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(a) How does the kinetic energy of a body change if its momentum is halved?

Ans;

We know,

K.E= 0.5 mv^2

= 0.5 m^2v^2/m

since, P= mv so, m^2v^2= P^2

K.E. = 0.5 p^2/m

so,

K.E.1/ K.E. 2= P1^2/P2^2

According to question,P2= 0.5 P1

K.E.2= K.E.1 * P2^2/P1^2

= KE1* 0.25 P1^2/ P1^2= 0.25 K.E.1

so, the kinetic energy will be one fourth.

(b) If the sun some how collapsed to form a black-hole, what effect would this event have on the

orbit of the earth?

Ans;

If M be the mass of sun, m be of earth and r be the distance between their centre. Then gravitational

force is given by;

g.f= GMm/r^2

If the sun is somehow collapse to form black hole, M, m and r will be same so there wont be any

effect in the gravitational force. Since the g.f. remains same there won't be any effect in the orbit of

the earth.

(c) Can the direction of the velocity of a body be changed when its acceleration is constant?

Yes, it is possible.When you throw ball upward, up to maximum height velocity is in upward direction

but acceleration is downward. When it returns, velocity is downward and acceleration also

downward. so, the direction of velocity changed from upward to downward in constant acceleration

"g".

- It is possible that the body has acceleration and it is not moving.

(d) If A and B are non-zero vectors, is it possible for A X B and A.B both to be zero?Explain.

Ans;

We know,

A X B= AB sin X n

A.B= AB cos X

When X= 0, A X B= 0 When X= 90, A.B= 0. So, they cant be zero for same angle but they can be 0

for different angle. ie. when angle between vector is 0 for vector product to be zero and when angle

between vector is 90 for scalar product to be zero.

(e) In hot air ballooning, a large balloon is filled with air heated bya gas burner at the bottom. Why

must the air be heated?

We know,

PV= nRT

PV= w/M RT

PVM= w RT

PM= w/v RT

PM= d RT

where, d is the density of gas.at constant p and other parameters.T is inversely proportional to

density of gas. When we heat up the gas, its density decreases. So, it will be easier to fly higher.

(f) A man drops his briefcase in an elevator but it does not fall to the floor.What can be concluded

about the situation?

Ans;

Let m be mass of briefcase, R be reactionary force and a be acceleration of lift. Then,

R= mg- ma= m(g-a)

according to question, it doesn't fall that means reactionary force is 0. R=0.

m(g-a)=0 m cant be zero so,

(g-a) must be zero.

g-a=0

g=a

so, we can conclude that the lift is falling with the acceleration of g. Then the briefcase is in free fall

condition. Hence, it is weight less.

(g) An ice cube floats in a glass of water. When the ice melts, will the water level in the glass rise, fall

or remain unchanged? Explain.

Ans;Let the density of ice be x kg.m^3. Since the density of water is 1000 kg/m^3, ice will float in

water as x/1000 th part of its inside water.

Let V1 be volume of whole ice then volume of ice inside water is;(x/1000)* V1When it melts, mass

should be remain constant. so,

mass before melting= mass after melting

density before melting* volume= density after melting*volume or, x* V1= 1000* V

or, V= (x/1000) * V1

so, the volume after melting will occupy only the volume under water before melting. So, the level of

water will be same

2. Answer in brief any two questions. [2 x 2=4]

(a) Frozen water pipes often burst, will a mercury thermometer break if the temperature of the

thermometer is brought below the freezing point of mercury?

Ans

Almost all substances expand on heating and contract on cooling. When the water in pipe is cooled

up to 4 degree, the water as well as pipe contract. After cooling 4 degree, water expands due to

anomalous expansion of water but pipe cant expand so, frozen water pipes often burst.

As the mercury can't show such anomalous behavior, it wont break if it is brought below its melting

point.

(b) If you add heat to an object, do you necessarily increase its temperature? Justify your answer.

Ans;

Generally, If you heat to an object, its temperature increases but it is not necessary to increase in

temperature.

In course of change of state, the added heat is used to change state of the substance and not used

to increase the temperature of the substance. That is called latent heat of fusion and latent heat of

vaporization.

(c) Why are the polar regions much cooler than the equatorial regions despite the fact that the polar

regions are periodically tilted towards sun?

Ans;

The Equator receives sunlight almost directly down through the atmosphere, the Polar regions

receive sunlight obliquely through the atmosphere thereby sunlight has to travel further through the

insulating atmosphere. So, the Equator has higher temperatures than the Polar regions.

