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EE 179

Digital and Analog Communication Systems

Homework #2
Due Wednesday, April 16

April 9, 2014
Handout #8

1. Operations on signals (Lathi & Ding 2.3-3). For the signal g(t) shown below, sketch:
a. g(t 4);

b. g(t/1.5);

c. g(2t 4);

d. g(2 t).

Hint: Recall that replacing t with t T delays the signal by T . Thus g(2t 4) is g(2t) with t
replaced by t 2. Similarly, g(2 t) is g(t) with t replaced by t 2.
2. Orthogonal signals (Lathi & Ding 2.5-5). The energies of two energy signals x(t) and y(t) are Ex
and Ey , respectively.
a. If x(t) and y(t) are orthogonal, then show that the energy of the signal x(t) + y(t) is identical
to the energy of the signal x(t) y(t) and is given by Ex + Ey .
b. If x(t) and y(t) are orthogonal, find the energies of the signals c1 x(t)+c2 y(t) and c1 x(t)c2 y(t).
c. We define Exy , the correlation of the two energy signals x(t) and y(t), as
Exy =
x(t)y (t) dt .

If z(t) = x(t) y(t), then show that

Ez = Ex + Ey (Exy + Eyx ) .
3. Use Fourier transform properties to derive Fourier transforms (Lathi & Ding 3.3-2). The Fourier
transfer of the triangular pulse g(t) in Fig. P3.3-2a is given as

G(f ) =


(2f )2
Use this information, and time-shifting and time-scaling properties, to find the Fourier transforms
of the signals shown is Fig. P3.3-2b, c, d, e, and f.

4. Modulation and demodulation.

a. Let m(t) be a message signal, fc a constant (carrier frequency), and define
x(t) = m(t) cos(2fc t + 0 ) .
Let M(f ) be the Fourier transform of m(t). Find X(f ), the Fourier transform of x(t), in terms
of M(f ).
b. Find the signal (in the time domain), whose Fourier transform is pictured below.

c. A similar relationship can be found for x(t) = m(t) sin(2fc t). Find it, and use it to find the
Fourier transform of
sin(2t) |t| < 1/2
x(t) =
|t| > 1/2
without performing any integration. Does the Fourier transform have the properties you would
expect (even/odd/neither, real/imaginary/complex)?
d. Show that m(t) can be recovered from x(t) = m(t) cos(2fc t) by multiplying by 2 cos(2fc t)
and passing the product through a low-pass filter of bandwidth B Hz, where B is the bandwidth
of m(t). Assume that B fc .
5. Essential bandwidth (Lathi & Ding 3.7-4). For the signal
g(t) =


+ a2

determine in hertz the essential bandwidth B of g(t) such that the energy contained in the spectral
components of g(t) of frequencies below B Hz is 99% of the signal energy Eg . Hint: determine
G(f ) by applying the duality property [Eq. (3.26)] to pair 3 of Table 3.1.
6. Autocorrelation and PSD. Show that the autocorrelation function of g(t) = A cos(2f0 t + 0 ) is
Rg ( ) = 12 A2 cos(2f0 ) and that the corresponding PSD is Sg (f ) = 14 A (f f0 ) + (f + f0 ) .
7. Output SNR of linear system (Lathi & Ding 3.8-5). Consider a linear system with impulse response
e2t u(t). The linear system input is

g(t) = w(t) cos 6t +


in which w(t) is a noise signal with power spectral density Sw (f ) = (f /4).

a. Find the total output power of the linear system.

b. Find the output power of the signal component due to the sinusoidal input.
c. Find the output power of the noise component.
d. Determine the output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in decibels.

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EE 179, Spring 2014