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THE LIBRARY

FTHE UNIVERSITY
OF CALIFORNIA
LOS ANGELES
GIFT OF

Miss Elsie May Johnson

A COURSE
OF

MANDARIN LESSONS
BASED ON IDIOM,

PtEV. C.

W. Mateer,

D.D., LL.D.

Revised Edition.

AMERICAN PRESliYTKRIAN MISSION PRESS.

1SC6.

Zc-t

Library

TO

STTTIDJEasrXS

OP

IMIAITIDAE :DT,
FORT

HIS
To 8LM07B TBS DIPFICDI4TIR3 AND OPEN TUB

WaV

TO A MOBK TilOUOUGH ACQUISITXOK

OF THE

Chin ESB Spoken Langu ags
IS

RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED.

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Sounds in Five Dialects
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PREFACE TO

T

is

I

now

twenty-five years since

had at that time

added a few

At

of

new

lessons for begiuners in Mandarin.

make

of ever priutiiig them, or of the extent to which

made ouly twenty lessous, but subsequently
number reached fifty. The plan originally lulopteJ

l)oen \vrono;lit

and used by begiuners

number

considerable

to

first I

at a time, until the

was substantially that which has uow
"were copied out

began

I

little tliouglit

they would finally grow.

EDITION.

FIRST

missionaries in Shantung,

extent to which these were copied and used led

whole work with a view

new

lessnus

The

to

preparing

1

nie,

to

about

for publication.

tlic

plan of the course

years ago, to take up the

five

I

extended aud perfected the

word idiom being taken

iu a

niiule.

Each lesson

distiuguisliiug feature.

is its

is

subject

its

somewliat loose aud comprehensive sense.

hy the applicatiou

to

The

one liutidred and seven.

and thoroughly revised aud recast the lessons already

subjects were uot evolved

Chinese of Western

con-

"

the

The

grammatical principles

were gathered directly from the mandarin colloquial by a careful observa-

ideas, but

tion of its peculiar forms

and inetbods.

They

are

not more so than the language they are inteuded
a number

revised

:i

lessons already niiulo

structcd to illustrate oue or more idioms which constitute

Iplnn.

and

it

fifty Icssoua

about tea years, wheu, upou the arrival of

for

and added others ou the same plan, increasiug the number

plan, uldod

These

out to completion.

somewhat heterogeneous,

to teach.

The plan

is

it is

true, bub

believed to afford

of importaut advantages, of which the following are the chief:
1.

It facilitates

a tlioroughl y pi*0!;;ressivc arraugem'irit l»y wliicli the peculiarities

of the languiige are set fortii in a natural order, proceeding from the simpler to the more
'

complex and
2.

oxplainod
liusty
is

and

difficult.

The student, instead of groping his way through a maze of bewildering idioms,

way

in

notes aud vociibularies, aud often falling a victim to

false generalizations, lias

givou to him in each lesson an intelligible idiom, which

in

ii

liaphaziird

fully exphiinotl in the subject,

taiued in the lesson.

and hy

ilieir

3.

and

stronirly impressed

Tliese idioms thus

acquisition he

is

become

made master

The subjects of the

lessons,

to

Lim

hy the aliuudaut
so

illustnitious con-

many laudmarks

of progress,

of the whole structure of the lauguagc.

which embrace

all tlK3

most

difficult

ant features of the lauguagc, beiug thus singled out and made promiueut,

and importare,

ou this

account, niucb more carefully explained and illustrated than would be the case on a different
'

system,

PRKPACB.

ii.

The

4,

composed of detached and indcpeuclent seuteDces,

fact that the lessons are

gives opportunity for the iutroductiou of a wider rauge of subject matter, of style and of

idiom than could be secured on auy other plau.

A

5.

large

number

of the lessons l»ring to view classes of particles and key

approximately syuonymous, yet differing

in

use

aud

iu their shades of

study of these lessons the studeut will acquire a rauge
acquired in

ixuy

otlier

defect of

many

inaudariu speakers

of one such word or expressiou, tbey are content to ring

got hold

oblivious to the

nil

The prime

way.

tlie

is

tlie

easily

that having

changes ou

alone,

it

that there are various other cognate forms of similar import yet

fiict

differing

by varyiug uses and shades of meaiiiug.

ing both

ill

The

result

is

a monotonous style, want-

vigor and perspicuity.

That the plan incideutally involves some disadvantages,

Tbe

great gains involve luiuor losses.

common aud

is

freely admitted.

chief disiulvautages are the following

The lurangemeut uccording

1.

to idioms necessitates the

frcqucutly

ant

the remark,

orUt

arranging the

felt in

of the lessons.

It

drew from

This difficulty

my

Cliiucse assist-

that each particular lessou seemed to be clamoring to get in

however, will uot be

by the

folt

am] the clUadvantai2;e

learuc»r,

All

:

keeping back of certain

useful forms of enpressiou for au iuconvciiiently loug time.

\v;is

ilifliculty,

By

meaDiug.

aud variety of expreasiou not

The

first.

might other-

it

wise be to l"m, has beeti largely obviated hy anticipating uiauy such words aud phrases,

and

Introduction
2.

:

Directions to

confuse

memory

cannot retain.

tn:iv

l;ir;;ely

tlio IcariHM' willi «li<rinrti(Uis fur

This

by m

ol)vi:iteJ

present use,

When

wliirh ho

ju'li'-i'ms

they arc heard

aud

like old acfia;iin(anccs,

not yet prepared, and which his

liis

tlie

mtMunry mic ov two of the inm'e imporUuit wonls
llint lio is

not ahlo to retain

conversation or met witli in books, tUey

in

way

will iu this

language,

While going over the whole

of study.

iiit't:hi)'l

not beiug too nnich di.sturbcd

subscqneiilly

is

Avhich results from the richness of

difliculty,

lesson carefully, let the studeut fix in
foi-

(See

stiulont).

llio

Leasons which introflnce a considernble number of nearly synonymous words are

liable to

1)0

by fallowing the method of study recommended.

further obviated

will be

become familiar and

uresenlly

the otbers.
will scciu

their accurate

use be acquire*!.
3.

The sontences being

br n)isun<1crstoo<l tlian
it
in

is

largely

if

obvi: :' by
1

(liscoiinected, arc liMnlcr to understaiul

they stood

in

connected discourse.

accurate tran.slations and

l)y

of every clans of
Th':

5t\)lC.

toacli tlic

i'lii'm au<l

iifTordeil for

h

Rpoken

as disliDguisluMl from the

|jiiif;u;i(je

l'«

to

true,

and

the ready iiitro-

every atyle of ( xprcssion.

prevalent style

iLcTeHs there will

this is

no douht

suitable uotcs and explanations,

norc tluin ooinpoiiRatod hy Uie superior ((pportunity Llius

(hictioii

While

ami more likely

colloquial,

f"u"(l, especially in

because the oKject of the book

I

In;

l;iit<j;uage ('f

books

is

to

never-

latlor luilf, a considerable niixtiiro

PREFACS.

Mandarin aud of expressions taken from books.

of high

much colloquial and
much misconception as

many

iutroduciug too

too

that there

to the extent to

is

isms prevail.
books,

is

It

I shall

To

loealisma

which many of these

does not follow that every expression not

necessarily local.

probably be criticised for

this criticism

would

I

t*eply,

so called local-

commonly seen

in

Mandarin

have found by investigation that many such expressions are

I

Moreover, a useful expression that prevails throughout two or three

practically general.

provinces and has an authorized writing,

is

not to be rejected as

A

local.

mau may

not

all these colloquial forms, yet it is very important to understand them
wheo used by others, as they constantly are by the Chinese. The chief advantage which
the Chiuamaa has in conversation over the average foreigner is his ability to use and to
understand these colloquialisms. It must not be supposed, however, that every sort of
colloquialism known to the author or his assistants has been introduced.
Care has been

himself desire to use

taken to exclude purely local expressions, especially such as have no authorized writing, as
also to exclude, to a considerable extent, that useless colloquial verbiage

dialects to a greater or less degree,

izes all

and which

one who would use Chinese to the best advantage.

and are not repeated.
more important argument

is

As

which character-

uauecessf^ry and undesirable in
local peculiarities

far as possible

are noted as such

A
as
to

it is

called, is too

narrow in

be reinforced from

its

for the use of colloquial

range to answer

both the colloquial and

WSn-li.

the

attempts to go beyond the narrow range of thought which
a loss for words,

and

will be compelled to resort to

of the

if

bis attainments are adequate, but

the

speaker of

it

covers, he will find himself at

and expressive lauguage of him who

He may

the abundant resources of the colloquial.

Wm-li,

it

If

round-about forms and labored expla-

nations, in striking contrast with the straightforward

commands

that general Mandarin,

is,

the ends of speech, and has constantly

all

it

indeed call in the assistance

expense of speaking ia

will be at the

a pedantic and pretentious style unintelligible to the great majority.

Another point worthy of attention, especially on the part of those who desire
persuade aud impress others in public address,

is

to

that labored phraseology and paraphrastic

expressions are fatal to oratory, which requires not only weighty and impressive thoughts,

but also vivid and expressive language which

On

the other

hand

it

is

duced too much book language.
few learn Mandarin who do not

fulfils its office as

the arrow

into each other

by

to the

mark.

not unlikely that I shall be criticised for haviug intro-

With
at the

reference to this criticism, I

same time wish

to

insensible gradations.

would say that very

kuow something

Moreover, the line of demarcation between Mandarin and Wen-li

They pass

flies

It

will be

is

of the book style.

but vaguely defined.

found also that the book

language of these lessons consists almost entirely of those ready-made and pithy book

ffi, 131,

By

useless verbiage I

etc

mean

the ever-recurring and superfluous use of such words aa

e:^-

,

PREFACE.

which good Manclaria speakers and writers enrich and adorn their

pressions, with

acd which frequent use has made generally

who aims

to be a

intelligible.

good MaadariQ speaker, should be

from

Maudaria
fouu

After

quarters.

all

familiar.

the subjects

was searched

literature

C')nsi<lered a legitimate field

from which

were made out and

arrauged,

and what were
All ex taut Maudariu literature was

for suitable illustrations,

were copied under their appropriate lessoas.

I

Much more might have been

to gather.

gathered

from Chinese novels but for the difficulty of tiiuliug in tliem auy full seateuce
representing the language of

The

life.

result of this search

sentences also were specially eoustructed by a

Mauy

particularly in

was that uuder most

them embrace

was no

tliere

teach

iiitentiou to

religion.

history,

much

That the lessons do

style

thoui^ht,

the

first

of their preparation implies that the sentences are truly Chinese in

and idiom.

twenty or thirty

book.

Not only

made

in seutences

so,

au

is

uo mean value.

iuciileutal advaiitage of

The manner

or

religion

about China and tbe Chinese people,

iuforniiition

useful

should be

It

science,

morals, but simply to exhibit and illustrate the Chinese lauguagc.
coutiiin

books.

as wide a range as possible of

commerce, buaiuess, history and

science,

of art,

remarked however, that

fact

in

In thera will be found the language of domestic, social, literary ami

Avords and ideas.
life

of difFereut teachers,

not only so as to illustrate the various idioms of

clioseu

the lessons, but pains was also taken to have

official

number

the case of lessons embracing colloquial idioms not often fouud

The seutences have been

\ix

fairly

rauch more material was gathered than was required, thus giviug a choice of the

lessons,
best.

common

style,

these expressions every one

constitute tbe lessons have been gatberei

The Chinese sentences which
flD.ltCrialS,

With

With the exception

lessous,

tlic

some of the

of

short, simple seutences ui

author has scarcely composed a siugle sentence iu the

but in the seutences made to order by teachers, or in emendations

taken from books,

tuncous judgment, never in

lie

has

the Cliincse teachers to their

left

any case controlling or overruling them.

Chinese will not meet tbe approval of every teacher, for Chinese writers

own spou-

Of course

the

and

funl

and

less

criticise

fault with each other just as Western writers do.

The
^ran^IntlOn.

literal as

translations

;ire,

main,

in the

structure of the languages

Strict conformity to the

language.

is

Neglect of some of (ho

its

less

"I'igiiial

translation

aa a

jjuide.

make

word

t

hat

in the Chinese

this a possible

has Ikhmi nioro niniod at

tli''

translation.

in order to learn tlie liin;:juagc accurately, the stmleiit

accur.ile

less

tliiui

tluiw:^

elei^ancc of

iraportant words of the Cliinese seutence would

oftentimes have greatly enhanced the elegance of

anil

correspoiuling

too radically difTorent to

meaning of the

being however

But the student must not expect

the lessons advance.

every word in the English will have

The

literal,

As

far

as

ought

possible,

to

It

was

felt

however

lliaC

have a thoroughly faithful

very

colloijuial

Chinese has

PREFACE,

T.

been rendered into colloquial English, and more stately Chinese into more elegant Euglislu

The

Subjects,

statcraeuts

and

with especial care, ami contain

tlie

In them are comprised

all

book.

They should be

most useful and
the

impoi'tiuit

proximations, and must be taken with some degree of allowance.

worked out

originally

many

cases

in Chinese,

was found very

it

matter in the

importaiit idioms of the language.

The English headings

uoted and studied.

carefully

have been wrought out

illustrations of the subjects

The

and these English headiugs were an

difficult to give a brief Euglisli

:irc

hut brief ap-

were

subjects

In

after-tliought.

heading that

fairly represeut-

ed the subject.

The

definitions of

lDOC{ibUlJirtC0» intended to include

meaning appropriate

words and

the

to the lesson

but are nevertheless

uses of the words. ^Thci

under which the word or phrase occurs,
full defiuitiou,

one needed, has a number of important advantages which make

improvement over the more common method
given case.

pi i rases are brief,

common Mandarin

convenience of the learn er^ This method of giving a

italicised for the
italicising the

all

it

to be such.

it

and

a decided

of simply giving the defiuition required in the

(1) It prevents the student from learniug a secondary meaning at the

without knowing

is*

first

(2) While learniug the one meaning of a character the

student has constantly before his mind the fact that

it lias

other meanmgs, and as he refers

again and again to the meaniug required, he will uacousciously become more or less familiar

with the others.

(3) It renders the student

time and trouble in looking for words.

many

indepeudeut of a dictionary, thus saving

The vocabularies

(4)

will be

much

found to contain

definitions not given in any dictionary or vocabulary extant.

The notes
are given

IROtCS.

are

to the

somewhat miscellaneous
explanation of

lui

in their character.

The larger number

usual idioms and difficult constructions.

Phrases too long for convenient definition iu the vocabularies, are explained iu
the notes.

Questions concerning the proper characters to be used in particular cases, as also

the probable analysis of abnormal phrases, are discussed iu the notes.

In order to elucidate

the meaning of sentences, numerous explanations have been given of historical, political,
social, literary, educational, religious

and many other matters,

learning the language,

mauy

Much

and the Chinese.
and

it is

is

hoped they

will

also learning

so that the student, while

other useful and important things about Chiua

time and care have been bestowed on the preparation of the notes,

prove not the least useful part of the book.

In projecting and construcling the lessons the most
S)iHlCCt0«

confronted the author was that of dialect.
to the

Shantung

dialects,

and

to

The

lessons

made were

confined

have carried out and finished the course ou

that plan, would have very greatly lightened the labor involved, but

the usefulness of

difficult question that

fh'st

the book to a single Province.

On

it

would have limited

the other hand, to have rejected

everything, that savored of a difference of dialect, would have compelled a style far too

PREPACK,

The

high for colloquial Mandarin, and would thus have defeated the main object in view.

only practicable alteraative was to compare and combiue a variety of dialects, which ouerous
task has accordiugly been attempted

lu order to exhibit the practical

parallel readings has been introduced,

(See Introduction

results, the plan of

The lessons have
Nauking and

Explanations.)

:

been coqs true ted with reference to the dialects of Peking, Chiaaufu, Chefoo,
Kiukiang,

all

compare these

that the circumstances of the author enabled
dialects, the lessons

him

la order to

to compass.

have been twice revised by the aid of Peking teachers,

twice by the aid of Nauking teachers, once by the aid of Chiuaufu teachers, and once by the
aid of a Kiukiang teacher; in addition to which they have been revised, in whole or in part,

by oue

more of the best

or

foreign speakers of Chinese in these several places.

Pekingese has

received a lari^er share of attention than any other dialect, partly because
dialect,

but chiefly because there were more published helps by which
In carrying out this plan, a vigorous effort has been

predominaut influence of any oue dialect

lessons free from the

much
from

to expect that the

missing

own

dialect.

and

many

It

be known.

although

it is

perhaps too

should be remembered, however, that those

of the peculiarities of their

who speak

own

dialect

undue inHuence

and finding others

who

to all students of

It is

many

hoped that the plan pursued

Mandarin, but

instead, they

of the author's dialect, not

the dialect of the author will equally miss

find others iu their stead.

book useful

may

to construct a course of

with ouly one dialect, are not altogether competent judges in the premises,

naturally attribute the difference to the

that those

it

the court

author and his Chinese assistant should be able to free themselves

all partiality to their

are acquainted
fur,

made

it is

will at the

of

its

will not ouly

same time

afford

knowiug

peculiarities

mauy

make

the

valuable

biuts as to the comparison of dialects.
It

5\?9tCtll of Spelling*

a

new system

well

elaboration of the system has
of the work.

Tlie

most

:

in

vogue

not spell niy
\

h'ft all

was with great reluctance that

owu

lessons

was

advanced before this step was decided upon, aud the
consumed much time and materially delayed the publication

that of Sir

dialect,

decided to propose

The preparatiou of the

of spellinjr.

most natural thing would seem

viz.,

I finally

nor

Thomas Wade,
in fact

found, however, that this system would

I

any other

the other dialects to shift for themselves

hnve been to use the system already

to

dialect than Pekingese,

some

otlier

and that unless

system must be used.

It

was

jdoposed for a time to give both Wade's and William's spellings, and a specimen page was
8o printed, but the

more the

suliject

was canvassed the more evideut

it

plan would groatly oircumber the book ami serve no adequate purpose.

wrro canvassed

book

r ( presents

l>ut

to

Inasmuch as

several difiV'mit MautLirin dialocts,

Hpollin;^ ouj^ht to 1)0

enough

rvjectol as unsatisfactory.

embrace

it

in

became that such a
Several other plans

language and idiom the

was strongly

felt

that a system of

provided, udapU^d to the spelling of these dialects and comprehensive
tlieiu

all

without violating

its

own

consistency.

As no system now

PKEFACE,
extant

or even approximated, these requirements, the author felt constrained to

fulfilled,

new

propose a

much more simple
seemed

demanded by

to be

liis

making only such changes

predecessors,

the exigencies of the case.

If the

system wius

become an important step towards a general system comprehensive of

The

an original

as well as satisfactory to himself; viz., proposed de novo

system, but has followed strictly in the line of
as

what would have been

lu doing this he has not, however, clone

system.

spelling given in the vocabularies

is

its

way,

Mandarin

all

it

may

dialects.

This spelling

that heard iu Peking.

is

the court dialect and more popular than any other.

In order,

however, to afford opportunity for the iusertion of a second spelling, a space has,

in all cases,

chosen, because Pekingese

been

left

is

either after or underneath the

Peking

the space required for the vocabularies, but will,
all

who

Thia has considerably increased

spelling.
it is

believed, be a very valuable feature to

use another dialect than the Pekingese.

For tbe couveuience of the student

that concerns each lesson,

all

Chinese, translation, subject, vocabulary and notes,

HrnUlGCfTlCnt,

one place.

in

A

are brought together

convenient aud practicable arrangement for accomplish-

ing this end proved to be a matter of uo small difficulty, especially as the lessons luui their
parts were not, and could not be made, of a uniform length.
are printed iu a

find

it

somewhat

larger Chinese type.

easier to distinguish the characters

A
3nt)GyC6.

full

syllabic

.

The

first

This was done because, at the

when printed

twenty lessons
first,

students

in large type.

index has been prepared, including

all

the

words and

phrases defined in the vocabularies, subjects and notes. This will enable the learner to find

any word or phrase

at

any time.

It is also

proposed to prepare and

print as soon as practicable, indexes according to the other dialects to which the lessons are
specially adapted; viz.,

Nanking, Kiukiang, Weihien and Teugcbow, which will be furnished

and bound with the book at a small additional charge. An index of the single characters
by radicals, is also added, by means of which characters may be found when the Peking
spelling is

Having the

uuknown.

My
HCftnOWlcDOttlCnt0.

uuder

single character the phrases
first

and

it

acknowledgments

cliiefest

Chinese assistant, Rev. Tso Li

Wen

He

has also investigated with

has given unstinted and enthusiastic labor to tbe work in

Hardly
in every

way

less are

acknowledgments due

to the perfection of the work,

to

my

me

also be found.

are

( ) who

four years of constant and diligeut labor to

preparation of the Chinese text.

may

due to

my

has given fully

and

the collection

dialectic differences

and

all its details.

wife,

much more than

who

lias

contributed

her modesty will allow

much
me to

acknowledge.
Special acknowledgments are due to Rev. C. Goodrich, D.D., Rev. J. Wherry,

D.D. aud Rev.

S. E.

Meech of Peking, who kindly acted

as advisers in the application of

for their generous kindness in affording and complete to carry forward J. Rev. C. A. and see it me the time safely through the Press. Hykes of Kiukiang. Ferguson of Nanking. J. thanks are and to my owa and opportunity criticisms and suggestions. With thaukfulness me and my assistant to the earnestly desiring that it to the end of may kind providence of God which has guided and preservi d this work.D. for the now send forth the book on its missiou to many who are preparing themselves to I hope that such would be the case. R. • See Preface to second edition* C. AV. and Rev. do be of great service But preach the Gospel to the Chinese. Bergen of Chinanfu. both are due to Rev. W. 1892. Matejsb.D. J. Thauks many important and revising the assistance in correcting Finally. Silsby due iu general and Mr. July Ut. r irrfv^rrrnnrrr r i. . Whitiug of Peking. to the Board of Missions of the Presbyterian Churcli mission in Shantung. wish also to acknowledge Wherry. vjIL the new system and in J. L. P. my indebtedness to Rev. for in particular. I should not have beeu willing to turn aside for so ioug a time from the more congenial work oi teaching and preaching. J. Bailer of Ganking and especially to Rev. was thetn every question reforrecl. F. C.* I Eev. D. of T*ungchow. To of spelling to the Peking dialect. this undertaking. Rev. A. Rev. Goodrich. D. accordance with their verdict every point was decided. D. Kenmure and for valuable proofs.PREFACE.

that the application of the system to the Peking dialect did not fairly represent the system in that it was not consistently carried and correspondence with various I parties in the uorth in out. T6ngchow April 20. Though not wholly satisfactory no improvement on the general plan of arrangement seemed feasible. Tho pressure of other engagements has rendered any extended revision impossibb. The whole course. remarks after the Peking sound The criticism had confidenco who gave me and make the application of the system harmony with uen I fiiends for iian. the announcement came that the first edition was nearly exlmuatcd. Pekingese The changes For discussion see page 43. Quite a number of additional dialogues and essays have been added in the sup- plement giving thereby much more exercise in reading Mandarin aud introducing the student also to a wide range of special words and phrases. table. MATiim. which originally received less careful preparation for the press than did tlie The vocabularies in particular have been very carefully revised and corrected. and that an iutroductory series of shorter and easier lessons is needed. EFORE was aware or had begun to make any pveparatl. W. however. its to application to other dialects. and mistakes corrected. See Introduction to Primary Lessons. In order to meet the requirements of the case a series of thirty primary lessons has been prepared embracing only three hundred characters in all. and many raiuoi the author improvements made. The plan or order of printing the make them uniform with first twenty lessons has been changed so as to the other portion of the book. The system of spelling has not been changed. and in consist in putting wei for ui. consistent with itself. 1898. however. yiu for yu and yien for yen. C. more.r^n edition. After further investigation whose judgmont concluded to go somewhat beyond the views of the Peking their advice for the first edition.jii f )r n :5«. This is especially true of the first part of the course. .PEEFACE TO SECOND EDITION. most frequently made on the lessons has been that they are too long and too difficult at the start. The author has felt more and lattei part. has been gone over very carefully.

misprints and other mistakes have been In the meantime corrected in the several editions subsequently printed. C.PREFACE TO SECOND REVISION C\/ INCE ^^SS the second edition was issued in 1898. it hoped. and a large is of expression. Mateer. calling attention to many mistakes and infelicities many wrong her knowledge of Pekingese enabling her to correct tonic marks. over sixty additional notes Lave an appendix at the end of the book. this revision chiefly has been performed by Mrs. inaccuracies have beeu pointed out by those Mrs. number of corrections and emendations made. June 8th. Mateer has gone critically and carefully over the whole book. and to her pains and care in is t. due the superior accuracy of the present -edition. . many minor mistakes and using the book. no extended revision has been although sundry attempted. In addition to this. They are referred to in corrections their proper places in the Most of the body of the book by a work involved Mateer. W. Besides been collected in and emendations. 1905. The result. spellings and All criticisms and suggestions have been carefully canvassed by the author. will be a very great improvement in accuracy.

30. ' _ … ^ « and ami gl] 92. . ^fe. 4.... . „ 9. " " 9. and as Auxiliary Verbs Negation and Atfirinatiou witii Auxiliaries " .. . n^. .. . The Specific Suffix Numeral Adjectives* ^t) 42. . 13. 25. Classitiers... as an Interrogative 85. . ^ . 58. 48.. etc 1-13 1" 151 1... 55. j^. Tone Exercises 8x\ iii xxix . LimiL-jd by the I'lesent 66. Assent and Dissent. .. Explanations .. Initial Interjections.. 10. . .… . 21. I4'i 2U etc. Modal Particles. .„ . p^. " 75. Forbidding. The Pronominal of ReciproJity 64.. •„ .. 31. m ... etc 94.33 156 15. . 33> 31... Tlie Auxiliary of Reciprocity 63. The Auxiliary Verbs. f.. Intensivcs of Excess.. Conces:ivus. .. Syllables Spelling Powers ^ . " JE aud^^ Receptive Verbs. Tcn^cliow ).. 6. 90... Definite Locatives. . Passive . f. 20 22 25 27 29 32 35 37 40 "• M Here find Tlicre. ..... Totality. 24. Reduplication of Verbs 38. … ••• ••• xvii „xviii . Four . The Enclitic 1^) !!} ]35 Jtj? . . 19.. W'lie" etc. lOi Keoessity..... 26.. Pronoun . . @ The -. " 43. " 73. 89 92 04 9G 09 101 104 with the Classifiers Compound Relative .. 72. m. xli xliv " xlvii " " a .. 2G9 272 275 279 •'• 285 . The Auxiliary Verbs aud The Reflexive Pronoun AtKrmative-Negative Question . ..CONTENTS. 58. " . . XXV ..U 237 240 244 247 249 254 257 260 263 iiOo .. . 81. 3^ of If 71. aud .. 77... 119 122 02... f. 7. Classifiers. XX iv •• Double Readinga Writing XXX xxxiii Aspirate Exercises Nanking •• . 8. .. " " 67.... xxvi •' . 79.. J The Modal . Special Postpositions... … .. " „ 97. JgJ . Interrogatives of 44. 40. 30.. etc. " Kiukiang . 2 Classifier Demonstrutive Pronouns Personal Pronouns … |g . Iiitt-rrogative Personal Indefinite Pronouns... 50. If uLu 60. fl^. " 3. ^ -. SO.. „• . •„ jj*. . " " " 23. . Defiuitive Combinations Les. . " 17. ^ and The Instrumentrd Verba The Auxiliary Verb 36. 22.. Causal Particles. . Tlio 47. ... Approximation.. . " " .. . 09 ]12 . " . . 107 . .. " 69.. etc... . 84.. Vowels of Letters . and "j and '-. 76.•• IIS 49. 78.. Intensives. Illative J£U lib … lit ... ^. 5. 59..... 2. ^ Common Sign of the Subj iinctive ••• .'. etc .. . 12. Radical Ode etc.. 103. etc.. _ 50. . tt 16. Approximation. Distributive Pronouns. Common Time Particles Compound Relative and 18. 51. .. CcrrespoiKliiig Conjunctions. . etc.. The Final Particle 61. 20. Tiie Disjunctive Coujinicljon etc 57. The Auxiliary 99.. ^ . Mandnrtn Advice to Student '•• … Characters "• . ^ 125 |>. ^ . etc. Joined to Verbs . 101. ". lp etc p 62. The Auxiliary Verb The Various Uses of 6S 70 72 74 76 78 SO 82 85 87 . Weihien " CUutigking. Denoting the Agent and the Material The Auxiliary Verbs and The Auxiliary Verbs and fnj 41 " etc.. J 00.S IGl 164 109 17{ 17G 183 IS6 190 192 195 Iy8 201 204 207 212 21S 222 225 228 231 2.. Consonants.. 74. SlilU 9S.. Various Uses of 91. l'2>i The Instrument. Thus. The General Les. Common Classifiers. j^i etc. 70. Manner and Place i } „ ' . etc The Dative. '. ^ A. .. liii 54 - Forms.. Adjbctives reduplicated for Empliasis . .^ . - . M etc. „ . Comparison. .. etc S7. Disjunctives.. 45. The Auxiliary Vuihs " „ ... XXI II .. 11.xxiv . " .. " Jg. Peking Sound Table .. — . ... . ^fe.. 89. " ^^ 03. Colloquial Pronouns. |0. " " 46. gl 86. . .. . Four Common Ckssifiers. 28.. xl .. Restrictive Particles.. .. The Comparative Degree.. etc. ." Verbs.. of Place Sign of the Past Tense The Direct Interrogative Particle ^ .„ ••• Khy thm xvi . . 43 40 48 60 5} 55 57 59 62 G4 6ti ii^ . Quality by Cpposites .« etc. tEIU and The Auxiliary Verbs Verb The Instrumental ^ Common Connectives Com mo a Future Forms.. " " Kemarka … Byllabaries.. Hf. . . Classifiers. Futurity. The Exceptive Conjunction S2. .. Tones … ••• Aspirates Radicals . etc.. 35. . . Euphonic Endings. General Remarka Tul)Ie of Radicals .is an Auxiliary 8S. by Repetition Miscellaneous Yes and No. . 2ii2 Affix . Indefinite Interrogative Particles " " xxxvii .. " ..... Ciiusutive Verbs. 27.. … Joined to Adjectives . etc.. Miscellaneous Uses of 90... Uses " 10... etc 95.. 32. Distribution 68. " 14. ... . . " .. t^. . Adverbial Numerals. 29. . INTRODUCTION. The Possessive Particle and The Enclitics The (ommon Preposition 7 10 J2 15 17 .. „ 3S 17'J Expressing Development The Auxiliary Verb 83. 93. " .„ as a Personal Suffix U H7 etc. 65. Tho Immediate Past... 52. 15.. f=. 37.

