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W BRKSHBP PRACTItESERIES from NexusSpetialInterests.


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Stan Bray introducesthe fascinating world ofhorology to the complete bK inner.This bookexplainsth1&
ofthe clockmakerand provides generaldetails ofclock construction including layoutofwheels and esc
a numberofthe Iatterbeing described.





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C ontents

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thc work. A lthough a special
workshop is not rtlquiredl one thing
that Bri11 not do is to work in a
uxlrkshop that is fulI of svvarf and
ot11cl- rubbish. a
'Xtlcepting that '
cannot alsvays llaN'
e a clinically elcan
plaklc in Nvhich to operate,partictllarly
if it scrvkls st
tlralpurposes,it is still
possible to lllake a clean area for
spccial tlsu- alld tl1is should be a
priority.A tlorneroftht
lNvorkshop can
ltrlcalled ll1
ld Llny oil01
-grease lying
? bench su abbcd off Keep this
area clean NvlliI(
) clock nlaking
v in progrcss.ltis a good
idkla to 1'
11aktl a false top for the
svorkbench and coveritw ith baize ora
A lthough clocks come in a11sorts of sinaiIarnaaterialwhich issof'tand w i11
shapes and sizes the basic principle notcatlse dam age to polished l
behind a lllechanical clock las not
changed for aboutfivk
lhundred years. Aswi
th a1lneu'projects,do nottry
Ofcourse m odern m aterials and tools and run before yotl can walk. Don'
have superseded som e of the oldcr startby trying to btlild a col
ones butthis apartthe horologistwill lmechanism such asa fulI'
W kstm inster
still tend to work in the traditional Chilne but rather nlake som cthing
fashion.C lock nlaking has long been silnplc, A m echanisll'
l with a single
part of the m odel engineering hobby hand isa good idea.sttch :
1piecc w'llen
ratherthan being entircly thc preserN'
c well polished tran look attractive as
0f the horologist and thc type of well as being fascinating to watch
workshop owned by thc avtlragc wht
,n it is working. Visit l
m tlsetmns
m odel engincer is quite suitablc for '
w lnere (2lock nRovcm ents can be

Clock m aking appears to hold :
fascination al1of itsown,particularly
am ongst m odt)l engineers, many
deciding to makc a elok:k afterhaving
m ade m odcls i
At-variolls types.Tllere
is something absolutcly fascinatillg
about clock luaking that seel
-ns to
draw one towards it. This book is
intcnded as a brief introduction to thc
tools,m aterialsand nRethodsgenerally
used and to offer all explanation of
generalform sofconstruction.Itisnot
a book of plans btlt those who haN'
sufficient contidence could usc ll'
inforlnation it contains to l
nakc a
sinlple clock.

kkidk ' I I .N ou' adays pl:!h:tit ? can be :1uscfu1l' natt ll -ial.SO. 1jL. Unlike btlilding I modellocol uotivcs()1- do thkli1'1(3t 3pdrltlctIy. usuaIly a very pri1nitiN't' : fo1 -1' 1. u.itis hard u'earilg and a clock I' nêtkltl of a trallsparent plastic can be a fascillatil)g tI1ing t() see.The spindle lltpeds to tne driven by sonnt2 forl ' n oF poNs' er.artl I11onc ptlrtrhases :1very'oltlclt'tlk'thtl kzlallces of it tlv' el -bk ling l vgtllated tk) kcep acculute till' ltlal 'k2getlkprally very sl mal1. 1t u'iI1 1 3k2 13( . 111)ot gtrt t1)is 1 )ig11 tlcg1 'tlk.thc (. l u/îth a hand attaohed to itrotate at11 given specd..aceLlracy al-l d l' nork? iIllportal ltIy t() tlisctlN' tll -Il()vs'to . A I' neans to regulatc that poNs' trr is :l1s() required-i11 order tllat itvvil1rtll' l. 't z c: .Iathe.'tlsI y in:tctlrêtte and afttll 'al1 tt' ll -n)ally y' klars it Ns'as qt. 'tlo nothavk 2 tllc lastri1atio1l ()f tllc I' lt?c11: . N. 1 secontl or tvvo :1 yu'i . l prtlbêtbly gklil)g to bt' ttlisttloil' lted. Il.z.I1-ytltlllrt' rI lollillg t() ti11ish your tirstefforts in 111s sitlk2t)1' tle Ilobby.Tl' lu ' lld are a nulnber of plans availab1e tbr the constrtletion of wooden cIocks and Nvhi1e this l' nay not sound a suitablk ? lnaterials it is surprisingly robtlst.. Tools s' l()sl o1-the toklls Iikely to btll' lcetltltl u'iIlbe lbtlnd i11the ' tvorkshop of tllc average nlodelellgilldtlr. tIand Nve are in bus1ness. 21klck to t1)k?corretrt tiI110 Ol1Ce t 2V0l-j'' WC0k ()1.These tiInepitlckls are vvhat onk? l11ight dcscribk?assotl1-1tlss-tllc). ' l ()f ltctrtlracy does11t' is far better than trying t() recovk lr sol mething that has not been correctly nladt l in tl ' 1c first place.lNk art?tlsu'd i1)this day and age to being ableto t nt. thk? llaterial tlltt u.tltl Ctrk . ' Jtlrnlans have used it for ycars to lllak'k ?clockscol -nnlercial1y. t11t1' 1lt1otl1 *clock yN.a l2u'bils 111' 1(1 1)1tlct' ts of s1I&'erslek' . 'rNvhen ll' lt ' tk'il' lg a clock is a l ' neans of nlakil1g a spindlk.In addition a slmalItiNze-sidttd broaeh is possibly the only essential .tltcused form odelcngineering ptlrposesso do notbe frightened to l' nake a part l' nore than once ifsonaething hasgone vvrong. lite ctlstol laary to sct:1( .@ A.solllc bl 'êtss slletlt. ..A Iso Clq' fti1ltblc arcplallsfork2Iocks l ' nad: frtll )) pllper and card.Ntlt ldle f' iIeshacksavv. '1ll be used is llklilllert lxtktllsiv' e t)l'tlxpk lllsikkt wllen klolllpared to thtl eastil ' lgh. NVe aIItk. tt :1 Inartickllctr speed.. cxllensivc cflstiI' lgstt'bi lbtltlgl lt.. 'i11 bc otltlagk lt .Thkly are controlled by ur hat anaountsto a eolllptltcrtr1' lip and thisis hou'thataccuracy is obtaincd. )ssiblt ? to ac1 )itls'c tl rcasollablkl dk lgree t' lt. lnd to t11i11k'of cIotrks bei1g nladk 2 frol' n brass and steel btlt other nnaterials can be used.a. lq'N'tlry cheap (2Iocks allmost anysvhk lrkl tlatttre relmarkably acctlrate.. 111ikra1 devi(2e-althotlgh it nntlsl bt?atll ' nitted ForttlnateIy tor tllose u'ho are begil' llling. Thcy appcarto u ork N' cry svelland Iastfora Iong ti11)e. t1 ' tllell ).Tl lk?factthatï. . @ tl-act1ol'l tpl-lgilles. It is t zasy to u' klrk u ilh. NN'lt't1-k? 1I)t?l't'..stllnc snlaIIdriIls and taps are thc basic itellls that artl wanted.NN' itl) êt lllastel'pitttrt' t tllttt neitller Ioost?s ()1'gCtil1s l' lltpl 'e tllêtll : .1Ivve art' tIooking t' ( .

ellto visitont.A l lellt1il ' lg tool (See (71 3:1pte1 . ' ? i1 -1s. l' lavt )bu-el' lI' nadc tlsing thcll' tand other lêtt1 )ch ( of a si1 -1 1i1a1.()bN'iously lcss spact' l is reqtlired. rIockh. 1N' aiIablt ' r vN'ith :1 . A sl)11ft or spindlt l is ' klltnvn as an arbor alld the bearillg surfacc attllk' lt' llld isnot21shaftt)l'ax1k ? but a pivot. itht lll' l itltraI lk n1cël tting the teeth on l. -A '1(. itt'I 'tlll11)ilgs. 1lf tllat haN' c thc atls' antage k)t-being chcap and asthey art ?snaall. . A1thotlgl) tle Illtlvtllnent or lllecllanislll is rotating col ltil' lual1y.i1 -1' latrt thcy arc o1-doubtftll N' altlt ? Nvhkln it conncs lo l ' naking k. (J -cntrralIy speaking tllt . T1)k . Term inology This is alltltherthing Nvhich enginct lrs l ' nay find a 1ittlk l diffictllt lo undkrrstand. ladN'êtlltage tlat it ctlts ti-ictltdl' l (. . 1tlu' n to a l' ni11iIlltlll' l and i ts ël l 'u-stllt reduccs the p( 7 . boIt tln 1 ' 1)il1drill llttaurhnlk ll' lllhatl' nakt?! . Tllel 'k 2 additit'llkllttlolsol'trtltlrsk.svhen they art l ()1 a pinion they ltrt p frequently describt ld as Itlavds. T 1 )otlsands ot.47rf. l l)11!1iattlre typc ' lkttllk ?s NN'ith ccntre h:igllts ()t ' about 11: . possible to givc advickl on thtt bcst lathe for :1 nt lur col ner to ptlrchasc.Iitt1c tlsu. 1ost arc .ss. l(4f the I nany l uodel-engincu'ri1 )g exhibiti01 1h. )N' ised. p al't ' t probabIy the N1yfo1(1 7 Scrik ls. . Nvhich is ideal for tllc I' nckrhanisl ' n that is bcing constrtlcted in order to give :1 good tit on tllc . W rl aeel alltl pil' liol' lctlttcrscotl1( 1be very'tlsel tllbtlt itis qtlilklpossiblc t()g()NN' itlkluttltpll' l. 5.gootl c1ot?ks.size and spk lc1f-icatik' l11. 'iIl be possiblu-tt) brosvse throtlgh :1 Iarge nun-1bt ' ?l' ()t' l' nachines oftlitferent l ' nakcs and typkls to ' hnd ' wrhich I' nightbtlthcnlostsuitablc.. tlst 2fu1 i' tt' ln4 is kllk )Ns'n 81s .Nvhich havc a centre hcight of 3r.vN' t ?l' I' lklt ldtll. ' t nc @ he nthe ' $N'ë1tcI )lllttk'ers'ltltles : . 'goil' lg t()brcak' a113. vN' l' 1dre it u. N'1eklls. )111 essel ltia1. z' Ns a restllt th: spindlt' t is rtlnning on the thinnestpossiblc ring of )1' 1p1k zttl sel)se. 1rlx .tllc elock luaker seenas to try to do the exact opposile.It Ilas 10 rklalyN' t3l'k'to do il1as l ntltlllasit is ( 71 7Iy dris' illg 1tstllf and s()thklslllêtll bcarillg stll-lèlct : tl' lflstlt . -tltlttiltly ttl 'c l ' 1()t absoltltely t ' tsstpltiê11.' ' @ itell' ttlltll111igllll' It' k t1'll 'elttly be IA. To the engineer tltl idea stltlllds frigl ltellil ' lg btltrealIy itlllakcs t2(. . r ( )l'ld spklttcll'k lkrol 'klsi1 s()t1()illg. u'hi1e tlle cngintltll' u'ilI always try and get as nluch bearil )g surfacc for a spindle as possible. only avaiIabld tbr:1 Iinlitcd period ot' tilne btlfore the spt ?cificati01' 1 is changed. Thert l arkr nAany people llllk'iI 1g N' ery line clocks ïvllt? l laN' e llever btltlgllt stl clla ctlttcr i11tllei1-1ifd.I11addition lllany t)f the foreigi1 latllt ?s tl7.6 for ftl1 -t1er inforllatiol' l)is usefulfor layillg tltlt the Nvhklt?ls btlt oncc l nore fal' 11 -( .Anyonc u.tklr (ntllt lr Ptlrposcs tllal' 1' s&'altrll Illak'illg.itisl' lar(l1/. Jthe1 . tlltzre are seq' tlraI Nvays ()f tloil' lg tlc job Nsritllotlt stlcll :$11 itelll al ltl1ikt!ctltlel 's-Ctle eltsily il ' t.Thk ?1' nostpoptlIar()' f -all thesk. anting to ptlrchase a lathe Nvotlld d0 art a stlld ' . 1 )k . . 1a partictlIarprklfcrcnt)e and onc! .il a1ldepends ( 71. Thesegears(u' heels)artll -nadeol-thin section brass. rtypc oflalhc ft'tlllklil' lthk l av' klragt' tll-l odelkpngilleklr's yvorkshop is quittrstlittlblkl. pld throughout thc country. 11 -:-k' )xl ' )k?llsiN'e to btly alld êlre ot. lt is l' lot .(iears bceolne svheels i11 spite of the s' ery obvious tecth alI round thelm tht)I ' naking ofNvhich istlltl l' nain partofclot-k l' naking. Solue of the lllethods tlskrd by clock l m akcrs a1 -t' t likely to nlak( ) a1) expcrit ' lnced engi11eer u. Holes that arc to btr used for bt zarings are dri1lt ld slllallk )r than thc dial meter of tht p spindltt tllat NvilI fit il1 tllklll-l allkl then tltlq' are realned Nvith a tapcr broach untiIa tit is lnadc. .AIthotlgh the tccth on thc Nvhklklls are calltrd teeth. Fo1' exam ple.tI '((41' tl' lkl ï$' k)I 'k'sllop eqtliplllel' lt. ibudgel.

i 1. . Thc photograph on the for exam ple at that ttsed by tht ) frollt covt!r of this book is one of a computerengineer.To a clocklnakertlle term designs of John W ilding are sold in includes the length of brass tlsed to book form . Som e such as the orm aterial.and fillally there is instructions' .they are to be very highly the m echanism itselfwhich iscalled a recom m ended.jtlstlook purchased. To an engineer. . Others silnilar books m ovem ent.@ @ spindlcs (arbors) tley are ' litled on bosses fron)now on known as colIets. com plete w ith full support a wheel. x + . .It is a1Ivery confusing at are available as basic plans and in firstbutwe m ustrelnt lm berthatevery som e cases com plete kits can btl tradehasitownterminology. moN' emttntmadefrom justsuchakit.a e01Iet is som cthing which opens and closes to hold tools H elp and A ssistance There are : 1 considerable num bcr ot' plans available for l naking clocks of various types.

fashion. Hum ans are ncvcr satisfied with not necessarily the m ost reliable basics and we can only speculate sourcesas forvariousreasonsthcy are when itbecam e desirable to be able to not always visible.Of course this has carly is not only the every thirty days and the seasons hum an race that uses tim e-keeping repeatthem selvesevery twelfth tim c it m ethods.they are reacting to lightand dark and possibly also to Duringand priortotheStoneAge itis changing seasons.anilnals know'when ittimkl appears w hicll fbrms the basis of the to go to sleep or.Upton Hall. No doubt the very doubtful if anything m ore hum an ractl also started in this accurate than this would be required.when to ycar as w e now record it. It seem s tim e of the day did give reasonably highly probably that a prim itive accurate m easurem entOfthe scasonsp sundialwould be the flrstbasic form of clock. thatstick isatitsshortestitism idday. Som e cqtlinoxes w' ere wr ellknow n and tlsed plants antl trees w i)l close tlown for religiotls ptlrposes and stars and flow ers atnight and open them when sun were alm ost certainly used for daylight appears. ground and w hen thc shadow castby ltuus not alIleft cntirely to chance. in use then wcre the sun and m oon. The new m oon appears keeping in general.Newark Notts.both residential and hom e @ im posed upon usclocksare fascinating.m tlthods.awordortwo thousalldsofyears and this movem ent onthehistoryofthesubjectmayassist has been applied to time-keeping readers in an tlnderstanding of time.H istory Before starting on constructional heavens has becn observed for detailsofclock m aking. There are no heavy castings to hulup aroun4 thework isnice and clean and the end result is worthwhile.itisstillworth while taking an basedaon the subject.Even if afterreadingthisbookthereadershould decidethatclock making isnotforhim orher.whetheracrosssea or nothing to do with clocks as we have land.sleeping during darkness and Ifthe sun wasatitshighestpointthen activeduring the daylight.Therearealso interest in them . Archaeology and ancientm anuscripts W ho knows-perhapsitwasa tree that tell tIs that the m ovem ent of thtt flrst gave som eone the idea that the .their history and the numberofsuppliersofclock partsand beauty of the fmish on m any. C hapter 1 . Sueh prim itive split tim e into sm allcr parts and m ethods-while notexactly telling the exactly how it w'as donc.The British Horological lnstitute. in itself booksbased throughoutthe country. The start searching for their food.Upton.ifnocturnal.N 623 5TE stock a large range ofbooksand otheritem sdealing w ith clock m aking and in addition organise courses. canprovidean everlasting interest. come to know'them . Put a stick vertically in the had theiruses.@ If we accept all thc oddities thatare by Repton Cloeks and this too is an idea!way to learn thebasicsofclock construction.The clocks it was half way through the day.

Spring drivc is hrstheard of in 1450 and thdrefore pre-dates the use ofthe pendultlm . ln 600 BC the Pope decreed that all religiotls institutions should have a sundialas a m eans of regulating tlle times for prayer so the hulnan race wasreally becom ing nlore tim c consciotls. Driving autom ata was popular with clockm akersand oneearly exam pleat W ells Cathedral. Early clocks wt prc used for ptlblic purposes and were very large.O nce itcould be established how nxuch a candle burnt down in a partictllar period of tilme. There are records of clocks for dom estic purposes as early as l343 in France and England.King Alfred is creditcd w ith being the lirstpcrson to use candles fortimekeeping. N' it to rtll asvay and by I' lptlklsl -lrilg tlltrttll' ltltll' ïttllatI lad gol' !t' lit N5. Forshorttim e pcriodsthklre was also the sand-glass w ith ' which many ofus w iIIbe falnilitlras an cgg tilncr.1 approxil mation 0ftim e.In this way thegongcouldbt tsoundedatltom atically atsetintervals. ' illcr and although therc ' svas a l1Ll1' llbi . However a claim is m ade thata clock was m ade w ith pendulum control in 1656. m any were in fact sophisticated pieces of m aehinery.tht? tiI' l ' )e uklkllnst' tl. 1st Iook at those countrics that had not adopted the religitln to set' . whieh m ay orm ay notlave been a prim itive form of clock.butm inor . tl1is Nvasofno use af terdark orin l' nuch of the Nvklather vve havc in Britai1' 1. 1 passcd i ' tll(1. Not alI tlle Nvorld' s poptlIation w' as (-lristian and Nvt . in a container with l ' narkings to retrllrd the til' ne that had passed as the quantity of oiI ' w as rcduccd.Itis knoNvn that thtr (l -hincst had the idea of tlsing u. can stillbe seen working. û-andles were also used as a m klasure of tim e. t1 ' :11. Nobody know s whon the first m echanicalclock cam e into being. m etal pillars of varying shapes follow ing them .Itis a very be quite crude. .F. Sundials did not rem ain as sticks in the ground and we know stone colum ns werc used in early times. ' :ts possiblkl to sekl 11oïv l ' nuch tilzle 1:1( . if the containcr ysras I lnarked yNil1 ) glatltllltiolls. lt is still in working order. lt is quite am azing to think that modern m echanical clocks work on exactly the sam e principle asthey did w hen George G raham invcnted his escapement. ?l-ol-v' al -iatitlnson ll1etlltll ' llt' )-tle basic princi( 3lt . including ' htting a dial. including in particular the invention of new m ore reliable escapem ents and in l7l5 Georgc G raham invented the deadbeat escapdm ent m aking clocks m orc reliable still. otherw ise there is little tim cs. )Nvêls to tiI1a container Nsrit1)svltter. After a periodoftim ethet lam eburntthrough the string and the weightwould drop on to a gong telling them onksthatit w as prayer tim e.Thisisnothowevera book aboutstlndials butaboutclocks. ht nv tlley sorted tllingsout.Thestrings were ofdiflkrentlength and so burnt through atdifferenttim es. which incltldesam dchanism forstrikingthe hours as well as one for telling the tim e.shadow of the sun could be ttsed to give :.W hatwe do know is that sundials were in use around 200 BC and :1 hundrcd years or so later a geared m echanicaldevice wasproduced for navigational purposcs at sca. various ingeniotls m easuring dt w ices that sounded alarm s were deviseds ' these included wcights on a pïece of string that was set ' lirtl to. lcf -htlltlbe sk lel' l1ttltglance. ' t)1-ld k)nd variotls ilnprovcluents Iuade to the systeln. The idca w as extended to include a num ber of weightsstrung to a fram whom or how it was invented.The glah. -.althotlgh if he acttlally did burn the cakes the candles could not have been very rcliable.s and quantity ofsand had to be c'arefuIly lzaatelled to thc tin' le required and so the systel m Nvas generaIly used only for spkleifit2 ptlrposcs. An alm ostidenticalidea to thccandle was to btIrn is quite an advanced clock. The oldestclock known of in Europe was at Salisbury Cathedral antl is dated 1386. Thesundialsubjeetisso vastthatit could take a separate book to discuss it. ensured that the water clock rem ained in tlstl for hundreds ofyears. The earliest surviving exam ples date from around thc fifteenth century and are of iron construction. it was a sin4pIe m atter to nl:1rk the sides. show ing how lnuch tim e had elapsed sincethe candlcwaslit.This tylèc k)' #-clklck eN' trnttlalIy becalue used :1ll ( ' )N' e1' tlc NN. Regular im provem ents were m ade to tim ekeeping m echanism. M ass hundreds of years and although the production was really the only big construction ofearly ones appcars to advancem entfrom then on. the m echanism being scaldd down from the larger oncs in public places.Materialshaveimprovett elaborateaffairwith knightsjotlsting with brass and steeltaking over from and a1lsorts ofotherm ovem entsatset iron.Even this is notthe lirstknown m echanicaldevice:in 1090 StlSung m ade a device in China thatrang bells at given intervals in addition to driving autom ata although it did not have a dial for tim ekeeping.A sllaalll' lole in thebottol' l) yvotlld all()N. W e do know therefore that differcnce in the basic construction of elocks have been in use for many any typc of m echanical clock. lt is still possiblc to btly candlesl marked in this w'ay' 'nowadays thcy only have novelty value.vcn thougll tht lPtlpe had dtttlrtlttd that:1llrcligiotls ilpstittltes shtltlld have a sundial. W lz dtofthklreligiotlsorders thatsvt pnt t() prayer lligllt and day? Solnethillg Nvas needt ld to teI1thel ' n vvhen itNvas tiI mt lto go to the c1:1)3t)1. as indicating inlennediate ti1' 1 ' 1t' lbkltsveen filIing and enaptyillg thc glass u/as notptlssiblc. although no longer in the toweritcan be seen in the nave ofthe Cathedral. ' kvhcrtl possiblc. and built in 1389. Generallythey wouldbehousedinthe towerofa ehurch orcathedral.A l1 these early clocks were weightdriven and exaetly what date the pendulum replaced the folio control we cannot say.