3. Answer in brief any one question. [1x2=2]

(a) Can a convex mirror ever form real image? Justify your answer.

Ans;

Yes, in case the object is virtual

(b) A large object when taken away from your eye appears smaller. Why?

Ans;

We know, the visual angle is given by;

Visual angle= object size/ object distance

If the large object is taken far, the distance from the eye increases so the visual angle becomes less

and hence the object looks smaller.

4. Answer in brief any one question. [1x2=2]

(a) Why is it dangerous to take shelter under a tree during lightning?

Ans;

Lightening is likely to discharge in the ground with the shortest path through different physical

structures. Since, the tree are generally higher than ground, the lightening is more likely to come

though it into ground. So we may get electric shock. Hence, it dangerous to take shelter under a tree

during lightning.

(b) Can two electric lines of force never intersect each other? Explain.

Ans:

No.

Tangent at the point in the electric lines of force gives the direction of the electric field. If two electric

lines intersect with each other, there will be two tangents and hence two directions of electric field.

As there cant be two direction of electric field, two electric lines of force never intersect each other.

1. Answer in brief any six questions:

a) If the scaler product of two vectors is equal to the magnitude of their vector product, find the angle

between them.

Ans: Let A and B be two vectors and X be the angle between them.

Then, magnitude of Scalar product= |A.B|= ABcos X

magnitude of vector product= |A X B|= ABsin X

According to the question,

|A.B|= |A X B|

or, ABcos X= ABsin X

or, tan X= 1

or, tan X= tan 45

or, x= 45

b) From a high tower, one ball is dropped from the rest and the secod ball is simultaneously

projected horizantally. Neglecting air resistance, which ball will reach the ground earlier?

Ans:

Since air resistance is neglected the time taken by both ball to reach the ground is given by:

t= (2H/g)^1/2

where H is height of tower and g is acceleration due to gravity. Since for both the balls H and g are

same, the time t must be same. And hence they reach the ground at same time.

Ans:

For a man to be stable the perpendicular line drawan from centre of gravity should pass from base of

the man. So, the man leans forward in order to shift the centre of gravity towards the centre and to

be more stable.

Ans:

The collisions in which both the momentum and kinetic energy is conserved, it called elastic collision

eg. collision of ideal gas molecules.

The collisions in which only momentum is conserved but not KE is called inelastic collision. For eg,

collision between two rocks.

e) If the force of the gravity acts on all bodies in proportion to their masses, why does not a heavy

body falls faster than a light body?

Ans:The force of gravity is more in larger mass but more force is needed to accelerate the larger

mass according to Newtons second law of motion. So, As a result both light and heavy body have

same acceleration and fall at a same time.

f) What will happen if a capillary tube of insufficient height is dipped into water?

Ans;

We know, the height of capillary is given by:

h= 2Tcos X/dgR

ie.h is inversely proportional to R

so, the radius of curvature increase as there is less height of capillary.

g) Explain why soldiers are ordered to break steps while crossing bridge?

Ans:

When the soldier dont break steps then due to their marching steps, bridge also vibrates. If the

frequency of vibration due to marching of soldier coincide with the natural frequency of bridge, bridge

vibrate with maximum displacement due to phenomena of resonance. If this displacment exceed the

elastic limit of the bridge, it may collapse. So in order to prevent bridge from collapsing, soldiers are

ordered to break steps while crossing bridge.

2. Answer in brief any two questions

a) Define absolute temperature.

Ans:

Temperature expressed in kelvin is called absolute temperature. Different scales can be converted

as;

(C-0)/(100-0)=(K- 273)/(373-273)= (F- 32)/ (212- 32)= (Scale- lower fixed point)/ (upper fixed pointlowerfixed point)

b) Explain why dews are formed in clear nights but not in cloudy night.

Ans:

Dews are formed when the temperature of earth becomes below due point. In the clear nights, earth

can loss heat by means of radiation and can attain temperature below dew point. Where as, in

cloudy night it can't loss heat by means od radiation due to clouds and can't attain temperature

below dew point. So, dews are formed in clear nights but not in cloudy night.

c) Air escaping from air hose at a gas station always feels cold. Why?

Ans:

We know the air escaping out of hot gas station is adiabatic process.

Also,dQ= dU + dW

In adiabatic process, dQ= 0.

so, dU= -dW

and PdV= - CvndT

here, the volume of air gas escaping increases and work done is with the expense of internal

energy. As internal energy decreases, temperature also decreases.

3. Answer in brief any one question.

a) The sun is less bright is evening and morning as compared to noon although its distance from the

observer is almost same.