it .. Wina in BuRlnOflB ('amlulalt'H Atl»Mi(lin|^ Kxojiii nations Ksaiiy \1 titiial K"laUonahips . Jx.. 707 7IS 733 736 737 739 INDEXKS.. ] . Special Uses of 110. 1 ..'>.. Hypothetical Words and Phrases. .. . .„ . etc . 3'2..... 161.... 42.. ir)r.. ' . " fS3... 147. u')7 168 030- . la . … . etc of Surprise... 140. ^ 1S7. Special Iiiterro^'ativcs ir>l.— ... iS4 45S 461 465 463 472 etc.. .. Past 1-20... Special Duplicate Adjuncts.. Correlative Particles. -. uTiflaiin Uses of 147.. 12S. 143. 194. . 525 527 531 •... 176. eU'. |^ 1&.. . o» c.... The Instrumental Verb 141).. 51 626-7 .. etc Sign of the Perfect Piirtioiple.. 164.. . • 6411-4 0-45 105 . U»''. Restrictive Particles. BylUbic Index 742 1 Hadical Index SOO . etc. -" ® 7 .. •M ^ E j^g. . . . . 664 672 684 COO 690 T'fti Cilia's Hc'pentanco . . 160. Correlatives with If 1:U. ett'.. 288 292 295 29S 302 305 309 31-2 . Rednplication of 115.. Inquiry into Western AfTalrn l*rt |mrationH for JJiiililing a Foreign House DonicHlic (Jonvcrnution . . …-. Final Nei^ative Intensivos ITo.. etc. . LIST OF Lea.. 148. 178..154. " … . Conjunctive Phrases. 149 ifii. .. Inttiiisives of Unpleasiuit Exces'.. i()(>. etc.. 27. . . . ... ..„ 198. ....lOo. . . The Auxiliary Verbs and . Correlative Particles. KiX Adversatives .. etc..« . General Inlt-nsives.. Antithetical Particles' g|. . 14X "U. 192.. fS. 75.. between Arranging a Marriage Engagement Collecting Accounts . •• etc... …. 112. . Optative Forms. ^.'i plus. 41 -.... ...... Future etc... no. Apprehensivenoss... . IS. Present Time. Various Uses of 128. Terms of Adverbial 424 427 430 434 437 … . . Special Uses of.. 39G 400 403 407 410 414 418 . r»..... .. . etc. Verbal ISO.....„ . Kii\g \Vu C'liarging his Qenoralfl Eulogy ou Meuciua . . ^. Riddles . ' 371 •• etc 130. Spi"-'iim'n of Litigation 11(1 Wftter . 65li A Go A Makinc Bargains 649 . etc. The Interrogative Frououu vtc... Pithy iletaphors „ .. As tlie Kiiuivalent of p".. 475 47S 482 484 4S3 492 495 "^i'f 499 503 506 50» 512 513 etc. 581 584 587 591 694 597 6n0 605 609 612 617 624 … 7 PmiH. etc.. . Gr>.iNTRonrcrioK. Hi7. Phrases of Assurance. Beginning. The Comparative Conjunction 170. . . M „ 3S4 387 390 . Quadruplet Phrusea •„ 196.. Special Duplicate Adjuncts. 185. ^ ence fj^ . ... ^ . ... etc... The Progressive J)egree J 24. 98 10J 102 .. 153. .. … &ij etc .. 138. ... ^ V -. „ etc and Transitional Conjunctions. etc... .. . lU.. i^. Classifiers. « ... Impracticability..2. . 19. . fete. . }'h rases of Inft'i . etc. 179. 195... 40 . 141.. 173. 637-3 Lefl. "one" etc. 157. 131..... sets.. 92.. . 0:i2 184. etc. ^.. and Epigrflmmatic Distichs Supplemental Vocabulary • SUPPLEMENTARY WORDS AND PHRASES.. . -. & ^ M …… Diminutives. 140.... •" … " . .. Correlative . 158. ... .. |^ {j^ etc. . Seipiontiul Phrases. iiL 337 341 3Sl . ... Expressing Sameness Emphatic Reduplication Repeated Action Les. 73 100. 136. gfj.... Indefinite Pro etc 159.. EnuTiierutioii of Particulars . "4. iH^.. Probability..... . 140... " " " :m Oeut-ral 155. 137. .„ 13S.. Male and Female. 14.. 6-28-9 •• . Ending. Coiielative Panicles etc. 535 638 541 545 54S 552 555 558 662 566 669 573 577 etc. 19G (335-15 ... Con elative Particles. 107. etc 121. etc.. ^. etc.. . Special Forms fur Past Time. :m etc.. 139. Strong Negation. . ... II " " 168.. H2. Quadruplet Phrases 185. … 1^.. Uncertainty. Special lutensivts. 113. 127. 197. etc... . Connectives. Exceptive Phrases.. . Rufurrent Time.. 1U9. . Suddenness. [3 174. Conditional Particles. etc. .. —. . ^ . . Aggregation " „ " „ w 106. . etc. 169. .. . 76 Wr' 01. etc.. Significant Clussifict-s 148. 8(5... One in . ^^. 374 377 •» etc. . 38. ns. 156. . . 47 „ .. Inferential I'lifEises. Special 421 etc. 133. 5-il ..... 110.... … G40-7 643 DIALOGUES AND ORATIONS.... .. Classifier?. . 639-U . .. lOS. … . 193. ... with Verbs and Adjectives ^ ^ij... 125. 186. etc. . . Special luteusives. etc Particles lfi*2. 141 1J2. Special Intent. 181. 117 Specific Time 118. As a Prefix . Correlative Particles. Le8.. . . 347 350 H53 3o6 S60 sen 363 .. EB Composition 29. . •• 68.. 111.. et 0. I'lepositioiial Phrases. . etc.. luplets . CeitHinty.. . Knipliatio Assent. by the Use of One. 122.. . el c.. . Itio. Witticisms . . El … Po'ite Address . . 1S9. 1G6. etc. . 316 319 322 326 .. ^S. 441 199 444 448 200. ODuhle Auxiliaries.. 72 74. ••• Com pound Verbs . Iiistantaneity. Special Uses of 123. H. in sets of three in double 182.. . 126. . ^ Ov. -Q.

having his head-quarters near Beia / (S . not having been affected by the tide which has been flowing front tlie North hundred years. found necessary. is strengthened by the fact that these coast dialects depart much more from the written language (which vas purely Chinese) than does the Mandarin. The western part of the province is much influenced by Pekingese. It is well known %h:it the Chinese came into China from the North This led to their gradually driving the aborigines and West isouthward and eastward a process which has been going on During this process. All this is quite independent of the numerous changes which during thes<9 ages Mandariu hag nndergone within itself. Southern and Western Mandarin and is often further distinguished by piovinces. with which it has its chief affinities. Northern Mandarin is largely dominated by Pekingese which. gave rise to different dialects. being more or less allied to the non-Mandarin dialects of the South. which graduiilly pushed its way southward and eastward. Tliis supposition.— subiJ ued and governed by Chinese nilfrs. as to the relation of tlie southeru coast dialects to Mandarin. without support. The student can adopt whichever reading his teacher approves This method. which have been inserted in parallel the Northern form being on the right and the Southern on tiie left. aud for at least four thousand years. but by and by submitted to the new dynasty.. there admixture of language. is guage of the people in it is called by in its essential features the lanall the eighteen provinces. being the court dialect. but aborigines. besides accomplishing the special end ia view. It is related iu the Topography of P'^ng-Iai that at the close of the Yiien dynasty a man named Chang Liang I'i then governor of Hupeh. may be approximately characterized as Central. there is For a full explanation of these readings. resulting finally in wliat are now the non-Manilurin coast dialects of the South.INTRODUCTION. or official language as the Chinese.t emigration from the North. These parallel readings lines. it probably took its rise when a official class large proportion of the people were not Chinese proper. Shantung Mandarin. where he took possession of the country and maintained his independence for a time. used and is spoken by a larger number of people than Northern Mandarin. part of the province are the descendants of a large mip[ration from Hupeh and of this Being quite off the track of southern Honan. for which no equivalent that is everywhere current. and reports that he drove out or left soldiers killed many of the original inhabitants. as hoiuogeneous and includes more words and phrases which have no settled writing. has this incidental advantage. and is the accredited language of officials throughout Southern Mandarin is more widely the empire. hard sounds. the dialect has remained * The term |1^ as applied by the Chinese to their own language. by the use of pure. raised a force of over thirty tliou. and its Mandarin. Jn some cases two or more forms of expression have been Cliinanfu. especially in its earlier stages. Ko opportunity lias been found to make any satisfactory comparison with the Mandarin of Western China. it maintained a relatively pure Chinese. Nanking and Kiukiang. Sliantung lies between the two extremes. as Ho nan Mandarin. and bj tha differeut character of the people. TV/TANDARIN. It has fewer words and phrases which cannot be written by significHnt characters than any other dialect with which I am acquaint- for several ed. Tradition gives the whole number who camo with him as about 200. when the aborigines were many was much commingling of races and and the Chinese few.* It may be divided into Northern. With this end in view they Lave been course of lessons repeatedly revised by the aid of teachers from Peking. except the coast provinces south of the Yang-tsi. and gradually retreated to the promontory of Shantung. The general truth of these statements ia attested by tradition pervading the whole people. seems to imply tliat originally it sprang up wiien the peopl'i spoke a language ditiei ent from that of the that is to say. etc. The eastern portion has hard initial consonants and is in other ways The people related to Southern Mandarin. and as different aborigiual languages were encountered. and being continually comparatively nnchanged.and men. generally represent forma of expression. that while the student need not learn the forms not current in his reinforced l>y fresh immigration from the North. In the meantime the body of the wave was behind. of languag'e prevailed along the head of the wave of conquest. . and represents the purest hard sounds now heard in China.000. he gathered together the families of hi."U yet at the «sume time modifying it to a large extent. MANDARIN. however. It is nob. An attempt haa been made to adapt the present to both Northern and Southern Mandarin. the conquered learning the language of the conquerors (whicli they woul'l naturally call " officer tafk. is the most fashionable. see Explana- tions at the end of this Introduction. as has ever This amalgamation l)een the case in similar circumstances.

doubt. Colloquial his eye. ling. person. will phrases. however. various repeating ponding Eugliuh term that the I %hikV same Bound in several take the liberty of tulng it . rpTIE moflt in tlio Mandarin romaTkable • nhont Mandarin sounds pmallncss of their number. contains 4. write moro meanings or The respect to case. Wen-li Many dictionary contains over twelve thousand characters. able. CliineBe characters were primarily intended to write the literary style. which are not ordinarily used in speaking but are found in Mandarin books. while it has also given rise to not a few new in Its origin. being used to supplement the deficiencies of the t^ung-hsing Mandarin. and derived. ably Mandarin serves . contains upwards of 41. The tneaiiing of each character is fixed. SYLLABLES. number. It is only written. position. prepared nnfler the patronage of the Emperor Kanghi. Hence arises the in use are of course aay three or four times as many.) Chinese characters are concreted symbols.754 different characters. for reasons which the student b'-ing uHcd as Mandarin ia' tlio use of two or more independent own individuality and characters. except in ready nrndc phrases.n<\ in vxprotsive and cyiivouicat tbfta an/ correa- tones hundred. Vung-hsing^ local. The use {\^ ff) m*»»*np enfrj/wkertt current. Mandarin usually distinguished as general or is and book Mandarin. o. Mandarin consists of all such words and phrases as are local iu their use.* all such words and phrases as are everywhere curr6L. Many characters also have two or more pronunciations or readings. This adaptation Geographic. Ideas expressed in English by such terminal syllables as nesR. Dr style or The whole not much over There are probthousand characters in average educated Chinese speaker about two thousand tive hundred to three thousand. syntax of the language depends entirely upon the Not only are order or arrangement of the words. Every man has bis own standard. each preserving its joined together by no closer bond than mere juxta^ Using tliese characters to to »ome extent. etc" are expressed in so Chinese by a means of oral communication. but the sound The great given varies greatly in different places. have two characters never modified for the purpose of inflection or conjuga* tion hence there is no interdependence of words in Of these many are u^ed OTiIy in the literary style. dialects there are on four hundred separate Mg\ thinj? T'nnp hnntj muoU moro In tl)o of an averngo only about «yllal>lf»s or sounds. and is incapable of will not use over the characters without any inflection but thej are not modified to express related or derivative ideas. will 8fe H8 lie proceeds. er. but the greater part of then: are either duplicates or obsolete. colloquial T^ung-hsing MaDdarin consists of CHARACTERS. winch are "Williams' text of the Chinese classics six as according to the connection ia which they are used. as well as to add to its dignity and elegance. quite natural and has turn given new meanings to many characters. but of tliese some are duplicates and many are very rarely used. ion. dating back as it does into the obscurity of prehistoric times. and are capable Local of being written by authorized characters. mood or tense.i). inerences Tlie those noonds words necessity I I of to About twelve many more. (See Double Readings. of invaluable introduction to tbo study of the literary standard dictionary of the Chinese language. /^HINESt? wntinj. An thousand. Mandarin includes all the words and both Vung-hsing and local. which are in common use in any given locality. an adaptation. is not certainly known. Book Mandarin consists of words and phrases taken from the literary style. as are many of our primitive nouns and verbs in English. however.INTRODUCTION.000 characters. There are DO definite lines of demarcation between these classes of Mandarin. ure. or at most general use at the present day. five an These changes of meaning are not more numerous nor more difficult to follow than the same kind of changes in the meaning of words inWestern languages. nor capable of being written by authorized charactera the fact that they have passed under broaden his knowledge of the language and give bim an advantage in communicating with own locality. with is in » sense a language by itnelf. and the best speakers not over three thousand five hundred to four thousand. not commonlj found in books. persons using a different dialect. from a hieroglyphic original. no is is. Of characters used in Mandarin there are not over four. The study characters. iv.

(In native dictionaries the pronunciation of words is Mandarin is distinguislied by tho fact that nearly indicated by initials and finals. purpose. See Lesson 52. while it serves a certain Thomas relationship of Pekingese to other dialects. and eye by dififereut characters. quite ignores the China Inland Mission the power of par- may be varied according as the key characters vary in different dialects. if not best but an approximation. well adapted to Ins own A dialect. yet many of its syllables have an arranged according to initials and finals as being more iutermodial vowel and are in fact dissyllables. possible in the circumstances. of the vowel or vowel combined with n or ng. seeing they are in fact very unevenly distributed. by a score or more in another tone. only departs from them so far as the end in view. It is language spelling. will save the learner mistakes. The most popular system. characteristic of the system The system of the sistent with itself. while supplementing them largely.. so that they dialect. It is comprehensive. would be much less than initial consists of the consonant sound or sounds it is. and is its is. not being correct at the present time anywhere in Chinn. the author has not used any of the systems of spelling now in vogue.together to spell the syllable required thus ma and Mandarin dialects have iu addition syllables ending ken spell men. The convenieut for reference thau that according to radicals. kwei and lang spell kwang etc. is quite inade- The system now proposed is based chiefly on the systems of Sir Thomas Wade and the China Inland Mission. filial. in The most notable want of system. tho chief of which anaJ)'zing and classifying the sounds of any given consists in joining the words in pairs. Several native dictionaries have also been monosyllabic. is but an approximation and quate as a general system of spelling. The system of spelling used In Dr. Some syllables Syllables beginning with a vowel have no initial. many respects. \z self-consistent. as the words heir and air. If the words foreigners have followed theiu in regarding all words as single syllables. Tho have only two or three characters in all. much For reasons given in many labor and the preface. embody Consistency in is absolutely essential to the inteliigent application of the same system of spelling to several dialects. is inconsistent with itself. is obsolete. Williams* dictionary fails. is The spelling of the English conspicuously in consistent but no system of made ^ to order. The system iu its present 3. pear and pave in English.- were distributed uniformly to the several syliablea For the purpose of analysis and spplling. good system of spelling. : The powers of the letters are 1. Tho Southern non. however. i \ These several senses are distinguished XV. m j SPELLING. the ITtt Fang Yiien i'in. however. have several score. may mutually designate each other. Its only consocharacter and final of another are taken and joined nant endings are n and ng. The is necessary to secure chief points of superiority claimed for this system are the following. form has a range of initials and finals suiSciont to . and one or two characters in ono tone are often mated whicli forms the second part of the syllable.INTRODUCTIOK eenses. partly because it is inconsistent with itself. or pair. so far as the spoken language is concerned. and as few diacritic marks are used as is is simple. adapted to Southern Mandarin ticular letters being left undefined so that they con- is anexcellent however. In practice the difficulty is Tiie use of initials and finals ofTers the best means of overcome by various devices. a necessity. viz. is at least a very great convenience. while others intermedial vowel is regarded as a pnrt of the final. and partly because it adopts a standard. but has constructed a modified system better adapted to the requirements of the case. as also of comparing one dialect with another. the difficulty arising from so much syllables are separatf^d into initials and finah. which form the first part of tho syllublo. only a system of initials aud finals 2. and 8S a guide to the spelling of all new sounds. should deliberately such a radical defect as this. take no account of thiB fact. The Chinese language is commonly regarded as foreigners. TpNGLISH letters cannot be made to represent Chinese sounds perfectly.iny syllables are wanting in one or more tones. and. one* It is. The initial of one all its syllables end with a vowel. to the Chinese. which. so that spelling is at Its use. tliat of Sir Wade. This plan. This is in k not an original Chinese idea but was derived from p and t. and seems to be constructed as if to preclude its application to any dialect except the Pekingese. It defined almost entirely by referring to their use in English. and the 'M. tlio and their tones. Tho repetition of the same sound.

" Roys tl)o Hniil rone. and this fact should be indicated in As a e As assigned this to of the fifth tone. The Chinese do not appreciate these variations. and the sounds of the two letters are more nearly joined This sound c<&n scarcely be considered together. nolilo. Nanking and Kiukiang. but od. As ae in aerial. Bell. jSIedliurst and others. aej usage of in contrary to tho usage of It is only hcftid in the re<. jE is adopted because it is Mandarin. cliaciimiuating. etc. 6. but z is by itonatuie incapable of combining witli ati aspirate. as he lumself defines it. "When followed by n u in pull. In nearly all dialects a. is not realiy o. with the reasons for making tbem. M. as i in chin. Ss 3. asltinK their opinion An t' which Ovrr niiin lenttis of tbb )tftt«-r U-it ri'prcufntod the noiind. it 00 in good. the U is retained w. Tlie writing of tliis sound by tlio prest-nt Kyslem would be €u\ which is a very undeairaljle cotiibiiiation. and Wade's final o is changed to oa. tlic this clmnge. it is letters. • Before frU standing alone as a Final. or When followed by a vowel. I. 1. so.IKTKODUCnOTT. pin.f noble. initial u and i have been replaced I'y if che-e. As As 0. combines with it and approximates the sound It or iig of in rule. system h-is been adopted rather than "Wade's because tlie sound is more nearly al! ted to i than to u. atul is probably imported from Soocliow. I.suuml as ho hoard it from the Ima of scveriil rckiiig Hpcakers io tho Chinese embuMy in Washington City. pen. Chinese sounds German fl. . giving to each a complete system of id its vantage to those Dowels. M." Analogy also requiros ts because the difference between the two initials now in question is simply and solely in the initial letter . save that the accent falls on a. Final of tlie C. tlie this account foreign systems of spelling have not felt 'i i. include at least the dialects Peking. the well-known author of *' Visible Speech or UniviTRttl Alphabetica. Wade and the China Inland Mission. where distinctly different from it marks a pronunciation that hoard in tlio North and West. Tlie final On as the same. the spelling. Commonly a. Ss is clianged to 5. certain syllables of Jialect or to learu several dialects. Tz might do f'>r the unaspirated sound. w in go. as i in machine. or oo in fool. this was the writing originally used for this sound by Edkins. and (z is changed to ts. called French En^^lish language. this In far. It 4. office ever since began to be spelled with foreign W 5. standing alone ns a When folio A^ed by n or ng. I addrcBsod a circular to over five years' rcHirlenco in Chili. i tniKniniiartc<i of I i ) f Prof. met. 2. Final or followed by a vowel. "Weihien. when a is followed bas the sound of a in man as pro- Final or followed by ng^ as a in a. e in hor. without violating the way it affords a decided who may wisli to change their In rights of others.i()n of Cliinkiung and Ynngchow. The sound indicated Uy Wade's final o. star. but regard the sound The following are the principle changes that have been made in the systems of Sir Tlios. Long o final is required in Southern and Central Mandarin. it is also substituted for u in the Northern dialects moie As Sf generally represents the sound more uccumtelj. final vowel sound heard in such words as tal>Ie. otc. it is shortened in chin. AVade when he defines tz' as "like ts'. tlius clie is When perch. is It is English letters to use u and i as initials with ths consonantal powers of to and y. as e final. because it is required in distinctive it ditJerence. when separated from tlie preceding bl. It is M tlin making i The doubled. it is sliortened to the sound of to. it U is not found in the the French rather thiiu docs not incline so German much a. moreover. has simply the power of a single a and nothing niore and is therefore superfluous. it nounced by Aiuericans. so tliat cz^ is b} oecessity pronounced (s^ which fact is recognized by Sir Thos. ravine. pin. some dialects. in pronounced k of Wade's system is discarded in all Southern Mandarin ns mark in ask. accordance with the u and tlie final. Tlio C. •i Nanking. that to long e as does the It is is. itnchnria «nfl Simiitunft. Filial o is made long o. capable of easy The following key brings a number of to the powers of the letters will serve to define the system : dialects into accurate comparison. tlio letters necessary to indicate pronounced by Americans. AS it nnd is is in iy 1/ and y.i HounH in the wnrds iLltlu. and extension on the same lines. rorrenponils with this . last. preceded by w and followed hy ng^ is broadened to the sound of a in fall. own. ropHoa were to tho effect that ic wai prcforuble. cases. to It has been ':ni^lish When pronounced as prolonged as if doubled. of Chef 00. by n final.

lb is ai in aisle or as in i In some sections liiiiie. and with the powers given i it is uei. Consonants. as ou in volute when tlie I is dropand the accent thrown on the first syllable. approximating' tho sound of e. sounds of the two letters are not but coalesce to somo extent. h p t and is. . and with the powers given above. in some localities they do. In Mandarin is Soochow and Shanghai. There is. eOf With the powers given above.* ua. With u and giveu above. however. j. io. g. given above. as iu eo. d and dz. and the a flattened The combination only occurs U and e distinct. o being much the stronger of the two sounds. With u and ai distinct. and much softened from their sounds as heard in America. ia which alone the sound is heard. in final iktn. yet not so much as to quite pass into the In some words and corresponding. and e i distinct. given above. au or As a sound rt. the syllable With and with the powers given n from money and you have Strike out above. Uei. and with the powers given above. With u and ei ei and with the powers distinct. sound as short it (u in hut) might perhaps with equal propriety be so final * Sir Tho3. taOf With i and ao distinct. being accented. Elsewhere in Northern and Oentral Mandarin the correspond^Dg soaud 16 either or eimply C. the two vowels are Leard separately to a greater or ao As ou xviL the vowel sounds in gluey. As ew in Peru when the r In some diaand in some to the u. 'iaij With i and ai distinct. ei being accented. As ei With eij Si. to write eo. and with the powers given above. ee in re-enter. He. the vowel sounds in burrow when all the consonants are withdrawn. ai being accented. . S distinct. are somewhat softened from their sounds as heard in Great Britain. Wade seems to have been misled in his description of Peking sounds by the Nanking sounds which he liad previously learned.INTRODUCTION. in some dialects. It is heard tliis written. tlie vowels distinct. as above. in loU(3 . ei being accented. perfectly flistinct. much confusion between io and iu as finals. and with the powers given final the u is accented. somewhat stronger than p\ * and s( the aspiration is is usual with these letters in America. With i and ei distinct. As eo in re-open. Sir Thos. Occasionally proud. in in fall. and with iho powers given above fla Tiie tf antic. Wade defines the sound of ou as. b. or as an in haul. above. la this case. uij With the vowels distinct. and with the powers ped. and very much stronger than is usual in Their force will be obtained Great Britain. and with the powers given above. as given above. Omit nd and ne from muudaue and you iiave the sound meei. ao being accented. Gf With and a better to give the preference to ouj e. They are probably the same final modified by tone and by accidental circumstances. in weight. The sound of * is comparatively slight. " Iu reality the vowel sounds of burrow when all tlio consonants are withdrawn. With u and ei distinct. lects the accent inclines to the i odj As oa in and Gilboa. tlie vowels are heard slightly separated. it is to mark Some hear the and it The a is very short this fact that it is written d. less extent. and with the powers The initials ch. or. It is a question whether after all the final u is really anything more than the imperfect u necessarily formed by the vocal organs in falling back to their normal position after a full fin?l 0. When used as a to a iu man. As When preceded by y the I is partially occluded and ie approximates e. where it takes the place of a fiiml in the North. Tlie departuro fiom full od is greater or less iu different places." This identifies the sound with that of eo in Southern Mandarin. however. As in dual with the accent thrown on the a. become very nearly equivalent to these sounds. already in use in Soochow and ofteu written As fli ShaiiL^liai. above. In the initials ch\ k(. aud according to difiorent ears. o being somewhat more distinct than e or. inei. the accent being on a. or in coalesce. or as ey in grey. only heard in the South. approximately by first vocalizing the English letter. The circumflex is sometimes omitted cm the ground that tlie combination sufficiently distinguishes the sound. re-enroll. itij is dropped. With above. iei. In case of doubt TIjg as a distinct double sound. several others. the e is accented. leaving od With distinct. and with the powers given above. cc. ue. It is £ and ei distinct better. ai being accented. eei. aucl when followed by n or ng. and with the powers given ie. which is certainly not correct for Pekingese. and is there always spelled au. S being accented. and then following at once with the final with an h prefixed thus ch-ha for or t-ha for * An Irisliman ought to give tiiese aspirates to perfection.

anil consistency would require that of Urn rouihI will hIiow that the Hibitant pro- Uio nnpinito rntlicr tiiau follows it.-iicoLs. vto. only used in Pekingese. a distinct sibilant preceding and modifying. without changing its the faintest possible t$h As and then. It is a^jreed on all hands terminal letter (h). It is doubtless Ixittoi'. liotli North and South..th.i r''pr''. soutli. Chefoo. Other Mandarin dialects may cop.. ng^ Has kyindness. The aoniul lutw in qm-Mtinn difTriH from il in that « Hiul h CHI li retiiitiH its (>vii spovial soniicl followiiii. with regard to the i and power of h and k before d. includes the sound of y being like k in kindness. When English. In Tengcliow voi'ds ending in ien are.e and hy t ns in neg')tiut«.. an-] jr U Lliu boat wuy to rcproscDt it. lU owa flop"r."' forco niifl followed by thu h as n dialinct •ouml. r.pnl*'<l liy nh in Kiigtinh i. UTj Place the tongue as without chan^iiip Both aniilogy if siiy U ?• nnd then. . Til" Bonn. and is used and as an initial." A the syllables . fiftli "A slight : aspirate pre- ceding and modifying the sibilant. hunt. tsh in potsherd. No combinations of EngHsIi letters can completely all the minor distinctinns of even one dinlect. Tlie studenc should take special note of this above. It bcgiiin wilh j and v\nU with r.s. and perhaps add new diacritic marks. or obscuring the aspirate. much less those of a number of (li. accurate definition To pronounce it correctly requires that the teeth be somewhat more separated . tlu! kohikI nnd ao avoid confounding it with . It is is approximately s in fusion. spelling should be chosen which analogy or history indicates as sound.INTRODUCTION. not however cnmbinit U. followed by or t fl.h lipoalli lins ljuon spent. in diflcuHBing wlicthor this iniliul i"' or r. wliicli. would be. assuming tluit it is iududed in the initials h and k."t lin»ov«T cs^oiitifilly rhonginji tho Ay Uin. fa English by e as in miaciato. in others the tongue is somewhat retracted from its normal position in giving sh in English. followed by r. or z in brazier.-n mrxlificd hy prntixiit.& final is used as the distinctive Thos. a combination representing neilher bf"iig nor ch ts but ts in an amnl^aination of the two sounds.' lui « «*"l!r. provision. hi or bin or lisi.' or r alone. as formerly pronouuced iu English. h in how) arul i« "ich nUW in many plafjc-n. viz. Weill ien.ind tlie tongue brought more to the front than in pronouncing sh* It is always followed by i or by ii in the final. as well as already tlislin^uished by a it is speci. tain sounds not provided for. as provided or lising. lisiii. what. that is. v"h "ri^niilly hyint. hs. A cnr<rfiil nnalyHifl T!i6 sound of many syllables is considerably modi tied by the tone. and in tlie first and fourth. in order. it is neither necessary nor desii'iible have two spellings. Sir mark Wade of the defines or entering tone. Wft'lo ftiui f'>H(»\vo(l hy Oilos is opun io q iicnlion.vl doubtless best to conform the spelling to the sound. Is a combination of j und r which more nearly represents this peculiar initial as heard in Central k When IRemnrfts. The corresponding sound in Southern Mandarin is more guttural and therefore jVy more allied to the unti English ill(*d Mandarin tlian either. is tlio a great pity that the usai^c in it on tliis iicoou nf. Nl"'. more strongly than Is aspirated a little h. which are prononnrcfl as if written hwon. followed by or i it fi nsual in is includes the sound of y niakiug it equivalent to h in hue or hew. in the first and second tones tvi and in the third and fourth wei. In Pekingese sh is never followed by i or fl. but the general custom ill all systems has been to drop the y. by /t in nauR«at. com* hiimlion of the two R"m"".om"l in moat c(ihvh wuh hy (that in. Nanking and KiuUiang. . however. fwrittrn hing) nn'l IiaH now conio lo he H-hin^.ng with that in sucli cases. the Greek %. Tho more cU'cIcled clumge on the insomuch that in inriny cnses ib quite dissociated from because this tone tliis still fundiiiuental syllable. say 8 followed by if to utter initial r. position. ki. The student will presently learn by experience to make tho necessary allowance to That for such variations. Not trilled. hiiig and king. in the second and third tones ien. r. the faintest possible will be necessary to make new combinations. Within tiiu l:i"t two or thn-'»» liundrorl ycara it h"« lnM. the same power as ia English. howovur. sh Is in some dialects pre nou need just as in E'lglisii. It nmy Iks rognrdcd as similar to ivh ia tlio Kii^^IiOi wonls whoti. is It is futulamontal not more uniform mid consistent than tone makes a is respect it is. to tn-ifp. both as a final Place the tongue as <r. butli North and South) . also kin. to utter initial its position. more is the stronger of the two couaonants. should be spelled hyi or lisyi. but as usually spoken in America. kyi. These tonal variations diffiir greatly in different dialects. Thus in Peking. Il is irt fnot n. otrt. r. form the koiiiuI ropn-Bonte*! l>y ah but rctuitiin. not n Rimplu joiniiij^ Of « txid h l>ul ft Qcw vlomcDULrxsouiidj wbiob is aUo u}((»roft»uJ <:edc'B '. Tho original . etc. in which case Tlie to provide already defined. A represent • The accuracy of the definition of this Koun<l given hy Sir ThoH. Any additions made should be strictly consistent witii tlie system as it fifth the transition sound from ch in the North to the above letters and combinations are supposed a consistent spelling for all the sounds found iu the dialects of Peking. ian. words ending in wei are.