and know n than any except the m ost expensive as Grcenwich M ean Tim e. .A person travelIing frol n say starting and stoppillg work atthe sal ukl London to B irm ingham and then tim e.. itis in any othcrpartofthe world... .x. NN%%.. a system that in may placcs som cwhdre else netlded to know what Iltstcd tlntiIquitc rccenttim es.. whatwas to com e later. .. would nothavebeeltthoughtpossiblc..A bout Betbre ' linishing Nvith the history of sjxty years or so ago people hrst clocks it is interesting to think how started to experim cnl with the ustlof tinle itself has changed. Until quite electric clocks..x. which was consistent clock w ith :1 digita .x. Ilobody trvtln needs to know how to Gradually thiswasadopted throughout teI1 thkl tim e anym ore. xx..@ ns for in)proven-1ents to bol1) cIocks Ct11(1 M any people buy nltlchanislthese quartz clocksand l' nake cascsof Nvatchescolltillued. .2.Priorto thata bcllorhooterw as wanting to get a connection to used' ..x. x..x.butthey had Com m unication between areas was the advantagc that it was possiblc to very poor. Othdr m echanicalclock.A sresultitis possiblc for art l stiII m ade today 170th anyone....I rcadotlt so that right throughout the country. 1 . . Probably because countricsalso take theirtim e frol' n the ot -thcirefficicncy they do nothavethe m eridian w ith allowances m ade for faseination ofm echanicalones..anywhere to know whattim e eom mercially and by alnateurs. I ' $ X$1 J # @* K 2% Q> S f > =%' * # 1 / 11 ï)fu5.k'z' lul.N ow tim e is relatcd directly to perfbcttim : and are farm ore accurate thkl firccnw ich M eridian. tim e that connection would leave in In-lprovcl m ents in thc Iuanufacturc of relation to the train on which he orshe elttctric clocks were rapid unti1 Nve would arrive. The m odern thc country until evcryone used the eleclronic m astcrpicccs can keep saluc. clocks alltl hobby on its own in which large watches have sklen advancem ents that numbersofpeoplearchappy to indulge..w ith Iim ited transport and synchronisc several clocks togcthcr itm attered notwllattim c it was in a which was idealin a factory orsim ilar tow n forty or lifïy m iles aw ay.. known as today where it is possiblc to buy a Railway Tim e... various types to housc thel -n: it is a In the twentieth century.which tim e zones.The railways thcrefore reach the stagc at u/hich svt? are at organised their ow n time. *M * uuc1.slabIishm t )nt wherc m any people the com ing of the raiIw ays al1 this werc elnployed and a!I wouId be changed.W ith ( . cven atthe startofthe century..* Nx.' kikx' tkâ.I k. t-'ertainly thcy u' crut late in the ninetecnth century ey' ery vcry prim itive in comparison w ith town or district kttpt its own time.

.' ' ' '' together and drillthe holes forthcl -n.à .. al catrh tlnd.1.T he F ram e The fram e ofaclock willgenerally be The nexttask is to m ark thd position made of two flat plates. preferably thc toolm akers'type urlile two or three sm al1 holes are driIled through som dwhdre ltlar tlltlcorners. at or near the corners with pillars.The principleofjoiningthelzntogetherand drilIing thtl piII: 11 ' holt' ts renlains cxact1y t1k l sa1' ne. ''. .OccasionalIy clock designsdo not have this type of plates instead they arc m adc Nvith strips of brass.The plates are sawn and filed to sizeand afterensuringlhey are flat and square they should bc hcld firm ly togetller w ith clalups. . lmort) otztcn lhan not ctlt into fancy shapesand instead offourpi1larstlleri a are only tuo.@ @ C hapter 2 . '' . s 1 3tli!ding . These holtlsarutto actzdptpinsorrivets that are tlsttd to cnsurd tlle plates tlt) not separate during operatio1sm ' onct! the pins and rivots are i11 plactr thkl ( 2lal mps can be rel moved. A. thcre NviII 1' 1ot bkr a pendtllul' ) l alltl so they Nvill not be fitted svith a back cock. wt lw illcol -ne to how they can btlfitted shortly.Al1 parts are tlsually m ade of brass except in exceptional cases wherewe m ightguta steelfranle fitted with bushes.. joined ()f the pillars which join the plates together.i1. Progrklsscs011diffcrencesyviIIelutplgt' !for k lx:1lup1( .

. . . . .Thethirdwhcclhasto be setatone side in orderto allow the pinions and wheels to mesh.thîsm eans meshing the great wheel pinion w ith the m inute wheelso they run very sm oothly and w ithout any binding.ifnotitwillbe I ' ICCCSSCtI' Y to Wrrk Otlt Spacings for oneself.Startby lightly dotpunching a suitablc place forthe greatwheelon the centrc line.Use a depthing toolto mark out position on the line of thc m inutc wheel' .. .isto l ' nachine a step in the pi1Iar cnds and pass this tllrough tht l holes in the fralnes.@ T he Pillars GencralIy speaking the piIlars or spacersas the laym an woultlcallthem w illconsigtofbrassbarsand they m ay or m ay not be shaped. . Setting O utT he Train M arking O ut The m ost Comm on way Of setting out the train is to scribe a straight line lengthways dow n the plates and to set the escapement. .Just occasionally we com e across another dcsign w here the escapementand hourwheelarein Iine and both the third wheeland barreloff set..Shaping is a m atter ftl1-the individualbuilderand in alim ited way istheopportunity for him or her to express hiln/hcrself.. w .# -.A third alternative.Onething thatis conllllon to alIlnethods is that when asselnbled the fralmes m ust be rigid and square.This is very rarc and any details requiredforsuchanarrangem entwould be available tiom the drawing and ally instructionslhatm ightgo along with it. htted in 11 holedrilled acrossthe step. o. Fitting thc pillars to the fram c isdone in severalways:son' ld are hoIIow and a stud ispushed rightthrough and the parts held secure w ith a nute or perhaps the cnds of the pillars nlachined dou'n and threadcd to akleept a nut.1.... >. vs' hich arc thell seeurcd ' w ith a taper pin. ln othe1-k' laskls they are drilled and tapped and screws passed through the fram es. . IL k. jy. v0 o*. yz wJ.into them .. ) .centre or hour wheel and the great wheeland barrel along this. Som etim os clock plans w ill give m easurem ents showing where pivot holesw i11beplaced' .W hen satisfsed with themcshingsusethetoolto make :1 seeond m ark on the linc that has becn m arked on the plate. ...

18 I .They can be boughtbut for norm alpurposesa homc-m ade duw ice willdo jtlst as well.Ifdiffercnt sized arborsare likely to btlusedafit brass bushes that can be intcrchangeablc.Depthing Tool @ colèsisting oftwo lellgtbsofbarthat A depthing tool is sonacthing that solne people Nvill nt't has' e eoll'e across before: it is a tool for setting out gears to ensure that they run sm oothly..those that are Purchased being far m ore sophisticated than necessary for oceasional elockl n aking ptlrposcs.kk . Thetoolissil m ply a nneansofmeshing whecls and pinionssor two wheels or the escape w' heeland pallets.who isone ofthe tinest (21ock lmakers i1.. dkkki. John W-ilding.. I .A professionally-madc tool w iIl be spril1g Ioaded and fuIly adjtlstable.The ptlntrlles artl the sal ue diam eterasthe whet!larborsand so the wheel and pinion are simply slipped on and adjusted.. ' ' .st athata check can be nlade to ensure tlcy rtln properly.t : 1 sim ple dcvict! @ swiveltogcther and with lnJ()holes to acccpt puncheh . 1 the country rt lcolllllltllldsa piece ofslottkld bar for the saluttpurpose:an idea thatworks very wel1. A slighl tap Nvith a snnalI ham mer and thtlcorrectplace for the arbor of the hotlr Nvhcel is lmarked.Oncofthepunchesisset in the nlark already m ade and the other is lined up on the line on the plate.but good rcsults can btp obtained fro1.

w hatever happens istlsed.cut out the pattern. There is no specific angle atwhicl)to sctthe lhird wheeland this.BackCoc'k 'screws .pltlsw hetheritshould be setto the rightorIeftofthkl1ine.1 .. to l' nake an attractive pattcrn and tl)is is a nzatter of individual taste.Itis also essl -ntialthat the escape whccl arbor when fitted to the coek is at ninety degreesto the plates. stick iton the plates and cutround it. qj . l @ SonAepeopleliketo fretoultl4ttplatu.@ urlleelandexactly the sanae prtlcupdtlre Tl 'e tool is ntnv used to sct t11e distance of the third whecl.taking care to avoid allpi vot holes. . v . ...Holcsforthc pivots can be drilleda but don'tforget they should be drilled tlndersize. One way ofdoingthisistodraw asuitable pattern on paper.' W . . .Ittakesthd tbl-j n ofabridge to clear the palletarbor. 1... tobackplate. A . ' . ' .Finally cleanthe edges ofthe cutsusing sm allfsles.Notelarge * y hole in back plate to clear escapem enjpkvotw hich runsin back cock. . N . Flilll!rë. Back pjate * @ 20 .From there thk l tool is used to 1ay out thc distancc fron' l the third whttt )l to the escape adjusteduntiltheyworkslnoothly in the sam e way as before.s The plates are now com plt zle cxcept thatifthe clock isto use a pendultlllla back cock lnust be fitlt ld. Thc fretting wi11obviously need to bu-donc Nvith the platesseeured together.This is a bracket that stl pports the suspttnsion jbr the pendultlm . Do nottry and chain drillbutdriIla couple ofholcs in strattlgic places and use a piercing saw or a poweroperated scrollsaw ifone isavailable. . . for the pa1lets of the escapem ent also need to be set.w hich tlannotbe sited 01' 1the line betrause it would then be ilnpossible ttA nlesh al) the whecls am atterofindi vidtlaltaste. u. o A o0&.1. h j.The pallets and the escape wheel are m ounted in tht.The l' nark should be l madeol) the Iine used by tht? great wlleelalld lminut: whce! and that is the clock train lmarked out. tocomplet:thejob. Itis essentialfor the gootl runnilg of the clock thatthecock issecured hrm ly to theplateand w illnotwork loose.1 . dcpthing tool and decided where thcwheelw illbe going repeatthc operation with the depthing tool so that a nlark is nlade for thc third ' vvheelpivotll0lt).svllellthe platcs are separated they can be opened outwith ataperreanlerso thtly area nice running tituzitlatle pivtAts.the pivot of which locatesin 11hole in the cock. j. F rcntPlate .Gencrally speaking an angle ofaboutforty-five dcgrees is used' .y '' . w 1 lich can bc fabricated orm illedfrom ago1idblock ofbrass.the suspension being ïitted on ti ' le arbor between the plateand the bearillg. .Having holes. re is stiII ond m ore opdration naakeanoteoftheanglejustincaseit The r eqt lired inordertom akea11the pivot needs to be rcferred to later.

but not directly because the weightisconnectcdto: 1pulley andthe drive line passes through the pulley and is anchored on orncar the clock... begin with a weight as the Power source and so we willIook at how thisisdone lirstofall.btltthere isno reason why it should not be of stecl: many years ago m ost clocks were m ade of iron. although it m ust be thick walled. The usualplace is one ofthe pillars.This in turn istied to a weight..k lz. G enerally speaking brass is preferred.This isto accept a key u'ith which to rewind thc line when itreaches a 1ow passed through thc lniddle and on one end of the arbor isltsquare. .@ @ C hapter 3 P roviding T he P ow er M ost people when starting clock m aking.. 23 .. Any tubing wiII do for the barrel.A spindle.A suitable barrel is required roulld which a line can be wound.. m ainly because of its non-rusting properties.or arbor as horologists prcferto callit. . although theuse ofthatm aterialisnot to be encouraged tlnless trying to build a rcplica.

. In these instances the teeth are curved in a gentle radius. @ and to m ake the ratchet sm oother in use. l11 som e instances designers havc deliberately kept tbe number of teeth on the ratchet to the m inilnum .both to facilitate filing K.runs Concentric wi th but separate from drum 1 x.The ntlmber of teeth varies considerablydepending on the design ofthe clock.Although the barrcl can be left plain it is a good idca to m ake a continuous groove in it to allow the gtlt to wind on and off evenly' .sim ilarto aparting- One end of tllc barrelis plain-other than fora hole through which the gut is secured. spring '.%.avoiding the necessity to m ake or btly a specially-shaped ctltter. rather than pile up.This allow sitto be filed to shape.This is not to say that the work cannot be done by handm buta high degreeofskillisrequired to get aIltheteeth tothesamcproGle. This connects via a pinion to the train antl the ratchet prdvents the barrel from unwinding.The m ore normaltype ofratchet will have about tllirty-six or so teeth and cutting by lmachine is alm ost essential.notto m cntion thatthe task w ill take som e considerable tim e.T he Barrel @ round-ended tool.To Iocate in the ratehet is a specially shaped m etal plate known asa click and a spring to hold itin position.- Yo .The depth ofthe groove shotlld abouthalf thc diam eterofthe gtltbeing used and about seventeen or eighteen turns are required.' Click -m ade form hardened steel Greatw heel. Astheweight unw inds. - Ratchet -connected to drum cjjord AnchorPOint pujjey W ei ght V Vz' z' 25 . The other end form s a ratchetreferred to as the click wheel: this can either be m ade integralw ith the barrel or fitted perm anently in place to an end cap.ifyotl prefer. . x - - .. callcd the great wheel. . T he R atchet The ratchet can again be of steclor brass although brass is generally recomm ended and the teeth are cut in the same way ason aI1the wheels. r 'D 11 ' - ' : .'- Drive Chord '.A sm all off tool is idealand ordinary screwcutting m ethods call be adopted.exceptwhen controlled by the restofthe clock. or the ncarest availablefigureabovethat.Therefore ifthe barreliszins long the lathe needs to btl sd to cut nine threads per inch.butthere ism uch to be said for using slnall screw s to hold them in position as it enables it to be dism antled should any work be needed on the arbon Also conneeted to the arboris a whcelorgear.How the end caps are fitted is a m atter of personal choice.. The G reatW heel Thc grcat wheelis mounted on the barrelarborand drives the train via a pinionandapartfrom cuttingtheteeth drivesthe greatwhecland when the clock isbeing wound up the ratchetallow sitto slip past.

. a m aterialwith a naturalspring to itand which isalso very easy to work. .Itisusually liled to shape and the shape isnotdifhcultto m akeq the only critical part being thc distance bctween the hole centre and the tip ofthe blade.clI(.5. ' /).5('?'(. CIickW'heel usefuk material that has a sim ilar effeet is drawn phosphor bronze.Thespringsvary considerably from gauge plate and hardenett then in length and shape and so materials tem perdd to a dark blue colour.Jj'tJt//f)//1(> Jr/' tzttJ î!11t. 111..pyî'j7?. ham mering thin scctions prcvious m cthod a Iong lasting and causcs a work-hardening effect. reliable click would stillbe the result. while atthe same tim e notbcing so pow erfulasto drag and causc morc power to be needcd than would otherwise have been so.: / //?c't'/l'('l i. which effcctively halves the weight 27 .M ild alternative itcould be m ade from luild steclcan be used tbrm ostsprings and steeland case llardened and while not although itm ay sountla m ostunlikcly giving quite as good a result as tlle m aterial.Q.'t/î' d'.into click! y// k I GreatW heel Aku ' I 1 I 1 ' >.jIît' .@ The C lick C lick Spring @ This isthd nam e given to thepawlthat locates on the ratchet and prevents it unw inding.t: .J. Like a1l parts for clocks suitable springs can b: purchasetl eom pleletl and ready foruse ifone wishes- The Pulley The weightthatwilldrive the cloek is suspended from thedrum viaapulley. resulting in springiness.t. Anothpr ' Screw passes through GreatW heel .I t?/?(l ?!./2(:(.j//?//y(Jl' (lt('/)(.Itshould be made Thttspring holdsthe clickdown onthe ratchet wheel alld m ust therefore be strong enotlgh ttA do so.j ?f?'kî' ./$t.As an lllay vary w ith differcntsprings.b.

it is m ost certainly not good praetice.W hen it has stoppe.Special devices are available for setting Springs in barrels and.The arbor on which the fusee runsis sim ilar to that 29 . The answeristo drive the clock w ith a spring:som ething with which we are al1 fam iliar and springs are freely available. via a device known as a fusee. the otherto the arbor.There is not:1grcatdealcan be saitlaboutpulley construction'wut are aI1 fam iliar with thutshape ofthe wheel w hich should generally be of brass and run on a steel axle.W hen the spring is fully wound the chord passes round the sm allest partofthe rem eluberthata hook isrequired with which to hang the weighton thc cord and thatthis m ustbe setcentrally to the diameterso thatthe weighthangs straightand docsnotlean atan angle.It 1131.A lthough notunknown for a clock to be driven directly by a spring. W hen tightly coiled it creates considerably m orepowerthatwhen it is only partly wound.W hat ifwe want our clock to sit on a shelf? It is hardly practicalto drilla hole in the shelfand run a cord through that to a wcight.enerally the barrel wilI differ @ applied.W hile the weightdrops at a given speed throughoutits lcngth the spring behaves vcry differently. A good idea isto gcta used food can and fitto itsom om eansofattaching it to the line from the drum . W atch a clockwork-driven toy and see how it slows down w hen the spring starts to run down and of course that is som ething that is not wanted in a clock. Spring D rive So farwt?have dcaltonly with clocks that are weight driven. Greatcare m ust be taken when dealing w ith springsas theycancausenasty injuriesanditis advisable to wear heavy gardeningtype gloves and m ost definitely to wear protection for the eyes. one of which attaches to a point inside the barrel.w hich is a tapered and grooved Iength of brass on an arbor. A lthotlgh the weight is nzentioned in this chapter. particularly if one buys a cheap one. considerabl y from that described fbr thc wcight-drivcn clock. T he eight Various m aterials 111-: used asweights which arc also made in a variety of shapes. add about half again and m ake the nnished weightto this m easurem ent.fill tlle tin with pieces of lcad or other heavy material and run the clock.which m eans they are either fittcd in a long case or hang on a wall.@ (.A nicely polished length of brasstubefilled with lead isideal.wherea specialdevice Willbe available which will enable the jobtobedoneinamatterofminutes.A s the spring loses its power so the chord winds to a larger diametcr keeping the rotation of the fusee at an even speed. They arrive coiled and sealed tightly with a fastening alm ost ready for use and litinside the barrel using two hooks.on which issetthe greatwheel. while it is possibleto do so by hantt ifin doubt find yournearestclockm akerand take thelotalongthere.A ppearaneecan btl im proved by drilling holes in the pulley wheel. 1st be sufhcient to kecp thc clock going withoutcausing itto work attoo fasta rateand so thc am ountofweight required will be for experim ent.The fram eofthe pulley can bem ade from a piece ofbrassplate and thatis:111 therereallyistoit.Thishastobedoneovera period of severaldays. The Fusee To avoid this problcm it is usual to connect the spring.effectively acting as a brake. itw illbe one of the last item s required.A cord is wrapped round the grooves in the barreland runs to the fusec. M uch the sam e way as the situation w ith the barrel on a weight-driven is obvious thatwe cannothang any old weighton the clock and cxpectitto keep time. weighthe contentsofthetin.Fora startit becomesobviousthatoneend mustbe removable in orderthatthe spring can beinsertedbutothermajordifTerences also occur.beeause itispartofthe driving m echanism . Keep rem oving sm all amounts until the clockstops.