Ans:

According to lambert cosine law,

the radiant intensity or luminous intensity observed from an ideal diffusely reflecting surface or ideal

diffuse radiator is directly proportional to the cosine of the angle between the observer's line of

sight and the surface normal.

Since the value of is maximum at morning and evening the luminous intensity is less as the value

of cos decreases as increase in . So, The sun is less bright is evening and morning as compared

to noon although its distance from the observer is almost same.

Ans;

The inability of lens to focus different colours of light at a point due to difference in the wavelength of

rays is called chromatic abberation.

Mirror cannot give chromatic abberation because the rays return in same medium and they arent

refracted.

4. Answer in brief any one question.

a) What do you mean by quantization of charge?

Every charged particle contains integral multiple of basic charge that is e= 1.6 * 10^-19

ie, q= ne

This is called quantization of charge.

b) Distinguish between Dielectric strength and Dielectric constant.

Ans:

The maximum electric field that a pure material can withstand under ideal conditions without

breaking down to start conducting is called dielectric strength. Unit; V/m.

Dielectric constant is property of an electrical insulating material (a dielectric) equal to the ratio of

the capacitance of a capacitor filled with the given material to the capacitance of an identical

capacitor in a vacuum without the dielectric material. It has no unit.

MECHANICS

1. State and prove triangle law of vector addition.

2. state and prove parallelogram law of vector addition.

3. State and prove conservation of linear momentum for two body system.

4. State and prove work energy theorem.

5. Prove that the mechanical work is conserved in a gravitational field.

6. Prove in elastic collision in one dimension, velocity of approach is equal to velocity of separation.

7. What is projectile. Prove that the path followed by projectile is parabolic in nature also find the

expression for max. height, horizontal range and time of flight.

8. Prove that angle of repose is equal to the angle of friction.

11. Find the expression for work done by couple.

12. Show that the work done by variable force is numerically equal to the area under Force

displacement graph.

13. Find the expression for centripetal acceleration.

14. What is conical pendulum. Find the expression for its time period.

16. How does acceleration due to gravity vary according to height and depth? find expressions.

17. How does acceleration due to gravity vary with rotation. Find its effect at poles and at equator.

18. What is escape velocity. Find the expression for it.

19. find the expression for orbital velocity. Hence its time period.

20. Find the total energy of the satellite.

21. What is SHM? Find the expression for displacement, velocity and acceleration of body in SHM.

22. Find the expression for time period of pendulum.

23. Find the energy of the body in SHM.

25. Find the relation between Moment of inertia and angular momentum.

26. Find the expression for energy stored in a stretched wire.

28.Define surface tension and surface energy. Find the relation between them.

29. Find the expression for capillary rise.

30. State and prove Bernouli theorem.

31. Prove newtons formula for viscosity hence find the dimensions of coefficient of viscosity.

33. How can you determine coefficient of viscosity in lab?/ Find the expression.

Heat and thermodynamics

i) find relation between coefficient of linear, superficial and cubical expansion.

ii) Prove gamma R= gamma a + gamma g

iii) Cp- Cv =R

iv) Find the equation for adiabatic process.

v) Petrol engine

vi) diesel engine

vii) Find specific heat capacity by method of mixture.

viii) Describe Searle's method for determination of thermal conductivity.

viii) prove that p= one by three row c bar square.

ix) Prove PV= nRT

x) Prove boyle's law, charle's law and PV= nRT from kinetic theory of gases.

xi) What is perfectly black body. Describe perfectly black body in practice.

Optics

i) lateral shift

ii) minimum deviation

iii) Deviation by small angled prism.

iv) Lens Maker Formula

v) Astronomical telescope.

vii) Mirror formula for convex mirror.

viii) Achromatic combination of lenses.

ix) Microscope..

Electrostatics

i) Can you charge a body positively by induction?

ii) Can you charge a body negatively by induction?

iii) State and explain gauss law. Apply it to find electric field in a infinite plane sheet, infinitely long

charged rod, plane sheet.

iv) Find the expression for potential at a point due to point charge.

v) Find the potential difference between two points.

vi) Relate potential difference and electric field intensity.

vii) Find the equivalent capacitance of the three capacitors conected in i) Parallel ii) Series

viii) Find the energy stored in capacitor.

See if u know or not...