so as to get his 4. include one homogeneous dialect. Spell these sounds provisionalli/ and them ill briiii^inpt far as the same line. al be it its usefulness is very far from being limited to get. its The analysis of syllables and tones which preparation requires. Foe* iidtiak 7. Go and compare column. especially careful that those you of Oie dialect. is a very im porta nb matter to is not yet trained to distinguish sounds. A dialect. liglit I offer the following suggestions 1. It shows clearly what sounds are which a beginner. like initials into to all especial care will be required to see that fact able to : your teacher kny characters. Ciiuvass the dialect and gather difficulty if work very carefully. carefully over the 3. and prompt his memory in the absence of his the student to verify his serves also to It further serves as a valuable vade rnecuin teacher. such the teacher will of course refer to the book. iti in others they are simply given in order. should have its own syllabary.il.illy all several a. also It and thus enables own hearing of the sound. ^^^SYLLABARY IS an alphabetic arrangement of all the syllables in a given dialect. Tb is well worth the while of older residents to syllables in alphabetic spaces.s man o£ moderate scholarship. he will be but a broken reed in the making of a syllabary. will very likely brin^f to some previous mistakes and misappieheusiona. arran2. thfi common characters in your dialect. variations. is at tliat some and finals. does fact that betwepii tlie not prove that he really does do It is ters depend upon his ear so. of tlie real tone of Wu Fang Yuen Yin. shows the tone of every character. arranging thera by tones under each syllable. In some cases the columns according to their As far as possible compare characters the same tone. kiiovvle<li. especially for the many of minor modifications made by change of tone.e a table by means of the key characters. of course understood that purely wen-li charachave no established tone in cnlIoqui. The he mys he understands the distinction book tone and tlie spoken tone. of a given dialect. giving so readily the character you want and knoiv. iii. the tones being indicated by figures. he will do this work without easily prepare a syllabary for the use of beginners. Until yonr teacher is really able to throw away the tone-book and trust simply to his ear. possible all the different syllables it oufc as contains.e Having arranged your 5. bary is a A help in acquiring a correct gi'pjit good sylla- Train your toaclier to understand what you doiu^ especially tcjich him to understand tl>e of comparing sounds by finals. m distributed under those syllables. to sea same tim$ cou- the . whose ear in the dialect with the correct spelling of each. peculiar to itself. and examine they are re. to all who essiiy order beginners. and free because he will not be so impervious to a new idea. especially if he be familiar with light literature. make a vice versd. 2. or After these corrections are made. choos- ing a key character for each. In every dialect also. certain margin or suppleness spelling must be given to the each syllable. are Klt?a assistance iu classifying. ample by the guidance classify to write Chinese. having a dialect in view. cliaraoters are arranged and tones. changing the key cliaracters for this purpose if necessary.INTRODUCTION. jour teacher does not simply follow the instead. and ueed nofc be provided for iu a syllabary of the dialect. able to distinguish clearly the tone from the other elements of the sound. and lead to a more consistent and accurate proFor tlie guidance and nunclatioa of the dialect. If jour teacher recall. column. will finals into the saiDe finals. not. of the is 6. careful review of the whole work. help of any who may undertake to make a syllabary. comparing and in tlio pr'me line or not. with all the characters ordinarily used in writing that dialect. there are occasional stray sounds which may be regarded as accidental variations.nd In arranging the characters under the tones. This classification of all common the characters the fact that a few rare sounds have lieeri and sounds which are different have been confused. SYLLABARIES. but cannot quite with misled by tcnal testing by means olicifc perhaps oaiittfd of the initials whether tlie whole work sistent aud exhaustivo. will probably do this work better than a literary graduate. his like whether in eacli case In respect to the finals be you are have to check over will probably closely the same. In the nature of the case a syllabary can only To attempt more than this is to invite difficulties and defeat the end Every city or district. because he w ill more himself from the theoretical tones. or that he is in and ignore the book.

English the all spelling the of attend to the followcon- letters tlie powers given them and consonants.-ulditioiial diacritic marks. They serve to diatinguisli one won! from another. should 1)0 iiKlic!ite<l by numbers at tlie upper right hand corner of the chiir. tliere are tive it.. From Northoin are an original and integral I)ut .f tlio Sliaii Iribod l. and of under- of facility in would it keep up these disLiuutioiis. new them careful v and making them consistent vkli the systeni as it already exists. mien. cliiip. by a change of meaning.nli^rma on Bjrmnh. n and initial For in Soiitliera M. ocmplete syll. In teaclier. rpO give a clear Cliinese tones. such sounds as . viz. ns if tl'i'y v*re really witliin tlio la>*t f(im. dofiiiiiii^ I " are related to etc. final is still the same as and slinuld he so written. ratlicir 2.i star the cliniacter ha viiig be to wt'll A mark under the same botli its Double readings. lien. Southern Mandarin viz : 1. dental variations uiKitteiided by a cliange of iiieaniii. that Soiillicru MaiiUaiin. sis final tliis.. all have tniHsa. one or othor of these tones are spoken. to some extent. more Wrr " on tonca thai) one. etc. *itt(Muled readiiis^s. static! point. these syliablos.itely pirvnil'M.irticular nor convey any special mc^aniiig of any kind. 3.. and Western tliey lan^uftgf^s can only \ye voicR.siime. make and no more. s tending klie j-ake consulting dictionaiies. tlie fiii. »nr] lay Mandiirin (ifl)i to tlir(>v ntT t""''s. Ilsia p^hnj shiny 5.iry m. if there be any doubt whether the ending be en or an. tone tone has disappeared. although tlit?y do not exist in your o w n dialect. I shall treat the subject entirely from tlie fariouft practical 1. It will i.ui«l. Only after you and classification the sounds of your dialect of are vou rendy to settle the sever al syllal'les.. Shang or rising tone. Tones are nofc muaical notps. etc The interinrdial i in should nut be dropped when y becomes the in !ieti liv the or l)y is indeed occluded by \. If these According to in the table of vowels sounds are not enough for the emergency.'. remains to be 8oen. il M. note tliut these endings have a rel. Sucli double readings as are mere acciloadings.nrrRODrcTTow. indiciitionfl iiri. TONES. disupix^ar 'I'he frum .sp(»Mit:ion Inrci^ii to 'J'hiiM it. Inngnfiv»<'H Hpokcn • It in of plcniirnt iinltk'-ly who rlwclt in th" Ifiml before the CliinoRd nt' rfi' it.irin. etc. a Chinese of. shiipn. tn elucidate Mandarin tones. lien. It 1^ al«n f ivorpM by the. chiien. Let your syllab. lie. etc. coupled with tiip fact that ears differ as much perhaps as tones.il but y. "till oxlnnt in ( hiim. fifth undor to skCufj. raie. (2). sliiie. Ju tlie ters originally four Ill chierty Ch'u 4.icter. for the uiultiIncnlities. It aouriiH not th' ChinoHo that tli<^y war" anqnired from tin.\\^ founn that the Chinese consider the it \>e preceded by y or by I 1)6 whether . but are rather intonations or inflections of the nothing in them. Now those with interinediat vowels. way. which uio prohMy tht* rouult of u^lmixturcB t»f liy tlf ft'''i itfines and imitation tion to.* Icvtjl Mandarin words Tones are not something added They do not mod Ify the sense in any U' tlie part of p. wlioi o it will it fnrnii'riy nltim. km n\0>t ttif Unjfiiftjj*: r. then use combinations or . will account. Tlie only exception tliat I would ina ke to this rule is in the case of the confusion of final n and ng and 9. In spelling words which end in preceded by an intermedial vowel. There corres ponding is to acquired by close utten- A qiiCKtinn whetbir tones were originally "n prnpcr. the characit being distributed to the other second. In sucii cases. nil liave does tin. showing that tlicy are two and not Cliinese with nbonpintil dialects. Shany shenyy or vanishing tone. In iloing ing Use points : sistently niid (1). retaining the connate sound any other initial. one indicating the primary reading and two the secondary. L other diaU'Cts in case of removal. will succeed any 1' ( tier than those wliich have preceded it. liu.-ibary should include doulil*? 10. (3). iK)ti-Man<1iiriii diulfcU oi ihv Sou til.indarin. and contra<Hctory things whicli have been "Whotlier the present attempt written about them. M:incLirin or lower level tone ^ sound. thus tien. are related to yiie. or lower tlie all tone. different and are so wholly foreiLiii to the distinctions we are accustomed to malce in sounds. (4). the existence of the corresponding vowel endings in e or a should determine which is the normnl sound and mark tlie other as a tonal variation.itioiiship to vowel endings of the snnift class.'. vwrc tones Mn M'larin. It initial. aa follow^. tones. or upper level toi"> p'iiu/ sJieng.iUe just as many distinctions of sound as the Chines'.'Vh'xn hy|>'>tlif«is \n favoicil hy tlio fact tliat tha ialM<rif{in'kl lanjjnaL^i'H. yUen. thorough analy- liave inade this 8. are the ones which chiefly develope tonal vHriutions by changing en to an.fact tliut ill*. The fact tliat and is Batisfactory exposition a tusk of no small they differ so greatly in of difficulty. etc. may be imlicated by . lni ndrnl ynirs tlio or rnl'rii'_: to Tie liiis entirely iliHa|tppai cl from N'>rU'''tMi iiritl C'-nl r bIiows u (li. tie. entering or shhig..

l(»ii<*s ina. Ijoiiig given a of knowledge based on tlioir aspirated own spoken lanj^iiage.ir. Chinese scholar is faiiiili. the names acquired as a theory laid is Dr. is asked the tone of a word. It is of wortl. theoretical tones are those which are gl\ en in tiie 21 Fang Yiieii l'i/n or. cliaracteiR. When indicated on the Romanized spelling. used . At empire. are different sounds and represented by diilerent is a thing not knowledge of tones is and with tliezn it is not a theoretical scholars..y no idea <jf perhaps a i"lf^ is strong for Mandarin. viz. " Original Tories of The compiler Rej^ions. Ju 5th The tones are . by small semicircles at the four corners of tlie character. or recognized by the They Cliineso people. and differ (lifiei ill eut The localitii-s. sJitng called The former pHng (2p and the hsia p^ing sheng the latter. or ratlier liear. fairly descripliv e of the fact. as it will enable him to recognize and locate the tone of any word he may generally know. tlio th(jy according applied sounds given to tlie sn ys tlifi must luive represented the spoken by the writer who selected adopted fir»t tones of the dialect Lli^i empire. In Eastern Sliantung.INTRODUCTION. which class any given word this distinction every will readily tell to He waa in fact giving the theoretical tones. xnialeaiUng his pvipU as to the leal prouuaciatiou of hU . : " Shang p'iiig shing Hsia „ Shang slieng tone or 1st 2nd 3rd 4th . albeit the book is the autliorized staiidiird fur detennining tones throughout the whole liis to see. In Pekini. s Fu^. of the tones do not truly describe Tliis is especially true of the In a arge part of Shantung the or upper level. u!d dillereiit meaiiinL:s. whicli every learner should acquire. defiected. universal to to the -same characters 1 1 my This the iictnnl pr-iniiinciation.. Williams in Cliinese method. unci tsc shanff purpose of rliyining. rejecting For 6. and form a sorb of chime. 4^ Ch'u . pracl ice. tones are divided Chinese into two pi'lufj (iK) classes. or upper level. Fuh. ch'u slteng and With He ). lie an abrupt I once lifanl a lady in North Cliina com plimenting her teacher on tlio accuracy of his tones. Exactly w hat lie made standard in fixing the tones. the sliavg she riff. Every Chinese scholar is familiar with tones as given in this book. which He waa thorough ly he imagined waa the Ju slieng. I asked her how about the Ju siieng she replied thai bo gave her these as readily as the otliftti. tone. 2." conv(. marked in both ways 3. but down in their books. To such. the most convenient plan is Hi at adopted by Sir Tlios. includes the ju and sheng.* level tones.il. t!ieoretic. l)y tlie t lie level. 1)6 Chinese teacher li}^ Uieir ciiuracters..'iclually widely piactical tones arc those which are l/y the people in speaking. When indicated on the Chinese character. . The description of and the terra tlie fifth former being an upper latter an upper quick entering. The fifth or entering tone is indicated in tlie spelling by The following example shows the tones a filial h. iictf' quick is tone. a be trained to distinguish tones his ear. tlie not properly a level tone at the the falling rising tone. adducing as proof the fact that they invariably agreed with the tones giren in Williams' Diotiuiiary. it is not easy the present time they are not correct anywliere in China. will generally reply according to tlie book. two all. Wade. tlie xxi. usually given by Chinese teachers in not in "ilo repr ep(Mit tlie actu al AV hen when but tliein. and the or lower level. confined Tlu." Southern and practical viz. The Cliili.. Eclkins eiifliug. latter. is does not recognize instead of the practical tones. Unless thus trained he will very likely mislead the learner by giving the theoretical llie The names 4. ami wlien <i teacher.ss of tlic known not is ri. Tones have been indicated in various ways by Avr iters on the Chinese language. aside from the inVLMsion of the upper and lower k-vels. viz. he does not above order. vet lie of this ' ilie Five woik waa from professes to give the syllabhjs and tones of the Southern Maiulariii.y of special remark that as such. to syllable tonal relationship thoir thnu_£»lit of. and ignoring the artificial stan(laid of the bonks.it of cases niajoi ily of the sound on ea v. by tlie use of numbers at tlie upper right hand of the spellinfif. in fact. is an upper level. TV. includin's the aheiig. is in fact a lower level. the most common plan is imitation of tlie tliab adopted by Dr. is which not a correct is of service in teaching ni list it as a foreigner.-ue Tones aie of two kinds. and not according to llie tone tliat he himself actually is he This uses in speaking. to which he gave a theoretical promjnciatiori. eCfi t in other parts of the terni t/i. ^ Yn\ . tlio who not specially trained. r). ( Fu2. w hiuh ihoii no doubt extended well to the north.lationship learn the tones as they learu the other characteristics of their sounds by imitation of their elders and to tlieir apprehenthe sion difiVrobt tones Having simply different words.

These clianges of tone are very numerous. 7. from the first to tii** second. been ft >11ow(h1. Now normally in the third phrase. then it retains its normal tone. and so proceed to words and sentences by a direct and uiilt aniiiicilod iiiiitatio!! of iuiitatcs its p» rents. Yin and sundry spoken ingenioas. ig not spoken tsH^ pei\ according to th*^ origiiml tonpH. manner tone is not it is iti anotlier. which need not be motliocl part of tlio scparatx^d from it. These changes are complicated and subject to no known general law. changing from the third to the fourth. the empliasia is thereby thrown on it. different of rendering the tones differs in that localities a given is. generally cliati^ing it to the foun h toup. by lis lung^ east. or first charjicter eJ. The number if any. locality new know no has a variations There enrHosa. and mcii has its ad vocates. rendering of prevent its These a certain degree of tone in the same different places. If its proper tone be retained. la is only allowed to rhyme a p'ing a tsS with a tse. Tlie most is from the first tone to The second and fourth the second. but t'li"? hni'^. the torn. intoned in a different way. The following hints embo(iy as much as the author has learned by experience.) of a dual pliraso predoininjites enei ally changes. be of some s*^rvice to (L) Accented both words. as given in Pekin"'. frequeut change perhaps of special inquiry. such as would show very little. One method is to learn tlte tone of each cluvmcter as a wonU distinct act of oth'T tones. . as Thus the aUo l)y its position in a Keiitence. to the nutural fjiliiiig iiiileo- tion In case the meaning of the second character and takoa the ftcceiit. tlia writing poetry toue of chHao.ato iin a question in each cuse. cb"iKing from 10. is made by depressing the voice below its natural key and ending with a strong In Ensteni Shantung. rising inflection. of these changes is far greater tlian any one would suppose. Would you [dare to\ strike me Once more. the same sound in one locality that thoufjh called by the same name. or tones. tlio render ing of law. in whicli tliere are not. any given character may be one tone in one and another tone in another pUce. in tlie student. generally chanuos to a fourth tone that is. the first diameter generally ority taUes the accent. and vice versd. It is. the sixma made by beginning in a natural key and wiili a rising inflection. of Chinese. and tho tone of the (4. belongs. pliiMsea and in sentences. but as spoken in this fourth. take the expression the principali _if going to strike take the not the only. for one cause or another. fact the four tones.iiizubIe. there are few seiitftnces of any length spoken. as a Cliinosi? child Each m"thil Ims iU ud vuntagea . xxii. changes chi^j in the normal tone of one or more of its woids. knowledge of tones which confronts every Two distinct inetliods have student. So also merciful. so that the tone as tho other oleiiKnita of the is to roi^arcl the tone sound.INTRODUCTION. a toftclior.ccur. The manner 8. according to the normal tones. but when combined in tlie word tlioy arc not spoken tuufj^ kni} according to A thn piojmr ton''n. and will. perceptible change in syllables. are both in . but in Chinanfu they are rendered still differ- In Each new ently from those heard in either place. as cei tainly sound. (2. is not spoken lingS ch'iao. be tho first to tliu fourth. but rather Wi'^ pei\ tho tone of ppi tlie first tone. which iiicludo the v.) nifij In dual combinations. and the expression would mean.ist of phnisea.. retain their normal tones. it is hoped.il n.e In general it may be said timt to the fourth tone. rises still higher. yet not such as to recoi. This is in fact tones. Ln like is acquii'etl. his slandard being not the actual but the Wu Fang Yiien rhyme books based upon it.ijn.. The normal tone of a word is often changed position in a compound word or phrase. but ling^ chSao*. it changes to the tone.) in<^ and -4 re is possession. tone the same tone begirds hij^h 7 have a thing hi your father and mother s possession 18 not so good as to have it in your own a clause. if nofc already a fourth tone. to l)e practically make it certainly being confounded wiih you i sentence To is Here is normally niang^ and but as spoken in this sentence they both cliarii. (vsp"cially if it is Hov may is at least obscui'- a level tone. purpose that this distinction serves. are all rendered differently in l!>isterii Sliancuni^ not only BO. as ia an Tlie tluM>r(itically leani both memory known otlu^r itite^r. ending me (3. tones also often exchange places. is . siinilirity in is. In Chinaiifu. 9. in tlie and see in many cases. and often occur within very short distances. so to speak. the third tone in Peking. For example. The tones of words vary in different localities that is. of hsL clian^in. and in this case the second cliamcter. it with a p'ing and Ag. and hai^ west. who has not made the matter a subject place. Strong emphasis on a word forming part of is likely to obscure the tone of the succeedword.

acquire the ear of a native. b. that such a speaker purticular word. equivalent to them. of the I would recommend a combination two methods. the should not be directed chiefly the to tones stand each other without serious difficulty. letters represent really In the one Ciise the aspira- Englisluiieii generally use with much weaker than Americans (who more strongly tlian Englishmen) <. i aud . There is this at least to be said ia and aud tSf it that while the of auch a pronunciation. an Even as essential. p t would be better to give them flat j. Opinions vary as to the relative importance of Since they 11. natural when he attempts ings The second method ear. and cua make allowance for. perfectly represent the true sounds.% nor ch k p. and in a few cases become are sounds beginning with aspirated. t &nd (s. is who has a good easier to one a fluent and Iiowever. it ra. k.reat as is sometimes represented. The and disadvantages. In suffer repeating phrases or clauses after the teacher. d and dcf. but they do not understand stood in several cognate is tlie sounds that have no tone. than to run the risk of confusing them with the aspirates. telling him the tone as a clieck if necessary. uudei- diali^cbs. however. let the tone always be regarded as an integral part of the sou nd. so that the word is not regarded as properly heard at is heaid for in point no Chinese word without a tone. if learner lias not quite." will is neglects tones or and attempts dialect. nor to him to tell you. also stronger than that given to these letters by Americans. b. t and ts. the latter being generally written with a In reversed elevated comma following the letter. tlieir Seeing. These English neither sound correctly. Oa the whole. and aspirate J. but only the two classes of sounds represented by ch distinguished as unaspiiated and kj p. are an integral part of may general importance all Chinese speech. tones in learning and speaking Chinese. bufc rather to a close and the of confidence and accuracy in the use of isolated words. they will nob misunderstand it. and he can go on with confidence to learn words and phrases. is somewhat ds. It is as easy to vary from y. and by the much udliere too that the speaker will clan«. (/. is it is not best to ask him the tone. la raeruorizing single words. The unaspirated sounds are not really g. as beginners are apt to imagine. is not is it a very common one. until has caught the chime and can distinguish with certainty the tone of any single word The foundation pronounces. imposes a heavy burden on the memory. Mandat in the initials g b d and ds are not found. g.iiTi(*cl tlie student will come to thin It less and about tones. first method will give greater words. that they vary so aiuch in dilTerent localities of these several localities under- and yet the people the tone exercises faithfully with lie sounds. it is a question whether in Mandarin it would not be better to write the uu- almost. d ds. the very best thing thorough knowledge of the pronunciation of some one dialect.enera!!y • Seeing that neither j g b. Let the student first practice liis teacher.* It is very important tliat the favor aspirated sounds with Iheforinerletters and eimplify thesystem of BjK'lIing by abolishing that iiwk ward *. is now teacher liis securely laid. other peculiarities of his dialect. and both hear and speak out. "TN the non-Mandarin dialects of the South there g h d and In the other case the aspiration use. and its ultimate benefit is neutralized to a considerable extent by the changes required by composition and it rhythm. tion. to the great injury of his speaking.er to the fundamental tone. and will make to miss his bear- will or emplmsize a isolate especially if danger. but have him repeat the word.INTRODUCTION. the differing tones of different Anglicised dialects. accurate rendering of the tones is of the hearers. attention If both luctliod this accurate general and in faithiulSy is in c. the If difficulty in properly softening ch.iy safely be assumed that their relative importance is la order. a basis for acquiring such a style as may be. h. d and d. aspirated. d aud ds. however. while lie will speak the language He will in fact with greater and greater accuracy. k p. though they approximate these letters. imitation of but pjitticular. not so j. less the lann[uage in blissful forgetfulness of tones. and much stronger than that given by Englishmen. what some are pleased to acquire for there He who own "general to call a end by not speaking real Chinese at all no spoken Chinese without tones^ nor any that is free from dialectic peculiarities* ASPIRATES. In case of uncertainty in catching a tone from of fact until the tone all there a teacher. k p. is weaker than these letters. Tho Chinese understand. as it is to vary from ch. There speaker. to be understood with readiness «aiid and not offend the ears precision. t and which are distinguished as unaspiiated and is. two sets of sounds beginning with ch. Chinese may not quite approve it. safely be assumed.

SHV(. with proper emphasis.ii which tliey recite in that tlieir and oftentimes when told titat this is nob tliey become impressed with the difficulty of what is required. ('f oilier it rutliculs was to weie con- cliosfii tlic liic in chanicter has buen cases inosf. from North to When. great. anciLMit clianictei becau83 sn^^j^esls. ilio is t. iind yet the sentence be almost or By eiiipbasis. ad vantagi.lialecLs so niuuli as witli . tc. all addition to listening caiefully to spolcen tlie heard every day and striving to iiiiitate it.h\e lie only compare ami iearii to do so by The Ridiculous and mortifying blunders sonietimes result to mistakes in aspirating. student of Chinese stiould get this distinction clearly in uiiud at practis'sg the ought readily to do by of aspirates with i\ good teacher. as was the SouLherii coast dialects the variations are very intf-nded. hut are exceedingly uuifonn ^ould Soutti. a short clause in an casy^ natural and the student follow. read a few lessons on n:itural l. exe roise be gi ve liiin an relief will to speak It shoukl and Il.rer hilior of ineinoriziiig. or no at L'Jist sjiccial s. to wliich of A clue. wliole classes of sounds chanL. however. be roally tenclier liciur's from reinenii)et'ed. and rapidity It important to every speaker higlily is should acquire the art of speaking in correct thiit lie I slowness with wliich they are severally . Noiii'ly [»f a uf Tlio 1 plmi'eiic.11. "hat eiu'li is ill enabling the Chinese speak ami evLT. Mandarin is compared with ev cuing instead of saying a piayer-meeting.rua inetuia . tlisi iiit'tly same but not liy any the otlicr the soinxl. he should ask the assistance of a friend who speaks Chineso (o (explain lias to his teiiclier practice iu leadini. wan t from simply unintelligible. A may Chinese sentence be constructed with fault- and each word be pronounced with l^ss idiom. RHYTHM. will be invaluable in making his easily intelligible unci in making it sound Tlio same thing is true to the Chinese ear. a in teiicliers measured his mind. tin. sin luKI U' oi\c bund ml it will iiiiil H'p. and is the farthest possible from the classics wliat is wanted. the best w:iy to acquire a proper rhytlira is to Let practice reading closely after a good teacher. perfect accuracy. Then and student follow. aspirates do iho tlitiVrent (.iry Tln^y when tauglit* in Maiuhu ia tht'm cliitsify from be sonnde— existing betwren aspirated and unaspirated simply reg. Tlie teacher on. IiiiikIi-'-cI 1 Cliin(>sc \u\\ o and a niilii a) many foreign iletfMiniiics. reading. sinologues.. in wicli iiieniiinp of generutly gives more or le^s part of named the phonetic hy will U' A.ilf be a diiy will stutleiit it. Ciiiiu'so style. more complex ones are coinpounilcd It w on hi In. after worse. I once heard tiie nunounceiucnt made from the pulpit that there do nut \ tones. or c-liaittcter class.il f. case b<c"Uhe of tlie its The Tho tlic radical roiatioiiship charuct«r.it useless. teacher. but Over or(I''r of fnurteeii radicals. and I form imd hard task.inguiige llic rhythm to retain the iinaltle care should also be taken that the teacher varii'd lest tli" ctudeiit bu RADICALS. nn'aniii<:. Chiupse .irding tlicm as independent sounds.son. whicli tiist. wanletl. in nmne is clmrncUT mot lier. tlie and by consequenco.ito(l.XXIV. imitating faithfully both the proDunciation and the rhythmic oudeiics of the teaclier read lone. :i easy natural cuuversatiuiial style the student tliut is wanted. the let the teaclier read the ne<t and so Bhuuld not read too far at once. naiim for a) iia(k up tlin one iiulicatin^ Tl". roiiding not if emplmsis of the a is the how- and Til is by re:uUng iu concert \rith the teiwher. llio woiultirs teacher the unless may woik Chinese. nuxlcni cfiaractrrs all uicaiiiiig jiiul (if it Tlw tlie soiiiul. a ilistinct of those which are BimplHr. liythm. its rawlical. of tlie to arnuigs us fiir them class two having a TIk. If not a trained teacher. fiiilcniUty if tho hunil>cr reduced.iy sixty of those two memorized. cliiiuse. rnilE Chiiiese have analysed their iiumeroufl written chaructcrs so hundred and fourteen common . it. quite rhythmical proper of emphasis rhylHiTiical is nieant the relative amount of enipliasis given to the fever al words. have a strong proclivity to read in sin"'. Many part culled each classes. will i'h)'tlimic. their distribution into groups. and resort at once to loud pompous style which upsets all proper rliythinical emphasis. in Special recitative affected or tl t it^s no».student them are . he t merely Ii. acquisition Sucli ecli iiutuial greater or less extent of to Til languages..I'll. a rooster ia church on a certain tlie fui'ei"'nei's.allifnlly bo profitably iinit.iag fiom aspirates The Chinese do not the recognize re'ationsliip to unaspirates or vice versd.or spoken.