This too is not @ setatitslowestpossiblespced forthe djm cult:m akeupapieceofsteelw ith jbur pins stted in it as shown in the drawing and clam p itin the toolpost Parallel to the lathe axis and f5t a suitably radiused toolin the end of a square bar that slides nicely through the gap. The tool round itto avoid injury. A set-up for coarse screw cutting willtake care of the spacing Fusee C onstruction w hich isthe sam e asthatforbarrel. The clock iswound via asquare on the fusee M any peoplefightshy ofm aking the al1we need is to organisc a toolthat fusee and preferto purchase it. Either fit a handle to the opposite end or w rap a quantity of insulating tape or sim ilar m aterial operation. Although it is suggested above that the toolbe madefrom squarebar. The operation is not coming offè) It is now possible to diflicultandthereisa1otofcnjoyment apply gentle hand pressure to the tool protruding throughthetoolpostasthe carriage m twes along alld in thisw'ay to m ake the required grooves.A sthe spring is hooked inside that.which in turn rotates the barrel. thisispurely to preventitfrom rotating. Bettersti11tlst n:1handle in lhc m andrel and rotatethelatheby hand. required angle. M achine the outside diameter to size and we can now guaranteethatthe hole forthe arboris regularspee4 with thefuseeaeting as true to the outside diam eter. providing the powerand nothing else.@ ofmostpeople. Readersw ith sutficient confidence in their own ability can usea round one.ittightensup.betbre the Iathestartsto rotate. If the first cut is not deep enough the operation iseasilyrepeatedbypicking up the groovew ith thetool. it through a ratchet as already So farithas al1been easy going but described forthebarrel. putitinthethree-jaw chucksfacethe endand drilla hole through itslength for the arbor.From therethe now we come to the only tricky part. lt is probable that the grooves will have a rough finish on them so cut a piece ofdowelto a shape thatwilIfit them and using Brasso or similar polishing m ateriatand w ith the lathe running underpowerand in back gear Distancebetw een pillars an exâctfitforwidtb of toolbeing used Clam p this end in toolpost W 31 .to be released ata bar of a slightly largerdiam eterthan the maxim um diam eter of the fusee.Takealength ofbrass of the barrel on the weight-driven clock and the barrel now works independently oftheclock m ovem ent.butit can be adjusted in depth as the is a task thatis wellwithin the ability carriage m oves along.(Do notuse m ustrem ain atornearthe sam e angle loose material:itm ustbe held srnaly throughout operations to be on the tool w ith no danger of it successful. then use either a To enable the fusee to be wound the radiusing tool or a hand graver to conical-shaped part is not directly generate the required curve. which attached to the greatwheelbutdrfves m ustbe sm ooth. poweristmnsm ittedtotherestofthetain.Set the a continuous gear and compensating top slide over and m achine the for the unequaltorque of the spring. in back gear if possible.The Iathem ustbe to be gained from the tkeling of having created a nicely-shaped ftlsee. which is to m achine the continuous groove.

Take a llut that fits the thread and silver soIder.A suitable hand-ttlrning rest for using a hand graver to get the curvc and a self-releasing handlc to tit the nnandrelare described in the book KUseful ' W orkshop Tools' ' which is nul mber 3l in the ' W orkshop Practice Series. pinions. lt is possible w ith a little possiblt) to oblain a Iarge dianleter bolt' .lmultiplied together. in order to m ay be in a num ber ofeom binations. W hi l e t hes e gears and pinions transferred to the fusee so itw illneed to have a Iarge diam eter.They form thc just to beatthe oddsand do these m ain partofthetrain ofwheelsknow n thingstbrthennselves.This P C t op I e o f f m a k i 1g or repairing a thread w i1I tlltim ately bc the one cl ock.tlsillg a half centr: attl3c end thatissawnswhich can then be faced to size. ingenttity to put on a continuous threakl in these circul mstances if sttfficiently detcrlninedo or perhaps 32 . to the far as shaping and driIling is weight or : e s e ape m e nt .The greatw'heel dfivcs a pinion.1I '. M ake a suitable w ellcl oc k i t a ppc ars to be a iungle of fitting m andre1butfittheendthatwiI1 whee l s and pi nions and it is this go in the tailstock centrew ith a length a ppa r c nt di s or der thatfreqtlently puts ofstudding wilh acoarsethread.svhen firstlooking into a eoncerned.Use a piece of bar at rightangleg to this to connectto thd screw-cutting tool.saw itoff. For thosd people. Various revoluti r e vt a l ut i on of the centre wheel colnbinations of wheels are tlsed but ( mi nut es ). on tl' le salllt ' t:1rbol -astllklcentrc svlleeI.Ifit is Iarge enotlgll perhaps a couple of sm alIscrdwsurould do the J 'ob. 21 l' netal scrap yard is a good plac:to searcl)forsol nething suitable.@ studdillg is notavailable it nlay be run tllt-dovvutli: ll( )llg the groove ul ltila sluoolh finish is obtaincd. ' W hen wheelsand three pinions. To check this multiply there m ust be a logicalsequence.Let t oge t her t henum berofa11theteeth in us start w ith a hypothetical clock.kudkki V .which in turn drivcs the centrc wheel' . if the actual tbrm ation is the sal virtually eNr ery cltnck. ' ne for get a sufficiently coarse pitch. Thc centre wheelhas sixty-four teelh and as ifcarrics11)e Ininute hand 11:1st rotate once an hour..Itconnects to anothereight-leaf pinion on the cscape wheel.Finally part tl' le vvork 0ff t)r if it is thoughtto be too large to be parted off. This in turn connects' with an eigbt-leafpinion on third wheel arbor. asthe gofng train which eonnects the Thc fusee willhave to be hnished as power unit.or i1 sol' ne other fashion fit a shortlength ofmild steelbarto it.lllotlntilon a l' nandrclbdween centres.which is a designing 1 train itisessentialthatthe nice easy m anageable num ber.tllc pinion connected to thatgocs to tlltlthird wheeland the Pinion for thatis in turn connected to the escape wheel. are tlnlikely to be luak'ing a clock which would reqtlire 8 .W ith the The great wheel connected to the exam ple lhat bas becn used the drum arbor has ninety-six teeth and tkm mula in tht! appentlix gives all the w illconnectw ith an eight-leafpinion detailsrequiredto seehow itworksout. Contintling from the power supply towards the dscapement are a pair of wheelsand pinionsdesignated asthc third and hourwheels. Partictllarly for anyone versed in escape wheel shall m akc sixty ons (seconds) for each one engineering m atters.Son' l: pcopltdonotlikctobuy suchiten' lsas they like the feeling of having nladd every part for thenlselves. w'llich has sixty Basically therefore we have four teeth. Untbrtunately lhklabovemethodsonly apply'w' hen a lathe has suitable screw cutting facilitiesand this is notalways so.whether it is a drum and 1 spring and fusce.W henthe lathe is rotated the toolw illnow m ovc along the thread and w ith the toolin contact with the fusee the continuous grotwe wi1)be m ade. Tht lothercnd ofthisnlustbe centred and stlpportedby tlletai1stock. Iarge dialnete' r fusee and the above m ethod w'illthereford vvork quite NveII.lf saw n.Generallyil' wouldbeadvisablefor those w ithotlt these facilitics to purcllase a fusec ready m adc. t he dr i vi ng wheels and divide the althougb the train used will be one a ns we r by t he num bersofleavesin the thatis quite com lllon.via a slotin the firstpicce. M ostpeople with the snaalllalheslhataretlleoneslikely to lack seresv-ctltting facilities.

: : ). ::. -' stlspensicn . v . : : ** ' Make up t? fpendulum . Screw 35 .'--Spring @ P Back Plate 1'4 . ng N ..: !.Galileo the fam ous complete oscillation was always the astronom er is credited with sam e. . .@ @ C hapter 4 . - .- -u ...His son iscredited with the frst discoveringitand legend hasitthathe use ofthe pendulum and whateverthe was watching the m ovem ent of a truth of the story it has stood swinging lamp in church which he horologists in good stead ever Suppor Sprl t ' : ' '. .: . xyou. ' <. .. :*:... . 1. The particle. : .a Pendulum Rod :: 2). assembl v.. .' . Ratl .P endulum s A pendulum is described as a heavy tim ed by using his pulse.iIA . Block -----.:: :.. square whereIt passesthrough bok)..... I..: 1:...': : . uu b pensionspring and methodofadjustment.. . ..4. ulum Rod.: .: :J .. ' l. t v NwRatjng Nu x Pendulum Bob -' ..suspended from afixed point im portant thing about it was thatthe by a fine inextensible m assless rigid oscillations were isochronous which threa4 so thatitisfreeto oscillateon m eans sim ply that the tim e for one a verticalplane./z Rivetor Screw BackCcck --.. .

supported by the back cock and the otherto connectto the pendulum.?t. This is controlled by gravity and as a result the distance from the train to the bob varies according towherethependulum isin use.L i1 arbol) tht. Fortunately there is a rcasonable am ount of latitude available in spring selection btlt if in doubt it is worth considering the purchase of a readym ade unit frol' n a supplier. /7is theJplrf thatf.Selection of m aterialfortherod mustalso bemadewith suflieientstrenjp rth to give good stlpportto the set-up. A sim ple pendulum consistsofthree parts.the rod..qtnoved /)j. a1l requiring carefulattention iftbeclock is to function properly and is to be accurate. but w hich for all praetical purposes we can consider as an ordinary backwards and forwards m ovem ent.k/zfzn. the bob and a rating nut.M ost designs will give intbrmation on the correctsizc of spring to be used:ifnotitw illhave to be a m atter of trial and error.ifitisoutofalignm ent.prongs f' aa eilht??-side ft' ?(?tr//?kg ' '/thepEa/llf/?.There is a also a variation in gravitational pull. Depending on thtltype ofbob itmay be necessary to m ake the end square so that the bob cannot tw ist outof line. Tl4e latter is Togetherw ith the escapemtlntand via the suspcnsion and crutch the pendulum is rcsponsible fol m aintaining tim e. depending on the height above sea level.?nlovenjf?nt 36 . having in m ind that unless the spring selection and m ake-up isrightthe clock w illnot ftlnction prtlperly. notw illhaveapendulum thatvibrates once per second.The num ber of tim es the pendulum vibratesorsw ingsdepends on itslength and isselected according to thetypeofcloek being m ade g such thatadjustments can easily be case and wallclocksm ore often.'the b' v' ing t?/'the. using Galileo's discovery that each oscillation takes the samc pcriod of tim e.The end thatfitsthrough thklbob isthreaded to accept the rating nut.$ The rod must be straight and have 21 stlitable m eansofconnecting itto thc suspension tlnit at one end. t/gtzln.q'tqw/.lthas already been stressed that for correct operation the weightofthe pendulum . It.The back cock also needs to bk l m ade and assembled ' carcfully as.. Q A A @ This m eans that the length of the Suspension Pendulum is also in directrelation to The suspension consistsofatlatspring the clock train: a pendulum that t hat is strengthened at the ends with vibrates every second will need met al blocks allowing one end to be differenttrainto ahalf-second one. a m ovem entthatis not quite a circular one.?. Lon than m adeto takceareofthevariation. .t/l//l/?A?toc. The spring must not be too long or too strong and atthe sam e tim e itm ustnot be too weak either./' pt/?7pl . fp?suspension spring.the pendultlm cannot function properly. The R od (1O l The t7r/.! @ I Although a pendulum appearsto move backwards antl forwards it actually takes a sinusoidal l ' notion. 'sm allerclocks w ill have correspondingly shortcr pendulum s and will vibrate faster.//c./i' lx on the tçtwrt ? Relatiollshi p r? /' /pt.

others very complicated. .many clocksusedquite also a useful m aterial and has the fancy indced m ustbe any matcrial 38 @ conccntrate on.but the weight to be concentrated in the of course m any French clocks were bob. in particular French advantageofbeing lightand allowing clocks were adorned in this way.1(' lins dianzeter in the celltrtl of ontl of tlle piecesand deburrthe ilolcs. itselfbeaninterestingproject. readersare going to be contentw ith a parallelw ith thctrain w' single rod then the materialchosen for lf allowed to twist at an angle the it is worth consideration. . Doing so involves considerably m ore work than m aking a simple one but no doubt could in is Invar which although expensive may not be prohibitively so and has the advantages ofbeing light. looks nice it is also the m etal that suffers m ost from tem perature chal zgesand so ifitused f' brreasonsof The Bob appearance the rod shotlld be as thin Although we tend to think ofbobsas as possible or alternatively usc thinbeing m ade either in a lens shape or walled tubing. W 'lpk?n satisfied w ith the ho11ou'illg-otlt proccsss drill a holc about 5.W hetherornotthe home constructor will want to go to the effort of m aking a com pensating version is a m atter for individual notunderany eircum stances try and w' ork the l' netal if it hardens. anneal them again antl kccp doing so whenevernecessary'.Alum inium tubing is rountt in fact. . Periodically put the tu' o ))ieces together to check the ' ht. U sing êt wooden bossinglmallctsshapcthetwt) disksby gcntly ham m crillg them into the hollow sin the block. M ake certain that the dowelis perfectly straight in the first place. Clean the pieces tlp by soak'ing thel' n i1 a soluti()n of citric acid: two tablespoons to a bucket of water is 39 I. A good alternative to brass is giltling lmaalwhich is l' nuch m ore ductiIe and needs less annealillg than norlual brass shcet.ifone of the flat type is used then the rod w ill have to have a square on it to preventthe bob from tw isting in use.@ thatisused.ln generalthehom eworkeris expand or contract with clim atic going to use one of the two standard conditions and on a long case clock a types and so it is these we will piece of dow el can m ake a very effective rott asitisalso lightweight. Ensurethatthe square ispositioned in Assuming that at this stage anyway.ltis alItoo easy to have the Nvork slide to one side during the hoI1ou' ing-otlt process and in ' which case the bob ï.W ooden rods have the advantage noted for their ornate appearance that the m aterial is less likely to anyway.Startby m achining a hollow in a piece ofhard wood. such a way thatthe bob willrem ain hen swinging. The end ofthe rod has to be threaded to acceptthe rating nut. M any ideas have been introduccd to com pensate for this: som e simple.Cutout two disks k)f brass kt little largerthatthc outside dianletcr oftheproposed bob and allnealtlcnh. For small clocks and probably wallm ounted ones as well the standard lens-shaped bob is usual and not diflicultto m ake.m ake sure the m achined surface is perfectly smooth.until the k ldges naeet alI thc u'ay roulèd.A m orem odern material mustbe concentrated in the bob and if a heavy rod isem ployed this wil!take the weightaway from thatarea.du.which allows adjustment of the height of the regulator. As soon as thebrassstartstowork-hardcn.easy to workwithandnotsubjecttochanges oftem perature.1 . Dtlring tlle shapillg operations take care thattle work is kept centl-alto the ciretlluferenee of thc 1. viIIbe ofno use atall.k)lI( )wrs. if necessary re-nlarking the circltls afterannealing. Itshould be wellsealed w ith varnish or sim ilar m edium to prevent the absorption of moisture from the atm osphere.W hile brass balanceofthependulum willbc upset.lf a round ortubular bob is being used then the rod can be Ieft round where itpasses through' .There is also a slight problem ofexpansion and contraction of the rod w ith tem perature changes. Each ' piece ntlcds a snnall section ' I iled out fortherod und and atthisstage littlc lmore than a 1ick yvi1l do.

f'oolittlffand put il back in thcacid to elean it.@ @ aboutright.Lay the assem bly on a brick and puta weighton top so the picces will retain theirposition. M achinc a Iength ofbrass tubing so thatit is a push lit in the 5/l6ills diameter hole.Tllt ?y need to stxlk in itfor a couple ofhours orso to cnsure they ark)clean entAugllto be silversoldered together.. M ake up a soltltion of flux by m ixing il w ith m ethylated spirits into a sm ooth paste and sprcad it round the inside edges ofeach piece.making sure the edgesm eetand thatnicksthat have been filed otltare levelwitlleach other. Nlake up a shortlength ofrod the salnediamd er asthatused forthependulum andw ith .W hellcompletely satislied that thc parts art l located .. . putthe two pieces together. The top hole can bc opened with a taperream erto obtain a round hole. W'ith a needle filea open the places u'here the nicks have been made and file a square tbrthe pendulum rod to go tlzrough.1 * correctly heat then) up and apply siIversolderabotlttllreeorfourplakres round 1htledges.with the Piece w ith 11hole in iton top.

To m ake thcm oneself requires either a high degree of skill in beating sheet m etal to shape or the ability to m ake suitable patterns to have the shells cast.The fnal aet is to rem ove the steelspaeer and puta brassplate overthe top:thiscan be soft soldered in position. start by silversoldering a piece ofplateto one ttry paperor cloth and any other abrasive material thatm ightbe a personalfavourite.Fill the Outertubewith lead.they ean be bought. 0 .Forexam ple some People are contentto drilla piece of castiron barand usethat. .using eithercmulsion paint or by using the white Puid w' hich typists use for corrcetion purposes.thisdoes notm ean thatcare need notbe taken jnthefrm w illspi11outoftheedgesbtltthisisof nO COIISCQIJOFICC aSally StlrplusCan be cleaned off later.Thisisthentrim m ed totheedges ofthe tube to give a niceneatfinish with ahole drilled centrally in it.The same principle could be applied using a length ofbrassrodandthiswouldgive a betterappearance butlessweight.â . Paintthis.The screw for the rating nut will be travelling through a piece of brass t' ubeEtted insidethebob and thehole should be a close fitforthatto slide into. M ake sure that thistubeisexactly centralwhenfittedo Othenvise the bob willbe offcentre and this w ill intertkre with the Operation of the pendulum .lfnecessary heat the base to ensure that the m aterial to lead is one ofthe low -m elting point alloys sold for casting in rubber m oulds.Solder a disk in the %.Any casting would be bestdone using thelostwax process. R ound Bobs Round bobsatfirstglance seem to be far casier to m ake than the lens type @ fills al1the space.. The Rating N ut The rating nutism adeto fitthe thread on the rod and can take alm ost any 43 42 .Depending on theamountofweightrequiredothe tube does nothave to be filled to the verytop.This allow s m ore w eight to be added ifrequired. Finally use a fine file. A merican and French clocksoften use a fancy shaped bob and these are usually east' .A good alternative and in som e waysthey tidy the surfaeesofthe bob and m ake itlook presentable.'k '(.a square on it that is also the sam e..Thiswould m ean the bob com ing straight from the foundry with a finish suitable imm ediately for use. W hen dryopush itintothebob-fitthe tubing into the hole and then heat som eleadtom cltingpointandpourit through thetubeuntilthebob isfull..Thefinishthatis required hasconsiderable bearing on how they arem ade. These also have the advantagethatthey arenottoxic in the sam e way thatlead can be. A more com mon way isto use a piece ofbrass tubeand afterensuring both ends are perfectly square.The only thing that needs particular care and attention is to ensure that the hole drilled should be a nice fit for the thread for the rating nut.referredtoabove.butm akesurethattheslling m aterialfills thearea com pletely and there are no air pockets that could throw the bob off balance.M ake up a length ofm ild steel barwith a step to ' lètthe inside ofthe otherendofthetubeandaholedrilled centrally in it to accept the central tube.whichwhen cleaned and painted can look quite good while atthe sam e tim e itisthe m inimum oftrouble to m ake.Trying to clean up an ordinary sand casting would be far from easy and even then it is doubtfulifa suitable llnish could be obtained. 'dianleterhole in place ofthe tubc. A lternativelyabrassend canbem ade w ith a lip so thatitisa push-fitin the tube.

tlsing a thatitcanbeadjustedbyhandeasily. C hapter 5 . is prevented from escaping and is converted from rotary to reciprocating m otion.1fit notapply totubularpendulunlswitha shotlld stick at any point easc the centre tube.@ fon' n or shape that the constructor likessalthough it is as wt?llto ensure inside by (Jriving a piece ofsquare m ild steelthrough the hole.E scapem ents The escapem ent is part of thc m echanism of a clock w hich is devoted to the speed at w hich thc clock works. tscape whecl'is located called pallets that locate in the teeth. clock. The arboron specially shapk!tt toothed wheeland wllich the escape wheel. is connected via a pinion to thc m ain The title cscapementis used because wheeltrain.Thisshould wi11naove asthe nutisadiusted.which is derived from a weight or a consists of a coarqc.action is such thata thisisthepointwherctllepowerofthe tootll of the scape wheel is trappcd 45 .Thu. oftcn called.The stetll Fitthcrod through the boband puton willbe sufficientto clearany lead that thenuttocheckwhetherornottherod migbtjustbei ntheway. 01-as it is an oscillating brackd w ith two pegs. ham meralld tappillg lightly.