Vectors and scalars

i) Scalar: Having magnitude only.

ie mass, time, speed, pressure, work etc

all potentials like electric potential and fluxes like magnetic flux.

current as it doesn't follow vector laws

* Actually pressure is a tensor quantity whose magnitude changes as direction.( not in course)

Q. Which one of them is not scalar?

i) Force

ii) Work

iii) Mass

iv) Time

a. scalar product( dot)

- given by AB cosX where A and B are magnitude and X is angle between them.

A.B = AB( maximum when angle X= 0)

A.B= 0 ( When X= 90)

A.B= - AB ( minimum when angle X= 180)

so, the scalar product lies between -AB to AB.

- it is commutative ie

A.B= B.A

- scalar product of two vectors give scalar.

ie F.S= Work which is scalar

ii) Vector: Having both magnitude and direction.

ie. velocity, force, momentum etc

all gradients, fields, intensities( velocity gradient, electric field)

*point to be noted

1. current have both magnitude and direction but it is scalar as it doesn't follow vector laws.

2. Area is scalar but elementary area is taken as vector as it has orientation.

In a rectangular component a vector can be resolved in components.

Let F be a vector making angle X with the X axis. Then

Fx= FcosX..........1

Fy= FsinX ..........2

such that

1. Fx= (Fx^2+ Fy^2)^1/2

2. Fx: Fy= cotX

Vector Product

- it geometrically represents the area of parallelogram where two vectors represents adjacent sides

[A X B]= AB Sin (x) n^

where n^ is a unit vector along the perpendicular direction of A and B.

- It is not commutative

A X B not equal to B X A but magnitudes are equal.

- Cross product of vectors is a vector

T= F X S

Resultant of vector

Let A and B be two vectors subtending angle x between then the resultant of two vectors is given by

R= |A+ B|= ( A^2 + 2AB cos x + B^2) ^1/2

direction,

Let the angle made by resultant with vector A be .

then

Tan = (( Bsin x/ (A+ Bcos x))

i) when x= 0, R= A + B which is maximum

ii) when x= 90, R= (A^2+ B^2)^1/2

iii) when x= 180, R= A- B which is minimum .

so,

*[A-B] </= R </= [A+B]

Important Results

* The resultant of to equal vectors give the resultant either of them, then angle between then is 120.

* Area of parallelogram is given by the magnitude of vector product.

If A= X1i + Y1 j+ Z1 K

and, B= X2 i+ Y2 j+ Z2 K

then find the cross product of A and B, you can find another vector. For the area find magnitude of

that vector.

* If |A|= |B|, |A+B|= 2a Cos x/2

* IF |A|= |B|= |A+B| , x= 120

* If |A|= |B|= |A-B|, x= 60

* If |A|= |B|= A, |A- B|= 2A sin x/2

* If the vectors are inclined to 45 then their resultants will be equal.

* If the three equal vectors are mutually perpendicular to each other then they are inclined to 54.74

with each other

i.e

l= cos A

m= cos B

n= cos C

l^2 +m^2 +n^2= 1

3cos^2A= 1

cos A= |1/3^1/2 |

so, A= 54.74

rojectile

- Two dimensional motion

- air resistance is neglected. Path followed is parabolic in nature called trajectory.

* Let a projectile be projected with initial velocity u making an angle of x with the horizontal then its

velocity can be resolved in two parts:

i) Horizontal velocity= u cosx

ii) Vertical velocity= usinx

- The horizontal velocity remains constant where vertical velocity changes due to gravity.

- Time of flight (T)= (2usinx)/g

- Horizontal range( R)= (u^2 sin2x)/g

- For the maximum horizontal range the projectile should be projected at an angle of 45, R(max)=

u^2/g.

- Horizontal range is same for to angles x and 90-x. ( complementary angles)

- H( max) = (gT^2)/8

- 4H(max) cot x= R

- If R= H( max) then x= 75.96 degree

- At maximum height, the velocity is perpendicular to the acceleration.

- If to attain a certain height in T1 second and returns back to same point in T2 second then.,

H( max)= 1/2 g* T1*T2

a. Change in different from point of projection to the maximum height, E be the energy at initial point

i) Change in speed= u- u cos x = 2u^2 (sin x/2)^2

ii) Change in velocity = u sin x

iii) Change in KE= E (sinx)^2

iv) Change in PE= E (cosx)^2

v) change in direction = x

a. Change in different from point of projection to the striking point, E be the energy at initial point

i) Change in speed= 0

ii) Change in velocity= 2 u sinx

iii) Change in momentum= 2mu sinx

iv) Change in KE= 0

v) Change in PE= 0

vi)Change in direction= 2x

* If the air resistance is not neglected then,

R, H( max), speed at the string point is less...

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