Many. or inner and outer (a top and ix 2. ill which tliey appear There are of course some exceptions to these acter rules. them.-li as. Chinese eliaracters quiie to be learned in any case.INTRODUCTION. least. about one character In 6ve has a doable reading. . and will order to assist the re- Moreover.arning these radicals in their order. DOUBLE READINGS. wliich is appended at the end of the table of radic. or less evidently of or side joined counts an outer). and will retain what it gets with a much firiurr g»-asp than it will th&t w liich is crnmiiied into it after it is already sated with five hundred or a thousand charactorp. In looking up characters by radicals. unci it is a rare thing that the numbers are retained pcimanently ia tlie mettioty. The outer part It may is the radical. tbemselves cliaract'^ra in common uao. at Shanghai <>f A. XXV hand part left is tlie : radical.roups according to tlie number of their strokes. bein. parts is is In case one of these a radical and the other not. comparatively 4. c-SH of =1-. The mind is then fresh and unoccupied. are mere accidental variations. These radicals fire. favoring the colloquial rather than the book reading. but in all cases of uncertainty as to the standard spelling of a character. the remnants probably of dialectic admixtures. I have tried in all cases to give the reading. but tlie will find so retain tlie ciiai acters in its ke(>ping. upper and lower. they learn the order in which they stand.'idings which vary the meaning with the sound. in fact tliti way we use our own alphabet in consulting a Uictionui y. reference niny be had to the In list of difficult characters usually given in both native and foreign dictionaries. which fjeuerally stand on the ri^lit. the tank lighleii woven the 214 radicals into a mnemonic radic-il Ofic-. the other . This class is suiull.. is tonal in a comparatively few cases one character is lead in two syllables. which is most ~\/r * On an average. These radicals and their combinations will become so lYiany hooks on w hicli the memory c. having tliem arcanged iti <. either right and left. in a sense. tlic l»ev J. How to recognize the radical of a character is a question of some importance to a Ix'ginrier.* Of I'e. foreign dictionaries of If both par ts be radicals. except in tlie 0. tliat are arranged particularly dictionary of Kanghi. a great extent their strange unmeaning become more familiar and intelligible.ils lose to and memory and l«. before attempting to learn other characters. perhaps most. That tlie .vn fcistoii. as. ana of these double readings. ANY Cliinese characters have two readin^. it will save much tune and vexation to know either the order of these radicals or the number of each one. \\'\\[ •look. Unfortunately no invariable rule can l)e given. and the student will find that after Icai-aiiii. the Cliinese alpliabet the only one. save in the case of comparatively few radicals which are in constant demand. Tins is iio doubt the better and more effective way. N"o general principle characterizes these changes. though a large number of those depending on toue. but. the they possess. be observed in genei'al : most prominent radical in a character likely to l)e its governing radical. imperial 3. recourse has still to he had to a radical index. (6) The lower part is the radical. -^. In some dialects there are many more of the in than in others. and a few have three readings. in the groat Most 1. except case of \\ liic'h (c) U. following directions will be time to learn the radicals is at the very outset. tlie ('f some service Consider whether the character : itself is or Ls The great majority of characters consist more two parts.?. fouriU being accidental variatioofi. the variation. then that a radical. in by far the greater number of cases. The tnost of these changes of reading are attended by a change of meanThose which are not attended by a change of ing meaning. all characters are built up from them. Si Is by of The best dictionaries radicals. etc. about tiiree- prevalent. then The (a) Chinese are syllabic. at not a radical. The Chinese do not learn the radicals by number. students of Cliinese Iiavc undertnken to learn the numbers. yet they nre quite as true as such rules generally are. (b) Some radicals almost always govern tlie char(a) is in tlie generally stand at the top. This is no light task hi the tirst place. order of tlio request of author. Most native standard lias. consist in the change from verb to | I fourths are attended by a change of meaning. For characters to which no rule applies. these the radical of the character is wlii.

'l 1 tronblo conoos when it is diqcovorud tliat tho difitinotioii will not cany wit ciinsistc'iiMy. liosot the A (JliincHu nrliolnr gi vO» n nUvw '"" ovifltint gon'-nil flinlinotion I)elwi:«?i Tho tliO tv/o rutt'liuxt of a oliuraclcr. In some cases also the subsequent use of a word will be found incoDsisteat with the general distinction of meaning as generjil As it is a carefully such prepared vocabulary as Dr. You soon see that your teacher writes the will hand side Ijefore the left top before the which crosses them. a Chinese pen nnd write in regular Chinese order and style. it it You w i 11 serve to give work you are over (men or ov(mi twice un(U'ris not It hIiouIiI bo curefully Htudinil aiul re roiul \n one of the p'trplexing things that who iindortikifl t'. parison might be made. each dialect Mfindarin of liad lias then an intelligent and Pekingese. and nil tiooma plain. in Chinese in English. however. you will he liaviun. For iiibtancu sev {(| ami . viz. proceed to copy out a part or all of the lesson for the day. male a vocalmlary. place tins underneath the thin Chinese paper and Use trace the characters as Chinese school boys do. to the tonal changes introduced by composition. urt of tracing diameters pei pencUcul. from timo to lime until \\. is to get a teacher to write a copy of simple characters in large hand. fix nmre or is (li:ilect given to the valuable com- at present. WRITING. tlie in a fair hand and in proper order of strokes. while it will give a more accurate knowledge of the The characters and help to fix them in the mind. or those in which the was inconsistent in I have adliered to that reading is even then there surrounrled is be ccmsitkTcd. changes of meaning are not attended by any clianue I have not noted all the double readings given in Dr. or from noun to verb or adjective. XXVI. is very likely also that some of the distinctions which have been made. For these the student will have to depend ou his teacher a! id on his ear. but iy cuiitr(i<Uoti. special attontiori to tlio systoin of spelling pDwers of the. Goodrich's Pocket Dictionary. will be found to be incorrect in sorue dialect's. in ready writer recalling all noedctl cliarjictors readily and using them accnr. but in knowing what chanicter should be used in ench case. ADVICE TO THE STUDENT. however. Chinese consider that a character is not really learned until it can l)e. This inconsistency generally arises from made.ir stroke tlie Having acquiied etc.J l»y usage. TTTETIING ' Chinese will be found a useful exercise It will be a grateful relief for every student..* Tlie whole subject of double readings It still remains true. iiiid Ym Give to the can nob wort Is properly or consistently until you are familiiir with tho powo rs to be gi vcri to tlio lot tors. dialects.Iit. taking lessons fiom your teacher's example. or of phrases. tlift nnd thut he makes tht horizontal strokes Ijottom. and will find it quite an advantasjo to 1»g Jiblo to do so. For the variations made in such cases by different dialects the student will have to depend on his teacher. noun. ' from the tedium of direct memorizing. before and ri. let tors as thcro dofiiietl. Tlie difficulty writing in is not in learning to handle the pen properly and write neatly. not only recognized. Every student can learn to write a fair Chinese hand. and and accuDitely its form and time ib will pay the studenb Cliineso. is fully undorstond. but also written. only a approximation is possible. In other cases. Goodrich •which was judged to be the primary reading of the character. three or four or more dialects are considered together.. serve to The way best to learn to wi-itp. ^ not understand you a useful taldng. will depend on liis in recalling readily composition. seemed distinction different dialects. togetlier with constant and long-contiiiueil practice. though both of uncertainty less and inconsistency. All tiie while you art. Hpt. an and fixing the characters in your mind. I have noted all which seemed to prevail in as many as two it comparatively easy to of pronunciation. but to be a special work gifts. the readings. there is no II smalt amount of confusion and contradiction.eneral ideft of the Rpiuliii.itcly. • ThU path of oil I- "H l)ut it will f. local.' ButHuient.itever to conform the I spelling of double words. have made no attempt s\li. because many of them are peculiar to Peldnq. similar to such words as con'-flict and conflict' or gal'-lant and gallant' the effect of composition. exercise in recalling copying. . tlwit by far the larger nuiuher of such with diiliculties. to spend in How miicli writini^ together wiih tlie rcquirenients of the which he expects to etigage. E EAD over tho Tntro(luctif)n carefully. It. When. first If only one as in English. requires nat iiral aptitu de.INTRODUCTIOIT.

7. but should never be allowed determine them. 10. 11. (6). when he is constantly hearing the Chinese say it another way will never lp. and to compare what you hear with wliab you yourself say.so language effectively. to He who depends on the spelling for the pronunciation of the words will certainly not pronounce accurately.atioii point perniauently attaclied to your ears. being approximately correct. to imitate. The true pronunciation of each syllable should be learned from your Chinese teacher. talk in Chinese. with ease and with a fuller compreljension of the various idioms brought to view. you will the chief secret of per spicuity in Chinese. The additional labor involved in learning to read whilst learning to speak. and will be turn- ing up again and again. them Do up. tliis advice for several : (a). If'ar" exercises your key Talking translating in will be the will take the place of English into CliineSH. and to appropriate.INTRODUCTION. imagines that he can spell Chinese words without known who. I would urge on acquired you have mastered the "chime" and can distinguish readily the tone of any charHcter your teacher pronounces. Having foundation. will sf'r e to six or ei<. of all first appearance. This is selves. which you can now do 12. I to emphasize ish \i point strongly. Break up your thoughts into short sentences. split 13. Review frequently. 9. making tlie at Be other tiro as.lL . not only with your teacher during begin to talk-. tiie because they enunciate more distinctly and speak more slowly. h ard.irn Chinese well. return to the sixtieth lesson and roview thoroughly. tell inconsistency. this T liave even two months' study of Chinese." This plan will j^ive you a comprehensive view the important idioms iu the language and avoid Having reached the end. The two tilings naturally l'o hand in hand and mutually help each other. 8. you have the faster you will best use you can of the ph rases learned. tluMi and tl"'n only will you have the art of learning Ciiiiiese. must learn to think as well as to of the end. which will require wide open so as to hear. after aturlents (tne or A any system. did not. the Practice tone exercises until xxviL Chinese. As soon as you can put two words together. know the powers of tbo student who letters tliey were attempting to use. He who would use the Chine. imperfectly learned at their them (c).scour- memory.:. and fact of your being under- stood. laid this strike out with Take a new lesson eacli day and get you can. it as well as and ninety-six reasons —— I give lessons. will not find the task nearly so great as is often imagined. agemeut. with all the sure that the more you talk. Speak distinctly and not too are often better understood than Foreigners Chinese them- fast. not fail to learn to read. He who unconsciously continues to say a thing one way. recall lessons proper and learn them carefully until the Chinese can be given readily hy looking at the English. perhapj '-" The same characters and phrases di. and so continue untiil about sixty 5. your inind is alert to hear how Wiiea the Chinese speak their language. is not great. Having fitted yourself thus far. Mandarin. will soou special in confusion and be unable to Lis own 2.ht inontlis if steady work. Do not assume that tlie English spelling really represents the true pronunciation of your dialect. of bald. IIg who does this will certainly speak with a marked foreign brogue. It is needless to say that ability to read will be a power in the hands of its possessor. but Chinese al>out you. Cultivate assiduously the art of hc-aring how the Cliiiiese around you speak. Be content the clanger of missing some entirely by stopping short to turn your thoughts around and and do them over into Chinese style. tiiorouglily according to the Learn the radicals directions given with the Table of Radicals. and picking up others. 4. Even ladies whos': time is limited. what sound himself involved (ind lie and will presently meant to express by writing. At the same time also practice tlie aspirate exercises until you have mastered the difference between an aspirated and an unaspirated sound. 3. great scar'^ely ever learns to speak wf. committing will bring sometliing fresh each chvy. chiefly It will relieve the tedium.li. and so go on without halting or turning back. They way seem to ynu to have lost much in the process. It is worthy of remark that one who Hoea not learn to read. but they will be far more forcible to the Chinese than in the foreign form in w hich you would prefer to have them. as well as to speak. begin with the every one the e-xtreme importance of keeping his ears lessons have been well mastered. 6. so that hy the time you are be frratified to fiiul that though tliroui. Have an i liter ro. many of iiave nevertheless " stuck. Try to avoid Song ami involved sentences. the sounds. hours of study. till you have gone over one hundred more boldness. Tlie spelling.

rletniled connection in each case* 4.ely thrown away in learning. but when it tlie subse<|uently occurs in phnise. t doubt liis (if ho dialect). none of the meanings In such cases none are charfict*. dialect of the place in which on which to build a knowledge of several make it ) on it our chief business to c?'am tlie This ascs of the lessons as fast as possible. of the people. The Western mind is gi ven to reasoning and philosophizing. word see.iveii defined in the subject.d.vso to hear any new words at all. that the other reading hus already appeared and been defiiu'd.^ new words and expressions by." is an accurate knowledge of some one dialect. thf ii Wheu two or thn. but take colloquial adds to "general Mandann. with your teacher if necessary. much L<'arn as 14. Unless for special reasons. tlie of dignity to investigate the logicnl principles that underlie the is the L'ast inconsistent witli a free use of coUoqui'iI. leaving the others to bo iuferred from ihv. That meaniiifj of a word or phrase which orcnrs Sonietiines in the f/iven h-Httrm. 3. applied his to own not so tort luiale a» to Imvo If liQ tins nil guide ill write all proportion of index for ciiHes. the is jjiveii.iri. as in conversation officials or witli oducated men.^ will catch the ears style. When a character h jis two rrailin^s not nttcndetl by any cliange of meaning. fir you already k now. is first ti liis ciis'-s of syll. are Wiri-li^ are but uieaninj^s The not generally given. as adjectives aud adverbs. noted at ine:uiiii. to a character are practical equivalents. The very best foundation 15. is usually given first. in Ie*trninj. As a rule characters and confined to tlie all the leading M. in accord- is left iifter rni'. Wiioit u which f^n-nOy iinKlilica "ink" it (Joul)t fiil on which of itH inoniiin^s "" plir/iso Ih founded. are not afterwards repeated in 2. always li-ani the you leside. Seize overy new expression and appropriate it-. is worth but little pill compart'd as which with an attractive colloquial and wiu the lieart. directness and pithiness whicli the structure of the language. as every one you meet will be your teacher. 16. Tin. but for the varied with it is f. or EXPLANATIONS.\ tgo PekingCBe spellings apply equal Iv to . if not quite. shortest and surest road and faith. ft stately literary style is becoming. Kemeiuber that the chief tliinq. contaiiiH firoj)*T in n phriiHo ni<*aning.Lr from being tl.'.e moatiin^s none Lh italici£<:d When 5. In bucIi cases tlie vocabulary has not 11 H the meaning in the several parts of speech. Uy attempting Cliinese useful or effeciive. most coininou or suitable one. tin. but this is not in vaiits of everyday life. in tlieso spellings master the system of spellhty as dialect and then write them in to a syllaliary in carefully. thereforo. In preaching especially. 6. The fn-shness." are almost.r in us*h1 "fl sLructure of ho jih to in tlic exact U'lliciz'. a character Has two reatlinc^ attentlod a (litlerence of l>y the vocabulary. words and is the to success. on Hceount of tratmlfition f(.rm. and the others in order.irticular dialocb. a new langua'4e especially such an unscieiititic laiiguji^e l>on*t begin. It is a mistake to suppose that colloquial is necessarily inelegant.ah each sp'-llin"' for tin. but a space tlio li only one reading. You will learn it more easily. tlie indicates that the other reading and second reading. |)Ut gives only timt one which is most norinal to the character.ibary of diuleot. but the exercise of tiiis faculty is l. or unaccepThere are times when tible to the pars of the people. you will prosfntly ce. his will affoid It will bo found tlial a la . itt printed in italicR. Cultivate tlie habit of listeintig to tlie language of the Chinese whom yuu hear speaking.s of phrases more primitive meaning given. lias irnt yet nppeacrd. If ill vest igatiiif? it you allow yourself to fall into the liabit of passin. student sliouUi but liap-Iiazard. an elegant classical style wiili its high-sounding book pliraseolou'y. none is italicized.INTRODUCTION XXV iii. and your knowledge of Chinese will remain piacticall^^ stationary. end of the tin.indarin rneanlnj. colloquial as you can and do not be afraid to use it. LL single characters are defined in lar"s but phrases which first tlie vocabu- occur and arc j. :\ langurtge is Miemnry. they are Ijotli noted in the vocabulary when it is first defined. and you will avoid the confusion and discouragement of trying to learu one dialect while you are hearinji another. a certain amount no doubt important. writing in of n seooiul spoiling to suit the student's p. dialects.*'. the soiitence. essential to really effective public address.e most In preaching. of " general Mandarin. Do not stop learning Chinese at tlie end of one two years. 7. is The word aho definition. simply gathering the speaker's meaning in a general w ay f roni the words 17. The ance wit or uiiilt spellings in tlie vocabuUi'irs are Peking sounds. Many Chinese characters are used with almost equal facility as nouns and as verbs.

s the Northern form. ia given in parenthesis.inguac^e. Words and phrases the use of which is confined to classical or book style. and they will tend The giadiially to elevate and purify the Mandarin. man is a law unto himsMf. To pick up a lifjjitrd knowledge of colloquial. otW is The best and most lubor-saving plan to underscore the Peking spellings which prove to dialects.2 and vicinity (c. or a CeuU'aJ and . and the one on the left. In sume caaes three readings fire f^iveii. common phrases.) stands for Central Mandal)e correct. and being in Tliese parallel given on the authority of one teacher. As a consequence language^ as at present spoken^ has in it many anomalous forms and usages which are really at variance loith the underlying principles of the language. in some car tlie model of the spolcen language. a second tratisla- conforming to the other reading. answer for household or business purposes. especially that of Nanking. but are nofc equally applicable in tlie given connection. are rnai ked (\v. to all the departments of life. difficult course more dillicuifc to an English speaker than a cognate European languaue. That tliey differ slightly in many cases. the Soul hern. Chinese has generally been regard t-d as a very language to lenrn. and erase the others. language of Cliina. To give to the words and phrases their proper rhythmical emphasis. local.'s unknowti to the author.) stands for Northern Mandarin that is. Educated Chinese havy no guide in writing or speaking to the Chinese language. In talking.'nomeiiiLl 3. or at least approximately so. the wider ran"'e of use. The translation conforms to the right hand reading. (d) To ^ive the aspirates and tones correctly. . that which is spoken in 1***'^ 1*11. corrected and dignified. All words and pii rases hich are unmarked. In some cases a duplicate refiding consists of a Northern and Central. 9. To put the words and clauses in their proper : Tlie introduction of Christianity Maiulariij literature measure. it is marked (l. Wen-li. c. but to acquire a tiuent. that spoken on the lower Yangtze. If this is lin which. {b). especially in the case of not generally repeated in full. writing in tho correct done with the learning of eacli lesson. 2. and individual peculiarities abound to H j)li. There ia doubt that ultimately Mandarin. approximating.iiii*.) that is.isps for more tlio cases attention tions are only approximate. with great pains the but allow them to speak criticiztf their pupils. it will save much time and confusion on review. RAMMATICAL science has never been applied There are of course principles of construction embedded in it'.) spoken ia stands for Souther" Mfindarin. (c) . their langua-^e save llieir by pret^edeiils established the own ear and the particular usa^'rt. A is called to the matter in the no tea. in this case. These indica- some cases want nortlierly reading is considerable. is unavoidable. These tilings I regaid as important in tite order which they have just been en uu>e rated. When a phrase is local. la . The spoken language is of 4. Four things aro important iu order to speak good Chinese (a). rea. idiomatic nnd comprehensive knowledge of the I. which are arranged in order with the Northern one on the ri<rlit. These tldnj^s are a beginning. tetidt'iicy of ilia times also is towards a lower and more diffusive style of Wen4i. pref- to that which is supposed to have GENERAL REMARKS. In the subjects and vocabularies (n. every tliey choose.tKTRODUCTlON. 8. spelling. as well as the spoken. extent. and will certainly inciv:we find develope in the future. in this case. the one on the right hand i. In such wl'ich means. enriched. In China. are supposed to be t^ung-hsing. requirt-a diligent and whicli will is quite easy persevering study. wider examination vill no doubt show that some of these are also more limits of a few cases both forms are t'ung-hsinff. thought into China is and of Western giving a marked stimulus to and unsHiou schools cultivate and coriectness in speaking as well as in writing. 11' Duplicate readings. but they have never boen developed and systematized. 5. are One reading is used —en alone and then the other. is limited to tliat Shantung Eiistern (s. answeriii:.Southern— the other section nob being repr-csented. but not more difficult* than other Asiatic languai^ps. The difficulty chiefly concerns the writinif. will come to be the written. tioii. 6. but the is In all sucli to the right. little idiomatic order. To give to the words tlieir correct svllabio pronunciation. erence being of its use are infonnation. are not always to be depended on. In are supposed to ha synonymous. When the difference or less local.) that is. In the duplicate readings in tlie Chinese test. literary taste and skill have tlius far pxpended themselves almost entirely on the Wen lL Elegance in speaking Tracliprs correct WenAi t\ny \\ essays :\y f>f is and neither taught uor cultivated.

> is 2 Strokes. and in the order in which they usually stand in They are numbered dictionaries. a crook. 3 Strokes. 41 . 40 'J 1(1 fi 0111 to divine. ice. led-e. 31 ( 32 T'v? a man. a Hpooii. 37 Ta* great'. will. curve. eight. 35 Ts'weii walking slowly. A considerable number of the radicals Me contracted or modified in composition. Hun* 20 Pao* •Z\ • Ri^ 22 Fanrj^ ( H . I'J JW" 1 ( 3 Chiung' 24 Shi^ 15 Pinr/^ 16 ( f. miity. inclined to learn the order direct. The modified form form. One. ) shape and meaning. ail f inch. 38 a beucli. A is familiar wiili the Tliey will need frequent rehearsing in order to keep 27 y\ is order. associating these things to tlien proceed to learn the sun 11 d and the order. a rase. full is given in eacli case at the side of the Some forty six or seven of the radicals used only radicals as They are composition. teu. a box. cUssea according to the number of strokes in each. a roof. mull. 'fi ^t>'~** 14 Jfi* to sing the radicals Finally sing tliem over entirely 28 JL* a mau. lame. he will find that the easiest way *. die". 39 a n'ceptade. 44 a corpse. to euter. barb. guided by the charaoteis over and over until he *ii stroke to • doubt". again. indicated in the table by an asterisk (*). a hat. to cover.ii ' C * memory. 43 (a 'JWun* ) woiiiaii.iustive. weak. one. a dot.'/'i" > SiS . 29 Yin* ( ( P *E< ±)P* a a seal. daughter.i poiot. 7 ir« 110 furnish the easiest method of learning the oider. If the student uses another dialect thiin tlie gether II knife. perverse. au J which follows the table 23 *a own the spelling according to his radical ode * to 5 P'* 6 Ckiie^ Pekingese. a cliff. the Chinese albeit Each radical is spelled according to tlie Peking sound. ( 17 K'a'n? 18 Tao^ * U * * the left. upwards in order from one never number tliem. little. pass through. a sage. TABLE OF RADICALS. 34 Ch? a stq) to follow. in now being are obsolete as indepenrlent cbaiacfers. he should get a competent person to write in to learn is first 1 Stroke. The meanings given arc brief and suggestive.mTKODCCTIOJX. from forgetting them. 36 eveiiiug". two. the le^s of ) () 38 Shi* an rnclosnre. and. [upright. TN the following table the radicals are arranged in. () TT to conceal. 42 to wrap.Tigtli. The best way to I earn the radicals ( 2 JCunS 3 II) ( C/m* ( 1 I J 4 8 T'ou' ( 9 Jiri" ( A 11 Ju^* alone. a imit. icicle. iuto. a scliolar. rather than L-xli. ciiild. a swonl. * selfish. 30 K'ov? a cover. earth. 45 li sprout* . I a cover. nnd space is left for writing in a second spelling. however any one 25 :i Tlie dialect. 26 4 10 J^n' If names and Then have tliem written out on a sheet of paper and sing them over.str. son. a joint. a ladle.

to be deficient # ^ tree. L'O 64. * back to back. Chin?' 71 an axe. 69 a melon. a % catty. a day. a gourcL 99 Kan^ 62 frame. 57 Kung^ ( CkH*' H> () ( 4 59 Shan} 60 a'i* 94 a l)ovv. to produce. literatare. joined hands. c-r- grain of any kind. raw silk. Kwa} 08 Ha* 97 the heart.J01? O ( ( . ^* moving on.. zzxl 85 Sf a monntain. a shield. crockery. M to ( 117 to kill. - arcliery. ?! J to stop. 89 Yao^ 90 C/i'iang^ crosswise. a 92 Ya^ a tooth. a bushel.. vaponr.i* 6 Strokes. ^ 95 Ilsileu^ * a step. hair. compare. '' 116 bad. 103 111 77 Chfl a 100 a braocb. a 91 P-ieii* ( 93 Niu? 56 I* 58 to oppose. a 7y<^ (H inoautuin streamn. square. not. (ft - rice. do not 3 7 115 to deny. 119 83 'S/t'i* family uarae. >| * a spear. an ox. skin. Si 87 Chacfl a napkin. vicious. 'i!>i' claws. 88 * a roof. .irTBODVOTIOH. r. 121 Foil? the bamboo. . # 86 Etvoa^ workman. a shelter. to set np. ((g fire. 46 Shcn^ 47 C/i'wan^ a ( ) hill. apig'sliead. a dart. labor. or Jt) 5 Strokes. 4 Strokes. 63 Hu*' a door. J plumage. ffl 106 Pai^ Fiie" 78 rai* r"" 105 107 75 81 104 tile. wool. 109 Kiie* the moon. Shi* [a revelation ljf*yfZyfi "livineomeHj 13 114 of cIotL roll * disease. a dart. ( ''I Mu* dish. a month. * a bed. 61 water. 48 Kung^ ( „ 49 C7"'3 self. a splint* slice. a prop. 112 J Am* wood. ( &) . CV"* breath. a precious m [stone. JDl an eye. to live. (. bark. a 76 ('k'ieni to owe. father. a pole 80 a 110 the sun. sweet. I 118 Chu- 82 JIao* hair. a deu. a gem. ornament a peck. 64 Shou* the hand. Xfc Ni" a field. a cow. 96 sombre. a luiberd a lance* an arrow. withont. tender. ^ 5 1st. white. ( 50 51 Kan^ * 52 Yao^ 53 }7en» 54 55 Kun^ * small. black. P/e . a platter. to erect. ( 65 C7"i 66 P'"i * () 72 J^^ 73 74 101 to rap. 79 !>ku} to use. III ( a dog. a cave. 108 MinS to speak. 68 Tou* 70 Fang*- K 102 Tien- I"'. to tap.pointed.

177 Ki*- raw-hide. wind. strokes. a ship. gate. 166 still. 171 Tai* a mortar. a pencil. 158 S!tin color. 188 Ku' . a corner. error. 195 }'a« bitter. a coach. 131 Ch'in^ a city. 173 Yu» to oppose.-» a ( a sheep. a Chiuese mile. 169 Men^ 170 Fou^ self. ( a door. [S wiugs. pulse. precions.TNTRODUCTIOIT. * herbs. to go. the lace. 178 Wei* leather. Sfii^ to eat. 181 Yie* flsiies-* 144 Hsing^ 145 /1 146 mil clothes. 122 123 — Wan 124 YU' 125 Lao* *|n|7r a net. 164 126 tr* J rrgioii. 154 J)ei* H slioll. 18G Usiang^ iuceuse. VZl Lei* J5. IV. 128 the ear. to perceive. nnu a clomou. to arrive. 155 CA'i" flesli 150 3!sou» to "'0 to walk. to sort oat. a ghoet. 138 Kin* perverse. to. I|J 141 IIu} birds. a tripod. a plow. . i a leaf. 167 Chin> a pen. "^ tiger. herbs. to speak. 165 F/en* to pluck. plenty. 176 Mien* grass. to travel. imked.l 152 Skfl a pig. 196 101 C7. gold. u Itinl. 9 Strokes. flesh. » * to reach to. a curt. 190 Piao 191 'I'ou* 192 Ch'ang* iiigli. a fish. to qnarrel. to fight ^ 193 Li* l'J4 bone. west. 172 Chwei*' the tougne. euongh. beans. 179 Chiifi leeks. 142 Ck'»ng au insect. 1G3 I* ^ ripe. ) a mound. 143 blood. the bead. 189 Kao>- 153 C'Aat* rt reptile. 133 C/ii* 134 Chin* 135 ' SM' 136 C7? 140 Ts'ao. feathers. 182 Feng^ to cover. to rnn. 150 TTm" 151 2W a valle}'. 183 FeP- 184 7 Strokes. a horn. 139 Si* color. 174 Ching bine sky. limited. au Kwei^ 11 Strokes. to attain. the feet. old. 197 " ^ cniilo Halt. words. swiue. * liair.'4n time. wine.8 La* Ifli a deer. 168 Ch'ang* 29 Fit* 130 Jou* 132 Tal* jet. 175 no. meat. 185 Skou? the head. 10 Strokes. 137 Chou} a boat. @ mnst. ^ to fly. 147 Ckien* 148 Chiles 149 Yieni to see. 100 //«in» 1 first. a statesman. CHseuces. wrong. tlie body. rain. 187 Ma* a horse. 180 Yin?- sound. metal. o'J C/i'<» to go.

202 millet. even. ere the limit 14 ice is " passed. 16 Strokes. summed np a dot 6 6 a stroke to the you've make a upright. A RIDDLK. a tripod. 17 Strokes. 199 Mon* wheat. Two Strokes. 203 l)lac]c. and then 5 then a curve and a crook. that hides a bench and a box. 209 210 12 Strokes. 14 Strokes. 214 Tod^ a Ante. 208 Shu? a rat. just as you ought. S 28 27 26 Why 20 19 18 made by some selfish hoax. 206 mga Ck. bat the memory will retain the ode more firmly and recall more it readily thau it will the bare HOW TO One Stroke. 13 12 11 A See.» CA'i* 211 204 ZXXUl. t 53 . C/ii* 205 ^ /)'. with suggestive radicals. a mouse. THE RADICAL ODE. that seal on the cliff.INTllODUCTIuN. which labor in learning the It will serve as a coutiimoas ladder. a dra. BEGIN* i Beginning with unity. 212 Linig* frogs. s 24 concealed with ten knives means. BT REV.^on. A. 13 Strokes. 17 16 16 covering of fast. Min ^ the nose. front teeth. 213 KweP- a tortoise. Not only is the first acquirement made easier. 207 Am* a drum. and then ask the old wives. ^3721 A sword of great strength 23 22 21 A spoon in a case Divine what this is is wrapped up * in old socks. a turtle. so Bhonld let a conjtincfion end np the two strokes. a pipe. 201 Hwang* yellow. J. the student caa mount with vastly greater ease than he can climb the bare pole of arithmetical numbers. embroidery. 8 2 You next make an 4 Make And left. 200 Ma* liemp. much meaning and order of the aud ever-varying rounds. 10 8 7 Two hate on one man Enters tramp walking slyly at eight. regular. THE following ode will relieve the stndent of SILSBY. numbers. the use of one stroke in a book. 15 Strokes.