Tlle nearer the weights are to the centrethefasterthel ' novelnentwilIgo and vicevcrsa. A Crown Wheel ..Even so it is ahand issttedto theend ofthepivot usefulto know whatwe are aim ing for on which it runs the seconds can be and how to setaboutmaking thispart ofthe clock. ljtlstedbyur oightsatcach p.ifthe weightsarc taken towardstlle end itwiIlslow down.butanyway any clock plan one use. To nlaktl the escapelmcnt thkl whct)l can be m adc on a flatplankland then rollcd into klircularfornland the cnds silver soldcred togdher then a cross 46 . whi cll alv known to be in generaluse was the pieccs of basically tlat nletal. -. to be pushed outofthe vvay and causcs There is a sligiltradius ol)each tooth the folio. Fol io with balance -. . Tl l e s e pal lcts are set at tim e-keeping. and then released at regulated intervalsand thism ovem entin turn is sent back through the train to the hands.' w eightsforadjustment . vvhich is a cross bar.The beginnerto clock m aking is generally train wouldjustunwind atno given only likely to use one of about four speed and the clock would be ofno types. It is a silnple idea alld as such servtld clocknlakers weIlfornlany yearsuntil m ore sophisticated ideas cam e along.The*scapeisin the itis Iocked by thc one opposittl. W ithout the escapem ent the so m any in factthatwhole bookshave bccnwrittenonthatsubjectalone. to a knife edge...ukl .pallets advanced version. TheVerge and Foliot . 1 1 ! ' ..w ith the teeth shape ofthis causes thc lockcd pallet at ninety dcgrces to the luovem ent. counted offl . .The tbrm ofa crown wheel.*:k k . The l u ovem e nt o f t h t t s c ape wht l k lI is The earlicst forlu of escapenlent r c gul a t c d by t he p al I c t s . @ on the ntllmberstlsed in thetrain S.attacl led to the verge t ha t r uns ve r t i ca l a nd is positioned so Itisa very simple device to m ake btlt t hat t he pal l et s ent e r t he teeth of the unfortunately is not known for good * s c a pe whee l . ) f /.In thisway tht l process is repeated continuall y w itl)the foliotmoving backwurds and I l foru ards as illltzlltooth is lock'et1and i $ ul' tlocIkkltt. Even so it is an interesting experimentto make one as anangl eofjustovcrninetydegreesto itgives som e idea of whatwe w illbe each other and as onc tooth of the looking for when m aking a m ore tscape w heelpassesone oftht. >' s<N. t. to and the num ber of teeth w ilIdepend sw ing and in doing so it locks the tootllon theoppositeside.M any escapem entswork atarate m ightwork from iscertain to give full ofone m ovem entpersccond and so if details of construction. w er supp weightconnected to drum with cord. Xi13''f' ' ' O K. : . end ofthtlfolit' l t-i1 Ns' llicll1' t . .@ There are m any typesofescapem ent.. >x. palle' ts Thkl spced at ur hich thc mtlchanislm opklratk!sisêt(. shaped verge and foliot.. . (3f coursc thtt foliotl' nust be Nvel1 balanek ld alld thc grooves spaced evenly on klithklr sidtl so that a good balance is l' naintaincd.series of groovcs ll1 -( Jctltasa nlcans 0t-holding tlle u' cights in ptlsititln.

sct in tht ) N'crtical position and locating wïth thttpinion attached to the tseape whtltrl. This is m ade with a crutch in exactly the sam e way as pendulum sused with other escapem ents and full dctails of how to go aboutthosew illbe found in RQ 11()Wr001110 t() the 113Ore COm 113On type of eskrapelnents w hich w ill btp found in m any of the published designs and the first noticeable difference is thatthe leeth arc t ztlt in the edge ofthe w I leelrather than at nindy dcgrtresas betbre. ilnprove accuracy tblio being replaeed by :1 whecland speed was altered by either changing the driving weight or by claanging the depth to Nvhich the pallds entert!d the wheel.butin clock making the method isto use anothcr crow n wheel. w hich generally has thirty teeth. As a lueansofgettingan ideaofwhatclock m aking is about thc escapem ent has m uch tt) rtltlolnnlend it:collnectto a couple of whtpels to give sixty-to-one rcduction. Elsesvhere details w iIl btp bar in which a holtl for thtlpivothas been drillcd is silNrtlr soldered on. fit a w inding drul ' n and weight to lhat and we have a crtlde elock which w i11 show secollds and found ofhoNv to convcrtthisto hotlrs and so using little materialor til -ne a clock can be l ' nadc in this way.The pallets arC 111tlCh ITIOFC COm P3Ct 2nd Work frol m a pivotsituated above thatofthe :scape wlleel. dircction of m ovem entin the train w illnet)d to be changed. Ond major differenceintheuseoftheideaisthat the ûscape w het ll w i11 now lie horizontal and so the. A laterdevelopmentofthe verge and folio escapennent was the verge and balance. tlxccpt that thefolio isreplaced witha pendulum . Itw ill notbea11thataccuratebutitccrtainly lnakes an interesting starter for anyoncwho feclsthatclockm aking is adiflicultart. . The teeth can be luachined to shape but this is an exalnple ofan eseapelnentwhere itis possiblc to carefully file the teeth to shape.butthisw illdepend on the the relevant chapter.w ith stlfficientaccuracy forthe dt w ice to work well enough. In norm al enginecring practice we would use a pairofbevel gears forsuch a purposc. Ul llcss :1 replica of 1 particularclock that used tl -lt l dcvice is being lnadtl it is not solnething thatis likcly to appcalin generalto tl' le afnateur. ztt48 @ Verge and Pendulum RecoilEscapem ent ltis possible to tlse the crow n whek ?l and verge antt while retaining its simplicity. N eedlcssto say itisessentialthatthe pivot hole is placed central to the circunaference ()f the wheelo antl a brassbush w illalso need to btphtted to hold the pivot.The escapem ent works in exactly the sam tl way.@ luinutes.

' /Y+ ' Nh # '.4 tinlcs thc wv hcel radius frol ' n its cclltre and althotlgh therc arc occasions vvhttn thisnlay vary w' e u. G eorge Graham invented itaround 1730 and so has stood the test of tim e. Readcrs who have a colnpuler w'ith Con' lpultlr A ided Design (CAD )softsvar: uri11find that drasving thtt eseapelncnt is very t-asy indeed. lt is particularly effective w ith weightdlivenclockswherethereisaconstant Source ofpower. The pallet eentrcs are reconlnaended to be ata distance t)f 1. . hj. norm al nibs that are found in the although itshould be pointcd outtbat previoustwo escapem ents. . The pallets are relatively easy to make and the teeth Canbecutw ithafly-cutter.. nam e dead beat.The m ovennentis such that there is a very slight backward lnovelnent as ul)Iocking takesplace:an action know n as recoi1.' with a pencil is m ore dim cult. l'laktr allother l' nark and wt zhavethe correctposition..... (' ienerally fulldetaiIs Nvi11be given on any plans of how to lay out the escapelnents which 1n:1st be planned as a whold in orderto find the eorrect proportions.l?-f' ?t'f)/PilïPallelé%'t't7/Jt??' rlf??1l .. A swith all escapem ents the pallets should be hardened andpolished D ead BeatEscapem ent .. are com pletely different.G enerally the (scape Wheelwillconsistofthirty teeth and the palletsspan anything from eightto fourteen teeth. /. in m ightwellbe interested in the brocot thiscase when the palletslock on to pin pallet escapem ent. .. 4 tilues the raditls. t> . one nib ofthc pal1etlocksinto a tooth and then as it is unlocked prtw ides a slight il -npulse as the result of the shape ofboth teeth and pallcts.. Nf)Jt?//7(?/the /' t?f?//?ut' e unJt??r1// bv .@ and ifso the position can beobtainetl train. % wt @ @ . . 50 $# ' Dead flf-2t. W + ar y j (yyryyq. tlsing 11 protractor and ruler /j .vdegrees in ol' derthatonlvthe /ï. Assum ing the -scape'w heelwi11have thirty teeth.4 can btlan extrenlely aw'kward (Al)e to nleasure by the use ofsomc silnple geol nctry.Halfround it is really m ore suitable for large clocks than sm all ones. Sonlctilnesthattigure of 1. Tht) position atw1)ich thesetwo linescross is thc one where we ' want the pallet arborto be. svhcl' e these intersect the circul -nference draw 1ines at right angles toward thc centre line. It is llot nccessary to lmark the position of a11 thetetrth. t /g . +< < . hence the to thatforthe dead beat..p willbe in contao' tu/I'//lthepallets. Brocot Pin Pallet Escapem ent Those readerswho w ish to go italone and to design their own m ovem ents Unlike the previous escapem ent. ) - a NNN ( M n - X X'? ':g h x > ( yj yyjy r5 ! .. the eseape the tscape wheelteeth with this type wheelfor w hich is virtually identical there is no recoil action. 7/.abouttcn Nvilldo.Iuark the position oftllc ' vvl ' lcelccntre.Usc a protractorto putthe positionsol' lthc drauzing. once the palletshave been draw n itis custom ary to cutoutthe drawingsand stickittoapieceofgaugeplateandto cutand 5leround ittogettherequired shape.Escapelïïent. Startby draw ing the circuluferellce ot' the wheel and tiom the centrc point draw two lines at forty-five tltlgrees..The action is sil nilar to beforo' . '.. easy deviceto m akeand iscapableof They are in pairs instead ofthe m ore producing accurate tim ekeeping..To an engineer it m ay sound a rather prim itive way of going about things butthe system llas worked for clockm akersforhundredsofyearsand there is no reason for anything m ore sophisticated.l measure 1..An ajjowanceofonedegreeisalso leftfor tjw dropandthism eansthepalletsare ten degreesofthecircle.i1l tlsc itis ourtigure..their position can bkl naarked on the drayving.The pallets.' w hile the otherin the l' neantime is locking a t00th furtheralong. x. s'j. P W# # .I21zI :.There ' w ill betvvel' tedcgreesbetureneachbutan allowance has to be n-ladc forthe fact thattlltlre isa flat01 1each onc and itis usualto alltlu'onedegree lbrthat.A 11tllatis neetled tl4t)l1is to dravv a centre line.ltis aeom paratively however. VM.

Because % 2 2P.A slightcham fer can also be Cutterifpossible as a fly cutter always puton the top ifone w ishesbutthis is Seem s to apply too m uch force for notnecessary asthetoolisonlygoing Com fort as it m akes its single cut on a sinailar fashion to thk l nibs in the brocotcscapennentsthe spacing ofthe French Pin heel holes is a sîmple cnotlgh proposition but it is essentialto ensure that when Escapem ent the pins. Both types > of pin pallet escapem ent rcquire thc #C % c: A% pallets to be offset from the wheel. = ' .which arc usually nnade frona This too is an escapem cntthatm ight a good quality brass are halved this is prove ofintdrestto the lllotlk?!engincer done with absolute aeeuracy. %% / the pins are rotlnd they are easier to m akeandifam odtrrllm aterialsuch as % R <7 Tellon is tlsed tbr the palletnibs. Filc or saw off the Only oncradiusand a straightedge is m etalleft at the side ofthe hole and leaslightrcliefonthefrontedge requiredathey are easy to m ake. Un1ike the brocol O eseapem entthepinsare leftround and tbe arm softhe pallcts' hteitherside of the w heel.useapieceofground flatstock escapem enttype and retkrencdto the or gauge plate as it is m ore often various drawings w ill show readers why thisisso. It is wishing to go italonc and design his or htlr own clocke as it is straightforw ard. Suitablecutterscan be referred to these daysand drillahole m ade for the recoil type of using adrillw ith adiam etertw icethe escapem ent from silver steel and as raditls needed.The justfi Cuttercan bcmadeasa' Ily cutterbutit thatisleft:do nottouch theradiusthat is far better to use a m ulti-toothed rem ains. M ounting the pins aecurately on tht ? wheelalsorequiresasimplejigtobe m ade up. Specialcutters can bepurchase. which aredesigned First of alI a form cutter will be to dealw ith a particulartype ofw heel required in orddr to get the required so are only usable for the one radius. inscrted pieces ofhalf-rotlnd steel. ziL O making ajig thatwillhold thepins securely in such a way thatthe cutter can rcach thc ccntre line of the pin.stepped to fitin holes in the arm s and tilcd or m illed exactly in half. = D @ o o O o o o o o o o o o o o o O O O O o 0 o www o O o o o O tendency t() feed a tly cutter into the ast.which at one tim c lmadtlthe escapem cntunpopular > o need be no problen: is the case w ith the previoustypes.asthere is r)o should betlsed. m ue h ea s i e r t o use.Only theseparts need to bc hardened and the an' nscan be m ade froln m ild steeland the nibs secured with a suitable retaining com pound. Cq rather than in line. because oftheirshape.Cuttheflat eaeb rotation and there is alw ays a stock to the required length and soak it M aking EscapeW heels .the probleln of lubrication. To m ake a six-tooth The wheels ofany type ofescapem ent work too tö c ut t er i s not 8 1greatdealm orediflicult arealwaysm ortpdifhcultto m akethan t ha n m a ki ng a fly cutterand itw'illbe the norm alwheeltbund in the train.Consisting of:1w hcelw ith problem to any one even slightly a series of hoIes into w l 1ich are versed in m ctalwork techniqucs. It is very attractive and elegantto see when working. Pin heelE scapem ent a m illing m achine or by using 21 verticalslide on the lathe to obtainthe required accuracy.Thiscan bcfrom astiffcard A lthotlgh at first glance this type of ifone w ishes antlassum ing it is only escapem ent ' would seen' t to be the to be used oncc.otherwise m ild steel silzlplestofa1Ito m ake.Thearm sarem adein escapcwheelassuch to eutteeth onsit two parts and are fairly is not quite as straightforward as it straightfol -ward and w illpresentIittle m ay seelm. lt w i11 involve (.@ thereforcnecessary to do thework in sections arc used and thesc ean be lnade from round silver steel.

54 55 . the cutting edgesw itllttslnalloilstone to put som ething of an edge on them Thefinaltaskistopartthebaroffand this is som ething which some people and the toolisready forust). h m s p c u / E e ( t ' .(asardine - I j . @ dcpthrequiredforvariouswheelsizcs.Usea tinwilldo nicely)which ishalftbllof cutting oi1 for the operation as the . t e i n d b r a z w l k G f o .3125' ' spigotinstead of a hole for m ounting 0 16'' 040'. Gcntly run the radius tool you have sand. s f w m x u # t y ' c e n v a i p d l r h o s j b u k t I o jQo Qo Use form toolto shape cutteredge make six cuts as show n.i u'1 j .isnotim portant those who really cannotface up to the aslong as when the m andrelto which idea of trying to part off a piece of it w ill be fitted is allowcd for.?//t?r. w I n H o i u e a 1 Q b l h g k q f d m ë r t . j justmade untilthe edgd ofthe silver steelbarhasthercquired shape. silver sttpel of this sort of diam eter suë cient depth is Ieft to obtain the therd is another w' ay round things. Bemovem etal in frontofcuts as shown ctltaway on radius to leave ctltting edge Vethodrl/' z?pr . v n d r b g a i l j o h k . !!!./andpinion c?.Finallyjustrubthetop of silversteelbar.l25'' 0. ?l' l ' uj . . . a r / l T f p A s h j g y c . 1 d p s y a g h l f : P X c t ? e I k m w i b ' n o v u d . z q r t b m n u k w e i o . 0.leave an overhang of aboutan inch and a half. M uch depcnds on tbe To m ake the actualcutter.' have our shaped m etal but with a 0. k ! y : t 7 . Gnd dim ctllt. iton a m andrel. . S % n w X T u c e M i ) W a o s l / î h C * ? g > .or forty m illim etres. Escape W heelPitch Radiusof providing the work has rem ained in lessthicknessof Cutter t00thtip the chtlck thewhole tim e the stem w ill be perfectly concentrie with the tool. $ ' /t?t ?lThesame/JrI ' ncf #/t?applies/t p ' g u. ' 4 .' O 16'' Thebarcanthen berem oved from the 0 08'. ' (y out. M achinty a Iittl: off the otltsidt 7 diatnetcro.multitooth(-lftlel' .j tIstsufficientto takecareof any occentricity thatthdchuck hasand then tlrill the hole for the bore: we now know that the bore is perfectly concentric w ith the outside diam eter../7(2(. ' - - ' ! clean offthe scale tlzathasappeared on the m etaland w hen it is nice and brightplaceitin asmalltin. The besttype ofeontainerto use for the ptlrpose is something Iiktt a biscuittin and the lid w ilI notonly keep the Oilin place when notin uses but willalso put out any llamtls that m ightresultfrom quenchingthem etal. : y t i è .Thediameterof use a rear toolpostforthe work. )a r b q w s i v T t n e h l o u d g c k p y D m f . The chart W hen the m aterial is firstput in the shows the radius and therefore the chuck. j .U. . %esilver. s r t . full depth of the teeth.Heattlle sand from underneath ori ginalform toolisonlyjustabout until the m etal turns a dark straw et ïicientcnough forthe job and needs colour and then quench it in the oil any help itcan getin rounding offthe oncemore.For thebar.w ithin reason.startw ith a qtlality and sizc ofthe Iathe as to how length of silver stecl bar m ounted in easy itis and ifpossible itis betterto thethree-jaw chuck.05': 0 l25' ' 0 06. butstillm achinethe outside edgesfor Sizes for m aking C utters concentricitys but don't drill a hole. for RecoilEscapeW heels Turn the radius as deseribed and then m achinea stem atthe back ofthetool.s'. 0 2'' chuck and the part saw n off and we 0 10'' 0 25.

On m any very old clocksa11the teeth on the wheels are hand cut.doing so cotlld defeatits ow n purpose.If: 1sm alltem plate ism ade ' hrstit can bc used to check thatthe radiusof cach tooth is correct . The pressure reqtlired to cutthe teeth. W hen cutting whtrtlsand in particular this type it is essential that they are well supported to as near tlle point where the teeth are being cut as possible.ltiscssentialthatllle Pallets are m ade accurately and tllat thenibs-which ardthe pointdd pieces thatstick outhave polished working surfaces. A suitable piece can be obtained by cutting up an old cretlit card and finishing the radiusa w ith an em ery board ofthe type used form check thatthe pallets w iI1do their job. even though we are only removing a little m aterialata tim e isconsiderable and the tool w ill tcnd to bend the metalasitcuts. A s m uch polishing as Possible should be done before they are hardened butin doing so the shape and size m ust be m aintained. but if the square edges have a sm all relieffiled orm achined on thcln itwill work evcn better. and in comparison to a greatw heelan escape wheelisvery sim ple indeed. There is really no way to m ake them except W jth a fiIe and sau' . but som ething m ore perm anent is preferable and plastic is ideal. these have sixty tceth as a rtlle.' svhen thatis colnplettxd.m ark 01#-orindex it atsix equaldivisions alltlmi1la tlatas show n i1 ' 1 thc draw ing.If howevcr you are notentirely confidentofbeing able to get these re1ief angles without dam aging what will be the cutting edges. The j -inal task to krolllplctk ? the escapelncnt will be to trroh. As tlzkly are Imoved backwards and forw ards the action should be suflicient to slowly rotate the itis m ore likely to distort during operations. Final polishing can be com pleted aftcr hardening and m ethods of so doing willbe discusscd elsew here.Finally repeat the hardening and tem pering exercise as detailed already and yotl have a eom pleted ûscape wheelcuttcr.5m m or 1/16ins thick and we are torn between two possibilities here. partictllarly w here hom c m ade cuttdrs of any sort are in use. lllot. Fina1Iy I' nachine another fla! so that tllere is plenty of clearanckl: again the draw ings sllow Nvhat is required.W e should now'have six sections evenly spaced and the toolwillwork like this. lt w il1 not be as efficicnt as a professionally-m ade one.butitwilldo the w' ith the pallets bal lging up and dow n on thcnl fortnvnty-four hours a day.It got )s w ithout saying that a grcat dcal ofearc isnccded and in particularitis cssentialthatthe straightsections art l really that and are not angled in any way.s otlt the u'hccl.tlsillg a depthing tool. NVI ' Iile thereforc itnlay be desirable to tlst l soluething a Iittle thinncr to save weight.nt itolla colletand sccure itto tllt ' tpiq' ot.leavethingsasthey are. Itcan then be tdsted. .Generally *scape w heels are m ade from m aterial of 1. To get the m axim um efficiency the %scape wheels need to be as lightas possible to m arkings. using gauge platc to make them . The pallets can then bc ctlt out. Som e readcrs m ay nothave sum cient equipm entto m ake the above tools or not feel entirely conhdent about so doing.@ btltthey also tlo a greatdealofwork' To m ake the teeth. The tem plate can be m ade from a piece of card.Thatisthe lastthing we need.althtlugl l perllaps roughing Out could btl done on 11 rnilling l' nacl line.Itispossible to file the teeth by hand aftervery carefulmarking out. it is alm ost job and afteral1itisunlikely to be impossibletodosowhenjustworking used forcutting m ore than one ortwo whcels. To com plete the escapem ent w e require the pallets and to lind the size and shape ofthese itis necessary ' Iirst to draw the necessary angles.

the form ation isthe sam e forvirtually every clock and in fact there are noWhere near as m any aS it Seem s at srst glance. jungleofwheelsandpinionsanditis The great whcel connected to the this apparent disorder that freqtlently putspeople off m aking orrepairing a clock.drivesa pinion which in turn drivesthecentre wheel. W hile these gears and pinions m ay be in a numberofcom binations.although the train usedwillbeonethatisquitecom mon. The pinion connected to thatgoesto a third wheeland the pinion forthatis in turn connected to the escape wheel. any 59 .particularly for anyone versed in engineering m atters.the w heelfor which has sixty teeth.which has already been discussed when dealing with the power.multiplied together.this works outas sixty w hich is what w ant. The centre w heelhas sixty-four teeth and as itcarriesthe m inute hand must rotate once. W hen designing a train itisessentialthatthe escape wheel shall m ake sixty revolutions (seconds) for each one revolution of the centre wheel We have therefore just fourwheels (minutes). W hen first looking into a clock itappears to be a param eters in order to m aintain tim e. Various com binations of whecls are used but these m ust be in a logical sequence.W ith the exam plethatisshow n in the appendix on page 121.whether itis a drum and weightor a spring and fusee.T he G oing T rain & M otion W ork Thegoing train as itis properly called connects the power unit.The great wheel.ltconnectsto anothereight-leaf pinion on the escape wheel.which is an easy m anageable num ber. The wheelcom bination willvary in Sizedependingonthesizeoftheclock being m ade and on the whim of the designerbut m ust conform to certain 58 togetherthe num berofallthe teeth in the driving wheels and divide the answerby the numbersofleavesin the pinions.This in ttlrn connectsw ith an eight-leafpinion on thethird wheel arbor.@ @ C hapter 6 . Let us start w ith a hypotheticalclock. To check this multiply and three the escapem entvia series of wheels and pinions. drum arbor has ninety-six teeth and w illconnectw ith an eight-leafpinion on the sam e arborasthe centre wheel.

