-type resonance Often a syllable bearer. o Before consonants and pause: dark [ɫ] The articulation is slightly velarized.Allophonic variation o In syllable-initial clusters following /p. ʃ.com . so that the upper surface is convex. but the soft palate is also lowered. to approximately the position for an [i] or [ɪ]-type vowel. Phonetic conditioning effect on preceding front vowels.Description: A rapid vowel-like glide on to a vowel of longer duration. d. Similar devoicing and slight friction is found in syllabic /l/ o Adjacent  to  nasals. g/. This gives a close front vowel [i]-type resonance to the lateral articulation. v/: may be realised as a labio-dental nasal [ɱ] o /n/ Before  and  following  dentals:  dental  [n̪ ] Before /tʃ.Description: The tip and blade of the tongue form a central closure with the alveolar ridge while the sides of the tongue remain lowered. The vocal folds vibrate throughout. ɔɪ/ have the terminal [ɪ]-element obscured or [ə]-like o In  initial  clusters  following  /p. k/. t. /j/ is devoiced and fricative [j] Completely voiceless palatal fricative: [ç] /t/  friction  is  usually  pre-palatal  [ç]̟ o The sequence /hj/ is frequently realised as a weak palatal fricative [ç] Verspreiden niet toegestaan | Gedownload door: Irene Chan | E-mail adres: irene_chan3000@hotmail. aɪ. which are centralised and lowered in this context The fronting glides /eɪ. there is a tendency for vowels to be somewhat nasalised  preceding  nasals:  lamb  [læ͂ m] §17. Consequently. adding the resonance of the nasal cavity. Distribution:  /ŋ/  occurs  only  syllable-finally following checked vowels Main allophonic variation o /m. The tongue is raised toward the hard palate.2 Approximants Lateral (approximant) . ʒ/:  palate  alveolar  [n̠ ] o /ŋ/ After  front  vowels:  advanced  [ŋ̟] After  velars:  retracted  [ŋ̠] Nasalisation: the soft palate anticipates the action of the other articulators. The airstream escapes over the lowered sides . when it will be of longer duration.Main allophonic variation o Before vowel and /j/: clear [l] Tongue shape is slightly palatalised.  nʲ] before /f. The tongue movement is from a fairly close front vowel to a more open vowel.- - - Description: the place and manner of articulation is similar to that of the corresponding stops /b. . dʒ.

The tongue movement is from an [u] or [ʊ]-like vowel accompanied by strong lip-rounding . Begin your transcription into phonemic symbols. Mark the stressed syllables as found in connected speech. dʒ/ (also in assimilated forms) Labial-velar approximant /w/ .  k/:  partially  devoiced  [w̥ ] o Initial clusters with /t. Start the transcription a. The main body of the tongue has lateral bunching. 4.Consonants preceding /w/ are strongly labialised. Transcription from an audio recording 1. following fortis plosives /p. Mark sentence stress.Description: the tip of the tongue moves towards the rear of the alveolar ridge. Mark intonation group boundaries. 2.  ə/  and  diphthongs  terminating  in  ə o Rule in RP and other non-rhotic accents: only pronounce /r/ if there is a following vowel.Crescendo glide on to another vowel of greater prominence . Mark off the intonation groups a.com . 2.Main allophonic variation o Idiolectal: intervocalic position after checked vowels -> alveolar tap [ɾ] o Contextual: in initial clusters. k/ in stressed syllables: voiceless labial-velar fricative [ʍ] Post-alveolar approximant /r/ . k/ -> completely voiceless post-alveolar fricative [ɹ̥] In unstressed syllables and after fricatives: partly devoiced post-alveolar fricative .Distribution o Rhotic accents: the /r/ is pronounced in all contexts o Non-rhotic dialects: /r/ is never pronounced before a consonant or pause Typically pronounced across word boundaries (linking-r) Intrusive-r: hearing a linking-r when there is no r in the spelling After vowels /ɑ:. 4. .e.  ɔ:. Listen to the whole passage several times. The boundaries of intonation groups which have close grammatical connection are marked by single bars (|) b. the sides are expanded and raised so as to come into close contact with the back teeth and the rear edges of the palate. Read the passage aloud several times.o The sequences /tj. i. producing a stricture of open approximation. . dj/ are often realised as the corresponding palato-alveolar affricates /tʃ. Intonation groups which are not closely connected have a boundary shown by a double bar (||) 3. 3. Note: all the variables must represent faithfully what has been produced by the speaker. Guide to the technique of Phonemic transcription Transcription from a text 1. Verspreiden niet toegestaan | Gedownload door: Irene Chan | E-mail adres: irene_chan3000@hotmail. in stressed syllables.Main allophonic variation o Following  the  fortis  plosives  /t.

Following /s. Always use the forms of print rather than handwriting. <ed> a. In all other cases: s /z/ Words phonemically written Kitten Rhythm Bacon Battle Language Translation Bronchial Diaphragm Trachea /’kɪtn̩ / /’rɪðm̩ / /’beɪkŋ̩/ /’bætl ̩/ /’læŋgwɪdʒ/ /træns’leɪʃn̩ / /’brɒŋkiəl/ /’daɪəfræm/ /trə’kɪə/  or  /’treɪkɪə/ Verspreiden niet toegestaan | Gedownload door: Irene Chan | E-mail adres: irene_chan3000@hotmail. 4.  t.   Numbers that occur in a passage should be transcribed in their full spoken form. Remember to use appropriately the WFs and CFs. /ə/ always occurs in unstressed syllables. 11.   It’s  not  necessary  to  show  any  punctuation. Certain adjectives have forms with /ɪd/ 7. ʒ. ʃ. a. 7. Don’t  enclose  each  word  in  slant  brackets. 8. 3. Make sure that you can distinguish the symbols from each other. 2. In RP. 6. To indicate the possibility of linking-r. ʧ.  θ/:  s   /s/ b. you should transcribe it between words with a full-size letter. Pay attention to the shapes of the symbols. Don’t  use  phonetic symbols in a phonemic transcription.  k.  f. it adds interest to show assimilations and elisions where these are possible. How you should transcript s: a. 3. Don’t  confuse  orthography  and  phonemic  representation. Following all other consonants or vowels: ed -> /d/ 5. 5. you must show all assimilations and elisions you can hear. The happy words should have an /ɪ/ on the end like the convention. Some reminders 1. 10. Several verbs ending in n or l have 2 pronunciations and spelling forms. Following /t/ or /d/: ed -> /ɪd/ c. 6. RP: /r/ only occurs before a vowel. z.com . Following  the  fortis  consonants  /p. Note: stress always falls on the last item of abbreviations. ʤ/: s /ɪz/ c. the pronunciation with /t/ is far more common. 8. 4. In stressed syllables you will generally find /ʌ/ or /ɜ:/ 2. 9. If transcribing from speech. Don’t  use  any  capital  letters.Writing the symbols 1. When transcribing from a written text. Mark syllabic consonants by a small stroke beneath the symbol. Following fortis consonants (except /t/): ed -> /t/ b.

Oesophagus Phonation Alveolar Velum Velar Velic /i:’sɒfəgəs/ /fə’neɪʃn̩ / /ælvɪ’əʊlə/ /vi:ləm/ /vi:lə/ /vi:lɪk/ Verspreiden niet toegestaan | Gedownload door: Irene Chan | E-mail adres: irene_chan3000@hotmail.com .