65 When you've mastered this branch of the langnage. on . Sd is S I you kuow. and some sprouts from the 46 44 43 Washed in streams by the workvien. eud nn the four ntrokes. nor 01 And £§|-|-32§:!^^ hair 84 name Through water and fire The clawd red climb on a bad 02 ihr. be snre ee 67 Yon've bnt tapped at the portal of literature. 80 7t» Deny Stop. defend he'll my father 80 Shonld never scratch n /tplint twixt it till tleatli. their defender 56 53 " M " 5 " 5 shields for the tender. viciims man. «2 ei S S slo- 3 If your heart be once pierced by a spear as yoa stand. shot from pi<j8 hill. {{{ 52 Joined hands follow Cnpid's dart. 72 71 Yet without the we could not siun's light onr wares. Fawr Strokes. keep him qnite will 54 63 Give shelter 46 51 60 49 Eut " S 39 as 37 This evening great lady. He lame.INTRoDrCTIOir. &5 J- still. 31^£\\\ 3L SUNDRY REFLECTIONS. kill not not my SSJ* prayer 38""--""£^^"^^^^ 81 Can life be • 82 compared with those locks of 83 One's family as dear as his breath is 89 8fi of a kitten. teeth. sell " 78 Why 70 S9 Though we measure with bushels and epeak of the moon with such rapture To the shade of the wood io we owe onr T7 my dove? first love. 2 . on. ouce said. 68 and catties £ oqtiares. CONSOLATION FOR AN UNFORTUNATE WIDOW. self in a napkin make orpbaus move to " J- 49 S I 57 his 58 bis footsteps S 65 bow: 60 69 don plumage head 525 53 . yonr son had a Wrap K earth's greatest mtje follows slowly to greet. 64 63 Then the door of eternity's surely at hand. Thrte Stro^A 31 so an enclosure how sweet Three smacks on the mouth 35 31 S3 S2 Which fall 42 41 40 From a roo/that was forty-one inches too small. crosftvnsc. Wbile an ox and a dog will pnta an eml to all jokes. not a corpse.

ate a some slept on Bat tiles. AN ECCENTRIC OLD STATESMAN. and of pig* a whole herd 154 153 . SAD DEATH OF TWO JEWELERS. 127 125 And 121 and crocks. • brings his mother lt. " ni» Our bamboo and told. and how sweet was 101 lOO cucumber: 99 08 They w »7 oe os Two sombre gem merchants once A erected to finish five strokes of the pen. Seven strokes we now 160 see. lOTRODUCTIOlf. they were killed by disease. he thought best drew 1.XXXV. ami dismissed Bat when tigers and insects 1" To iu disgrace. tied np with grass. 125 128 . sheep Our 120 vice. S S 1 s . /g S s travel for clothing and skip to the west. xoa was no use to live slumber their . aua a ho. Five Strokes. lance Theu an 107 103 107 the skin of the cucumber placed With % ^ H H g 7t § I lf m m 105 106 105 • 13 - now flown iff 115 110 115 S This stone./uie. Six m Strokes. dressed iau.-'twas their Wish. silk for this fool with long ears I " "Stick a pen in hh flesh** cried a boatman with hiviself jeers.'n latetul wora! sag 15'^ 151 S s S In the valley heana grow. 134 1S3 132 131 The ftatesman now arrived with a mortar^ 13G 135 The tongue that opposed him he'd smash and make shorter 539 138 187 The . 100 a dish 112 S and dart were engraved on a stone. Was 5 i «S . with red colored face. BEWARE OF THE SERPENT. in 10* 103 In dry goods rolled np. * S s "-' Stetwi Strokes. we plow on yet am and quills must be taxed as of old.i Tis high tinie to : les run from how bitter her cries I 163 a region so vile. n* divine of the foot-prints 113 As an emblem in 111 110 eye. I 124 123 122 nets. Great reptiles their precious yoang offspring are feeding m 156 S "With legs bare aud naked a lad waUca anheeding 15S 167 His foot gets a sting aud his body soon dies sfts 160 169 A coach S s 1*4 146 145 . • ^ac/cioiac/ctheywerelaid. US 142 141 ^ s w § § § ^ g s § If g § 1^ Sax "0 140 He 122 129 130 129 ^ g § s blood. a field at their ease. midst the grain in a cavernous den. boat's perverse skipper.

INTEODUCTTOIT. ili^i §§ 204 203 A will black silk emdroidery pnrchased by me. Ten strokes on a is9 isa i87 horse. Fourteen and Fifteen 210 too . Nine m Strokes.0 Fifteen were the teeth. with a bone raised on high. s 213 212 sat on a iortoiae last June. nor barn incense all day. EXPLOIT OF SOME FROGS. g § i §§ GOOD ADVICE. FOOLISH ANGER. [St'^okea. Playing Bcventcen Jluiea and that wind? up my taae. will raise in the wind. iu all 183 182 161 Fur leaves S £ s ISO 179 Or or leather. ISI^Sa:^ 193 1^2 191 Don't Jight about essences cooked in an urn. and soon canse | hira to shy. when tbey saw a big raL RESULT OF A FIGHT. m w fJleven Strokes. Where wine pluclca many victims for its SIB a mile. S mis . EigLt strokes S i«7 ! and now gold. 189 after long labor gained. Thirteen cm StroJces. Z')7 |§ 208 • But jumped on a drum. when the rain hides ^^^- the blue. m m Eleven fresh fish and a bird canght with salt 200 1»9 108 A deer which mflii eats wheat. which were lost in a fight THE DRAGONS END \S(roke/f. umtx'eii were the nottes all even in height. I sffil FLEETING RICHES. in 170 Doth open the doorway of plenty attained* 172 Bat 174 173 riches like birds. §*s ^. Twelve Strokes. S g 190 Will wear off his hair. Eight Strokes. SKg 186 186 184 weather. call a I a halt. when they I- fly far away. tm zot Twelve yellow millet stalks next yon see. Thirteeu little frogs oa a tripod once sat. m m Nine strotes on the face with a raw-hide sounds e'en with a leek. Sixt*ien and Seventeen iSixlceri dragons IT. S S s 175 If I am • not wronff. 113 Or doomed with the demons yon'll find yourself FISHING AND HUNTING. Ten StroJces. to burn. will fly quickly from yon. GOING TO MARKET. tied with hemp. Don't eat off yonr head.

and will give of if hand. a tone exercise. not aro given in illustration of was syllables. and of learning tho chime formed by these tones when given in regular order. and can chime them together to the exercises carefully means of learning tho tone of particular words. because in some cases it impossible to find characters agreeing iu tho different dialects. A tones. This will soon be ache has an average eat*. but as a means of acquiring the special intonation peculiar to each tone. and the modifications m^do by composition and collocation are best learned from ^^ which the table is Some syllables seem to be repeated. iis they occur irt the course of the lessons. TONE EXERCISES. abundant syllables are originally deficient in The few of these are given. or until syllable The student should go overthese words and sentences. No phrases tones of tlie several strict attentioa to the business in because this is tlie not considered to be the most profitable method of study. stand iu this together in sense. which for times. The tones of particular words are besb learned in connection with the characters taken fceparately. Two tables are given. one 01' Many more intended. npHE following tone^xercises-are nob intended as a with bis teacher a number of ho can give and clistinguisli each tono with certainty. gi ven complished his teacher.INTRODUCTION. All the are syllables represented in tho table. one for Northera and one for satisfaction Southern Mandarin. but the 1 1 u ra ber of syllables given are the purpose for shows that in another dialect the divides into two. phrases as Every lesson they is. NOKTHERN TABLEPill nf If ii ^^ ^ 1^ g ! ^ . majority are not.

/ # ^" fla M m \^ 2: lis ^ SJ ^M % m ]?^i 3^ hi ^ ± P m ^ mm^m \^ \i\ Hi ft (.? m B INTR0DUC7n05. n . M /i . E 11 J : ' fit ^SI !|1^^&5|| ii if I SOUTHERN TABLE.^ m m.

INTRODUCTION xxxix S mn^ ^5= 5^ a n m m . II 13 * 4^ 18 m ^ © [IR 11 t .

the tone of the two means and the whole of course are It is the position of the tongue. clitilculty difference.iking In all is being The student should go over this table repeatedly with his teacher.^ . ^ ^ 23111 412111334211111 3 1 4 4 2 4 1 1 1 3 . except those which are specially marked. TN order to facilitate the acquisition of the distino- characters is the same. few syllables capable of tion.iHTRODronoir. that makes the not amount tlio Let the student get a clear apprehension of what aspiratioa syllable bi'eath. dialects a lies should be specially noted by the student. that mere the distinction are the aspirate or the the distiuclion of aspiration acquired. FORTH ERN TABLE. lb tiou. table gives all the syllables to which the distinction applies. Some syllables seem to be repeated. thns eliralnatlng this complioa* I between aspirates and non-aspirates the following tables of exercises have been arranged. whilst stress or force of voice is not necessarily aspiration. unaspirate. - — V 3 1 1 3 1 4 ^ ^^ 4# . carefully imitating his pronuiicia- In general the greater danger in not aspirating strongly eaough the aspirated so and. deficient Tbese either in m . vanishes. In all casos. which is caused by the splitting of the of by a different dialect.1 1 2 3 1 S 3 3 1 4 1 4 4 1 1 3 3 1 3 i 3 311j 4 2 Sfi 3 3 4 4 1 1 1 1 441 4 11 3 ^^ ' 1 1 2 413444411 133 —6 1 '0^ ||2 1431444444414 141 1 Ti ^ 1 1 /(^ m m 4 1 n BOUTHEBN TAHLIC. not given. It was found impossible to make one table answer for both Northern and Southern Mandarin hence one tioii Each is given for each. ASPIRATE EXERCISES.

s Chien . ohhhhhhhh Ma . The points of departure from the system of Wade Sir Til OS. Fiual is U when Final ii are briefly as follows :— chauged to oa. 3. 31513 5 145131814145 54 5 xVi. 1.a i Ch'ien b Chwaa Chin b Ch'waa Ch'in b . so that ssii Yeh and yen and yu are changed to and y iu. t 4414444 13 3 5 5 1 454451534 3 4 ^ 54111311 5 S ^ 5 4 5 13 4 1 2 3 1 2 5151113134 5 ^ 114141 5 311 fEKING SOUND TABLE. are both changed to i.a n Ch'ing Ch'wai Chwang (o Ch'waug c . changed to uen. is N^ N i» n 5.INTKODUCnON. changed to w. 2. is si changed to s and tz and tzH becomes tsu to fs. followed by a vowel and fiual iA 6. i/ien 7 tian N . 4. Ss becomes n tS' See remarks at the end of the table.a Ch'ie Chwa bo Ch'wa ^0 cccccccccccc^ CCCCCCCCCCCQC AAAAACCCCCCCC h hhhhhhhhhhl^hl^ Chwai . Ch'iai Chun Chiang Ch'un Ch'iaug Chiioa Chiao Ch'uoa g Ch'iao a Chie . Final h is is ijie and discarded in all cases.a U f §n Ching . The following List of Syllables represents the application of the new system of spelling to Peking dialect.

xliL D r a ou a I e.GA^OOQaaa NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNOO^P^^^P^P^ a ^ ei LLLLLLLLLLLLL^LL^^^MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM 1 ^ a-eAC*GAC o s 3 S 8 i- s 8 8 s ppppppppppppppppppppppppsssssssss^s^s 1111] .IKTRODUCTIOIT. ^ . B a nnS Usttea ilsue 1^ Jiv.

yeh. tieh shonld be spelled yieh (oj\ dropping the y/e. In the 1. viz. The Ohinese in Peking as elsewhere regard etc" as having the same final as The syllable yen is the only one wiih simple .INTRODUCTION.) The i is iudeed to a cousiderable extent occluded by its uniou with the cognate initial y. Of 2. is but in any given dialect it is better to adhere to the one or the other throughout.swati Q a VI .1 na -m s > . "it the fiual is ei in some i ia ui Sir tones. xliiL w Tie M Ts'a a T'ie M Tsei T. points to the conclusion that ei is the normal soiuul aud i the Moreover a discriminating anatonal variation..snng V ..a 1^ f a . yet analogy indicates its presence. It belongs in fUc5 . Chinese teachers also when they comprehend the idea of classifying sounds 2 3 * will not fail to classify these finals together. If Wade had given atteuciou to these facts he might have avoided making a distinction between Pekingese and other dialects which does not really exist. fact that in other co^uate dialects says say the difei the prevails very largely aud io some entirely. en as that its it final wliicli liken-ise raises a suspicion also is misclassified. indicates that it and in some tones it is quite discernible. . first edition la snbstitating exception was made by i ui\ of w (that for u is in is for u an u was followed In this edition the adoption It is conceded that made ueither letter in case the w nniform.a r3 i 1hhhhhhhhhhhbhi6*e*eiouwnwwwww a o be (a fc a o ^WWYYYYYyYY\YYYY^^ STTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT ssssssssssssssssssss <a . eqaally applicable in all cases. of itself raises the snspiciori that it is misclassified.. etc.c 00 TITTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT g e be s . The fact that final ek (not preceded by aa intermedial vowel) occurs iu only one syllable.a T. is to Wade Now ei is tonal. lysis will I thiuk sliow that the final soimd iu (hui) I 2 3 that iu (kuei) /^i 4 is 2 not really different from 3 * or that in (lei) i So far as any difference exists it is merely a matter of less or more tonal variation between i aud ei. The analogy of ?nieh.1 an i * o ^ KiflMARKS. Sir Thos.e s Ae s s 1^ o JC3U s o s s a i we <s s . Iu most of the dialects of central and soiitheru Maudaria the i is often quite nnmistakealjlp. Ueh. 3." that ference as between and i Thos.

made iii Pekiug is heard m indicated by Sir Thos. tu. represents a sonncl which same Mandarin Pekiag in dialects. pien. bsiu etc. two eiidiugs are Mandarin the ideatical. reached by Of the fiuals iu ien and nan Sir Thoa. mien. Wade's power of i finals are my Peking " as in ih. with lien. more is being merely the effect of slight distiuction is perhaps really i in no distinction 'J'he coiiclasioa the same was lu this opinion I r*oiuci(le and have accordiugly made the change.. etc. still the uormal aud the other is the variant. together with all raental syllable is All of the fauda- whose funda- nakuown. it whether the remaiuing sounds of the and shoald uot follow the is class. to justify I have. AO CI lai Cliiiu All CI Cli'an by fifth Chang ." In some of the dialects of Central Cliiua the t is by no means " faiat. chicle. is iu this a difTereut spelling. Syllables are pronounced so as to bring out the ike n (li??syllable. viz. NANKING SOUND TABLE. and should be spelled yim. different either theoretically or practically.IKTRODlTCTIOTf. The t is of course largely occluded iu practice.. min. other opiaiou in central aud southera Maudariu is that Sir Thos. Wade's ho k'o and ho. Thb following list application of the Nanking Dialect. The i is of course occluded by its nnioa with y yet analogy shows that it is there ami iu some tones its presence is clearly reason that the distinction between them perceived." chio. his final for i) U the u and n. distribiUioa of the different Iu soathera regarded as ful investigation strange uuder these circnmstances that he did of advisers after very care- ally the u7i. aud further that the two have the same peculiarity 6. Practically Chili out of Peking. Benta the sonnd contniuing it new system of indicates the existence of a fifth tone. allowed ir. the two that but certainly uot such a city. with regard to the final so and. spelled the addition of h to the regnlar spi^ilin^. question same is is this change. it re|)re- w. distinction as is description of tlie Oa the same principles yu should be spelled The concensus of opiuion in central aiul soutliera dialects 1ms always been that this final is aualogoas with lia. "Wade says that in some femes ien changes to ian and that in some tones iian changes to iien. whilst both analogy ami usage indicate that the ending which case is is also in the other is normal and that iu the one in both cases this Chinese scholars when they aiidorstaud en. I however. practic- in concensus of the point will not admit that the two eudiugs are have is questiou. followed him raakiiig in luive since felt that not spell them both en or both an* The fact that we have a uuraber of fimil ie and a number distinction where there filial strong- iie but no fi presumption ual ia or tia. Goodrich has changed Sir Tlios. Seo remarks nt the end of the table. etc. V. It seems very and coraparisou. A differing initials. same tones and not uu- different dialects one but the fact dialect. thing." I have iu this second edition In.. but shoald not be dropped out of the writing. viu. Eot with freneriil mu. a no real difference.. tien. to ke. aud /e "as luore accnriitely representing the Pekiug sotiuds. because more accurately vowel force of u J of syllables of sound h to a syllable tones which raodify the spelling racntal syllal»le. Wjide says it is better written iXin. viz. xliv. Ia his Pocket Dictionary. oi'tcii Tlie tliau makiiii^ the syllable afl'litioti All fi2 Ai represents the spelling to the U is retained. lisien. that general Tlie it is of it : " It is inflected as if an / very faint and rapidly prononnceil intervened between case snffioient been Wade's final corubiued ia aud ih one (viz. to stand uuchaD«^ed. imaginary thau real. sn. albeit I probably introducing]. creates a very tliat en amongst the two endings varies much iu freqneatly in the romuiiis that tlie the normal sound is The and an the toual variation. 4. are inserted in alpha- betic order." Whether the difference between Pekingese and other dialects Sir Thos. Dr. Final 7. The rule. 5.. tin.

IISTTRODUCTION*.m i Kill a K'iu n bo o & r K^ing n a Kioh nn a K'ioh . Chao h Kia K'ia Cb'ao Chan i Ko K(o— Ch'an. K'ieing h u bo "u a . Kieing h K'iein.aa Kueia h Kieih K'nein K'ieih . Cheug ^0 in Knai Cli'eug K'uai Cbeo Knau Ch'eo K'nan Chi— 5£ Kuaut 1 Ch'i— g Choh bo K'uau Knan- 1 K'uau Ch'oli ChODg Kuei h Cli'ong K'nei Clm— IT Ch'a— Kueh K'Lieh Cli'uai Kuea i " Chuaa g Ch'uaa E'lang Kii Cimang Kiao K'ii— K'uen K4ao Kiiei In Kiaa K'iiei— h K''.h 1 Che— U * Ch'e— 1 ^0 Kong K'uug Ku— Chea Ch'eu K'a .m Kioug h1 K'ioug Qs 'iig o - 1 g a 1 Ae i •m .-^ Cli'aano: ) h h Kiein.

. ami will be a very great ailvantnge in case of removal to anotlier dialecf. cspnciiilly when Ml'wiug i.lie tab In iicconling to the If Htmli'iils of Nannsajie of fjonernl Matnlarin. are con fiweil iiiul I. ^ h Tsiiug 1^ R. Final n and wy. In Nanlcinir. initial n and I am not distinn. it wiildotlieir Naukiugose qo barm. Some of the people say I and some and itll arc nuconscions of the (Hffi'rciice. Ts'6ug Si" h 'San Sang ^ — Sao Tsi Hiia— Ts'i— REMARKS. or in couversiujj with persons from Uie Nm'tli or West. Both Bylliil)li-s are given in t. kin^'i'se will tuko puinH to acquire tliis distinf-tion and keep it up. n table general Miiuiliiriu. 1. auii . gnislii'd. T T'lao P'i— ^ Piao Ting P'iao T'iug Pin Till Pin To— Ping T'o— P'iDg Tong Po— T'ong P-o— Tsai Pn— Ts'tri P'n— Tsan Kan i5s . Both in tlie aainn maniiei' iis are given in sytliil>los aocunliiig to the uwige ot' initial tin. g RuSn ^ 1 Tb'aii— Tseii .io g Retii J Ts'an I Rang »0 h Ts'aiig Tsao Reh ^^-^ Ts'ao > ^ - Tsan— Rih h Ts'ei— Roh ^ Hfea ^ RSng Reo Roug Rn— Rnan Riici tl ^ ^P^^^^^WWWW^WYYYYYYYYYYYYYYY h Tsei— ^ Tsein Tseing 6 D Ts'ein Ts'eing Tseh Ts'6h 1 .lITTRODUCnoir. 2.

The balance of opinion is in favor of writing it hi. Personally I hoar the souud rather e than L All ^ xlvil the other syllables with this final. for the and same reason as ia the case of initial I n. e. are confined to the fifth tone and become e/«. 3. KlUKIANG SOUND TABLE. but rather a soaad between en and en.INTRODUCTION. 4. There is a differeuce of opinion in Nanking" as to whether and should be spelled with e or c\ The oMer spelling is the newer. save which inc lines strongly to eh. 5st Ai ql Chwgu Hii— Kieili All Cli'wen Huug K(iei Cliang Cliwoan Hwai Kiea Cli'aug Ch'woaa Hwang K'ieu Chao r H wan Kin Oh'ao rta Hwah K'in Chan— u Hwei Kiug ^ Ch'au— a Hwen Hwoan K'ing I— K'ioh *^ Kui Kin Ch*ei u K'ai K'iii Cheiu u Kan K'iutig Ch'eiu a K'aa Chgu u Kang Ko K'o— Ch'ea a K'ang Ku— Clieo— «s Kao K'a— K'ao Kung K'au— Kah K'ling [P] Chah Ch'ah Ac Chei S eo— CIn— a Cli *u Ch'i— % *6 Choh AG Gh'oh o K'wang P K'eo Kwau Ki— K'wan s K4— Kwah s Kiai K'wah s Ch'u-h 8 Ch'wang K'waa ^ dhii— ^ K6 Kwang s s K'iang K'wei Chwah s Kiao K wen s K"iao K'WrQ s Kiau Kwoaii s K'iaa K'woan Chwei G^C Ch'wei LLLLLLLLLL^LL^LLLLLLLMMMMMMMMMMMMM Kwei s Chwau ^ Ch'wah ^ MMMMMMNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN K'wai K%ix s Ch'wai ^ K'ah I Kwai Keo Chnng Ch'nng Ohwang # Kioh INNNNN . Filial hi is not so clearly i as iu Pekinf^ese.

wit Y>.a qp TV Olll Piao ^ Ts'uau s tJi-J — Pi-h P'iao s s Si on iolcil ^ Tsoau 61 I"— 11 — Siei Peo P-i-li 'J's'o PFPPPPPPRRRRBRRERRRSSSSSSSSSSSSS d P'eo s ts Cl ouxo PVn Tso-h Tsnug U •1' n: s Ts'uug i P'ei Peu Ts'i 611 ~a iZ. hut still is deci lcilly not ch ti3 licjinl 4. ling s Yang s Yao s Yiui— s Yei 11 J — i It Toan >r Pai T'oaii T'ai Tsui ^ P'i. especially ia aspiiMtcs. ^ Shwoan ol s s ct eu Oil n U— tl 1 Pah s T\ but the dialect. niiikes t\\o gi'iieral li. Ii s Smig I Wu— i6n P'ien ^ s Wuug lien Pien .se. bh a wlidlc.t Na aog tin— 11 — P'an m 1^ Pang Mr b 1 1 U"~"ll P'ang S n rom Pao on waug^ bjo ^ £10 cr 111 P'ao Shwan— Pan— on wan P'an— sill VCC^^ till m P'ah - Pei a 7 Tnog s T'nug Wai — — olon to H K "Wei s lei— 11 ISlil s Wo— s Wi:m Soau s Yai Ac. Fiuul d.'<l fiiml in is 1.sIvuL nm^oDucxioir* i" Shei 7 Shein Pai u Sh^Q P'ai g Pan . esji'edully iu the uulive city. Tlin becomes prnol syllalile ioall}- ch.iii(lariii. the most part tlioy are distirigiiislied in tlie siiiiie way as in general Miui'iarin. Willi respect to fimil n iind «_</. I 111' ii same distiuction hat t is made iu K before i approximate ch. l)c so writloM. ill piirhiciiliir. in'iiprictT. }1] M. or &li ia cunfiucd to the 6th loaa . Initial hnt. in Wan— TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTmi- Si ^ ifA P'ieih P'inr? s s 11 lU So— {:w s Wan Waug s 11 Sin— Ih ^i) Pieih Pin 6 ii eo 1 . for nH ( (1 exclusively. linul #(17 ilisiippi'iiriii^' I'lilirely Biiiil in 1111(1 itifj :ir' cmil'iisft'l to some extent. It'iiiniu aii'l ia might.1 o Ping i li s Veo— s Yiea Yin f s Yo— Tan 'IVai T'aii Tsau s TS a 9 t I and n are occasionally coiifiisc(."g P ( kiiigi'. 2. syllables in an atiil ang are gi'm'nil I'v ilistiii iiisli.

e JSC LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLMMMMMMM . who has arranged the syllabary as here given. chien^ auo The tcrmiuatiou is is not as distinctly but tends more or l(^'ss towards especially the case with the syllable is iu fact ren.a a M u . This en.a . Rev.!? w w AAAAACCCOCCCCCCCOCGCGCCC w HHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHIKKKKKKKEKKKK w KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKLLL ^^^ w a . It is so regarded by native scholars in Kiukiung.INTRODUCTION. Judging Iroin amiJoj^?' it looks as if it were rather tbe Kiukiaug lutxliHcatiuu of eA.n. as in Pekingese. . and clear 11. Iu the syllables xlir and quite different from same class.a o M J . It is a singular fact that nearly all 5tli tunes iu e/i uie without a fuudameutal syllable..u m w w p. D ^ AB E r — i o be c 31^ ^ ^ u u .a ^ ^ C u C 'U 'iien ^ . In tact the diii'ereuce between Bad is expressed by ren u the syllable A aud re. J. IB pecnHar to the Kinkiang dialect. A. otliers of the <M G c • o 6. ui( t. D.a n . et.. as heard iu other Soutlieru Mandarin dialects.D. regards it as the 5th toue of syllables in ui.lie vowel is a full 5. which i^uen the u is quite sliort iiud cannot be represented by w. Hykes.

I. Imrd sounda are all pure hard— . 1.lisli 2. t leinpiitury lii'iiii. Tli" ttouuds alsu depiiit less fruui normal somihIh tlinn those nf till' only P]iij.clciirnnrfs with wlii(-li they are (iistiiiyni^liril.INTRODUCTION.' Tlie most Mjindarin dialectH aoiiud in it not liuard in tt. Tlio (liulect "f Tfiii^rchow is ri>mnrkal)Ie i'or the snmll iiiinilx-r of itH Hvllaliles anil for tin. sang Isan Sao Ts'an Sei Tsang Se < 5i Sea IS ^ Tsao Seng Ts'ao Sha Tsei 5haug Ts'ei Shao Tse Shi Ts'e Shie Tsea XI Shien ^ Ts'aiig Ts'ea Shin Tseng Shing Ts'eng Shin Tsi Shoa Ts'i Tso Sbunj ^ MMMMMMMMMMNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNOPP Shii Ts'o Tsoa Shiie ^^^^^^WWWWWWWWWYyYYYYVYYYYYYyYY ^m^^^Tm^^TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTllTTlT Shuic Ts'oa Si Tsn S So Soa Tsung Sa Ts'nug Sang Tswa Swa :r. Ts'wil 1 Swai ^S ^ Ts'a Tswai m T.s'wai S w„i Tswau S - Ts'wnn S ^il Tswaug T Ts'wang T Tswei T 'IVwei KEMAIilvS.

and are confined. 4 The di)ul)l<> readings. and the terminal iou Hen changes in the 1st and 4tli tones to ilan. however. aud the abseuce of admixture of other dialects.EF R -u e ^ Ac K'wan 1 :u cd( Kwei K'wei Kwen n:? 1 O i ^ . the former to and the latter to aud oae or two other characters. the comparative isolation of the promontory. Pekingese has more tbaa tea times as mauy such & variiitious. K'tt Kiian Jr e Kiiaa e Kliin to *e o K'uiQ o Kiioa HHHHHHHHHH ^ o J a J K iioa Kwa K'wa a a FFFFFFFFHHHHnHHHHHHHH H a H ^ H u §a H 6 H . due to accidental Tbis is. nor sliowiDg no tendonny whatever towards cA does k whcu i'ollowed by % or u. from analogy that en is the normal sound. terraiaation in ^ so ^ a n shows a strong tend- n. 3.2 H u H g a a g n n Kwai w Kwai wo Kvvau K'wan :u ^ ^h^hhhhhhhhhhhhbhhhhhhhhh ACCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC. In some tones of certaiu syllables the final o is quite distinct. however. show auy tendency to cliaugi* to hs.tiised in N D TA B E Hw be bo a .a is iit* The termimititin ten changes in the 1st and 4th tones to ian.INTRODUCTION. 7. Tlie syllables cli'Ueu aud siiiiin are straysouuds from some outside dialect. It is iinport. are very few. no cloabt". tine to variation.ru KVen p bO 5? ^^^^KKKKKKKKKKKKKK ^ bo a e HHHHHHHHH Daaaa-ee^ bo to D r a i 1 a to K Oi5 . which need uot be into rec()<. The 5. 8. It is evident. The predtuninaut sontid. aud an the tonal variation. k tends to pass ieng S a tuiiul variation a table of souiuls.aut for the learner to take especial note of the fact that k aud k followed by are pruiiouuced as if a y iiiterveueJ bei or tween the consonant aud the vowel. In the 1st and 4th tones ing^ after ch and 6. 3oth ch und sk are pronounced quire :ih they are in Eui^lish. H ency to pass into or io.