. we have no dotlbt probably has a part to play in tlltt m ade up our m intls of the best arrangelnent.s a c' ase o1-connecting tht lse two to the pivotthat wilIoperate the hourhand.F. x.lhis leaves a lil u it of six or scvb en-tootl) pinions as practical propositions as above thatthings w i11becom c far too unwieldy. Atlditionalarbors witl a pinions and a reduction wheel are then set at an angle to enable the hour arbor to be placcd in the centre ofthe m oN' em ent. The fsnished rcstllt is quite attractivc and worth considering. . If a shorter pendulum is uscd it will beatatlessthan a second and from the table itispossible to work otltatwhat speed a givc11 Itlngt1 ) w'ilI bt clN' e w i1l do. becolut.porf 1tt-(1.Nvhat is needcd is a twelveto-one rttduction. There is only one snag.M ake thu pinion twelvc leaves antl the hour whet?l Ileeds a hundred and forty-four tceth. . connecting it w ith a wheel thal w i1I give a twelve to one reductilln on anotherarborimm ediatdly bclou'orat the side and putthe hourhand on that. j I 1 Bârrel otion ork rhe train then setsthe clock so thatit ticks Off the lminutes btlt m ore than thatisneeded:evklry clock mtlstshow the hours and solme even incltlde a calendar. Another factor comes into it as wtlll and thatisthc sizc thatlhtthourwheel w ilt be.Thesc do nothave tht lgoing train arrallged i1' 1a straight Iint).The obviousallswerwoultl sctll ' n to bttto puta suitablc piniol lon the arbor of the l' ninute w'heel.w. usualto fita case round the m ovem ent 1 I I Pallets E cape wheel - 3rd heel 1 I I . . Because space is generally linnited lmostclockshave the hourand m inutc wheelin the sam e place-tradition also So far so good. In addition lo this it is possible to work outthc size ofbarrel and length ofdriving eord thatwillbe required.if we has' ea pinion or a w heel rotating i11a clockw ise direction and conndet another directly to that..The sam e ndeessity to oom bination forthe train and itnow change the direclion orrotatiol)is still . Althotlgh a table o#' colnmon is the l' nore usual arrangclnent.whileothers have phasesof the m oon.1 .111the llntlitntillatl any llcccssary redtlction ckt! ' tbe il' 1t-(' .. lc atpresentasu' ellIlaN' e tllut I ' ni1)uttr hal' l d ilnluediately bkllou'tllt p hourontl. a size which is likely to be nltlch too Iargc form ostclocks.Thisisobtained in thususual way by using a pinion and u. t six-leaf pinion the hour u' lldel u'ill have seventy-two teeth. Great heel .'''xJ.' . . lt is not intended to deal with these latter factors or striking m echanislms but it is necessary to arrange for the clock to indicate the Passing hours as wellas (3l' tIel'to lllark off thehours.4 (.- N. it is quite possible to behind tbe dcsign ofa clock is notas calculate one foroneself.r @ com bination can be checked in this way to ensure thatthe train isgoing to b: thereforeany pinion and wheelwith : 1 m ultiplication 01.Probably the targest size that can be coped w ith in m ost movcm ents w il1 be an k lighl leaf pinion and a nindy-six-tootl) wheel and even thatis on the large hlizc.(see Appendix page 124)itdoesnotmean that they are the only combinations Suppose thercfore the major factor avai1able. . . bLltttA 112ke a llntl%' ol' nelltto 1112 ( 2ase thatone particularly wants. Cen re wheel .* .thc addition one w ill rotate in an anticlockw ise direction..' '' .(. Sonltlold clocks and no doubt solnkl bdillg l' na(.Nvhich is nota greatdeal()f use Thereforc two additional arbors w ith suitable wheels and pinions arc ndcdedethe lirstto change rotation to an antitrlockw ise direction and tht? sctrond to trllangt zitback again. . for exanlple u'ith : .. u?hich is klui1e m anageable.Rcferent?e to thetables(st )eAppendix pagc 122) can enable usto tind outthe speed al Nvhich a pendulum of a given lengtl) w i11bcatand whatwheelcom bination is needed to m ake the clock work accurately. As the m intlte pivot does one colnplete revolution once every sixty m inutes.

wheel. on a pivot tllal is generally m ade 01* brass. bt l t c oul d be i l l l proN'u' ti arrangeanidenticalwheeladjacentto itwith a pinion attached to itso itwill nrith the use ofm odern naaterials.The hourwheelin turn istitted In otherinstancestheremay be justa to a collet that is also a bearing of !d length to ensure itruns true hole in the end ofthe pivot. always be of differenl metals and in Thu t hot l r ha nd can then bc ' l ittcd this case w' e have a sligh!allom aly as di r e ct l y t o t he e ol l et t ha t s t l ppor t sthc the revt zrse whttt alisgenerally lnade of h our wheel . Bot h hands ar e now' brass and w illbe running w ith a brass r t l nni n g f r om a ce nt r al poi nt .It has a lhreaded cnd and whecl.As the w heel then clock m aking is a traditional m ates directly w ith one fixed to the industry which is one reason tbr its m inute pivot it will rotate in the fascination.The systkllu sklen' lsto has' d stood t he t e s t of t i np e. The collet on thc wheel and pivot from conning off. which is donc by sinnply screws into the frontplate.There isno arborfor W ith the pinion in plaee it is now a this pairto run ()n and so a shortone ' isprovided and they areallowed to run case of connecting it to thc hour free on it.@ r @ eonnecled to a hardened steclpinion. reverse direction.through extendt' a nt l t ha t there is sutsicient surfacc 1t' which passesa splitpin to preventthe al l ow f or wear.tiequently allowing the wheelto run loosely ()11 the other etld stlpported by a bracket an extended collethtted to tlle lninuttl with a hole to actasa bearing surface. m i nu t e whc elhas a square on the entl Bearing surfaces of course should a nd t he ha nd w'illbtla push-titon this. wheel while at the sam e tim e being presentand lhe u' ay lhis is done is to fit a w hcelwith a suitable num ber of teeth ol1 the nlinute pivot and to 63 .bLlt rotate atthe sam e time.

e' W heel :i ::: .f 64 65 . FrontPlate Stud screwed to plate w. w . . '. x Minute-W--. ..t .. . ... . .. . minute hand.-. Hcurw heelCollet Rotates on minute ' Wjjeejcojjat' x ' ' 'o X . ' 'x .' .x' w 1 zoe ' 6 1eafcannon pinion .. . -. .N'x. '.. .- x ' ''-.. ..-- . ' .- x HourHand fitshere --< ccl''... @ ' Thread to secure I stud to frontplate ! .w ' .-. ujrjute w heejColîet. fixed to spindle ... <L . --x. ' . A'.-.. .. -.x -. ) t) . z' . :: '' . ....@ @ Thisend ofminute wheelcolletmade Square to accept ' --'-...-.... y-- T i n h a s e p n d c i e a l t h b e r a c u k e n t s orhas a hole asshcwn into which isfitted asplitpin to-rqtain pinion ' ...'' ' Studiforreverse minute wheel v'w.w ' .heel .v HourW hbel .'. HourHerld fits here HourW heei Q. N Minute W heelSpindle &..: :.. I . Reverse Minute y .--' ''.-.j ( ' ) SupportBracket .. Minute Hand fitshere - . 7 ... ' ' '. ' x. . ..< Minute W heel IX . ' .

The gearsantlcan beeasierto think of dividing platcs as partofa 67 4 1u. exactly in thc teeth of a change wheel and secured to a perm anentpoint on The alternative is to use dividjng the lathe.In his book -Gears and Gear Cuttingq.if any lathes will have change wheels w ith m ore than seventy teeth.It isnotwithin the scope ofthis book to gointohow tomakesuch adeviceand in facta fulldividing head isnotreally W e m tlst a1so consider thc 1arge ntlm ber of lathe owncrs who do not necessary forclock m aking.Few. M ost have a purposes.and where they are tbunct divisionsthatcan be oblained. neither do those that are idea w illbe quite good enough forotlr stted with gearboxes. lvan Law describes an excellentset-up f' br com pounding tl' )t l dividing gcars.@ @ C hapter 7 .D ividing Accurate dividing is a prim c requirem entwllen cutting u' heels and there are a number of ways of tloing this. Experience show's tllat i1 2 genera1 dividing heads are not usually found in the hom e workshop. in generalthey w illbe hom e-made. which m eans that seventy js the highest nunïber of divisions that can be obtainetland the tlivisions obtainable on the slnaller wheels are extrcm ely linlited.W etend m ain problem isthe lim itcd ntlm ber( . have chang: whecls.Any reader who owns a dividing head w illhavt?no necd of any adq'ice onthesubjectandcanpttssontothe section on cutting the teeth. 1L .the idea has serx' ed m odel plates which are m orc acctlrate than engineers well over the years.they tend to be one ofthe lastpieces ofeqtlipm entto be welIas a m ass of inform ation on gear-cutting m ethods. 7). thus giving a m uch wider rallgc (. For examplc M any readers will be quite fam iliar m any of the sm aller lathes that are with the use of lathe change wheels quite popular forclock m aking do not fordividing and in som e instancesthe have any. Consisting of sim ply a hollow m andrelthat could be uscd to m eans of holding a lathe changc hold the wheelin position btlt it will wheel firm ly in the m andrel of the involve purchasing special gear lathe a detent or pointer that will' l it whcelsin orderto use the system . Afdivisions.

. . (. m*****t œ' w *< Mi> . '' ' ..e .yw. hw . zy. Nut Gearor z Dividing Plate ..' yw. .. .' . . . '. ae*.j.. threaded section ..z.>. . . . .*. . '#. . a . .s..1 ..r @ 1 1ot nlaterials f kl1-clock'lllaking. /. . .. y . ' .-- Cj. '* ''* ''* a* %. . x. . ' . P1ates bought from clockmaking sourccs w ill often havc exactly the rightnunlber of divisions for a col nplete clocklmak'ing trainm usaning tllat only one plate is requircd forthttvvhole movtln-ltrnt. They can be pttrchased from m odcl cllgineering suppliers or suppliers of speaking itwould be betterto go to tlle latter.. .In 133a1y V'aySt1is is bettcr than using a dividing head where there is always the problem (af backlash in the worm gear to worry about. -athe Casing '. .. . .' ' ... .>*-y L.î:pj .Generally dih. ' . ' $ X Z plate Securing à k .x. . & . M ost divitling plates have a range of divisions on each platc. .. x x . ( . ' .y r... '' . .. X' This end cl ose fitîn mandrel orlube r . . .' .X v-Z )' ' ' ' . .#*. !r:.)gk .. ''-**w S *** **. d.> >*1+ > *œ. l. . .. . ' .? % . .. 6 22> *+ ***.. . .Aq .#.'. .'. w> . .j4l.> * ..the Casinb Taperconected tp -z. ... x o .*.. . . i%. *p.. 'f. . . /( 1/yj'.)s c o%- . *v****.. ' . (t ' >b. l / l Thin gauge tubing with thfee slotsin chuck end Expansion Tube Requires three slots approximately 3/4.. 1 .* . La . .j1. . giving tlexibility as wellas accuracy.a r'. .. . yalr . -. x.'....# Aw cw6...ktt.. @. *' mr *+... ... . z a= . .: '. . w S...'' .:'..' Lathe Casing x x . .* '? J ' J.: .k .. x .$ . as tlle plates sold tbr gelleral l motlel engineering purposes are lutss likcly to have the required nulnber ()t' divisions.. 'x . I $. . Fourholesto eccept Tommy Bar Dividing Plate Retaining Nut - 1' ? ) j.#as '. '. . '#*. . ' @ (20mm Iong. x' . ' ..y..' ... * .* ** . ' . l' . ' o p.. .: . ''â ! ..' . k . z w . ...' .*. ... . #.' Expansion Bar. V * ++ #< ë y :' . . . zîJil1g head but 11)is necessarily so: tht ?y can be sccured directly to the Iathe nlandrel in the Sam e Nvay aSa gear. lî '.) . .(. 't . ..j î. . ..: . ' t' Six hol esfortommy bar Tightening Nut 69 II. Tightening Nut Lathe Casing 'x z. k e..#e'*. N**# .*: * k Xx xx ..x x.' '. ' . * #'-' . .*. . ' .. .Jj . . . ... '' M> ... . .) () ..e' ?. .*.j.Taper fourdegrees / ' .

. dllr z . take a pair of aswellasa num berofothertasksthat dividers that have nice tine points on we come acrosswhen m aking clocks. . $ ... .!?. 1# .For best results the plate m ust be of as large a diam eter as possible and a series of circular Iinkls should bt l scribed round itatk'nown distances. m .. . Aj?. j.. ' jî. c.t.. j. . . .t't t. . j. .% ' s $yj.%!Au . .. ... them and setthedistance by reference @ to a m icrometer or vernier gauge. 4. Preferably using another pair of NonmalImarking-outluethodson a tlat dividersso thatthe originalsetting can plane dem and thata11l' neasurem ents be m aintained.k...It sounds obviousto justmeasure thc circum fkrcnce and then divide by the required ntlmber but this does not works as the distance lneasured between two points on the scribed circle. . kti. . . starting and so some m eans of cllecking tllerefore tinishing at the centre-punch mark. the diam eter of the scribed circle.k jy *'.when using dividers. Y .'.. 11 *i .'V.: . * * . .. . ..J. j)' .r .t .....ttj. t .t <. + .! . yiiiq . chord chart. to gettheaccuracythatisrequired. * . Yi s . #r. assum ing the circle diam eter to bc one. p. . . .(.. . 4' 'k F. . ..1 .' t ..a vn *. .r. Y1tq.-. j.%.diydik*'. Tllcrefore the divisiolls. j. r .''. 'r1 r =...J4..It is ofthe utm ostilzzportance thatthese circles are .. 2t tl. J K 4.'$..' $' pfj1 '$.a f. è . + * . '..y tj rr qj+.. VjE fu )j . r. . . . w .9 .'..jjj. .+ w lq.v. k '4.' . divisions and cheek again thd w' holc For exam ple if the tlividers are one distance. t.(.' . .T. is required.?9r z... ' . . $1. .. by tle tim e the 1:1st one is rcached a M ake a 1ight centres punch mark wholem illilntltre hasbeengainedand somewl lere on tle scribcd ttircle and this is now here near accurate enough m ark Off the divisions. . . * F r: + l t .c c k.t l' . if not. .' j @ . cxw'-9 oi . k4 1.$. . . A handl: that can be secured in the Having .î. Hav'ing intersection......:..p:. ... .' () . .Any error in the originaldix'ider there are ahundred divisionsrequirdds sctting n'illntns show up and suitablc :r..i .using the clnord figLll-tl for hundredth ofa ntillil -netre ovcrsi/tlalld tkln.. .inordcr madethehrstindcnton thcline.î Jf :rr': 4i:... y ..œ* .. ' # f î r ' . '. '' s.. '. *..j . .'. . J.f . ! t.It is advisable to use a set the dividers as suggested with a magnifying glass to setthe dividers m ierom eter or vernier gauge and andto makethepunchmarks. . . '' . '2 i .mark off but don't spot thrt ztl divisions.' . wyc.. .' .N extm ark offanothcrlhree possibilitikls of l' nultiple errors arise.h. y..yp.J .. X1. .'!1iy. Ap& .: j.l@7f. . .4 v. .. check the distance are taken from a single datunn. .A chord table (see Appendix page 123) gives the figure for num bers of divisions. . '.: .# . s . .jy . .. q.' j ). * s .. the divisionsthem selveswillnotbe right.& t. .f 4..Supposd we are to divide Lightly centre punch each the plate into sixty divisions... $...t' +jp * .t .4 .. =f?.ç. j r .u<k #'< k tc <. ..t r' . j$ k1 .providing care is taken to cnsur: they are accurate..rlk . . . r. 6b . . n . . . #..q .@ Itis nota11thatdit' lit ztlltto lllak'e one' s own division plates. )..'N.. . To obtain the required figure angle and allow ittojusttotlch the silzzply m ultiply thelength ofchord by disk while rotating the Iathe by hand.s'v. across the three m arks.s ù. . :. ' .'. + 'kk. ? .' '' j ' . . '.r$ 1k . . 2 '. o ** z.+ +. t 2.. . u. a. j14 . . . .' . z.? ...xhJ( )rtîi jji ll jp. <. . . z : ((. '..q. ï4t/J1k)'46i . .. ..j'' . t. z . '* g ' .' .j' . a. r J k y t * . . established the length of the mandrelis usefulforthissortofwork required division...Z%. : p z . g . '! ). . r ' u. ' $k tl . .b? (. y '.' aj j ) ... ..> q.. Use a sharp pointed knife tool set al a suitable r Having seribed lllc circle it is necessary to refer to 1 ..!w J.j ' . lt is possible to scribe the circles accurately on the disk by using the cross slide graduations..w illbtla straight line across the two points ratherthan round them .. . . +/ y l i . v ' + .. .+. Y ' & ! 2 g . should bc som ething that is not practical when cxactly the chord hgure for twenty dividing u circle.. m ... w .. c 4.. .

butaboutthrecquartersof the bore isideal.pret krably ofthe nulnbers that w illbd ttsed in the clock that the burrsdo nottiltthe platew hen the Securing the D ividing nextholt!ism ade. The diameterof thc thread w illdepcnd on thc diam der ofthetube.Thk) otherend Isthrtladed so thata nlltcalk be used to tighten tht lgearwheelor dividing 17lllle lhat is i!' l ustt 8111(. In one tpnd litathreaded pieceofbar.ltisessentialthatthcre is no play on the chuck-rdaining sct-up which m ight cause som e misalignm ent. 1a detant can be l -itted il' l :1 bl-acket strrew'ed to tl' !kp sitlc of thc unit.w ith which todotheacttlaldividing. possible-Iargely as a mcans ofsaq'illg tim e.The dividing plate or gear whct?l is hcld in plai. The sct-tlp fbr sectlring the div'iding platc is quite easy to m ake. whichrequireslittlenaorethan ahefty angle plate w itb a hole. . If tube is not availableitw i1Ibenecessarytodri11or bore a lcngth ofsolid bar. A1I the holcs shotlld notonly btpdeburrcd on the sidkl they brklak through btltalso slightly counterstlnk on the face.W'hen it plate shouI(1 be sprung loaded if is rightand l1kltbeforesImakc the spot lnarks w ith the punch. The device can also be tlsed on : 1 sim plesdt-upon them illing m achine..the rotarytablutfbrmaking djvisionplates or. Dividing can also becarried outw ith a rotary table htted w ith a m eansof holding a m andrel centraIIy. 4 sere' wz is incorporatcd to lock the fnandrelin position once the division hasbeen set. when itisbeing drilled and in orderto ensure this it m ight be necessary to deburreach hole asitism ade. 1f it is tapered slightly thtt good f st willbe ensured bu1thc laper mustbe stcep enough lo prcventthe detantfrolllbinding in thk! hotes. aboutthree quarters of an ineh or twenty m illim etres i11Icngth.Itis ditlicultto setupthesystem aceuratcly anditisbetterthereforetoonlyusk. a case of drilling though the plate.Ustlally this m eans making a device on to whicha lathdchtlckcan befitted. A tapcrcd plug isfitted to a lcngth of threaddd rod.The actual dd ant that will and for extra security a num ber of locat: witl the holcs in the divr iding holcs ca1 ' 1 be driI1ed round the .ifno othersystcm isavailable. Plate Nlake a series ofsuch k 2ircIes in the 1)late. A piece of thin-walled tube ofa diam etersuitable to be a good ptlsh-fit in the hollou' m andrelis needed and thisshould be about four inches or a htlndred m illim etres in length. To keep unscrewing and then Once the m arksare m ade itis sim ply screwing up the devicc isvery tedious .uluzk. lt is that we are talking in many cases of essentiatto cnstlre the plate istlatand wheels with 21tooth countnearing tllc atcxactly nindy degrees to the drill hundrcd. to accept a m andrelto hold the lathe chtlck.@ adjustnRentsnzadeifneed be.The nut docs not have to be such a way thatitwillnotl' novt)outof hexagon itcan be round and knurled position.before l' naking any luark and then proceed as abovc.= I r Periphery to atrtlept a slla1l tol mnl y' bar. solllewhat larger than Itis essentialthatthe detantset-up is norm al pulls the tapered scetion up securkld to : 1position on thc Iathe in tight. Do bt ' t careful to ensure accuracy and l' neasurc at least twice. prefkrably three times.orstudding and a hom em ade nut.Rem elllberthe larger the plate and circle tlsed the greaterthe aceuracy w illalw aysbe. to facilitate the drilIentering u' llen they aretlsdd.k l w ith another sillliIar but slightly snlaller nut and w ith tht! addition t lfa specialwasherpullsthe Plate tight.ratherthan tbratrtruracy whieh can stillbeachieved ifitisa ptlsh-fitaslong asitcan bc locked in position. .Thcdetantshould beagood fit in thc holessbut not so tight that force is required. particularly if the division is for a using a drill of the same size as the large num ber of teeth rem em bering detantthatitis proposed to use.

. .-f . x lq%w %s u+w.< m = t Qw .ys ' *. . mo Fr -n Q I j . -. r..Set up must be secure and withoutshake. '.. u- = t B j' m u. rjjjjj.2 r Bore 3/8' ' y .- J' œ . .o. . -...-j '.3/32. to Iathe frame w ith brdckets.j/a. II4f' 5/32...or to to Stlltprobe r) < --.j 1 -......a/4' ..1/ s16' X i . j. ..----.= % =o no ro * 1-1/4'. 1/16 eL . .--. J! ! *-p- l i 1 C1/47 '' s!t u . -= ..m o G.0/d from 20 gauge wire 1' 'Iong - .. . So ' x9o iNV %0è j . n s..-I. .= -> ro a-j Q v.... -..'. h . ..< .... mo oc .- 1: .' j. 7BA t' #.......... Tap z. .. z wyeo ... ll i .... ' .u wx u6 7 .. ..%E' . --------. ..Length to suitlathe. ' Tighten on flaton detant body . ! zzg... g' h%. 1' . . #.@ r @ 28A screw allows adjustmentofl ength.. ' y 1 1/32... q. ..y -' j ..- h . t. - -- l 1y4. % s- g i Spring 7/32'. z' y. 1- .* ** *f rrl - j I ' = c xtri s: oo . ''-'''-1-1/2' . .x-.. / ' X' ' 75 - a.1/4: ' l L vd Q .. 1/146 -1 .. ..... 11 A SupportBar. a/#f . ' x D œ c = Q j .ri . -.. N r 0 % N N ? < ...x u..deep - -- o oo soos... x jo % ' ..x o+ .

@ r @ C hapter 8 .W heels & P inions In norm al cngineering practice.Therc arctwo types ofteeth:involutc and cycloidalthe form er tlsed in dnginccring Nsb llel v itism ore tlsualforthc sm allcrgcarto drivc the larger one and the involutc form gives: 1bdtterbearilpg stlrface tbr this purpose. although the.would be ret krred to asa gear.what is known as a whecl by the clockm aker.Engineering-typc gears arc describcd in Britain. N' leastlrclncntis#bund by dividing thc ntllllber of tetltll into the pitch cirele dialuettlr. I11 clock m aking the cycloidal type is used becausc in generallargerwheclsare used to drivtl thc snaaller oncs.o41ly by .whecls in a clock diff kr in shape and forl' flfrom thegearsin a m otorcar. The position is llot visïbleu'htln looking ata gear.som ething with which weareall fam iliar.ln 1111 things to do with clock m aking there isa constantbattIe to reduce both friction and weightof conlponents in the search 1br efficiency. ' w hitlh is a positi(311 Nvllere the tecth nAeet. Alneritra and I uany other cotlntries under the ttrl -l' l dialnetraI pitch or DP for short.w hich are known as pinions and the tooth pattern ereates less friction.

38 = 4.e'.05.5 -1 J(Shortform = /. . bz ailkzL .05. Lea-fThickness 6 -8 = 1.0 Pinions Alldimensionsare ratiosofthe module. n. 9e9o c .10 .05. y.5 and 2 x modulefrom O.can the actualposition can be found.8 = 1. I.ddendum 6-8 =0.8 = 9. thc largerthe teeth willbe.45 and 1.5 -3.1to 1.10-12 = 1/5 A.5 Includes N/Y Z'/'form Full7-00th Depth = 2.Allnecessary details for working out the wheel from the m oduleaswelIasthe m odule from tle the wheel sizes are ineluded in the charts. although the clock repairerm igbtwellnecd to usd 170th w hen repairing a very o1d clock.12 = 13.6 to 1. Pitch Circle diameter = numberofIeaves Outsidetipdiameters 6 = 7.35 x'module) Dedendum =distance from pcd to base ofteeth (= 1.. . . whereas thcD P system can be applied to either im perialormetrie.10 =5. .12 = 0. x .8 .93 x moduleformodules 0. eh -1. .12 = 4.1 to 1.57 x = module 0.10 .9.. sz VX ' ov.10=2.U sing alarge num berhastheadvantagethatwhcels are less easily interrupted in their operation by dirt but large m odules nattlrally are not suitable for sm all clocks.95 x moduleformodules 0.1lo 1.76 x module RootDiameter= Numberofteeth minus 3.71. y.805 gvdendum 6= 1. !.it is entirely a m etric systenR. j .%ej <s OP ow o'&.' th1 ic 0k 0n te hss 47& z:* 7.'' I . Jp.12 = 1. .10 = 11-61.45 and 1.' uyye .1to 1ab Num berofteeth m inus 4 x m odule form odulesO.5 lo 1y0 7-00th Thickness= 1.2.The m odule system uses thereverse ofthisand isthe nuluberof teeth divided by the pitch diam eter.12 = 0.5. .57 x module Addendum Radius= 1..such ascarriageclocks.61 Kppl-dl.07 x module) Pitch Circle Diameter = numberofteeth x m odule Outside DiameterofBlank = Numberofteeth+ 2. #D F * Oo o z% t7 'p%#% t?. .ç. DiametralPitcb= numberofteeth in a wheelperinch ofdiameter Addendum = distance from pcd to tip ofteeth (1.7 = 8.7 = 3. c $1 Terminol ogy forobtaining measurements and module numberofwheels W heeland Pijlion Proportions W heel s Modules = Pitch diameterin mm divided by the numberofteeth.75. . tr m 6 = 2.45 and 1. iy6o...9. p. W e are only going to deal with the module system asin clock making itis all that is necessary.82 7-00th Pitch Ratio 2-8 = 1/3.IQ .@ M ost of the m casurem tlnts that al-e taking various m easurem ents of the gearteethaetc.7 = 1.10 .71.45 to 1.The system is quite Iogicalantl the larger the m odule num ber.85. @ needed are a m ultiplication of thtm odule number.71.12 =2.1 .38 x module for module 0.25 Addendum Radius 6-8 = 1. ' ' r j:ee .855.14 x module formodules 0. *4 %o G$% .s 06 .

. Beeause of the thin l' naterial uscd tht? wlletll 11711st alwaysbe supportcdonacolletwhen assenlbled on the arbor in order to give a greater supportstlrface.using a piercing saw or better still a m ecbanical scrol1 saw.which can be cutout. ' Ib cut from a sheet of suitable m aterial it w ill be necessary to first make a centre and then l nark off a circle a little largerthan the outside diameterofthe blank.. & - . Suppliers of clocklmaking lmaterials often willbe abld to supply itas round blanks of the outside dialntlter required.lfonly the m andrelin the smal1 hole is used there w ill be tw o tlnwantcd effccts. rather than use a force fst.It is shedt l' naterial that is unlikely to be ofthe required quality.a tiny drop of com pound on a unit that is a good ' ' slidinglitwilldothejobfarbctter.Failing thatwe art ' tleftwith two choices. The bcst brass to use is knosvn as eolmpo ()r engravi11g brass and is stocked by both clocklnakers' suppliers and many modeI cngineering stlppliers as w el1. Thc centralholeisdrilled-tothesizeofthe collet on n. N tnvadays a far better idca is to use a retai1 -ting colmpotllldo 'not only docs this give a secure bolld btltïvith a smalIam ount of heat the bond can be broken if required. 'itcan eithcrbe cutfrom @ rotlnd bar. thc lnaterial used is of a very thin section. The sam e applies w hen litting the collet to the arbor.It sheet or sliced from Although engraving brass is not available as bar stockethe m dtalw'ilI generally be fonnd to b: quilc suitable.q wal1:kk .@ of the lattcr i11 stlch a way thatthe heels Exeept in exceptional eircunRstanees wheelsare l' nadtnofbrassand 1' 01-m ost norl -nal clockl making purposes and ccrtainly when conlpared w ith norlual engineering practice.hich the whecl w i1I ultimatcly bc mountett ensuring itis at ninety dcgrees to the facd and the disk and m ounted on a stlitable m andrel to be put on the lathe and u' i11bcnecessary eitherto lnakk ldisks thatu'il1' hton theoutside of-the blank to hold il ' lirm ly in positionsbecause the dialneter of the hole for the l ' nandrelwillbe sm allitisessentialto avoid too m uch torque being applied by the toolwhen trying to m achille the blank and thcwashersw illcounteract this. or if the materia1 is not properly supported. Thc secolld less obviotls one is that no m atter how carefblone is when doing the m achining it w il1 be alm ost ilupossible to stop the blank from catching while thc lathe contillucs to 81 . the first and m ost obvious isthatthe blank w illtend to bend as pressure is applied. This creatcs its own probleln wht?n cutting teethasthereistendency t brthemetal to bend away frolm the cutter if any attem pt is l ' nade to advance it too rapidIy. lf one rcads any of the exeelIellt books on clock l making and repairillg thatwere w ritten m any years ago itwillbe seen thatthe usualmethod of holding the wheelon thecolletwasto rivettheend . r l netal expanded and held the urheel firlmly in position. . nnachined to size and contrentricily.

drilled and tapped at base forscrew to hold toolsecure H om em ade C utters ln chapter5detailsform akingcuttcrs forescape wheelsweregiNtn. shaping half of each in doing so. Frequently too thesc suitable cutter for any l' nodule that cutters are for illvolute gears rathtlr n' lightbeneeded. Em ulating this in the norm al hom e workshop w i11 be im possible and so itis bestto aim at six or eight cutting edges.These specialcutters thancycloidial. or a tly cutterwith a single bladc. Body from mild steel. ' suitable for use on a slnall lath:. l1t1-t00th cuttercalls forsom c form .using silversteelor gauge plate. $ @ Toolm ade from silversteel.Obtain radius with drillormilling cutterforaccuracy.these are dcsigned to l iton large horizontalm illing m achinesand C utters although fitm ents can be m ade t() cutters are available enable them to be uscd 011 lathes and conlnlercialIy and specialist clock verticalm illing m achincs.To m ake a 1' rl1. A lthough they are very expensivethey arem adeofhigh-speed steeland w ill lasta lifetilne. W hen m aking cutters rcmemberthat We are notgoing to m ake a t00th but tom achinethegapbetwcen tw' o teeth. which l n akt )s thel' n particuIarl). cross drilled fortool.@ r ot at ewhi chwi 1i ne N ' i t abl yl ea dt o havc the atlvantage of being sm al1.itisalso quite possible to m ake ones ow n euttersforwheels. which isthen divided into num erous cutting edges.Cheaper cutterscan be obtained' . som e distortion of the holc and no luatterhow slightthislnightbe itwi11 lead to lossofaccuracy. hardened and tem checkbeforebuying. the set-tlp suppliers should be able to supply a is rather btllky. Com m ercial ctltters are of the rotary type w ith the shape tln the periphery.lfthe work is supported and gripped by suitable washersthisshotlldnotoccur. w hich w ill be quitc suitable for making the num ber of Wheels required for a norm al clock.

J ... if necessary IAfJ great harn) would com e from uging a 1. x. .. with the cuttcr the distance below it. . 1naki11g nnuIti poi1 ' 1t O1' 1es. straighttbrward. .$. ** R . fortllcl mselves' . $. . . M< .. For dxam plc the author u' as intcrested in making a regulator some dctails ofwllich wert show 1' 1 i11 an old book.ûjf . ' W ith kl The gap between tlc teeth ofa wheel single-point cutter cutting the blallk isthe sal me astht)thickness ofa tooth mustbe done l m ucllmore slowly tlall and is one ofthe hgures reqtlired. .The blal lk added to thc point of the pitch tran be held in a sel-up on the verticaI dianneter and dcdendum is figure of slide of tht ' l lathe.t. 1. t rsxa. Y. ' < j. ..1 ..which is easier t() obtain.To tlo 1lisa device hast() cutter.The l' nuch easier to l' nakc thc arrangem ent bestway ofgetting itacetlrate w i11be sclfpowered. vx.:w.95l ntll and that w illbe nearenough f br otll' Purpose...orthc blank cal ) wlleel is the shape of the addcndulm behdldandindexed i11theIathechtlck and is the only dif-hcult part we arc oracollctand thtlcutterrotated on tht? likel y to come aeross w' hen nlaking a Ialhe saddle.9111111 dialneter driI1.. e> . thtl other ligtlres bcing qtlite be l made in w hich to rotate tht?cutter. . )p > / ' 456' ..965111114so t(' be exact wc nced a drill 1. xw x xx .j.r yi( .. . addendul ' n on Ilow to cutthe blankss 'generalIy il and dcdcnduln..The radius on a rotating in the chuck.the w ith a l' nuIti-point one aIthougl) second is the overalldepth and thirdly rotational speeds can be as hig1. 1 t)I' thc a11-im portant radius.931 1317) dial -neter.5 l' nodultlhasa radiusof0.addendum is 81figurc availablc to the individual.. .forexalnple a (). OnIy the otltside diam ctcrs of the whecls and the num bersofteeth weregiven and it wasnecessary to work outthe m odule a dril1is obtainablc. They acttlally speak willbe a lnatter ofwhatcquipm entih . Therefore beforc any calculationsfbrteeth orcutters can be m adc it is necessary to Grst Gnd the m odtlle that is to be used. g '% r . . ' .Thereartlntllnerotlsidtttls expressions crop tlp hcre.@ @ .An easy way isto l'naktr to drill a suitablc sized hole and use a bracket for a small nlodel l'naker-s that. actltlrat)y neededs det1 )i1s of the required radius which is as shown in the tables on page 79. : rj: :. .J . ' <% :.Theradiiasshown il1thechartdo drilland to l' nountthaton the vertical 85 84 ILadaûkkkz:k ' . rJ. butthere are instanceswhere thism ay not bt l the case. ' W hether or not to l' nake single o1 ' nlulti-point cuttcrs is a nlattt)r t)1' individual choicc' m any people alv qtlite successful w ith ' lly cutters antl s et ? no nee d t o got t o the bothcr ot' inorddrtotaketheprojectfurther..57 x the m odtlle. .f.Forthose who like to work in Inlperial lmeasurdm cnts 5 64ins. Tw o eNzen higher. ' absolutely il mpossiblc w itl)a grinding nowudays w ith the ready availability whektl unless one can be purchasetl of cheap small elcctric nAotors it is that has been specially shaped.It is not going to be Yearsago nnodelengineers uscd to usc easy to getthis raditls with a file and a drivc frol' n an overhead beIt.A standard size is 1.... . wotlltlbe a suitable sizc.).Gcnerally this wi11 be show n 011 the draw ings..ize forNvilit1) of fon' n tool in order to obtain thc notNvork outto an cxacth . .w % + ..

with thc resultthatthe cutterused forwheelsis notgoing to be suitable forthe pinion.lf there were to worry about those. lnstead of easy-to-machine brass..ltisalso essentialto ensure that there is no shake or backlash on the mounting used for the blank as this too willleadto lossofacctlracy.asdeseribdd in chapter 7.thkl 1caves being m ore roundcd o1lthtrhighernul mbers. Norm al methods of obtaining centr: height are generally not accuratc enough and itis bestto use a scribcr mounted in the chuck or colld of the . Thc train of too m any leaves they would simply . Generally thcse m illing attachm ents are fixed to the lathe bed w ith :1 bracket and : 111 adapterwillberequired to 5x ittothe saddlc so thatitcan be traversed as it willbe ofno use in a lixed position. silver stcel is now the m aterialto use and ratherthan cutting throtlgh 1/ '16ins or i.The shape ofthe leaves also diftkr slightly from thcteeth ofthe whccl. Therc are also three differcntprolilcs and althotlgl l in general01 115/tu' o are used itishighly probable that:1design nAighti2alIforadit' ferenttype.There is m illing attachm ents tbr a sm alIlatlle little involved in doing it m eans the blank can be held in the chuck and the cutter rotated on the m illing attachm ent.1 u m ust work out right if the clock is going to work properly.M any small lathes are now available w ith m illing attachm ents and these are idcal.with the cutterm ounted in the m andrcl and w ith a1l thcsc alternativesajob thatwasoncequitc difticulthasnow becom em uch easier. It is essential that the cutter is set at the exact centre height of the blank.or leavt?s as the clockm akercalls them-w i11bklat abouthalfaninch orl2m m Iong.Pinions Nvith a greatklrnulnber ofleaves use a diftkrentprofilc to those w ith :1lcsser num bel-.'..51' nm thick materialthe teeth. Enginedring practice tells us that the m ore leaves the pinion has the slnoother it w ill m esh and rtln with a gearand there is no doubtthatthis is equally tru:w hen clock m aking.any silnple bracketw ilIdo as Iong as itwillhold the drill' l irm ly in place. There are considerably fewerleavesor teeth than on a pinion. The pinion or sm allgearsofa clock set the builder differellt problelns to that of making whecls. Those w ho havc m i1Iing machines can use a sim ple indexing arrangem enton the table.w ith ntlm bers varying as a rule from six to tw elve In the past the k rlock-lmakcr NvouId . ln the ease of the lnilling m achine a vernierheightgauge can be used to setthecutterin relation tothe blank.@ y @u c o s u e d r s . Pl @nl @ons slide tbrheightadjustlnent.although there isno need leaves already shaped. e a d s i c w t a e t e h s a l v h ea n l u r c m a b d e y rs o e fn l e a t v h e a s t lathe. Owners of larger Iathes l' nightfind it worthwhile to invest in one of these 86 and fitting it to the cross slidc with lt bracket.Sadly because this would m ean very Iargu wheels this cannotbe and we are far m ore Iikely to be m aking six oreightleafpinions-in factthe m ore effieitlllt twelvc-leaf type is rarely scen atall. and just occasiollally for special l'nakd pinionsfrol-f'lpiniol)w'i1-:-w-llic1) purposes there are instances of four was a Iong length of m etal u'ith the leaf-pinions. Therefore ideally it would be nice if twelve-leaf pinions were tlsed al1 the tim e as it would m ake our clock run smoother.

c t l e to c n o e ro e t c la p n o d s i h t i a o n l . the drawing and m ake a lantcrn pinlon-which as the name suggests.thistaperdoes notm ean a1) more at hom e if they l nake their increase il) area at the root. u.. No luattcr hou hollltl-llladc ones wilI bd quite carejulone is when ctltting. opcration itiscssentialthatthc leavcs Of Pinions arc givcn a good polish. ' mt c h r t l h l e n o g t h e r s t h t a o @ Inaking :1 suitable cutter a ' vt)l.w hilc theteeth t)j' 11a(1bt lt)n suitablydoctoredwotlldthen asvheelare straightthose ofthe pinio)l becutoff..w.I. Thi s m ay r @ notbe obviotls lo thtlnaked eye. .but the lcaves are much m ore care m ust be ta' ken because ot' thillner than are the teeth ofa wheel.resulting at tlltl very' area adpd the space the reluaining two. dif' f icultproposition.p4>y.' Exccpt on replicas of Old while thc width ofa ovel. anyq way the end rcstlltdoesnotlook as gtltlJ as using the nlachine cut vcrsions 1:ow evcr It 1acks IittIt 7 if anything in c' tliciency and so can be recolnl mended forthebeginnerorfor anyone who fdels they do notyethave tlle ability to cuta norm alpinion. Icast in a bad profilc if not acttlally ' This applics to pinions with six to ten tnkzj.I .. .insteatl pinions by m ore conventional there is a decrease which actually m ethods. leavcs. z. makes the cuttereasierto m ake rathcr than harder. thetubeisdesignedto fit013thearbor of the w heel w ith which it associated.jljqyja m ustbc tkd ' vcry slow ly.Ifa flv cutter is used w heels.rted ateach end during cutting between is equal in the casc of a suppkions./?/7?? ' r???tt(2(.Possibly the best m ethod of polishing is to m ake a sm all profiled wheel from brass.where thc originalswould qtlite possibl y havc llad such a pinion oO o D oO Lantern Pinion photograph w illexplain thesystem far bdter than any words possibly can. operat Piflion th0 leaf takes ond-third of thc tyom the cutter. II ît. ' 89 uL. ' f'he pinioj) m tlst but00th On ' W' hcel a''d tl'o Space in . f occupies tuo-t-itths and the space the other ordcr get a good snaooth threc.but look at itthrough a magnifying glass and itcanbeqtlitehorrifying.the end satisfaclory fornlaking a singlc clock.thore artl som e who m ay feelthe task solllew hatdaunting.y/t f/. Because of the snlall lt was a highly-skilled process and num ber 0f teeth and the m ostm odelengineers willfeelm tlch diameter. The sam e methods arc A sim ilar system of nleasurem ent uskcdtomakethectlttersaswerctlsk zd used in the sam e w ay as for the fbrtj j:w heels.j at cating.othulavise itw illflex aw ay. Although thc cnds technically are disks..polished and taken into use. lnthatcaseitisworthuq hiletryingtt) cach other. leneth that has to be tnur ellk ld. W hile I MOM people are quitc capablc 0f Carrying out thkt work required to m zke a Pinion.froll) luuch fkiction. tl ak. tapor inwards..using the sam d cutterthatwas used to cutthe pinion.).kjing thc work.. y.looks like a lantern when f ' inished. resujt wi1l always result in a ragged At firgt glance itwotlld appear that finisj-l of varying degrees . Cutttu's fbr pinions can be purchased otjaumvisu they wi1lbe dragging on the but again are vcry expensive and u cth of-thc wheels. above that thc Iea.coatthisw ith a m ild abrasive com pound and rtln it along the leaves tlntila suitablcfsnish hasbeen obtained.<â. w ith thc whecl-w itllout creating too V .ifnnaking a lalltern pinion itis as wt tll tt) Llst l only ()l 1e disk and to ' TypicalEight LeefPinion s . /jg?tr()(f '. and instead of teeth a series of rods connect thd disks to Th0 pinion consistsoftwobrassdisks with a tube in the centrc thatjoins them' 'V01CVêt1$ kllo5&n aSa bobbin. This is to allow sufficiellt moqrem ent vjycrut-or ' -/k c a good supply of euttillj z i l110 Ploarance ft nrtlle pinion to rotate jjt jjk!isussentialtonreventthecutttl).