5|-^\^-11:^^115-^ ing Tsc'iig Ts't-ug ^ 'I'sren Ts'ren TsCo Ts'6o Ts'iei gs<r^$ii: Tsr6nr to Tshi Ts'rfiug w Ts'hi Tsi-fio no e T n T Ts'rCo Tsh'ian Tsri 'I'sliiang ^s ^ a I 'I'shiau ^ 'l"ci T6ng Tsli'iang lt| Tshiao .-53. a T'i Tsh'ia n u Tian Tshing DS o T'iaa Tsh'ing Tiao Tshia T'ia Tsh'ia n Tie Tshinng m T'ie Tsh'inng o Ting Tshii o T Tsh'U s L" sssss^^s^ss^ o 1^ X Inj ook? nS Tia Tsh'tiaa ToS TsbUia a T'oa Tstloa ei Tsa Ts'iioa Ts'a Tsi ) i sssssssssrrrrrrrrr S 1 ^ an be BP an n i . K ^ ^ Ts'aug ^ Ts'ran s Ts'ao Tsrao Tsei Ts'rao Tsen Tsrei T g Ts'rai Tsran Tsao jl^^ ^ &^ ^ o ^ w n wo w ^ Tsaug s n o ^0 bo s T T T n Tsai ei s n . ) f> s T'Sng Tsli'iao Teo Tshie T'6o Tsh'ie Ti Tshin . Ts'rl Tsroil- Ts'roa .i s n ^ n ffo o i n Ts'i Ts'ai Tsra o -a Tsan Ts'ra Ts'an Tsrai .1 ^ |^^|::-„¥^ essss ^^?^"5<^^. lii.INTBOBUCnOH.

2. ang^ ao. shoo aud yoo have been spelled with oo instead oiu as better representing the sounds. ch'en and shen show a strong tencienc}' towards chin. Sn. Iq the talk of the people of Chungkiug such would seem to be truly aud soimds as This is also the case represented by rei and The difference 5^. ou (eo) and od (o) iu Peking are preceded by ng in Chungking. but lies between il aud u. In final en the sonud of the vowel is obscured by the sti'on"' nasal. 6. aud as t is regarded as the true sound thesd • . ch'ing and shuig show a' similar teudeucy towards chhig. L and iVare almost always interchangeable. and more readily Learned by the begiauer. one set having simply s and aud the othtr set modified by r. la both cases the pounds are really admixtures of the clear i of the district to the east. etc. The foli"»wing remarks concerniug it were also prepared hy this committee : 1. m T T weu I i T U Ts'mig U WYYYYYYYYY ^'^a _I Y No character. The syllables cken. ch'in aud shin. A number of characters represented by i ia Pelciugese are Ni or Li iu Chnugkiug. always followed by i or ii whilst H aloue is never followed by i or IX. ch^oo. In the syllables chil. used iuterchangeably on tbe being sometimes same character. The j of PekiM.2:ese is a decided rough r ia Ch nugkiug. Pin. one taking hy aud the other hs the former embracing characters read h/ in Sonthera Mandarin. The characters under the Pekingese initial f(s divide into two classes. 6. Mandarin 1. Both spellings are giveu iu the table. Tsra ^ TVm TsruDg Ts ( M Tsrwa . Y Y Y Y wwwwwwww Tsrwai Tawaa i Ts'rwai Ts'wan n Tsrwang Tswei n Ts'rwang Ts'wei >rj REMARKS. ts as iu other dialects. and the syllables ching. baviuir s aud ts 5. Ck is sometimes heard with these syllables by men from other parts of the province. All final ris are nasal. Tun are included Tun and 8. eiy e. The sounds choo. Tsh represents a sonud which is neither It is ch nor ts. so as to be in acccrd with general raaudariu usage. ch*<'ng and sheng. this ck is changed to «. 7. 3. ii is CHUNGKING SOUND TABLE. The sounds nnder Ten and Ten as being practically the same sounds. 7. The following list of syllables represents the application of tbe system of spelling to the dialect of Chuugkiag. Ckhi. 4. so that it is difficult to tell whether it si Id he written en or en. ch'il and shil the not pnre. sei aud with the sonnds is largely dne to the tones of the two characters. 2. ou (eo) i. 10. Syllables which in most other dialocts begia with iuitial s aud ts. with the g or ^ of the region to the west. There is a difference of opiuiou as to which ia the better writing. an. Where the initk ck followed by the vowels and the a. Ell of Pekingese becomes Fu iu Chnugking. is ). od (t ) u (except letter w and the final ung (in Chnugkiug). Tsrwei Tsweu Ts'rwei Ts'weu Tsii Tu Ts'ii T(ii liii. are in Wei-Iiieii divided into two sets. 5. and both are e(^aally auderstood. and the latfcer those read si. bat a combination of the two.INTRODUCTION. 6. The final g of Pekingese is not sounded ia Ghhi. 4. syllables with the vowels e and i as l"in. but is given difi'ereutly by different Chinese. It was prepared by a committee appointed by the missionary coramnuity in Chungking. so that the n is scarcely audible. The syllablts spelled ai. 3. 9.

Ta'en Kwan ^:-. Taang Ch'ang.Tiiwftn H K>ea Lie Ko Lien Oll'WM Ch'ie Ch'iea Lao Isiw Chie Cliien ^ Kao I ^ ( Ti'wan 1 fJhwiinjf 'l Tnwftng \ ( h'wnnjf n tt:5. are sounded without the h though it is retaiued in some other districts of Si-chuan. Tsao Kwauj II Hwei Hw^ Hwun Fu Fnng Kw'au Kwei Ha Ch'ei. A or . an = Ch*a. to that ill 12.Ts'aug & •e Hsii Kil e Hsiie K'n Hsiieu Kun^ HsiliQ K'ung 8 (I Chwun \ \ 'i Tswun 451 Ch'vvnn Ta'wuu J5 Ch'ao. Ts'ai # Chwei. Tsai Ch'ai. characters have been included nnder rk aud se peemg to fairly give tlie sounds of both therefore wo is omittetl iu the tal>K». Ts'aii Chang.Ta'wfti Hsien Ren Liao CIiwivn. Tsfin Ch'ung Ch ^ T Er Chai. / Cha.T?rrHODUcrnoN'. Ts'ei = Kw'ei Hai Ea Kw^ K(a K'we Kai Tn'ung Haa Hang Hao K'ai Kw'aa Cheo. Te'eo Ch'U m K'an Lai Lan Lang -J^ Ch&.^^5^1 Chi Chile Hen Kang Ch'i Ch'ue Ho K'aug Cbia ChUeu Hsi Ch'ia Cli'iien Hsia K'ao Leo Chiai Chiiin Hsiai Keo La Chiang Cb'iiin Hsiang K'eo Chwa. liv. Tswa Hsiao K& Li Chiao Chwai. Taeo Chu Heo KaD La Ch'eo. Chi "s^ . While tiie-e two characters seem to deimnd something more than o. jiud respectively. Te'ttO Che" T&ei Hii anil Kwa Fn Himg K'wa Fan Hwa Kwai Fang Hwai K'wai Fei Ilwau Kwan Feo Hwang Kw'arj \^ Fa F6d Chao. u K'o H . 1 J. Ki or K6. Tsa ^ . Tswai Hsie K'6 Tjiang Cb*iao Ch'wai. all syllables commenciug with sh in Pekingese. Taan Ch'an. Tafe Ch'6 T" Ch6D. the to is not equivalent or or j^. en. With the exception of slioo. Ta'a J S Chan.

far as possible the . This chart shows in detail the relation of the several dialects to each other. The foregoing five tables are combined in a comparative chart in colors and inserted as a frontispiece.I 2U 10^ K A ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ±- 1^ ITTMilTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNO-^P^P^PPP PPPFFPPPPPPFPFFFFFFPFPFPPRRK^B aaaaae*eAehioun RKRRRRRSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSS^TT ^ ^ 4? w w A g ^ w Es WW a (a a 4 Ts'a Tsai Ts'ai COMPARATIVE CHART. and its prinling considerable expense. So same key characters have been retained thronghont. The preparation of the chart has entailed much labor.

» ±E > n ml '" m ' . ±b fl* n/L Z -II- . ' fa ml -> rtA- > /«» Z. . m ia z .^ ^. . A HE rrn Till IJ 5^ "J.HH. /K 7C RJ ' "HT RJ M rta . • . P M z .

.. —- #" IT- Mr . • 1 . At A. / 1 n r It t y — .* ' X •4- '. ' • —111-* J.ft .? M Ik* . > * * . - • . -A * fc m ' Jtt m m . m S . . i • A . H'J Z 1 • _» . . * in 1 f.. . > . jtfc . n/L.+ . > . m . A— . > if .- i ' . . • E3 .11.m vmt 1- |p a : o . . . . ' . —1^ .

^- g ^.^ =^^|5^^>^^ . 3 g: 1^. . ^— ^ ^^^jg^ jsH 1 ^ M z. ^ ^ I g .m ^ ^ i > .^ ^ .^ ^ Affl ^ 411^ ^ > I > > > . ^ ^ gj ji^c^^^^^ jf ^> Alj if M ^ gj Hf ^ . .

hear a sound correctly yon tones at but try to get them from the very start. 6." Take especial pains to acquire Listen very carefully When you can things you ought to know when of Chinese. especially the "Explanations " and "Advice commencing the study 2. your teacher. teacher cannot distiDgnish the tones as such get some one to teach him. Get it off on all occasions. 4. Do pay every student of Chinese is to learu the radicals. system of spelling as applied 8. and the best time to learn at the very ontset. If yonr Practice on the tone table will be time profitably spent. no matter . who hears or who laughs.MANDARIN LESSONS. will generally be able to speak it correctly. You to Students. It will them 6. Suggestions to the (Stuknt L Begin by reading over the introduction carefully. so that good working knowledge of the Do not begin to spell at random* jou may bear the soands correctly.— Do cot neglect the first. not be afraid to use what you have learned. many will find there to at the very ontset a to jonr own dialect.

The General There is in Chinese a large class of words joined with substantives as classifiers. These etc. but classifier such as express time.some Bort of affinity. Tico fir*»t tlio name ihe at once the wliole. to nlrnofet nnuu. on wliicli the In general.-ed indeiiiiiiely. Ofteu read lu^ by literary men. A Seven. to the of of : a unit the general ziz. one n few Hltle. no dtfiiiito directions cuii he given for the use of : — • I prefer llio U'rm r/a-'tVi". of 4 Four teachers. is Vocabulary. 5 Five ladies. Classifier. Three thrice. Pidgin Eiig li^h bus suiuined up the wljole class in the one word "piece. J^u*. 8ub. each noun litis classification is based." Thus. illustrated such at day. The present lessou is be called the general such nouns as have It no special upon occasion. Nine." is the ki*' . Eight./^h". "one piece "mn. tivt* . two stalks of corn. which is Mill t'ir'. a fixed classifier. a perfect number. Ono. especially space. . yeiir. Six. m-mkiml 52. 6 Sis pupils. 7V. liuuKiu ii pcisoa . Til 8 Seven characters 7 Two men. women. a loaf of bread. they may be translated other cases they are uiUranslatoble. The only adequate rule is catty. as. 2 person. sinpflo cliissifiur A i7*»V'. : /'. aud lie net* have been by simie culled numertttivttf. Ch'i^ Slii ^ Also read sa* around. as in tlie next lesson. these classifiers. 10 Ten school rooms (or Eifjlit doors. the sccotiil a couple. there being. ^ ii 11 . Tiro hiang^. nouns take a a in inch. 13 Thirty days are a month. 9 01k ifioTfs Eleven cash. 7Vn A man —Les. an. etc. : number u pair. 3 Three o 1 |)1 One 1 Nine months. [I'( tlic San} answi'iiiig See Sub. vidnniity. thus we say. It is the only classifier that can be applied to ail abstract noun. as a substitute for the special The idea of hence is mere tliat of iiuli t(» and any classifier.o f Translation. fifti'ii Forms nn n(]j''c- One (lie a few /*r*. English a some what similar usage a flock of slieep. »See soDiewliat roinpurisoii teriniiiit"''" Erif^li^li er. a paue of glass. cardinal - - . coinpletp. 11 0 schools) 12 Twelve months are one year.^ Beyoijd this merely negative rule. Wheu used alone a is always as in (22). and its abbreviated form is it is . and by far llie most. though a few nouns li ave two We huve in the case of a few nouns iu or more. Si^ Fonr all ir"3 Five L/u*. It is often written Qj. because thcsu worila are only •rljunct to the niattiT of ciiiinieralioii. En^lisli cquivaleut of Classifiers are only used wheu u defiiiite number 18 Bpoki-n of. ihe two words togelhcr meuiiiiig some* u. a AT". these classifiers happen to correspond to siinilur in all furms iu English. Thuir primary oUice is to clrwsify. or quantity ounce. length nsaore. mile. applied is classifier.'cteiJ by Ihc proper nuiuuraU. ilouble u lud of mlver.r. classifiers uumber be will of future lessous. may be regarilt'd iS" As the plural of Midi it is joined with cJd^ ami JJjJ na*. be applied inaf/y which may- limited to classifier. |i1urtil a. (23) and (24). extensively used u£ its class. It ofteu preceded by one. real or imaginary. Ch". Most concrete some do not. a few ftu outlet*. When a piece of work.

a door an opening a profesan occupation a class. to to he ^1 a teacher. six cash. a wife. a wife human a lady " to excite A early Wife Wife to beget live. K ^ . of an educated man Note sion is so.1 02 ^ 04. ftX room . 14 Seven days are a week. a ceremony.as by a cord a string of cish. a day God. Tiao^. a Niaiig^. to all educated men. Sh^ngK To raw ^fc ^fe ^ Fang - r/ias- Sh'i. Tue^ A Copper cash Ch'icu\ to exist " j Hsiii? or hsiao TaiK house Emi?fang\ in 57 a model a metropolis. A tuojiey). Pai^. Same as last a school. : forty One 011 10 2 male (of the human species) c Li I me A Two hundred and 9 ^ NanK 18 19 year and eight moiiilis. and liuiidred the door. indefinite number ^ To liang to suspend or lift. am. 1. equal in most places to a tlmusand. the air Providence To revereuce. 15 One thousand cash are a string 16 One hundred and fifty men. the sky. |8 much A girl tlie former horn unripe. or even Irss. A women. . young lady money teuth part of a yes -. It is the nearest equivalent of Mr.ship. the Sabbath day.. (or. is. a writiug a title. previous bear. anuual. :— Note 10. a rite propriety ceremonial gifts. *. 1 7 1 11 111^0 0 . are Wor.. hHen^.. a remainder a cipher fraction showing that one place is vacant. to visit. -. HsifuA Smail rior Liug^^ A petty. A woman Ssi€n\ Before 20 a soiu ^ woman *Vii3. a wife. infe- a concubine. a it tbis. T'ieii^. T'angS. 23 There are some women at tlie door. absolute right Nieii^ mas- a mother he to wealth tael. to produce teacher. Worship to kueel to A pupil. that tlie Chinese language affords. 22 The teacher lias a gi">d many cash 0^ ^ oiznl 3 A hundred class. a husband. a scholar a disciple. learnto imitate doctrines. offerings Mrs* a follower. an many. t junior. iji^ ti^ Rs'ie^ sheng^.* tlie a mace. : To learn science. A writ The verb L'i^. 21 Eleven luonths and eeven days. to pay one's respects to- mother . 25 There are five or six persons at -front. a Heaven season a placf^ of learning". but in Pome places to ms in Manchuria. -. . female. the whole of a unmerons mean all. a word MhA A gate. I A year. style of address applicable leader girl. A • species). and generally applied to any genteel stranger. . wife. unacquainted. ^ a 'an(f. A 1 mmi a female (ot -… . ter . a school or en character. or poo!^. a hall an official room --a court a churcb. a : an office or bureau school room. Pai^. 17 Nineteen small cash. to wore hip The moou : a month. thoumnd. A J/"3. J e of .5. five liuiidred. -. .. 24 There are a good rrmuy scholura lu the ficliool room. . of au educated niau ing. mansion. hospital or la rge shop the persons assembled iu a hall. name . a week A 5.Lesson MAND AKIN LESSONS.

yes. each oUior in thia way. Applied by of compliment to very old women of any ruuk. aii'l in the South C$ UMr). to be. chief. mostly applied to 7\"*. a few J Note 22-3.. twrh**. two Htiffs uro genernlly ustnl (iilways in matheinalical language) hiufj is ulso used when a (28). — . — //s. 19 is . Li has eighteen or nineteen {Hipils. 68. A JJf'nS A'ou^. The iippmprialc place of L-ftch cau only be leiinicd from usage. in IV'kin^'. iu Great. tmug or til In Southorn Mandarin no accounting made smaller an Llie legal coin. a large unniber. though cumuionly used aa mascu- line. to possess. An intensive Les. Sir. extreme Les. classifier: A gateway. . A 7e2. a common sur?iame. 01- 28 Three thonsand aud 29 Madam five cash. etc. proper. very Also read tal entirely. Thoro is cnsli " are counterfeit cash \b uned witli for aucli Tliusn '1 ck'ien% illicil cash. X3 Tli« atU'lont will notice timt the clans ificr Jl. 12 Verb. In Chim-flc. 7 Vie door mouth hat some women. a port for trade. ftr« inl(.s aro : 22 The use of after is an anomalous form current but largely conlined to Peking iiml its vicinity. great many. number pronnnciatioD.IU>^il>lc anywhere. Ta*. out of date Pekingese. the roguUr caniinul number. the recess outside of a gate. rd When two Chi nose hy the word is or more omitted. Les. 23 Lit. i. three thonsand five A Too. 30 Li Lao Yie 1 To }7"3. have. The "nil two wonis for two viz. HadK fill. a considerable — Note 22. 42* Lao^.lier. The verb fo have. fit. a long or protracted time. pluct. as (21). a granc^father. HacP 31 titled t^entlemeu. a hole. being leplaood hy tlio often omitted and ia . a maternal graudt'atlier. >Mit n'. Brokers in like a business of buying these small eas!i at a disoount ami pac ing them out a few in cjvt'li humlrcd for good ones. Ik io and "or" Whenever two dii^it« follow uiidt-rHtood ht-Lweun thorn. lowtr ill-nomination follows n hi>. officers aud father. bnt th XO /J iikI the for'm'r prcTitili in the Noi ih uii'l tho l»t"r in the Stmth. is generally usud when peaking of almtract numliers anri takes no classifier while the lalttT is iiHcd of persons anil things. numer&Js Uj^vlbor without any cunucttiug wurd. generic for the race. is Fang Lao Yie has huiulred cash. A good mam}^ hsie^. aged. 17 " Small tliiniuM- 29 Kngliiili '!'»>« tf. twenty. Not ES. The month. tenn qf respect. ami aro slipped in between the Wlieu receiving money in otliors and counted as good cash. in in CliiiioHe have no modification uned alikv for 'ingnUr uml plural. 27 There are three hnndred and sixtyfive days in a year. plum. big. thirty. ofticers. is rarely heard in Pfking. speech. 5 The wifo of an etlncitcd man - is called tS6 the in ^ " ^ XX Tlio Cliiip'W) hnn no nuch rota rncti-il for fits as eleven. a term of restale. both aud or in Uteral .. very. Your Honor. women. a good man. Good. in spect. 26 Tlio " or" ia urnlcrstood. Sire. (iS are also calli il Tlio cmiissiuii of a digit in the mi'Ut of a Munilxjr indi'jattHl in 10 Thfl * wfi'i ' i« Ntippliofl. right. h«nc« J2. 24. grace- fine. Chincflc has 2 former ih A. aud —applied men to to all inferior who of wealth have honorary degrees. — ~ to} ftsie.? 1 Some.n^ in M'mgfl to eight or ni/ie.A fcmnlt 3 is maii^ as is a masculine man. used alone. Old. . Wife of an officer or of a titled gentle* mau. but i con«i^lcro(l a littlo less respt'otfiil than OiP being a|i|itio<l to iho wiveB rif trndcsiiicn liiid Hliop koepcrs. Madam. hut tho nuinbcnt are givon in full. A to exist. in frequently used in this way for tlio wvh fo hr.l number fur with or . (here are some ( or several ) women at the door. A title nsed addressing divinities. iu replies. and (lenmiula that t)icy l)e replaced with good 01103. Also read hao*. small sums the receiver tlirowa out these small cash." - 4 A li^ 1 ^ off t# 26 One thonsand six hundred aud eight men. venerable. very.ilfw In Nanking fiS Korth.e. an entrance or opening. noble. elder. A : --.

32* disappear not yet 71 Oy not. a spot. Win\ varies with the coi local ion. to to effect Learning scliolarsliip knowledge. etc. The tone Not. A sound to listen. Thus. to employ need useful so verb Les. Mandarin. uieai's ratijei". nunciation tion of is . insfcriicneutal to cause as to. met^. An if : To M. a classitier —— Les. cheiK C7i<?4. the floor.LksSON MANDARIN LEgaOKR. and probably a coutractiou That To die to . supposing that Les.. This 1 That placo 7 ojli 8 This niruj 9 That uiiiu is not good. Yung^. to hold To ask examine a case HsUfi^ Fill*. a style a stroke in a character au ilem iu an account. The sotnetimes • before it. 2. colloquial. or thing. nei^. This f These words. is used as a principal verb. is 6 These characters are hard to learn. irksome hard on Also nan\ to be to hiinass. to persecute. 54. and. uu. When followed by the meauing is . > 3 This syiluble 4 These small (will ^ 013 is not pleasant to bear. 10 These things are really nob usable. dis. ciation and probably a cou trac- with adjectives it answers to 710 the prnfixes. is In Mandarin always followed by expressed or understood. instrumental verb: -. - XjIESSO^st Demonstrative Pronouns. The second pronunor time. here This -. 5 This pen not very good.53 1. to convict. now this place The secoud pro- of A square a place scriptioii thereupon to a rule a pre- compare then. The earth a place. : . Vocabulary. means these things. Sh'i^. c:inuot speak is ill. wben not followed by Tliab \ a special classifier. to An : 'peUy a pencil. Mod^. difficult . 1^ oliii? Do 11 io of not opt'u that door. a tone responsible to To order to understand. and uuable to eat. T'ingi. 147. that place. or tiling. u'^/i*. tho sense remaining approximately the same. the sound of a word. except when always puts the idea in the perfect tense. laukiiif? it equivalent to this or that lot plurul of. etc. Also ting^. iufonnation. men have nothing 12 Those to eafc. 5?3 5i 2 i 10 of IsS^GOi ^0. Na)i% Hard. wliich modifies the sense Lakes Jia a little. this lot buC of things. That man has no mouey. 54-. ^" To hear •• Also na^. cusli are uot good to use not pass).se. Hi. colloquial. Translation.Les. vvAj these and those. J^ang any kind a musical note. send to use to cause. of is ^ there. No}. m man lias no learning. are generally fnlI lowed by fjg or and Sometimes the are omitted. the ground. -Ph*.

T^aiK to be able Pow«'r ability used of natural ability lAra*. C/i*i*. Jteal. a short furm of begin to Aa boiliug.. to drink food : a faulc writing iu comiaoa use.t Honest to exL<kU&t. "arin IllntHfi. 74. sign of future to speak. eiigii^'e rice or millet (cooked). Hearc'h oul . western pbice. depending upon To want to duu K'ai^. important to To write. a cliurch u joibt-stock company tent not very steady. a worthless fellow. o sh'i\ Ck'iuwg\ please to to invite or hire. ^ Pinfj pi ace. as. ^^ A ^. an place work 22 There are a good many people in this 3 & - told. To request Ch'hifjS.^-3 write. 13. 23 That small pupil >s occasion a situa'ion a tax collecto'-. the liinpuiige.— as a teaclier. the T'ing* shwoO^. compose. sayings. court ''fit Tins according a defect disease Tuny\ A meal Eutt U to suffer. solid. within at. To hearken T'iny^^ vice. SR 13 That scliolur cau write a good o f- many diameters.ice to to disburden. a fraternity of acquired ability a short time. true. To Really YaoK can. . 8 t1-c5w ly Will you (teacher) please write tliia character 20 That scholar does not mind wbat he is . Also lao^ and Same down to begiu. . The truth. 14 Tin's man does not speak the truth. tlie owner. These words are truly hard to learn. to follow Ht'cond to write out Les. cay to narrate to reprovo. OfTU'i'il : well in fact to dissipate. -. Khiy^. to need to require from iiecossaiy. to bear. f {^t^ 0^|_. the Words. West but used ouly in the as nwei\ To is 24 There are no good men in that 25 There is not a g-ood man in that Hsi} to or to live (hsr' nd. To obey ^ of honor Lao^ to be obedient. South. ti To to explain to Sit. Hsie^ spoken as opposed to lalk verily To open to officer of truly to bo about to guveriimeut. can.10 # 1:si i< w To Lod^. to to Za*. place. in. Also shwei*.^0|!>10 o| 10 JSH. An intend uny class. to await f'ing^. thing Sh'i^. /'«n*. s/^uiilt/ gentle (of an auiQiul). compe- Kwan^. HuririHL* luiiHler or Les. hwa} dialect. enter ou an accjuut write. To speak. dividend. writceu iuu<^uage f pres- to be alive. to obey to let to hear a cause. trustworthy. the results the tnuUiplicaud or kernel the ent taleuted. 5 That mau cannot write. to fall to let . to Exliuuvted poor lliu eud. words. etc. honest. 21 The ludy cau not eat this food. |tl. 17 That mau will not take these Bmull cash. used to know how. Truly this character is not easy to (j 1 I of. to See to. start auxiliary verb official.. \ he in or at collect ShxcoaK Ma foreign. facts.

The second confined to Pekingese. Chad^fan* Tou. is generally dressing superiors replaced by the title of the person addressed. fidded to and when only one is meant. not very good. In the tittecath seuteuce we c/i*T» No Lit. in vain.o. ch 'ao\ Tsao^fan^ To come Lai the beforehand. When formally adNi?. shrewd. him. 4 common in Northern Mandarin. as the singiihir of an ia — it Both obey orders. Breakfast.o d o _ ' MANDARIN LE&S0N8. 9 ^ 12 . is Notes. Is politeness. rank : ' Also Breakfast:— Note to effect auxiliary verb See Rub.. me. the ego. 28 This pupil wants 8 in that place. 81.. Sign of the plural T'sao^ Early Chao^' soon — Bright Ming^.. * LIESSOILir Personal I Pronouns. it. thou. nothing to eat. The sign of the plural usually added only to the personal prououns.. this character. The above are the regular personal pronouns. words are here used out is added to which has in order to specialize tlie syllable have . Tliis ia espf cially the case in Pekingese. expressed. plain to understand . satisfacintelligent. or thee. used in the sense of listtn used in the aense of commands or instructions. words words or me. Chinese nouns have no distinction of geuder or case. 3 The verb Its omission is hero understood. The object combines with the veib and need not appear in the translation. tlms distinguishing it from other '4ord3 of the aunie sound. but the latter does nofc. is 7 7 26 There 1 27 There no poor people are ^ O |< 0 in this place. MeV.e. is freely An 1 13. : evident to White hend make the future. i. to be is very coninion. is only used in very is in tiio S"uth. and 26th t'n« emphasizea the singular. she. she. IjKSkon 3. 20 hear saying Lit. for the sake of to fijuah. without used freely of men He. that one other. (leuoriiig tliings„t It never addeil is The second iind I tliii personal pronouns are often used in the plural In polite language is often. but sometimes to oilier Vocabulary. it As iu and beasts. her. primary senses. or thou. shows how the addition See Lesson 51. Not great good i. her. often The 2oth is. changes its tone.e. There are besides these a number oi colloquial pronouns which will be iutroduced bj aad by: ~* Les. The former is sentence shows as that have rice to eat 19 Lit. i. 24 The plural id how hero implied. mine. we. oue pronoun answers for all. bim. o OIS man a sicgle good nofc is 2 29 This old teacher six cash* exceedingly poor." for its object. 10 and brilliant. gent Pod^. everywhere current. where 5 . but sparingly of things. the morning. plain witlioufc reading ^ 1.. pai^. You. T'a}. intelli- the dawn. He. us. / invite the teacher to write "Teacher" is here used instead of " you. but not always used. your. to to obey and of their is have another example in . Les. denotitig" peivons. as a bargain Evident tory. Wocf I. early. . to hear. . Xhia is a very common idiom. price. The dawn. 7 is is the f^outh. flain^ easy to compreobvious without..

permit. mi^^lit fitting An Hwan\ fjone.. (iiuncr Correct. to be sufficient. {!|^0^ Ml^ 17 41-0 ness. Midday. at (he time just. a season //ou* The middle. 12 At tbat time have no place week 13 This 5< to write* can uot go.. little. to tell of. Yon must not tell him of this busi- tell him to wait a little. 3 ^ i-ol- & I otf^ ^01? io. not principal. fiirtlieniiore. have not yet eaten diuuer.seijtly wait i. ami is iucapable of translation. eqnal.8 Translation.^ ^ 1i o3 of not write this character. ICao\ To anaonnce To Su\ to tell. like. to regard as to. pins ( ). The noontide meal. . CkunffX. To nse. an iustraiueutal verb Can. yet. 188. can not come. to proclaim. go away. : to leave to separate. Cliihig^. to return to revert to repay even. business lhat which is to mauu^e. To go (somewhere). They cau not come. hold Time. to state m reply or dele use. 2 I have three it^oij huudred cash. ' ftclly a time. As a cotjjuuction it is often read Han^ It sometimes merely serves to or hai or ha\ intensify. pose. (In ration to expect. 6 I do not nnderstaud this character.e. II Jf Shang^ Lea. . 5w* is To be willing. wait (trie |>r«*. oi- m He can 5 7 The teacher wants yon to speak the truth. a certain time. will To Shang^ Wu\ by eo Les. to reject. Before a verb it forma a verbal adjective 180. Also k^. /("i*. just. the center in the middle of. To wait Time. may . • 8 He 9 Yon may wait a can not but tell yon. ner: Note 15. combination to tell. cau. 7M ItKc. accurate. J au hour. orthodox. and. answer the pur- will do. to serve au uot . an occasion ao opportunity. Ch^u\ to a superior to acciise or S7/i*. 4 I have uo money. . impeach inform. Les. — Note 41 g5 iE npri^^lit. etc. An Les. la 1 He has not eateu breakfast. noon.. I 4 Yon go and 15 We 16 Yon cau uot but atteud to this affair. such a sign of the piniul: Lit. ICP* In this V. exAlso dih"j. wait a fil5 ) little. 70. past.still. yes: Noontide. to . to be able. auxiliary verb: Les. - 15. . lej^al awry + An ajfair. 10. noon the hour which begins at eleven and ends at one o'clock. as a reply. (o order or class wait to wiuit immediately. 145. diu- The noontkle meal. 10 We 11 He can uot opeu this door. also. S/"2. to take . within medium to Also chun(j accomplish. frequently corrupted iuto sung^. To inform. as. iiouc.

have here two negatives making a strong affirm8 ative. 15 In Poking. r - 1. L^. It gives promiDenee to the ((Ijject mil I'uicu to the expression. nifi in which is used. right. the understand. tlie South. of.. a principle son. late. right way. In Cliinaiifu. to know. teaclicia especially in tlie North. fear. C/liK . perhaps geuerally. South. and h:is more or Ices the force of a command. To know. albeit in the Nortli following. is very often omitted after 1 In speaking. to regard. to be To govern. obtain. to get'. to supply. A Tao^. Les. doctrine .) . The readconfined to Pekingese. means. anger. the to speak. which ia quite a commcin it! lorn in Chinese. To tlie morning. 13 The object is here placed before the verb. Reason. viz. i War^fan' ^ } iU'' ^ Supper- Notes.0 ( 18 I reully can not eat this food. Is .y % ' does not uuderstaud saud cash. that is. joy. business affair tiiis huudred big cash. the latter or last. and ig^ desire the emotions. He 22 ^ Is 7^1%^ business know. To give. means must not. the Wlien writing. to regulate. we shall not study. cau not but this 3 Les. which is a common Chinese iJiom. to erect. to Evening.. the person addressed equired to ait Is contruated witk some one who is not would gene rally be omitted. abstract right. i . a clas- To know. . sifier: We 24 a matter. read ki"K rm* of. hatred. Also tei^. to care. the passions.. duty a doctrine or prinby the mind.e. 21 This I — & o 2 i ^ oil. Saturday. darkness. 25 At this time no) tube a Ante. do not positively I 23 Please. the presumably a coutraction is for generally read mei. Au come. is Maudariu five the teacher of tell the}' have not yet eaten supper. to talk Taoism. 5g I 9 19 They are jnst now 20 1 Q can not give yon this article. and in used in Shantung. tl affixir. teacher. CkHng^. generally used. a case. three - : kei^ me doctrine. twilight. ^ ing ke C/"3 -. what it to be aware To know. to inform. to verl) to beauxiliary to succeed.. however. the practice belies the theory. think to ia dawu.dative Les. 3. Inmiiions IIsiao\ 7e-. wisdom. the facts tlie desires or circumstances of an affair.. to accomplish. frequently heard with |§ for *' breakfast " appears to be used only in Sliantnng. . H J^ When is is omitted.40 I a: Aq I A Kwar?. tardy. anleB8 so used the *' l the infinitive by the construction the only sign the infinitive has in is Chiiirse.I Lehson : MANDAUTN LESSONS. 42. to control to care foi\ to vianuge. It is entirely t'img hsing ( jij everywhere cuireut. 17 . You may tell him 20 27 To-morrow is to come on Thursday. Clear. sign of tlie . 25. while is is is We 9 The you " is emphatic. especially is this 30 in the will generally insist on using it As often in Chinese. ia C'entral is often. however. sensible of. Wcin^. love. ought mrf» or i. 13 sorrow. eating. to rule. which is of the sentence. Yie\ road or path ciple approved comprehend. give The seven passions taken together. aware of. one thousand (or. 43. Night. knowledge.