Therefore ifwe wantan eightavailable drill then). .. 91 ' . or special pivotsteelin an attractivc bltle colour that is already hardened can be bought. considcred and the bobbin thatholds making sure the work is perfectly thepinsm usthavetheslmalldiametec square and that the drill also passes the same as thatshown in the chartas lantern orany otberpinion forthat m attertherc is no need to use a colld ting iton the arbor..Finally the ends of the pins sqtlare. k1ikki . the same setting drillthe centralhole.Care hasbetakento getasquareedgewhcn machining a pivotas any taperm eans the there cotlld be a chant?kzof it binding inlheholeinthe fralne.. ' J' o prevent it m tw ing throtlgh the holes in the plates.1nzm .butm ake surethe disk is on each. of the pin and the pitch circlkl Beforepartingotf. If drillings the pin pinion for a ntlmber one m odtlle holes can be passed rightthrough to the pitch diam eter circle of the pins w hatwillbeconAe the bottom plate. when m oun As we know.Thu' A lternatively drillthe hole undersize cllartshow s how to find both the Icaithiekness-which equals the diam etcr and tlse a ream erto getitright. w' hich in thc stated root di instance is4. This is difïiettlt to m achine and the only way to use it w ithout m achining would be to keep itatits original diam cter.Itcan btlslightly l l er f or t hc s a ke ofconvenience if sm a i s he s .tlnlessone isvcry experieneedsto use silverstcel.Arborscanbe l made fron) silver steel..withaholethatwillbe of hardened silver steel or special a good fit for the step on the first blued pivot steelthat is available 1()1' piecc.Tooth depth has also to btp drilling l' nachine and drill through.part ofT and take thc work to the 1. ltw illthereforebeaswell..Betbre doing pieces 'soh solderw illdo tine for this thigputa spotofretaining com potllld sortofwork.@ anleter. Beca us e of the Iength of onC W m achine a 1cngth of so1id brass. N' Vhen all the holes are the bar at this stage. w illneed to be ground off and thkl and machine the otltside diameter of picce thathasbeen used forchucking the ends of the pinion to size and at ptlrposesalso rem oved.collarswould have tobefitted.2m n' 1.w hich w ill on the other. through square..Do notpart (t off from bend. 1 .indextheholesand diam eter. to run with the rest of the train.em cry and tinish u'ith a pinion thatis going c10th to take the very sharp edge off.whecls and pinions are mounted on arbors and the pivots are machined on the ends ofthese. lf will be 8mm and the pin diam etcr ' not. tisnotpossibletojustpick' This w'illneed to be a good fi ton the Ofcoursei arborand so ensure thatthk)drilltlsed any o1d size of pi11 or an)' isaceuratelygrotlnd. M ake a disk. ' .1LI. 1. completed passthrough eitherlengtlls again oversize.ltcan be very ditlicull lcaving onc end to just over the to see whcn a dri11 is wanderingdiameter required and putting a step particularly a slmall dril1. Solder the disk to the first clock m aterialsuppliers.thenjtlslrubthe circum ftlrence that takes onefs falltly cutting edges on a piece 01.Replace the bar in the chuck.whichisneededtoplaeethe either spot thenlor if facilities are pils.

If thc original surface is badl y pitted thell work willhave to startwith various grades of abrasive papers or cloths' . Before work starts on polishing for appearance itisnecessary to carry out polishing to im prove the working of Pivots the m ovem ent and only then can the Pivotsand the holes in whiclzthtty are question ofappearancebcconsidered. Although in gent lral wetend to think'ofpolished brasswork there is : 1grcattlealm()rc to ' linisllillg than thatalond.@ r @ C hapter 9 . M achine-cutting lmcthods invariably Ieavk)l uetalragged alld uneven and no l matter ho' w careful one is or how sharp the tools.F inishing A wcll-tinished clock m ovement is solnething that can be admired over and over again.N o m atterhow nicely polished the wheels and plates m ay be. taking careto keep thewoodatnindty degrees to the sides of the wheclse escapem ent wheels in partictllarnced attention and it m ay again be nceessary to make a suitably shaped piece ofwood to getthc bestrcsults. Throughout this book thc need to reduce friction and weight has bettl) stressed alld first thotlghts 01 1 polishi13g m tlst bc ail' nt ltl at this.Thislneanstrying to s11-100th the etlgkls of the teeth on al1 wheels inclLlding the escapelnentalld p()lishing other w' orking surfaces. A Il polishing work should be carried out with 1 series of progrcssively ïiner polishing meditlms.N evcruse a piece of abrasive m aterial that has previously been tlsed on steel) on brass. theiruse should be keptto an absolute m inim um as they can creat: m ore problem sthan they gcttlle bestfrolu a clock.extra wkll'k is nt ledk ld to rtln-tove these blcm ishcs.the typc ofwhicll willdepend on the originalsurface of the m aterial being workcd on. minute particles of steel can becom e em bcdded and cause scratching ofthe surface. to run need attentions although the 92 93 . Obviously'when itcolnes to the ted h of u' heel$ 1 a lot of care needg to be takcn to ensurc they do notloosd their profile and so a piece of suitably shapcd wootl can be used i13 conjunctionwithapolishingl' neditlnR.thtleffectcan be completely ruined by untidy work dlscwherc.

holes reall
y should have been dealt el-nery cloth or paper to give it :1
w ith when they were madc,to ensure
thcre was a good running fit witllthe
pivot. Special finishing broaches are
available for the purpose but anyone
not w anting to invest in these can
easily m ake a suitabletoolfrom siIver
steel. M achine a short length to thc
same taperasthebroach thatwasused
to m ake the hole and file the taper to
halfthediam eterinthesam eway that
one m akes a d-bit.Rem ove any burrs
from the edges,harden and tem perto

a dark straw colourand then justrun
the llatsurface on a picce ofvery line

suitable edgc.This willprovide a nik
polish to thc holcs,butdo rul
to keep itsquare when itis used.
The actualbearing surfaceofthepivtlt
should be polished to as high :
as possible. Special files can be
boughtfor so doing,w ith an edge at
an angle which prevents destroying
the square edge.As usualthere is l
need to investin such a toolasourold
friend a piece of hardwood dan be
presscd into service. lf the hnish on
the pivot is very bad stick on somc





very fine em tlry papt
)r as a start and
use that, hnislling as usual with a
polishing lucdium , The biggest
problem when polishing pivots is
supporting thena and the best device

for the purpose is ajaeottool. (See

Nvoodcn dtnvelin the tailstock chucks
fronl lhe headstock, drill a hole thc
diam etcr of the pis'
ot to be polishedcutthe dowelso thatonly halftht
dianleter is leftand the piqotq'iIlrest
in thatwhile itis being polishdd.

photos on pages 94-99 alld draw ings

on pages l()2 & l03)Consisting ofa
tailstock supportofsom esort,eithera
taper or bar that can be held in a
chuek, a bloek is m ade that drops
below centreheightandfittcdto thatis
a drum madc of brass or plastic that
has a series of grooves in the cdge.
These start life as holes and then are
m achined to halfthpirdiameterso thal
when theblock isrotated a groove can
be setin a position to stlpporta pivot.
lt is an easy toolto make and well
worth the eflbrt.Howeverthere isan
alternative and thatisto puta piece of

C rossing O ut
This is the horologist's term for
reducing thd weight of w'
heels by
removing areas frolu the centrelcaving a spoked effccts which can
also Iook attractive.Tht?shapd oftlle
spokcs is a m atter of pergonalchoicc
butthey should becrossedoutinstlch
11Nvay thatnice square edges are lt
and when polislzing is carried out
those edges are m aintained. M ost 01the work can be done q'ith good
quality ncedlc files,stressing the need



ep *$W* # 1O0 *%*m- exe' 'R' . rather thal)a ' wallet containing num erous cheap ones.'F'â?e'' -4' /'aw I '?''''e.the shapes of nlany of which woultlbc unsuitable ltnyway..The atlthor has naade a h111alI fi1ing m achinc thatis particulal y usefulfor crossing outas its usc tllhsures thattlle edgcs rel -nain square wi lh the work supported atninety degrtcsto the ' hle. .@ @ #-.&'' ë7 ! ' ==xu Am 'M.%ëP*4% -'4'è''# >''>' . '' to buy quality fi1es rather thall cheap ones. It is possible to buy escapel n ent files w hich are specially naatle ft ar this sort tlf ' Iine work and inclttde specialshapds. * bew *' . Detailsofconstruction ofthe l' nachine al v given in the Nvorkhllop Practice Series Book 11um bcr 3 1 :Useftl1 W tlrksllop Tools'. It is far better to buy threc o1 ' four good ones.

. .. j' j l ' i .

Use the fillest grade and B' dt it thoroughly washing the residue off underarunlping tap.lfit docshappcn the l' narkswillhavc to be erased by polishing and therd are severalschoolsofthoughton htlh'this should be done. this l ' neans siIver Polishing mops have their purposes stcel.Ifthe pillars have been shaped we are faced w ith different problcm s as m achining m arksareinevitableandthcsemustbe rem oved.ratlerthan theotherukty round.lf the pillars ar: plain tlere u'ikl be no probldm as they can be initially polished while rotating in the Iathe. Finighing work shouldalwaysbeklolle along thcir Iength.restllting in eithcrscorillg or distloltltlratl 'ollofthc l' netal.w' llic11 generally colues w'itl) an but generaIly their usk l results in already lint lly ground surfacc. 1flatareasisl' lk'ttk)be l' econAl' nclltltltli11ti' le case ()ftl ' le $' 1iIlal' s Pillars PiIlal-sandl' hescleïvs-ifany.ifspacc Perl m its use a large piece of trard soaked in the polishing m tdiunn and lajd on a llat surface and work the plateon that. Frequently tiny chatter m arks are Iikely to be lcfl in any recesses thal have been made and initially thesew illhaveto beremoved with an abrasive paper while thcy are in the Iathe.Al1too often a clock is spoilt by filklm arks along the plate edg. Tllis rounded edges. wilness m arks invariably w i1lrem ain on work done in the lathe. Finish lhut edges with a very Gnu' abrasivc c10th wrapped tightly rotlnd a filesfollowtd by a rub w ith apittceof sqtlare-cdged hardwood with a Iiberal am otlntofablusspoIishersprcad on it.@ Pallets Obviotlsly it ig nict ? to polish tlle visible surfaee of the pallets to l ' nake thel m lookgoottbutl' nostilmportantof a11isthc necdto im partagood finish to the working stlrfaces so they w ill l m ate snlootllly w ith the teeth of the tscape whkltll.Tllestepthatismachilledto 105 'z . Thc most poptllal' m ethod is to use em ory cloth or 2. zuu' zz . variety of Nvays: tbr exal nplt? 11)ttrks W ral) thklplates in clean c(oth svhiIc a' wr aiting rc-asscl ubly. keeping theangleascloseto theplate edgesaspossible. rbors The nlalerials to be used l ' br nlakiI1g notbe grained in any way buljusl arbors has already been covtlretland have a highly polished surfaee.asw ith the pillars itisvcry hard to disguise the polishing operation donein thisway and a ' finc finish can be obtaincd by working lengthways.protcctingthe sides ofthe platesby ptttting paperbetw' dell them and thc angle beforc tighlcning tlp. Thc type known as wet-and-dry is very good. for l nost pcop1t. Plates Firstthoughtsarethathnishillg plates is col uparativel y sinlple task hut therearecertainthingsthat' w' cnecdto look outfor.pklrtit-t!larly asin luostcasesthe lastthing thatNvill be w anted ' w illbe sharp edges.Clam p theplatesbetween lcngthsofangle to work on the edges.The polishing wheel is lmadc of wood and by supporting thc palIet011 the rest the working stlrfaces capl be contoured w' hile rem aining square to thcsides. U se a figtlre-of-k?jght m oveluent' -1he ' finishcd restlltshould 1: - 104 they t' y:llldo tlsthpup1 -k 7job. Here too is a job where :1polishing m op can do a f irst- classjob. Det'p m arks can btt rennoved w ith an abrasivc paper. w'lile thc palIets are stlpported on a hand tool rest. no matter how carefully lhe work is done. usc a pit lee of card stuck to thtl polishing btock and soaked in 81 polishing m ediunlsuch as Brasso ora silmilar col nlnercial product.A lthough the tlsu of a frol ' u cl1(lt-k jaw' s are a k-oI2)Int'n problelm and are otïen eatlsetlby thkl w ork catching and rel' naining stationary Brhilc the lathklcontintlesto rcvolve. lt is gcnerê tIly recolnlnended thatthisbedonewitha whcelrotating in the Iathe. O ncc m ores a range of polislling m aterial should bc tlçtttt becom ing progressively tiner as îhe fsnish improves. )p k)1. Lay tl' lc plates on a llat stlrface t' ol' polishing the sidt ls antl tlse 11 blotzk' with 1$ Iarge surface area to do the work. On finescratches.''Nlak'e stlreitdoesnotcatch in that fashiol7'-butitis l -nuch harcler tk) acttlally preventitfrom so doing. when polishing thc flatstlrfacesofthe platcs to allow thtlabrasiN' cl ' naterialto tr ktustp a rotlnding off of thc edgds. sil -niIar abrasive while the work is revolvillg' .esandcareshouldbetaken tllatalI these are rtlllloved by draw filillg.11iseasy to say. Tllis should be asr oidcd ata11costs' . polishi1' 1g 11' tf .w hich m tlst be fi1ish call often be dannêtgk ld i1) :1 avoided. Ensure when the plate is turned overthatthe supporting surface is thorotlghiy cical) and degreased before starting on thd second side.llnathol(1 theln necd partieular attention. while atthd sallle tinae ensuring thktt the tldgt ?sare atninety degrcesand are keptsquartl. It is very easy.

.j ' I ' j1I : .I 1 '..that latter only achievcd byhardworkanddedicationbutinthe long run is wellworthwhile.Attempting to remove such m arks would change entirely the shape ofthe wheeland so under no circumstances should the mdhod be resorted to. II r ''I I ' h Ir 'j:j ' .11'I. there is always a slight chance of it m oving into the pivot holes and creating unwantcd triction. 'j !I'I. out thoroughly it w ill never be to a high standard. I'.I . :j jl .if it is atan angle. 1 i L.Don'tbeafraidto tlsea magnifying glass to exam ine the linish. work m oving w ith the . 1 .I . x1I! .II ? . .Frequentl y looking ata partin an indifferentlightw illm ake itappear i ' $! jI 1' '' . l.. l ' ' ' ' ' I :I j I' I i' I Il1 ! I g . I îI. ( i Kjuil . all gunsmiths and somc 9. s'Iaterials Itcannotbe stressed too much that coarseabrasivec10th orpapershould never be used and we should think Som e peoplc like to see blue arbors only in tel -ms of l ine and extra sne m aterials. This allows tbe polishing m edium to be kept tlat. n ofthcpolishing j toan ythNo ingmthaatt n betpmuracth aisal ed cetio ucochkm met hong ds eo Ib scwhe re. ltis a simple process and the finished resultcan look very good btltin order to getthe rightresultthe steelm ustbe highly polished in the first place. 11.Mostmodclengineering suppliers.. .W here there are deep m arks it is better to rem ove them with a a Sw iss precision tiIe' . there are other ways to achievethis. ' l k 1 . tec ra wha er s a ar rather too drastic fors cl aki . ' il ..I.' 1 -! . i 'I I' ' I .acewould be to putpinsin a piece of wood.I : I I . ' ' roundtheedgesofthestep-overwhen smooth and highly polished butgetit polishing and one way to avoid thisit in abrightlightandparticularlyifthat .l1.ltfollow s therefore thatwe do notreally wantto ' ' I. are used a pcrfectfinish requires a 1ot ofhard work and unless itis carried purposes-as the edges ofthe wheels are likely atleastto be m arked vcry badly and at the worst irreparably dam aged. I @ while thtp wlleel is held firtnly in II ' m ake the pivotshould be treated with extra care. i i1jI I EII I li r.' ?I : ' I ii :.. There are m any proprietary m aterials available txor imparting a very high finish and they can be botlghtthrough ood suppliers of horological # m aterials. G rade4asthemarksredtlceindepth.moving to Chemical blueing will not rcmove ...'.1I.etcwillnot o nceseemedtobeperfectcanlook badly scored tendtotipovertheedgcasitismoved 1I II j . .' ( .1I ' IIi . . ' I : II I ji'' !. I Ij I i.Firstly the step mustbe at ninety degrecs as. these are . I I. lf possible look atitin alongthelcngth.l 2i I: ' Ii.m ost willdo a farsuperior A normal engineering m ethod of holdingwheelsforworkingon thetlat surf.. . 1 . 1 ' II l light is angled to the surface.-' 'I .. II. blemishesandmustberegardedasa Never use cheap files as they w ill m eans of enhancing appearances ones.i. t' I 'I .It is far better to cut a sm allrecess in a piece ofwoodsin which the wheel w i1l fit w ithout m oving around and w ith the edges proud of the lip.I I' . ' . to prevcnt the . ' A clock is judged on two things:its s and apart om using special blue pivotsteel. 'j...( . nlaterial ean be saved by using the sal' ne piece ofwood for all the w heels and l' naking the recess gradually largerasthewheclsincrease in size. adiacent to the edges. 7. 1 ! ''. needed for deep marks. $ j'. I ' ability to kt lep tim e and its overall appearance..''' I i. found cheaperto buy one good lile tlasthalf a dozen cheap that willotl Nyrjyrrj.j . ' l '' lI I 'I 107 I1 106 h III1 I I. ' j ' I .' I cndsothatemerypaper. I !. 1 : 1 . available in a num ber ot grades and generally speaking Grade () will be suppliersofclock parts can supply the nccessary chem icalsto blue the steel.k l to m ake a smallfurrellto slip on the l 1 j. .1I I I4 !I. ln the long run it w ill be polishing work. . j' .. g :.I I .whichisfarsuperiortoany artificiallightthatisavailable. l .1 I i i) ! . cause nlore PrOblems than they Nvi1l ratherthan aquickfix to savea 1otof rem ove. d aylight. 11 . what position.

with four screvvs orbolts atthtl cornersand a nulmberofholesthrotlgh Nvhich are sticking pieces ofstcel(l11c pivots)thatgo rotlndwhen tlklkrlotzk is w orking. In its bttsic form atker having been collnpletcd the frontface of the movenlent w ill consist of a plate.Itisnotatthisstage thklnlost ' attractive thing to Iook at.@ C hapter 10 F aces.Anyuuy it Nvould notbepossibleto tita factl01)it as itstandsand so allotherplate ( 2a1Ied 109 I . H ands and C ases Having goneto a grcatdealoftrouble to l' naktpa c1oek 1hcn i1isbeholden 01 1 thebuilderto titan attractive face to it and there ark ?nllmerotls ideas thalcktn be used for s0 dolng. Befoi 'kl discussing tllesd wtl should Iook at how tlle fat le wilI bd fitted to thc l' novclnent.

t) : p.. attractiveparticularly on largerclocks.- -- False Plate w ..---.if not m ostpeople. To form a figure l it w ill be noticeable. ' ï . - .. . .This is not to say that som e of thk l cheapcr com m ercially-m ade dials arc not attractive and a book like this cannol . ' . j.. the full face antl the chapter ring. they range from being very cheap to highly expensive.. ) ' ) . . W ith end ofthe drum . . è è.-- '. . . - ' . ) iî 1 -- . .* Face Rate . has a large hole in the centre that allows plcnty of clearance for the W hichevertype is chosen the biggest hand colletsand forthe square on the problem w ill be the num erals. t ..thiswillinclude theface.. - * * - - . -*' '' ...-. tr' ..and is quite ' .. ''' -.. --. g . -..j!.r j y t E ' F t .Thcre are hundreds of com m ercially m ade faccs in al1 sizes available for thosc who do notw ish to attem ptto m ake their ow n.. . . . - Clock FrontPlate W e are anyway concerned w ith m aking a clock and for m any. . the screw s into this are then decide the bestway to setabout countersunk so they are not it. ' . r L ) ' .' . . t ..' : . : t y .Itw i11be aswellto firstdraw extensions to these support a further them fu11size on a piece ofpaperand plate. j . .. . possibly offer a description of th: whole wide range.. . . ' . . 7 ' l ..w hich is to be used care itispossibl eto engrave Roman for winding. k . W c should start by separating faces into two parts. it is know n as the front necessary to use a straight line with plate and the face willbe l ixed to it. y7 ' ( ' E ) .. - . . - ...- .. -. g . ' . : E q j k y t . j. '' )) t .. .'.This is hxed to a basc. t . r E . frequently of wood.(r : . ..The latter consists of a m etalring ofsuitable diam eterprinted w ith hours and probably sub-divided into m inutes. Four pillars keep the numerals with the aid of a milling platc ata suitable distance and short m achine. . # r t ù .. . .They are m adeofmetaland engraved oretchede not only with the num erals but also w ith various patterns. '. j (' .- .. . 7 .-. 'j? t ' k r f . The expensive onesare worksofartin their Ow n rightand are in m ost Cases quitc intricate in theirdesign. : ) : è ' . ' .. . ' .. .This one unit.. short cross pieces and in orderto get 11O -. Thc fullface isexactly whatthcnam c suggests:a com plete printed face as a false plate is puton the front.-- ' -0 ...m *. .. ' i k. l ) t si 'f ' yy ?j . t ' E ) ) è .

I .

.(tk$. (' 1 .ttsLvft j/).ing tlltp figures standing proud. b' . ' l--. which can be printed on thin card and stuck in place. considerably larger range than the average stationer.b()b.cbatî /y.-----: E .1/' ?t? J/t.. As far as design is nlatcrialand if one w ishes cotlld tirst eoncerned a wide range of options is i . F/lt?. /?. : ' . 1/t?ê?J.Transfcrs. l(.These do not look al1 that attractive ' w hen used for nlaking clock faces but if they art? caret' tllIy appliedto brassandthen left k lK ''X*''' '' : i ! : ' E : : E ' : : .wash the factl these accuratc the graduations on the orring in waterand allow itto dry but table 1111 . '(f. ' W -ithout rem oving the transtkrs..Figtlres X or do not rub it to get it dry. . 1stbttuorked to.A lternatively face orchapterring... is alw ays shown as IIII.)/t./.((.ptttkiny' t. :tè ' f/k s 'ta t/( ?(j. . . they can be printed on a transf-ersheet It is possible to buy thi11 brass and this can be used directly on lllost nulnbers thatcan be stuck on to any m aterials.which are specially designed for clock faces..Be careftllhow the transfers facesnormall' nilIing cuttersare Iikely are rubbed off as the etclling is not to be too Iarge and dentalburrscan be N'ery deep and ifthey are attacked with used instead.L. x #? F. ' ?'(.W e are al1 : : .-.//.Readers who havc com puters cal' which show s up weI1 on brass or produce their own designs for cIock altlm inium . L.. aware of the wide range of rub-on transfers non'aka 'ilable in stationers : g : : and most art suppliers stock a i j . (t//c. tellthem from cngraving.The result is black used on thesc figtlres to give an face or ring w ith bright brass inlproved appcarance.b. are also . e)f.ound them w illetch away lea:..whichever is used forthe faces.The ' I illished num berscan I nkrfilled w ith black wax. î '(1(. /f?(/k ..again chem ical blacking solution to thkl w ith short cross pieces top and met alandwhenithasdoneitsjobarub bottoln' -two sizcs of cutter should be off the'lo.A pointofinterestisthat emery paptlr thtl num bers wi11 bc a clock nevershowsthe tigure lV:four rubbed rightaway. (.ànt:'?.w(.J - to soak for twenty-four hours in an ctching solution as purchased at dealers in radio eqtliplnentsthe brass t. : * readily available and itis diffictlltto j E ..' : @ bechem icallyblackedforappearance. -/??.. . I : Itisalso possible to buy self-adhesivc plastic numcralsw ith various' l inishes that can be stuck on to alm ost any surface. . Apply a V wilIneed to be a pairoflines. /(. / ((.On slnallclock numbers.y .

:2///k/(. required... I I I. 'l ( : . .. Use comm ercialbeading where i j ... j '' . - j ' 1I) ' the movement..The dooris a 'I . A ' '' '' 8 .//j. t t' $ .. ' ' I.! .u. : .t j ï 5 ..Make plinth of hDrdWood. yjje jjood ' j....y. j ' j...A board across . I .../i). . .gytayjjij. ../ j.'./ .. : ...' Top Fittings forcase available in a variety ofstyles and si zes ' ? . ' .. ' . II I ! $1(ll(?111)()/'/1y)l't' (ll/J/l'l'l'('élIt'(/('f/VCz. .j.. ... t ï ! tje !op ofthe case StlppOrtS y l .. : : rebated and qlazed . .:t. ta/-).gjtajj(/.j.. ./ f' $ ..j.()j. : .z.4 .l(/$. . ./'//) (.y/hj. 116 j17 ..)(.. . ...%/(/11('('.('tg/g:/ Iç'. .. .v$jv)j. Shape ofdoortop i s . . 7. j. : .. : a n d s e t n v e n e e r e : : r)I9wood. i (j . 1 .. ' : : . - .. x. . I' I $i I . : ' .J/)1-(1l()/:tt)#'tl.I 1 I j . (.p +% . : : hardwood strip.( : j I '! * 1 ' Ii I i 1 l r ' : I ': z. ' ' . : .ju tjjky.. II j' . ' .ujk i lE .. : : . . :.. tl .I : 1 .. ...j. * : 1 .. jy /)/v)L. . L. ilî. y .(ctr!'//??tljt/JllL. t ...' ' ' ' i. : ' j. . & j Tjjecase Made from hardwood strip rebated to QCCOM Veneered pI9wood sides. Nl..(o j/y(. j ut '' 3 ! ' j .-J >. j ' / 7 f j .Fi tpi8nOhin9esand r e C e S S C d r r l dQROtiCCQtChOS. h - ' j .$j . (y(c.rebate and glaze... ). : ' .../( yj.. . ' : 1 I j yjlty/j L. . rebate : ..j.//?('J ..$ . .' . ' . . opti()na1. : ./(t.a : ..Doorfrom hardw ood strip.M ake from . . 1gt T v ?' r ' .:y. ) ' . . : : . 1 .. j.. ' : ' .'1 ll II . j. . '.$. . I .j()(.j. a. ( l' . . %eJj ..=#t .vh))pcpjj/. : ' . ..jy. I.a A separate partOfthe CaSe W hich is screwed ' ' in place.) y ' .vc. j :E aIso from hardwood strip. p . : 1 ' ..à'ç..i/. . .. ... . y.JFl7/)(... . ' . . j t . .

.. .% î 'J J 'v ..//?/.. . . s.suzj .-.thv.... . t t ..îI)ç. r ' ' c . . .. . à' t?lll J)/(z(2 1'é?t' (l.ted.. t xhe I Ue m aue. < 3 0 + 21 xxJ kl k. 1())î.t >' . h' . t '! j ' : î1(). OF blLled if One nriSh(ts. . q y y t s y l y t . !l .. tj) j .t .. . tl.Jj.. --. keep otherinterestorpcrhapssom ethingdo tlxperirnenting untiI a good idea of 'svith the f.lIl ' .ajjy ()COj3jo woujjj w jyjj jo jut. I.. j.. t ..h .0''':/t?1. . j . ) . y . . b m h-'.b . $ > s t . . n t sy j y .. . .y . . b .f t/)!... k l' eéIJt?gt . ' 118 ' A J'//t tz ..i.aj. v/?/(//t. ?. tubîngtobcsoldcredtothehand'rhc t . .ll.' t hema erialfrom whicht yareto C ases jot . .kjjy yuq yjj a 1)12tCkCd. . E. -''ltl nbertlls. . j g j j J ..:..: 4j '.. j . ./?c t. s . y x y '.rtj(..x. t7??/)t?adtied ( .y . It is as well to draw them hrstofa1lon paper.... For exannple they could renccta hobby or one and sec ho' w that Iooks. Nr ' . . ' .j. t t @ ' : . !' I q l I: i II r . i6l.. (l . .. f r . they arc then fretted otlt using a piercing saw antlnt zedle filt ps.:Theb't... .in ...o. tli(. l t y j y ..... 1! .è '.. p) . . ./$11thesd things give how the tinished articltt w'ill look is individuala ity to a clock and m akt l it obtained. I I ) : s . . jI ' Anyone w ho has com plcted a m ovcm ent would bc advised to take their tillle when considering the face ' Hands can be cutfrom thin brass or steel.vil)'vd -/kt. . ' . . ...xos. and it iS dotlbtftll Whether m any jxjyjjyjjjyjj jjom (.. j(.r . /'tsvln. . î' ?l?t . .w?-t/.g/ y) y. ( ?. . ' ii ' t ..w ith or withoutthe aid i n addition there is no reason why ofa com ptlterand stltittem porariIy in p placo.'tt. (?t?t1.C./?t?/à?r .(/ :zf?/'/)l.& // ?t-centre '$'/?//tI)(. ) $..t????/?lI/t:.m j.k ' . .s . j k .aa. y $1 tyjyt. may not call t.. v.F.. . 1 :t ... . There are exceptjons. ' /f l'lp?/c't' c o'-/?'' /?Jl?e' t' fF tz.skejeton clocks . personal. l ' . 4i.(... b ' :(' I(/ (.. . L./ .//?t/t?. 1L..l AE ( . ''$.' ti' ve.ty . j . . .. task. 4. j yj .. I s .. '!'(ltll' t lt . j . 'l/ ?f ?/:11' /?t' ?2/? t?/I ' . . à .. ( .> . . . ..which isstuck on - .oa.' I .. k Jîàvttvb..à. r) (z # y% .. ! ? .. v.onc ofthe easiestis gO ê 1 jo (. lland: iI I r II .ts.y. -.t.. ..y ! ' .There is a w ide rans ze and in fat ytitisagood ideato draw ofm ore or less standard designs and one ()n paper. f.' . jg/y/. k(. .. t j i j j r .yy l jz z j y jy rj gy . 1 y . ' ' k' . . .. /t4t. ' . ( 1t '??d@ . .c. ' v( )I(l( .1.sf#...-. . The lixing Willdepend on the design ojxa jjarticular clock and it m ay.y j ..s . P'' l'''é-( lt ?'' (' t ï 1'... som etim es a clock w il1 be alternatively itcould be painted.yj. .I . y . . :) . .lle lnaklng Ofa CI ISC Calls generally dj jkwjat sut oj-skil1s as in the tor a jj main tjC WOrk w jjj be w ith wood.tlt.1n: c.s.or a snlall piece of '''e b'sually displayed in glass dom es .1. zvilI()n (? I //.. k y j j y y .t/n çpt. yys.. '' k' (?/.. ) i . '.. v?7(. ..t rv .. ' j -1 I' . .y .) . t . k r .?/? iv(.. k . .. .. . * .( Lk#k. (.' - I ' ..4' available if a computer is used.).. . j ' N : !. %tll' L. $ 'tl' (ln. '' Lk i k'. .. . $ ' /7c(/it? ' $ .. y y j j . fniIy. I I . l . ). ttf. Or . b ' t. -.A day or1wo iatklrdraw another ersonal ideas cannot bc used... -z i: . l à . L(L. >. t .?a t.. . ) a .. ë/ ka .aj a g az . s/?!( . .onceagainthe lessweightthey have the better. ' . L'( . .. . L. 'k.r jjjo gjayjj jyom tj qt. tjju j ugtjj()U t)t JIXi!)g m ay jjgty' d to $0 youtthc task. ' h . ' .' . #p/ . y h..d .Once djspjaycd în aglasscasc them aking of sjges avai)ablt 7I:OY Y CFCIf 11ly althotlgh .x z. j . c.. r .. 119 ..

jtal m ountsto abouth .The corncrjointscanbenaitrcdtoinaprove yl vnchpolished. be polished. shaped beading and ornalments Nvhich can be obtaincd frol m supplicrs Of clocklnaking equiplllent. . haN'ing thc t ldgt?softhk lglasspolished betore t' nak'illg the case. i I ! : ' ' ' ' I. tourjjouys. The l ' nore traditional glass case consists of thin wooden beading with the glass Iet into it.The base on which the case stands should be of hardwood and havtt a groove cut in it for the glasscase to slip into. .j D I5. ' . I : I iI ! ' 12O 121 . ' 1. 1 .ofteeth il' lestlaptlNvhkltllpinion 8x 8 A Sthe celltle 411001pinion has eighttkltlth and the groat&N' 1 l001ninoty-six. I ' .' j u'hich is abotltt' lk ll maxinaunathatnlostpeople are likcly t()w'antitto un' w ind. thcir stock' is ailmcd at a Inass l markut ant.t3ftoeth i113rd U llt ?e1 64 x 6() oj= ($() N o.(lnceagain thcbcst appearancc.s' t aeI1 tj)înking ojnaaterjajs. .sij atht ?sam cpcriod..ajykj ak yjaj .oftccth in centrk lw' ht lelx N o.althotlgh l ' nostly wood som e of thcse Cnlbellishl ' nents are brass and either B' êl)'tldy do add tlle tinishing totlches to 11tlltàok case. Infoj-nlation on wllere to (lbtain wood ca11 be obtained frol' n the advertiselnents in l' nagazines dealing with woodworking orclocks.pose an(jis unlikcly to bc stlitable jbrthissortofwork.the wvightfalls tlll.itishard tt)teI1the finishkld result frolm solid wood. :t)abotlt it. 0ftceth in 3rd pinion x No.ol-th advice is to contact advcrtiscrs in 1 .the NN'I'CCIrotates: 96 8 = 12 hours JXl' 1CIiftho dialmctklrOfthebarl-elis2 inohkrs.TI1istlan be I 1eld togttther using a tIcarsi1icone and uotlzing else and looks attractive as there is 110 wooden beading to obscure the vic' w of the clock. k2jaoursorj 'ustover6andaquartdrinchesevdry fulIday oftwentyThatis-thecquivalcntoffourfeetantlt' wo inchdsineightdays' .t'ugja011jy yjajj-tjak?distance thatitunNvindsfrom the barrele 'ic.3. slany cloek cascs arc tinished with f-ancy. ' .th0col o h'i11beunnmund. . N ().ldealIy the case should be lmade of hardvvood planks btlt these are gettil1g lnord and l uore dit-ficultto obtaill.veneerkld blockboard but the problclm ojobtaining suitable m aterials is beconning N'klry diflicult indced.14 inchds in tNs. oncc agai1 it is w. ' . I iI I . ()11kl ansurer is to tlse hartlwood strips and fit a good qtlality vtpllccred p1y in nlachinedgrooves. ' (leneraIly speaking ' we think i1 l more traditiona1 terlms Nvhcn considering c iascsandthtlchoiceofsvoodbeconles nlportant. .Asthecord isdotlble. 7:x 2 = 6.ixtcen turnsround t)' le Nvj)k)t?Iand so therc should be abotlt scvunteen coiIson the drtllm. û' ases cal)bc ' hnishkld vvitl)one ofthe nlodern varnishes althotlgl l traditionally they llaN' e alvvays btpen spccia1ist llaagazines for help and infonnation before deciding thc best svav to $ .e!N.It is bestto avoitl 'ores w. It . Again hardwood should bk ltlsed and the gl -ooN' tlforthc glass can be made with a nlilling eutter if a router is notaxqailable. l ' ' I lI I should btp possiblkl to get stlitable lnalel-ialsto t' nake sl-nal1ercIock cases from ()nt7ofthe tilnbcrlmerchants that dcal in hardwoods although it l' nay nlcau dealing w ith a colnpany solme distancdfroln ' whereouelivesasthere arc not lllany ofthzm Ieftthese days. : . Y' OI-ITIUIZS Goil1g Trai11fornlula for trhtrcking correct' vvhklk llarrangelnu'ntand forfinding lellgtllofposverchol' ttrequircd. For long castl clockh i sol nkl scctions ctluld bt ' tl' nade ot. t tor a differcnt pul. 1 .' .

l305 57 0.4339 0.0449 Pendulum s 5 0.The figurcsgiqren are fora dialmeterofone.0345 0.:6.05 15 0..4)56j 87 :8 j.j?()a 54 .ju : ):3 ().0713 .0507 0.l012 0.0951 58 59 60 6I 62 62 64 65 66 0..4).().0491 0.()698 78 0.0349 25 26 27 28 29 30 3I 32 33 0. Forexalzzple.0765 72 yj j 7y 0. )4.0541 (). ).4 9 0 . 0.( )?.04I.0408 53 0.0403 l3 l4 jj 16 17 18 19 0..036l ( . . Num ber ofSpaces Length ofChord Num ber ofSpaces Length ofC hord 3 4 0.0331 0.l120 (). )4.4 . .7071 36 37 0. 0826 71 0.0980 0.1564 0 3090 ().Z g. 0896 6 7 68 0 .l9 .. 5 j(j 0.073() 0.2817 .5878 38 0.3: ().0523 0. f c s j i ' I I IIi Tocalctllate thktlcngth of:1pcndulum required for: 1given trainofwheelstlltl totalnumberofteeth in the centre. .They are then divided by the numberof leavesin thepinionsotthird and escape. 57j ().()6()4 79 80 h yj jya j y? 84 85 0.2393 0. 64 x 60 x 3()x 2 8x 8 N um ber Length ofSpaces ofC hord . 4. .0324 0. ).()532 (). i or t= ! whcre7:=3 14 l59 gravity = 32.0805 ().J 1590 (). yz) 0. ' .055l 90 0.0393 (. 0 469 100 0.()?j? 24 0.l081 0.0334 0.0455 0.0747 75 (). 3604)beats per hour .0398 ().To fintlrequilvd figtlre-l uultiply Iength 01-k2Ilord forthe numberofspaceswanted by diam etcrofcircleto bedivided.()(jj4 ( . 1 I length Tim e .5000 ( .l253 0.033l 0.()?j y? () .l205 0. 0462 . ()' yj yj 0.7: gr avity in feet .0419 I :. 0436 :.0483 0. ). 0 923 0.3429--() 42 0.2225 ()a()y( ) ()'jgjj .1736 0. 49 0. I I I2.0442 The mathem aticalcalculation fortim ing a com plete oscillation ofa sim ple pendulum is: 6 y 8 0.) aj j 0. I .e?j yj y ().0338 0. 123 .l646 46 47 4: 49 50 51 52 0. () = 60 beats perm inute 6 II I It I .1081 0.third and cscap: wheels.( .0476 91 C)2 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 0.116l 0.0321 0. yj y ().tlse thctable below.()507 ().().are multiplicd together and then multiplicd by two.0872 0. 357 ().0317 34 5 0 . 0314 0.()6 ().0668 ().0682 ().0592 86 0.1838 0. ' F. t)61( 3 ().Centre Svheel= 64t-Third W heel= 60t-Escape W heel= 30t Pinionsare1 70th8 leaf.3827 39 4: 4l 0.034 I 0.0365 J. 76 77 0. 7 0. 36(): I 1g I = 122 43 44 :. y.2588 45 0.i C hord Tables To dikide a cirt zlt linto even sections.0848 69 70 0. ).0370 2 0 20 0 .8860 0. ' ' I0 lI I i 12 0.m tlltiplicdtogcther .058l (.

28 j' I I II iI ti I...1 . pII .53'' '' 80 1()8 8 12 72 1()() 8 1() 3() 32 t ?() 96 17. c . j$ '.39 !5.. 'j'.I4'' ' !I r 80 64 75 l0 8 h4 75 6() 6() 10 8 8 30 3t) 32 60 6( ) 75 39.. . 124 . k.). i I r /' ). . .'. t k . C-entrc 31-( 1 ' q/heel Pinioll I 3rd Nvheel ûScapt y tscape Vibralions Pinion N' Vhtrtll pt lr nlintlte Length of Pendulul ' n l12 t ?6 14 12 1()5 9() 14 I2 60 3() 6() 6() 39.l4'' 3t?. .k... . jjj$y C om m on C lock Trains 1: .14'' 39 14'' 25. Ltt.