Kat\ TVotI*. 6 Yoa ought not to speak of Lis mother's faults.. 7 This article is mine. is are also called Numbers under tea are b)' way of distinction. It ia extensively used in this sense botti in Central anil Southern Manduriu. or cash reckoned double. 8 I can not accommodate myself to 1 of o 51^0 his conveiiietice. Ti\ Sinn of the po/tac/tsive : see Sub. show to a relative^ kin ch'intj^.I v 10 Translation. Also iUVcyW"i. to comprehend. but 26 The is The iaic/e cash. Vocabulary. In places near the border line between these methods of reckoning.. Your Honor's words are correct. lb is often ornitteil and the possessive implied by tho inero juxtaposition of the words. is to mistake or err wrong to Uoad wrong^ Gk'in^. right. ti*. 23 In a large part of >iorlh China it is the custom to call ten cash twenty. To draw a how Also to its full Tung3 f enough. what should the aforesaid. To owe money adequate. either counterfeit cash. 23 and 39. 4 His scholarship is not good. on the contrary. To confuse -to he fli Thh'j^. o# money is not sufficient. but to cull a cash not right [or.^ almost entirely superseding does not comprebend my idea. the Aveek are nunibpretl as &o (lu^'s of or . 18 2li and which when two will appear li'J. 1R A'ou*.. own. 3 Do 1 i of My 2 \#o|f ll-of my not meddle in affairs. Xi:E3SS01sr The Possessive Particle. are very beautiful. undcrHtand. but is not often heard in Pekingese. the *9 and tlie q/". Your clothes Madam. cxcopting. ffy has otlier important tises by and by :— Les. exactly is Roman StJ itscU * many clay a culled is terminology was Tliis t'utlmlics. ivcin^ in To mulerstund. He 9 10 somewhat method of reckoning originated in Peking. they aay but the w ord tliat it is may mean after the Sabbath. a cash.e. it ia deaired not to reckon double. is the common sign of the possessive case. 5 He does not understand my language. 21 is Nanking rarely heard ia or the South also used in the sparingly. doublt-'-l. added capital ca^A. 25 used botii is Mandarin. in the Nortli that any given sum ami of cash is double. because /p Mie \yj § 27 tliis The Sal. Li. O 53 1§ #M 2 $h(ndd noty and implies an impropriety. according to circumstances.] 0. Mr. Iiut is it. This is especially tho case possessives follow each other. To love. Mother. Disturbed ceive. in all cases (except in numbers under ten) giving a nuinbcr wl:ich is double the actual number of the cash and sums of caah when Korth. and so on. Li's idea is exactly your idea. It serves for both our forma of the possessive viz. the " " " tei nis large" anfl small i\ ro applied to all sums of cash. Hfty a hundred. also Leflsons 18. the real mmiber. 11 Mr.. i.. South in tlie Thus we see that BO designated are called small cash. ^9 tP. leam words. Elsewhere it is understoo'l.bath more co'mvir'5y simply intnulnucd Pekingese in uniX Southern in generally used in Shantung. When. to some per- placoB. be iiLiached to nffpclion for to ottght^ proper or right \ one's . have a lesson.

Sh'i^ a cusm model. order. propriety. breath the the ether. to forgive face. : Les. to examine mock. to as. to see. cipline. consistent Les. To get angry. energy properties or powers of anything. 48. > ra^ do not understand the customs of 17 I this place. classifier opposite a pair.)* A classifier Les. inteution. is quite nob is easily understood. be excited to Strength of body or mind. vital principle Parallel scrolls to correspond. look at. idea 7*. oppor- to consider seutiments exceedingly is jiitig^. aspect. 1? U0 to J)u2 ^3 =11^ 18 I do not understand what you [or. Also pHen^. to regard as a mock persimmon. Toa \ all A -' Jilany. good A To shut the mouth priate. gas by passiou. meaning'. according to harbine suitable monioua together tiae whole product (math. garments any kind. batred. The Middle Kiugdora. Chungi kwodK com- au example. as anger. To accord with Pien^. a pattern . dis- school-room Li's 20 This man's Mandarin follow. --- Chip. Physical strength. fashion sort. to eat. to 8 nit. just no has pleasant to hear. pu\ meaning. foreign countries. 58. read convenient^ tune afc hand. . style way. is not her husband's business* did not uiiderstaud your language. foreign. According usage. etc. to as. other words iu the to near. no. a pattern manner. 190. China. is joined to same way tlie mutaexchange. to a law air. 19 Mr. a state.] 1^ Outside Each and K'e^. fault 11 ^5 To Swei^. to equal an Les. clothes (personal. A a regulation. torn estimate comely. 4.^ f Your 2 J 11 13 His idea 14 This He 5 J idea teacher's suitable. etc. ii*. Shing^ chHK Pi^. • Inteution fc ^ Fung\ opinion. 16 This thing does not suit me. clothes. : . air. of w roug u a siu phrase say. )^ WaiK : A form. nation goveruinental. A a case or covering of Skirts. To think. a task much numerous very. to unite. this is Si - - - - • tions of nature. tive 1. 140. Kivei\ to desire. steam TweiK with carpenter's square a pattern. the teacher says. method. not bed-clothes). prowess To compare to pattern suitable *Rppro- to assort illustration Kwox\ A force. excessive a series. Dress. comply with to permit according to whenever. petticoats remiss change Easy. mostly . to as. idea Clothes. couutenance.o LESROK MANDAIUN LESSONS. Yayig\ 1 many air. IIt\ A Vapor. without cure Eafty so. o| 53 c. to compare. Issson. 140. Also k^anK Good to a law ChH*. spirit. ^^^^ To see. mo- Tbonght. extraneous. Custom beautiful. I-. ready Les. To contain to tolerate or bear with to pass over. temper any feeling that produces excitemeut. Kan*. niauner /4. Shang^ good then. pair of compasses a custom. Hao^ kan^. right. : a country^ a kingdom. lil =1^0 A slit^.

There are a variety of other forms of comparison. 5S» 99. — an. - li son a boy. 2o There are not very many new char- 53^ acters in lesson. 16 n we 21 The when are ad Jed to words and mark them as nouns. Tlio two auwer substniiiially the samo purpose. especially the latter. iti Pi-kingeso. undefiled. legal puiii!»bineut Les. This speak the of olficial man speaks him as with wlioiii are connected. ofs sir. treat. It is." His iri/c's . The sake of etiquette. especially in the fainiliur intercourse of family and friends. t'xhaiialed clean. ami translation parts of the respect. This pulitc form is used in adilrossin^ olHcials. As the English laiigniige docs not affurd any adequate means of rtrnck'ring such i»i<lirect "itre-" I flhall hereuUer translate simply by the pronoun '*you " as the equivalent of the title. a lad. is a little more di^Miified than has in most criHCs more or U'sa of a difriiiintive lorco. especially ^ aro would Lliat of to individualize diem. while in fact it is much used. 2 Tonr honor" is but a make-shift translation.mchirin utul ^1 of these characters ^ an ofScial all meaning thereby ** be. uhiitever it may be. the onlinary method of tonnal comparison. attachiis of so-and-so. however. Both tlie . u boy: U^. a sod. simply.strength compared with hh is .M<^ — see Sub. far Ircm*. especially. a method. An infant. .ti 12 . tho rulos or rnetliuda of any scieuoo. to avoid the use of the prunouQ. while iniiiiy take eii her at pleiisiire. 51 is nsnuUy spokeu so as to coalesce with the word to which it is joiued lliiis 13 not pronounced ChHen-er. not leant. 24 Chinese characters are more olh to write difficult thau foreign ones. ers will aver that it is not used. a statute an art. and will protest against writing it. 9 aud and 16. A trifling. a son. fS is iiBed for the 3 biJJinj. The is a is common and milJ form of for- beat omitted in the tianslation. ia inoio used in tSoutliorn M. most teach- their words. aa 14 The Dot fuUoweU by itd uouu. need or kernel a saj(e seo Sub. Slaiiy of the Cliiuese are scarcely conscious of the fact that they aro adding this to . inoro used in spokeu lli:m in In Nanking. . Their excessive use. b'tine words tnku one and so dig take ibo ot her. nn heir. tliis N 0TE8.l term also used in forming adverbs of time is place : —Les. etc. marks an uneducated luan^ or «i cureless speaker. : — . Alao read : . being universiil custom ia every day life. struugers. lupvriora. tliou^^h not so much as iu Peking. clean net Seo Les. 103. - . law.'.n An B C/nug< : infniil. The Enclitics Hoih is compoun. A child. biU Ch'ier. us no occaaiou or desire to bIiuw it any often U &pet>i&] and written Mandarin. it often is. A few nouns never tibko either of them. 23 This Lit. is here omitted. child. especially here interjected between 20 A more L'U*g. unspotted /'"a. N'»riliorii Maiidnriii. f i_1 2 Our master has no such custom. 1 22 Please. only. greater is tliaa his. my 23 His wife's strength 0% |^0 do not get angry this is mistake. l>ry Pure. VoCABULAnY A .int Mandu rin beautij\3iy. is The vheii tei there is m is liere usea for wife. 49. a son. dainty. for which see Les.

CV. iug from K'wai*. 4 ITe has two sons and one daughter. a balcony female apartments . a mother. to exceed. prompt. T'ou^. labltj is not follow his example. Tapering. To go out. keen. to surpass. 7 I do not want this small house. A mang% fi^ girl. thau. ^ of not are to fit oa eit not comfortable). to transexcesgress a transgression beyond. A wife. A Ku}. . le- Yin\ Women's unmarried apartments girls. to place. All old Lao^ ^ to squat remain P^od^ 'p raw ^oa\ Lao^ A end. An An upper room.) iu. a boy. . to excJtange^ to change the old uian of the house. a a knife. fortli to to Au auxiliary household. SJiing^ji^ to set. : money An old man spend (Nankiiigese.to : 1^ to live front top chief first the bt'giiming or entrance tlia classifier: Les. --. 5 Those flowers are certainly beautiful. a faviihj . to braid ike queue. the apex. a council cliaiiiber. in.. yielding. wedge-like. 2)oint'. c daughter: Note 4. ericlilic t'ai^.. inner. nient. Birtliday. to surpass. . 13 Translation. a young a thrifty. He 'J can not but be a poor man. is You must 3 not clean. mc2 or travel. Les. married (said of the woman): to 16. sive. an unmarried lady. (said of the To marry. 72. be barter. -. a youth. A "3. pleasure A I\ 7 'sod*. further Les. Home Chien^. femmine. to living The head. 10 Three ounces of silver ought to O^M sell for over five thousaud cash. ' A sword pointed. a daughter. Afioicer^ a blossom money. sharp. an old woman. 8 His wife can not economize. a ^irl. to be born. To sU. to spend fivie. wife and children. variegated Silver - Hwan^. an auxiliary verb: Kicoa*. home a prufeysiuu. a seat. T g from home. 5. coLLoii. Glad. to do- Note get put to issue. -. wife. raiher. . to vice : To remove Ldo^ Vou^."i. a Note 8. A Lt\ or cash. witb- to wed. mesiic a sect A liuinpr.. Also Les. 1Go 53 H-l This 1 2 His plan ^ not suitable. to sit in to . A year of one's age. quick. rapid. to economize. to sacrifice [)rodnce. woman servant An old woman au old lady. 0^ g®H- G These oil £1 f§0 chairs (or. times Taoi.?3. best chair. a quire of paper rangfifty to two huudred slieeLb. days. verb: ^. especially young and uumarrieci womeu. mako inside. years. woman. woman. Lesson — - MANDAUIN LESSONS. Ji\ To pass by The sun a day for a thing. Miss Kwiii^ . the day Plen^ To plait. or over. Kwei}. age child . cheerful. flai^. virgin. Swe A 't^ judgment. 143. 41. T polite unme for wompfi. 40. Both forms are used. "- lady fJwa}.) Chi". 47. Led. to eject. 38. family.

cuac of ol'l 16 ia is is genorally used in epcaking of ages. though come " P3 In Kiukiniig J only nppliea to the marriiige of a widow while in Chiimnfu it iR UH"(1 by e means an old woman. u coutractiou of Sa^. is 17 This pen has no poiut. . the given A name. or If mcaua to go on a journey. A ming^ title. In iVking is used when npoiking of om*8 own 'laughter. the emphasis With nn odd perversity.}^0^?^0 >^§-0|-"3^ i io. it is not necessary to imitate the corruption. 4 There is grcfit direrBity in Manrlnrin in the use of young \i\i\y. call.f tho liulU Ui niuulh b( th« C'hiDvM live. to let Jfai*. See ^: To i. tUf pliruso places. A Ska^ Jamf-. 8 Tho term by the com nun in |»"<j|'k' I When •p-*ctfi)l. of. sign of passive to cniise. bo omitted. bnbv. 12 After When 51 In Kouibern Mandjiriii hotli terms ure used in nth'-r cases. Ilsut^ a DQrse. U often URcrl (generally in Shantung) but in more or less tliaro- for wife. they put tlie emwhen the woman is young. In fSlianlung the common " also used of tiie danghThe term term is [JIeI is used tem of ofTKcrs and e(lncato<l m. reputation. the cautm of History. !> S5h0^ 6 8 . A pocket knife 19 Foreigners have uo queues. Tho oxprrBHion •otfg'ntivc. ^ To . A Chiao^. the two words are often pronounceil fts if the er were in the middle of the t'ou^ namely. Lui? ^% v.H iinportanL in 50 used. . lao Crou*. My name.. eugage the services Ming^.•(!. l)irthday of a cliiUl ia Bpecially observed. Ill tiiia caso. . (or whioh the Cliineac haa uo dia- (litllu HiHtci ) in tmed. thus u»od the accent frw|ucnlly nrMof). is §?. ' Tlio tcrmn 51 and tro<|Ufntly us '. Notes. and besidcH them. library.ti.^ 14 ^ # ^ 1. not very sharp. a mother. ^ A Usually doubled. hire oUl to woman game to tnake of. To watch. Three. or pet narae Ptnall Note name. JTaS. ' apricot. is not open the school-room door. as an insect sing. documents. to take care of. while tfrnis for girl or .^ cZ than two ihousand cash. a waiting tcomnn.. 53. an infant.. or ftUo korr^^ ft but lioino i. toir+-cl Shv}. to write. 12 That old man 13 This old woman has no son. word. to betray sell. on the pliasis Bhe is and the 52* are nsed indifferently. A J servant to gnarH. school name. over seventy yeiira is of age. ns more gciitt'cl. to to (ell to . in '"'w t. a person woman. bulh in the Noi tli uinl in the tSouth. : 24. not yet married. is IG Mr. notice is taken of birthdays. V |^>0^^1 He owes me moro 11 14 His child has no slrengih. Using* Do to tend: a a study room 20 K'mi\ hook. a IJti'iao^ vihifj^. 15 The iiv^t AfterwanU litlU- thrown on Lho J!£ rnoanfl |"'''i''rly is m<. . I's daughter Li^s son's hirtliday. a wifo. to cry out. except in the pcnplo and o(Ucials. viscu in of harlotH. [}3 18 much tho more correct term. and not when lu'i not old. School An . u ith varying frequency. a letter. : fame. — Nte23. as in otiier ainiilar cases of c(<rriipt prouuuciation. To A'u* An Ma}. on " "ry U way in which tbo - 13 being on the 3^. if it bo replaced . in often tiHud for thitt wnich vi/. to do Les. See h^an^. 15 To-nioiTOW Mr. for (lau^htor.

while 2 or terra for 7nir. ^fP. To city the wall Cii'iao\ stop. It is considered the proper tUing to address a growu mau by bis hao* especially iu writing. it by erally followed we should 218 if precedes the noun and gennou u the wall-wards. is a postposition after tlie say in English. or Jinys at. /. . is Nanking South North only babj. Favg^ fo Note at the door. especially is called a the mother. In the also used in the same sense. Beneath. hsfa\ Heaven ed ow once A father. as a To knock at the door :— Note 10. P'i. new iiiLine is given tliem hy the teucher. 5^ F"4 Fii^ A in K'ai^ To?. Ti^. a inUk name. To Ta^ mhi^. and many of tliem also receive a nickname. the origiuul draft.:ESS03^ V- The Common Pkeposition of Place. To To spiu. a walled citadel To spread an ancestor. imperial on. 124. an upper floor or a house of two or more stories. Vocabulary. 120. as iu 18 and 24. menial To to beat strike. fore B^ri m. and poi^tpositioiis are some- is times omitted or understood. If they never go to school. tlie Tlie raost frequent wnll. shif} auxiliary verb: -— Les. vulgar a lime Below. to fall. Sub. to basti- to figlit pouTid. Above. a. a senior. 6. To - . r.se The Chinese though is is coiiMiionly applied to little children. a lounge a sled." or (ur. 22 One can learu only twenty-five or new 1 L 21 inserts ."2. I An To T(a"g3 Loii^. higli. which becomes their proper name throufi^li life. ancient TP be- excellent. in Afc. underneath Les. in the is to babies. a tower. which used in some places in this sense. a wai** hao*. The bottom . Li wisliea to hire an old Jjfol sis characters iu a day. of a city. no word answering to our word " for. to cause. 5i "leans a pocket 13 means a large > o 0 H-g woman 23 Mis. to bake van heated by a fire underneath. to instead towards of. upon Sharig*. . often call blicin liy tlKir " little name" as long as they live. exaltsuperior Also shang^. to twist into thread. Besides these two names. When they start to school. l5! 1 21 These apiicota sell [large] for three cash apieco. or lay out bedding. young men usually take manhood. to descend Hsia^. or name little lua called Isieu-tisi is (more commonly) to earthuu dolls. a brick bed or d" dry. a new name is usually given them by their parents before their y"a mt7ff/'. to live in See old oidur beat. to in. to study. 1 knife. 23 The prevalent Ife a uurae) to take care of her school uatne I do not know. To knock halloo. door K'angK below. to rap on. nndenieath to the end. Cku\ To : uade. tlirougli: Father. . near. The purents. tap. 24 His L Three cash [/or] one. to dwell.M § Lesson 1 : 15 MANDARIN LESSONS. knock at the 0. to cease endure. or a sword. underneath poor in quality tiexL as riuti. lie A Ch'iuang^. chHn^ Ch'htg-. A loft story . See Les. to dm m. n knife. hao^ or tith. read. to arrange. ChSaoi mSn^ l)ed. to do. birth receive a more elegantly. by. 75. low. to make. to down to go to led.

sou\ tmlK To do. '|'*<j a workshop li turret a window sash. to act. to put. ns of light a ray.I 16 Translation. thoroughfare. . Fang\ as a .% %^^ IW ^ lying on the bed. live outside the east gate. 5^:^ My 15 o clothes are up-stairs.ncei*. 4^ Mau*. n public hospital. to let po. Mai^ inai\ The cotton J fit. (jliop. witidow form. Li ^o living. Above is lieaven. from door to Note 23. A To break any floor. an iuu a si arid. To ask for food door. a college. a Btoring utkI : a a fort odictTS and olliers. title of } rto*/an*. to perform. 4< i I!^ C # I^ My father is not My m other is 3 They 1 live in tLe city. much slightly . to beg: Nolo for17. TVt'i*. an to indulge.wurding office a store a stnge A '^o. I'itVn*. or down to put or place carefully to hinder. Su'ti*. head covering of ments. 16 There are a good uiany books on tlie table. is % is tlie eEirtli. lay down. reading. 4 I 01^ li. at still. Haieu^. A Ch'tcayuj^ to ^ A T'ni". raw cotton. etc. A'e^ LLnrj^ . to rnu aground. The younger 13 dHU<^hter in the is yard watcliiug the baby. trade Also shno^. cotton wool. . B<»low. woollen. roads. T. home. house) iu ibe (or. . on oil tlio large on oflicial shop . a pulpit to stretch. . A Business. to open out Hrncl forth Les. They two are 5 1-^^ f "0 ^10^^1 =" o. wauting. ]^ a fine cord or flaxen trace silk. 71' Cotton. a Mai\ To buy. rotnnants. Ofteu iuterchangcd with .^ 2 home at is tlie beds. You should 1 -4 uot put your hat ou the Hoor. Thread. 6 There . 50. plant. below You need not knock at 9 o 10 he uot at hom-e. Ckie A a clue. -f-S /J^C nu? A ir^. or kind. broken pieces odds and ends. is Mrs. a streak or vein. to pieces a piece fray* hits* Fragments. P'u*. a plat- respect to window-sill. asylum. S//(A >f§ to purchase. a younfj- little girl wnlled enclosure. seldom • A - Little J uot cr daughter. To : To lay on. hwu^. to liberate Ti* hsia*. hat. to extend. cap. no one down-stairs. a street. tho ground. Li 7 up-stuirs uuikiiig- is 8 Mr. a yard institution. cither cotton. the doui* 1 1 His mother 12 The on the lying" is eldest daugliLer k^anq sick in is house tlie spiiiniug. of ten A few a to little while owe.

any one^ any hody etc. constantly used in this indefinite sense for. 20 There are over one hundred schools the city. might be omitted. *i g o You may 21 23 There The 2i o an old is flowers in man outside the gato the yard are truly beautiful. : 9 10 Both and In some places one other.. 22 These odds and ends you may put on the window-sill. The want of tense endings in Chinese leaves a great deal of tlie language in this uncertain state. Lesson 1 17 His father's store 1 / is on the great street. is . which is correct. 88. as the noun. bufc always witli a reference to the present. though more accurate. and in at the loft under fh. i 25 They two are J$ 2^ in the school-room studying. is too complicated for . immediately precedes the verb. It is strocger. This foi'iu of expression is often used to call heaven and earth God) and an inn 23 Vao^ jan* XilESSOO^ is called is is is is commonly used for i'e* f^hop instead of rhau^ or useil for k'c^ yii*. When it precedes a verb always follows. is : S denotes past time. 1 26 Mr. and for tin's reason already frequently added in translating. except as separated by the negative particle. It is at the close of this sentence is equivalent to oufi. and hence past.: . to The book term is i''ou^ men*. This of saying that any one is still alive. have translated this sentence as referring to present time but for any thing that appears in the words themselves. it might with equal propriety be rendered. 6 I 6 Lit. of saying that he is dead. and in other places the is the more proper ami elegant of the two words. f pufc books on tho these table. V Sign of the Past Texse. and common way (embracing. Notes. c . in 1 I- o o|g no is street. to The absence of a noun leaves witness to the are used of knocking at the floor. The future perfect form this lesson. more used. The same is true of "|* i" tlic next clause. the Chinese idea of sincerity of tlio speakf r. 9\ P^. MANDARIN LESSONS. or to seme given past or ttuis answering to Doth tlie perfect future tune and pluperfect teuses. is added to verbs to denote that tlie action In speaking it is complete. an nuxlliary verb Les. thpy ire re fyin(f on the bed. (6) and 14 Note tiie difference between Les. la some places is omitted. have ami had. It is also used as generally shortened into la^. 12 Might also bn translatet-l my eldest cJ aught er^ etc. would depend on who is the speaker. and used alone. some sections generally is The omitted. though is often used without a preceding tlian is . 18 There . 52. 17 In the South the above. call the yafe is also largely used in the same sense.|40^ I oii > kIS business on the east little 10 There are over twenty pupils in the Bchool-rootn. The correct sense must be gathered from the connection. begging. 2 is tlie 13 here used as a verb meaning to be alivr. however. Li's son is doing business outsido the west gate.

Also ching\ pass laws. to (y. SkP fo Jail in btLsiness. to walk n\v:i y. 9. moveable. gain a profit. 88. make money. you have finished your work. a closed pas- to perish dilapidatod. to neglect. bank. tell me. Yellow ed To fall An color Wast- Les. to g'> To lose at to llwoa^. a catfijy— eqmil to To go .^0# N-oi I? 7 Mr. Chang^. "Iready. seek. to complete. r. lively. claim to increase to boast.S . completed 101 entire- liPs. . work^ livelihood. money Wavg^'K to make amends.^ bought three 2 I catties of cotton (or. to investigate. iutelligeot: See Now. an auxiliary verb : pro- to grown man surnaine* til thcti full- tlio rough or by.. A To spoil. a broker-shop. A yk\ latfi To forget. to be alive. spoiled. bank. a brokor-sliop.) 4. 11 9 There Jt^ J: o • is 11 Chang's Ml*. Also fao*. liivlii". just : of respect higher title than Sob. is lived in the city a long time. 42. C/Wfn2 dangem'". tlio iriiperial a mortal urgent. 18 Translation 1 Mr. usually down to fail in hmiempty:— Les. (Soatliern. To manage. to bring to an eud. 13 When fifty taels. 10 They Lav© done a losing business. come and VOCABULAHY. concluded. I? 1J no help for is already ruined. To mako up a --. Les. Ting's mother S He already dead. enough. To To fitiisli ly nml onc-tliird Kiiglish poiiiids. fixed confess a fault and j)'ti* Nute an individual to injure rotten classifier.'t. lo di prirt. classical 5^ See Sub. Chang's bank is already bank- rupt. 183. 12 f the business it. cauons. 5 His business is already satisfactorily settled. LiaoK ^ Ta^ Fixed. axe. See Sub. in trade. Wafi^. of a clause. 7W*. also Le3. fo lose moiily. to cheat. To OuVi A Tit'g — already. 1 i C 4 The Prefect has already gone. oiio ChivanK To Ilsin^j sell earn /isilii^. IIivai\ Ch'ienS A A lie 71*. cotton wool) on the street. of c have already waited three days. deficiency. open to trnvi'I. {@ P'ei\ //wang^. to com- to gaiji to finished. surname. 3 I have already eateu. At no more. over or nets. intense firm. . books. a To Si '\ sage die. o run. P. I o r. money He o ^ s_ all did business one year and cleared oue hundred and ij already is spent. end To extend. cheerful.

strikes. ijj^ HsinK " 4j guest room. inflammation. to grill Shang\ tone. feverisb. as a lamp to kindle. a mark. the will the middle. mature. to ascend the tbird to hand up exalt To go See skang. Shao\ * To hum. work skill acquired by practice. '. to reach. speckled to erase. a little. cooked. flame. rude. to meet. t'angK A shoii^. a speck a dot. rustic. a sign. to kindle to roast. piece of Wjrk. intimate. to go or reception -. a comma. To tb ree not yet finished. the country. ^g ^ …- 2 to record. Lesson 19 M. then:— Les. to:— Les. A K'i4 fang\ Ripe. adequate to bear responsibility. 90. Hsiang\ Sku\ sit not burn the house. excitement. Tao\ and customer.g!d. 24 you should be careful Sj 3 wi-iting he comes you may invite him into the parlor to Sif? S£ five o'clock. have already been learning these sentences for two r. the tuind. as. 15 I have forgotten this character. 25 His boy bas already quit school. To room. a stranger a pasa merchant. acquainted with. a history. sldil. a dealer. it a ~» r- A hwei\ two — a half. Hwodh a workman. a while. a village. a little. 17 This lesson wc have alreadj' learned >5 * > well. V"hafc suitable is The or just. time. guest. A A room. To divide --------To bell. Time spent in doing anything. C r-- I- 9 It is 20 We already past the time. desires To be hsiiiK careful. af- fections. to heat.iys. Fire. a parlor. a region Pan^ Fi(}. an hour by a foreign clock. 31 a viuUor. a day's work.I have already eaten enough. to occur time of. and the teacher Las not yet come. a a husband a man a distinguished man an exalted lady. to go to. a particle. cautious. so called because Tcuigi. ^^^60 16 He lived in the country a year. to punctuate. a job. ^ij of that fire seuger. to np.-. KungK in clock. Chi^. assist. Tien^. heart. black spot. o. well cooked. hot. forget.MANDARIN LESSONS. . Hud 1 h. short space of timo. anger fever. a while.^ H d. to nod. leisure. to be. at the to act as. after . 21 I reached home at half past 1 ols531 22 He 23 When has ready been al hours. a A Chungi. prudent.presently. Also (angK come arrive at.is To rememher. to light. 7o. Work. a guesfc jiarlor. to note A K'e^ down. 8 The teacher has already dismissed pcliool. when.

ba versed L (r. is not consiilei eil as properly belonging 4 The prefix It is to a Hsk'n magistrate. by a rising inflection. but is iov enlircOy superseded l>y J^ leaving l[% as tho proper ami distinctive Bi^i of a direct queytinn. so frequent and so useful in English. formerly m ant to revile. il 1^ Has Mr. T/fcar. IcBt. to recogni/e to ac- knowledge.* tion tliat of a direct question may be answered by yes . Lin come? 2 Do you not know (recognize) me 1 3 Is there S 0^ 140 " 6 if 10 III? some uncertainty whether is more widely used the for of the is i^iven to a Tao to discuss and ^ bargain.e. 17 iind 3C ) to ask au indirect question. slioulJ not rather be written And 8 0& NOTRS la Do you 9 Are you not brother ^0» 1 There the stove 7 Is this silver sufficient ^ of #0 ist^ fire in still 4 Are your father and mother well 5 Is the rice uot yet cooked iiom- how Chinese 20 S§ comiiionly means word but iu this connection should be Iraiislutcd sentences. to recognize. o{ whicli it is the In speaking. 109. . Shf\ & to recognize. is read agree upon a See Lea." illustratoften docs without such little wonla as these. 140. 19 The ing dUd. VoCABULAUr. Ho know. Any to be acqiiiiiiitcd with. than There are several idiom. spent clean i. eateu f younger I Lave already eateu. translation supplies "it is" atul " ami. has already ioativOf anil afraid of you P sin 11 13 T*ai and a Governor. The Cbinene do not indicate a direct question. all spent. See Sub Direct interrogative pnrlicle: A Jen*. is ofteu written insteiid of and some teachers will ii ^ist on always writing but iucorrectly.. vessel for holding u iiiruace. given of right to a Prefect aud to sundry military officers. as we do. a quesor no. to confess. Lit. passive. mark the coL:pletion of the action 15 This sentence might follow the English onler. 53. in fact. IV-dantic It'achera object to ic bt'cauae it is a modern and coUoi uiul clmracter. e. V XilESSOitT Thk Direct iNXERBOGATiVE Particle. both so unds (ina and proper sign. is joined to other particles (see Les. 'fi^ well. or a business arrangement of any kind: 6 7 object of by virtue of its tlie verb position Iierc 10 not lying to be considered a stamis as makcd the verb its Have you Mr. The natural is frequently added to verbs as an auxiliary to Les. to dread. Les. a a surname. To know To know iu. To know. classifier: A a stove. hut by the addition of tins fcpeci:il \\ ord at Uie end of the interrogative clause. means am I the regular passive with other examples iu this lesson. is a very common more common. vioCl) are heard. to kuowk-dge. . two forms. The character moft. fvf grove forest.t 20 Translation. A thiuk . * Note. stove. ami Alight with equal propriety be leiulered. peihapc. as but iCi is more thoroughly Chinese it is. ma being the more frequent. This "bankrupt" htmti'ji and read kicany*. R^ The sign i. Ilicod^ lu^ A firo.. though generally given to him. Chang s Aus. Les. 101.

to chant. haul. a to accord with. The northern capital. to To} Pao\ dis- to discuss Ts(ung2. to ruake a liviug. Lesson mandarian 8. to trust news message. up aa In Pekingese. to explain. Lao^ pan^. to memorize. a calculation. do you still in- why not tend to bring suit 10 If jour money insufficient. an engraved block. PaH\ . lies lie. )^ Peking. To count. northern* Pe£3 >^ Chien^. to answer. classifier : Les* 140. to plan. a fault. the centre. TsweiK A exaggeration. CA'e*.. not. |i . . 9. punishment. in polito phrase. to have a fondness for. to ache. dare. To reflect. an opening. re- elder hr other . I To follow to ^ CkingK Greafc. through . used names as a term of respect. m A a bastiuado to reckon regard. loose let To pull apart. I . a junior. board or plank. to tribution. to. to follow inquiry. to see. after A shop or busiSouthern word. to ex- Satiated. thoughts. a hole.f t . To perceive by the to observe. to apply with. ^ The Kiii^. Sal Cau you not explain this character r Having given yoii. together with. to be- a letter. a senior. to preach. of a A ness. . To WlW* tell lies. can by. make a bargain. to respond to.. With -. to follow. suffering. to intend. by. younger brother. metropolis. reed aloud. 1^ ^ W lesson's. a sin. to Note of a household supposing. . is borrow a little of your employer 17 Have you gone four years to school and yet do not know this character S To Do you come from Peking §^ . for example. to visit The north. To borrow YieyvK 'The eye . and. faith. presuming. employer the responsible or moneyed partner of a firm: Note 16. full. know uot that a letter has 15 I having apologized. to consider. to estimate. a cousin. to sw(m To consider. answer.. to recompense. Chiang. to eudure. to pect. do you still come and ask [for more] P 13 Do you even dare to say that you do not owe ine this money 11 12 14 5> 0!: 1 21 Also to let go. bold. to perceive. heel. drag or Sincerity truthfulness. to tear. a violation of law or order. satisfied. a fault. TTan^ To lend. a scheme. T'i/ig\ To paiu. lieve. Swa?i*. sa^. exalted the a' from capital. . to . Hwang^ Falsehood. to follow. obstinate. A would not presume. to love intensely. NienK A The master chia}. course. fixed. . An Tanf/ ChieK younger hr other or cousin: An 2a* To converse. ailing. Lea. ^{j Hsiung^. to feel for. The head crime. to venture. xinwell. an opiuiou comply with whence. to JTsin^. a mental view yien^ K'aii^ chien* : senses. to avail of. 102 and 122 With To one's see Pw^hao^ IcwodK Hard the own eyes.

SouUierii JVIaudariu. :x: Here and There. as is often done it 22 after a negative no( very xvdL thus used as an intensive. lU • Repose. rendered tvai. It is much more used in Northern than iu 'entral and Soulherii Maudaria. . 13 may hence the meaning For of this use see Les. talk. Les. Seeing. uiiusiiril. the west being It means younger bfothet-f though alone means and alone means younger brother. where it to those above. in this place. and the Chany is not at home donU you know Iff other. 6 means 7 The plural form is used in Chinese because the silver consists of irregular pieces which are to be weighed. of acquiring knowledge and forming judgment. There no accouuting for this anomalous combination. These two forms correspond and the same remarks apply. and adds emphasis to the question. the phiose means brothers. Used jtt^ll In this place. now bore r/i/. idle. it be emphasized. cliiefly iti largely supersedes Vocabulary. Tlie second is the Bliort colloquial form. (21) is similar. : Ilsieii^.e. includio^ both older and younger. Hot chilly.tlity A'icn* ch'^iig-. crops. being the chief here means. | f he uot at 21 If lie know home full) f that Mr. lonesome. -- to fulfil on (' terminate of a ihiog Tlio . and soincwliat stronger tlian how the English idiom requires the answer to be "no. 20 The first clause second iutei rogatively. No. gossip . not wdl . if read without special emphasis.sli to (erested zoalous. J Cold. become To ." while ** the Chinese makes it yea. ^ ie. Les. in that place."— is often Lit.s 22 j5|g 1 sip 18 Has 19 Have He Ans. f is head aches. at ease." etc. sin. lu ancient times the eastern side of the house. equal to very.. It is Soutlieru Notice Mandarin. 20 Do you the guests already finished eat- ing (eaten to the t I > gone not yeb proposes to go to-morrow. was occupied by the proprietor." XiiESSoisr over . indolent vacant. spoken aflinnatively. ardent. G3. is given to guests of viz.S finisli coin pK'te. to think. to com- cliat. Notes. is Air. still. 8 Lying is not practically regarded by the Chinese as an offence against morals. verse. Chit Ihien^ hwa*. however. pa. : harvest. irulifFeront. The term comes very & far short of expressing tlie Christian idea of is only approximately translated by and. is put figuratively for the act of judging. Tti'iK - To . not in fjovd health. expresses surprise. leisure. and fihould alwnys bo used in public discourse. offended. It is iiulicated. 3^ n " the proper and rewnlar form. 'Ihe first is ( ^5IM 'P There. here. If.convor- sation. . When the tldtr assumes its proper meaning. aud must be rendered. It is not heard at all in Nanking. heat. unoccupied. or court. 16 The conditional idea is here implied. or wlien dignity is important. . speak thus my Ans. to part rpnidU to tlio qii. though it is so in theory. orfler is inverted auil in Chinese. . feveri.. and partly by the emphasis given in speaking. not had not seen with would he venture 22 Are you not well to his Chang own eyes. 72. 1 )^ Leiigp. tlio to speak. " Do you sti/l dare to say. i. partly in the order of the sentence. or host. is intensive. Here.

lent pure Chiiig4. f 6 lie does not live here. to a disturbance. relying on force sturdy an excess. an art an accomplishment. to escape. to speak grammatical. to slip compliment. js£ Will you please of I {^t 1g 5 here that ooncerne a good year with you it an orderly place. Note common 17. clear incorruptible clear. 15 Tho business here make GhHyig^. au artisau. H""o3 carpenter right : To injure. afternoon. just. undisturbed. To fear to be frightened. is Bustle. tumult. doings. a Les. time. as a tone settled. 04 13 This 14 preaching You may ball). 28 Translation. 3 Is 4 This kw^ 3 1 2 There's nothiag . 65. tooU. ntensils 4 to be at dwelling house Kwoa^ shang^. not proper to gossip there. • a band. skill Skill in doing hand TodS. You proper. up Also scnig\ away. expert - v. you may put bore. 10 It is bustling here and quiet there. firm. extremely.t Lesson MANDAKIN LESSONS. to hide to a shwoci^. is small. if o no f 1 . afternoon. ^? 4 ^^ peaceable. remainder hefter than. mild. si- Quiet. tools of yours 11 These 12 The carpenters Iri of this place are uot skillful. Wood A Chiang* wooden. Isj. Violent. Household furniture. 4 A preaching place. Tools. Ila'i^ 2>'a* ynecluunc. 5 hereP sit you. is There is no stove there. Cilia}. a church. not a chapel a dwelling house is (or. IJwod\ it (Sonthern. a chapel. craft. 5S. 9. furniture. : workmanship. Mu^ iu then bold. quiet. jusfc now thereupon Les. A Cliu4 chia}. tools a g Local iu 1^ To IVaag'^. Reason sense Near Ts'dP. 7 You must 8 It's not talk here. as an account. and : hide. superior to Also ch'ianc^y rhiang\ and chiang^. large. To to store conceal oneself.'. SI ill. there. to conceal stores. mffer from very. Shou\ The arm the son P. to scold. Manual skill. furniture. headstrong. a per- actions. a joiner. Bustling^ busy The same. h£u<3icr. to hurt to damage. 9 It is hot here and cold there. ski\ The The wu^ Clrii/g^ Goods. impassable. Chianfshii} 'any^ KicoCi^ ^ Uteusils.) Pare. In answer Easij flatter me Chiang2. to rail.t. Hai\ Shantung. a IJI^Sf Nao^. write here this afternoon. reckless fellow. interesting. home.

. accuse. 17 In 12 <lrops out of Carjtfutcr* tlie nf thi» 2'/"" I ho tninslat ifm. business. nnvil in SlinnliiiiL'. 5@ llfjij is rejects . ( 19 (hcUy to is lio tranalutod before.to<'' to Im' II pulilic place w hero niiy one iimy go. by all menus. R FuK easier to speak is than the lauguage there. Les. to seek. 13 his •rnt' "' ' ''"l'i lie iipi)rMprifttfjIy \x^f-\\ to viiitoiH or strnngors who wcF'. It IH a*lj<. SI. show a that no prDjicr ii('t 'J'li( U iiiial^ yis ftict iiDtcd in and thiit 1 y o applii'd langnago.Q g " and 20 The language here Q. 104. to look search for to the whole Everywhere Pien\ A (ier^» little ^§ 13 there I have not the least idea. He was afraid and Lid himielf here IS > 19 &? 5. an instructor one who has pupils or apprena master icorhman^ a head-man. hid hnx anU skulktd there. in deficient to very the least. used tis an exaggerameaning a considerable time.. luul 'nlmtihito whicli wuulil he wholly iimdiuiiMiljlt* in tho Nortli.e. " chapd bi-ing uiulor. This itlomntic form gives ihe natne force as tho form of the trmiHlat ion. mast. here or whether he is 24 1 have already searched everywhere I workman skilled Ans..!!s Your customs there 22 Is the carpenter there 01^ 23 Whether he To have really uo idea where he a tutor. Teiuliors lliroiiylioiit the Ynnfffsc reject it Imwcvor. — f^S/"i/"4.I'-ni ncr. to strive. but is here usc'l na nn very common thin^ for Chinese words anrl pliraJirs in bo u«<m1 oh several parts of speech. to llii-ir 22 of the " Hitl himself hero nnil instead "f ooniinj? after it. roquirrs ^. nerved by turning some these and insists on . lit. a prU'atc rfi>ii(hncf." hcfore n. to preside over. forming the 77ie ttkiU not good. the artections and tlio reason the liumniio Rcntiiuents conilmu'd with the principles of abstract rigiit. 21 •o||§11 CI- there. I Tliin Rcntcnoo would be equally good also hcanl in written ^^J if $^2«. entire to pervade. J it.*ctivt. pj - . is for. 1'"' liberty ('f 4 properly a noun. Rontam o M»'iut thus " It might bo preof the u» i" vould probably Soutlu-rn ami |l|p] N'orthcrn. tluTc Hi)uk«'M [illi ftjj tlio (\^J inconjjniity % after said. The turn of llio sentence here tion. though either undcntoo*! in moat places. tinty. control. Notes. ns often. " 3 all y«" fhrrt^A ymr (jood The Chinese takes tho putting "there" in the possessive case. It is propfrl. to liod responsible. i. I'leganlly insfrted l)i't\veen the parts 21 There onght of right to be a I'-iid it would often bo so it .. places. 8ucU transilioiiH riiiiMt not Hurprine tli.v a used master or ti-ftclic?. put to lay on.inlru'linn into pri it" rnoxj\n or hiiil ngH wIkti* it won not rnu V( nioiil t" huv*: tln ni j^o..in any the North. He sat here half a day before he left. a teacher a as colors. but used the South. "I'li'il lie is Nanking teacher ideal " ouj^lit. I have not seen him. -: # 17 The people here are very unreasonable. or at leiist more time than befitted Ihe circuiiiBtances. more widely used than 18 " lliilf n (lay " is here. Same 4- only — |i ir\ "e?i3 as preceding. can ln' omit tud aixl CliiiH'se tciiclitT. II Mm"" f^ik A . ineaiiH nrt or profrH^ion. To supply what CJiao^. /ire-homr. tices A teacher. in Read JVu\ To bend the mind to.R i ^ 24 IG The carpenter's tools are not here. in iinplie<l aft' r I'jcaclly it II uiw'l l)oth in I ho Xoilh ami South :—Sco 1^ . |" To snperinteud are better than ours hero. liut tlie connection 111 is .

4 take away these dishes. Tan\ dust soil. 3 Mr. to dust. the origin - Tsei\ A ts(r. ChiacA a robber. contemptible. T'y?. to praise. liog. animals. They are auxiliary to go. Sacrificial the horse. cow. to begiu. To - call. to pilfer. To sedau chair. to flee. a rebel. -… Shcng^. ('hang's auimal rau away. off. to run to wal k PJ^ llaix^. Ashes.) may 4 Yoii call two men to carry the chair. to vocif- erate. brash snatched away the dog- it olF. otfi. steal. local. little dog's food. and The Auxiliary Verbs come. lie can not get up. to disciiBS. native. has already moved away. cock. a palauqniu. vile. g %0 1? i 2 5!9 0&0!^ 0 5 You may 6 He 7 His box of 8 There ^ M j . Ch'-e^. ash-colored. to travel. dog aud Sheng^ k'ou^. 5iQI! 10 Have these tliree boxes aot yet been forwarded 11 He 12 A man came over 13 My 14 He has uo streugth. au insurgent. nuderhanJ. soot. a feather duster. Tou\ >vD To up. from tli(3 west court- yard. and 120. to recall. to brush off with' a duster. A To remove from. Vo<?ABULARY. carry between two persons. to. lime. get to rise. a trnnk a caaket. to set to transport to move to bandy. ^ To C/i'i^ Les. cspecially to elevate. lift. to call to. to gallop. petty. box . thief. 1 ^ ^ 2 0^ Will yon please get up? (or. dust on the table. >i " younger brother took with him a hundred taels of silver. una may be joined to any verb coutaiuiug the idea of motiou. lauds. 26 Translation. and are to verbs of directiou. (or. A dog. the mule and doukey. A IIsiang HiveP-. has already drawn his money. horse. disheartened. to halloo. Earth. 10. limit their these the simplest .^ 3 is The hig has already been clot Ling brought. secret. XiiESSoisr There is Chinese a large class of auxiliary iu Verbs which arc joined to other verbs to qualify or Of moauiug. hsiejA To To remove Pawl. raise np. Koii\ territory.Lesbon MANDARIN LESSONS. 'iit>3. has run awuy. dust . ox. Domestic auimfils. aside. . clods. lamb. to to or T(ii\ To open out the meaning. ran. Will the "reiiUemau please rise?) A away my thief stole clothes. a bandit. work animals.

t<j \^ to graft. to couceni branch. but still o cliair-bearers to meet General WangIS Slieqg-tsi has IQ 4|5 13 was the same thing over aud over. to bait. . 1 ^<0!1 ofj 1 out. to grow rich to ferment. to provoke^ Satiutod. to beloiig to. to dispatch to prosper. Sung^. to take along witk to conduct: to retract. 21 The peu which. to consider or regard as. food. See tang\ - — rw. a tape.. like. to forth. coDse(|neiices. - a suburb. a surname. to unite. force. to bring npou. distasteful./?H it Have yon not yet taken these things [to their desLinatiou] 20 These are two erroneous characters. you may strike them . to beg. to loathe.i. to. to witlisUiud. yon borrowed of me you must return to-morrow. To iS/"2. 1 select. l''i/. 15. disagreeable^ provoking .. to take A Les. Wndded garments.. To Ktvan\ sash. to snatch.. to — as a gate.P its w IG He 1 They fonr went as talted and talked. . : A to succeed to. to snatch. the Third's boy is here rnuDing back aud forth most provokiDgly. To pawn^ -.. A ki" A ' I fit) ft ruler. cat. as. a robe. divorce. to sco a guest to the door to send to go on purpose take. dispute aud struggle for. Note. To mandg trt search to atk for. back cue's won!. to transfer. to take. To Chi*. royul. 90. for. 22 Mr.26 Wang please brin. to tell bis C. to dis* -. 73. To Shno^. to Kwan^ ' 3 out III a rliTHftd ^fin^ 'I shang^. to To seud forth. An A 3 TangK oaber garment. connected with. ''V. Iliiteful. a meal. receive. to carry Chiag\ To rob by violence. proper a krap: Lrs. take niong with.. . shut. Wang*. a zone.i*." ulnng my wadded clothes to-morrow? 15 Will Mr. Buitiabl*. a cns- turn/. to show become to pay out money Lcs. t. lU. a girdle. escort. East of the or end of the great wall on the GuU* of Pechili. I o . had) already nni off mother. a garter.. a coat. Manchuria. to joia ou oS. ^ ^ . hateful. to pay out to draw mone*/.'iiduring: con uert^i]. to give as a iVee gift. to make a present. (or. to cntrnst send a letter or messa/jc. lodge. to criticise. results. 7'"*. to send by amother: - to bar. 23 ^ KS He borrowed it I'or five 24 Waug my overcoat and pawned hundred cash. To toin house or barrier. instead of. . To Toil\ by tnlce To C/"t'i. a banda^i^e. to pledge. Ting's sou has seut a letter from |H Manchuria.

is a characteristic feature of Cliiiieso construction. 46. ft 10 ^0 if . The use of |J^* implies that there are professional chair-bearers within "call. a tamtler. etiquette reciuires that officials of pawning tlieni. mental preposition. Shwei^. 54 and 145. _ Bring a cup (or. 8 . Na^. The or much.I Lesson MANDARIN LESBONB. or of A X- ThE IxSTKlMBNTAIi VeRB or .. The frequent use of instrumental verbs. even. 4 Tajce your haudkerchief ami trash ^ way the tears. A Clip) a goblet". wkh warm water 9 Yon may take my card and go aud 7 10%> invite liini. living together. See Les. 4 The translation fails to convey fully the direction.. 2 Bring a little wood aud kiudle tho fire. 16 17 When an official iu travelling approaches a city over which he has jurisdiction. is a highly idiomatic expression. to bring. %dtJioufr4ormally uxpresaing it. however. taJ:e or send along with. take . r-- o|r Bring a iiiatcli aud light the lamp. 28. 19 Note how the object is here placed first.. Pei* . T lie re is nothing in the sentence to indicate whether the time is past or present whether it should be translated in the third person or iu the second. of which there are a number. ^ Sheng^ hwoa?." there are none such. pliant. the term chac^. Ch'a? hwduK J-^'ouL. II.. the im16 plication being that the purpose of going is aside from the matter in question. iudiycrimiuately. classi- 22 Here will not replace . although only serves to replace part. to seel'. and is aoiitewhat boolsish. XjESS instrumental verb. Water.Firewood fuel. 2^ . It defies all attempts at a literal translation. l)ut . . Same as The two forms are used . are the sons of one man tlmg numbered.it of Brigadier General. to Na\ .. ^l^ss) of water. are all coonted as own brothers aud numbered la the order of their ages. . Where would most likely be used. but the sons of brothers. to seize to arrest . used as an always takes after it either or lb is sometimes rendered as a verb. is the tliirii. See Les.<:JiQ'Q^ Brush Jirewood. u the South of " boxes. Vocabulary. jnst deCyves people by meajis of tlie truth.. but simply that in ag« he Not only child in arms may be so called. g 27 f Translation. ChUiiK ^ . To light or kindle a fire. To lay hold of. means. for the purpose of ** making a? TOise " by w here Tlie sons of a family are numbered according to their ages. 10 fier is used in Mandarin ouly in certain phrases. or other articles. implied in the Chinese.. Notes. meaning to repeat over and over again. food.. 23 It is a common practice in China to borrow clothing. eldest.^ 1^ ! 4 ^ 5 He 6 The paper you may is all used up take [some] cash and go and buy - [tnore]. but is ofiea best rendered by aa instruto (alee. does not imlicate thftt the purson in tjcestion is old. It nearly not called is The use .. either with or without an intervening it ill takes ks place. military officer entitled to be A addressed as would generally be of rank oorr^pondrng to tli. 21 Tlu3 sentence implies a relative clause. It is not used in Southern Mandarin. to bring. 3 You go and briucr a lamp. a - •• -limpid fluid a stream olear. anil are frev|iiently tU^signated hy these nmiibeifs added to the family name. to bring See Sab. or command. fuel." chi^ 1b generally used as the a lower rank go outside of ihe city to a greater or loes distance to "receive" him. is . or to talk ai'ound a thing without coming to the point.(Jail you not wash clean.

: to IjCf. Pi iper^ stationery 3. position. myself. vast. briug a 11 Is it br©om aud sweep goIJA 0ll1i^^^ is A TSng'^ A C7"V. commencing' off. work. To wash. napkiij. to Also satA to rid. open basket. lliu " wipe to to scour.A crowd of a deceive a" To Ckuni\ jusL broom. a principle. Also /m" I["a(P j —Note MaicliCR. a cut or stroke a whip to flog. yon 0!! > bring chairs.^od\ To of The viean fnan. oriliuury . a bliickguard. /•joji ienK A Lung^. GiiOiU. whip. tlironc A a strip clussiRei* itmt n pinco clttHsificr n't A sit T. corn broom. hwoa^ Tsr- A go. an oiitr:i[). leaden. to soothe. sweep. inerchnndize. to coax. ever. chisHiHur lead pencil. &elf 21 Matches hwva\ //'3 a docu meiit. to to select. A Ck^iaug- A c/"'"i. f|l Ho 16 a lautei'D. : A 7. A ilivaii. act an. 27. a depraved and coutoinptible fellow.\ di^^'nity - vvortblcsa fellow. or To rub ^ " CUiug*. to bring. stock. #0 1 a^o lamp A a cap or Shon^ handkerchief. a rule. - lum Ch To Tai f)c-i M CV"3 'lal^ Ci^'X 'P • • at ' A A to t*. To Using'. to (vipe lightly witli lianj. . A T'iao^ coarse broom.. Q aud hang^. section. wholly . /tabituallij . -4 nil A In Sbautuiig read Tea rs * A CliouK to awfuj. a child. to to make do to liecouie to simulate to behave. 13 If you write with a lead pencil. 14 Will it not answer to strike him with your hand 15 At eight o'clock you may bring a lantern to meet me. to purify a fluke leaf. a towel a a pltce seat. tui'bau. to be customary to serve answer. Les. 100. A iirnf^ II urouur. iilwiiys. brick or mud. n liiyli. clear Tears. classifier A to cover Lesson : A u!'i(j?' hintcrti. to to clean up. wide. weep. lay hold of exact Also to cozen. paid uo attention to what I said au ait to bouonible seat. a claFsical term. a Les. to walk. : a 1 2\ r . • cage. can rub it out. Lead. foreign. ^ g ^ go and 10 There are no seats 1$ some reasonable for you to tako iny things to make preseuts to otlici' people 13 There is dust on that wall. The ocean 7^ c/iut"*. to act. Muf. : t'jtngi Ytnifj* > lf sonally -fT" a?. tu From. To hrnsh Cli'ieK bruisb to scatter Ch"(n\g-. a boy. to do to prevail. Also r and tm\ a card.clies. to Lrusli C/. Pieh}. to -. a neckcloth napkin it off. Lcs. Constant. to to take. Entirely.. A tsoO^ jhi^. Sao^. Ifwoi)^. is K. wall of stoue.W2. t T. dignity.

or 6 "Just ' is only an approximate rendering of which is much used.ly sny Chinese in such cases always The speak from the standpoint of the person addressed. This lesson only introduces the common uses of these words. Besides these names. see Les. 3 Notes. do not convey quite the same meaning the foi uier refers to :' is name most commonly propriety.'il in the transchair was wanted uBeii ' lation. -' 23 Mr. which is sometimes. . to brush. Again.e. moreover. etc. llO. you oufjht 710 1 to take a mean man to mtaAure nd me. — . Followed by disjunctive. The sentence mi^^lit perhaps with equal propriety be ren- dered Writliiff . and name Les. is not often used of tears. The Chiuese laugnni^e has no equivalent for " aud.. it is still. and hence is "sed intensively. and foreigners are generally inclined to use it too much. as here. The Chiuese very often allow mere juxtaposition to suggest or imply the idea we convey by " aod. " Take a handkeichief and wipe away your tears. the more . matches arc in ts'u^ teng'. words of the same class . in succession the first is untranslated aud the second rendered and also* Again. honcefortli. together with. or wipe away^ and which Shantung is read ts'ai^ and in Nanking k'ai^. suits the meaning best. in The idea in the sentence is. "come" done with a lead pencil i than 15 latii-Ji- . 01 alternative. and is preferred who! 1 1/." The Chinese could but they readily express the "jour" by inserting would raroly do so except for the sake of special emphasis. but is uot generally it implies a tniusiutable — See 17. There are also a u amber of other See Les.t Lesson MANDARIN LESSONS. 10 The form of the sentence implies that more than ana heace. the by the people. A 11 is here used in contrast with . tah. some places called %% 9 A card in the hand of a messenser is the proof that he is authorized to speak for the piirly whose card lie beai s. is a principal verb. with the general sense of entirdy. ^ With. 90. For this ami similar uses of 20 Lit.. my opinion wrong 101-01:1 0&h^ to him up. likewise* Before it serves to strengtlieu the idea. also. equal to whether. which is contrary to the facts. to sctmr. garded what I said. a second time. "some" ia suppli. eight huadred buy goods. that the speaker creates an impression in adva^nce. lu Mandariu it means.. go. 16 Lit. you must uot takd niy tools to do your work. diare. 1 In this first sentence in the third. to wipe. »r« si. Me took my words not as icoi'ds i e. XjESsoisr x - The Common Connectives. 6 The 7 at the close is is used imlefinitely the literary the commercial name. where also its ordinary reading is correct." Tliis word is made to do duty for it. Li the Third brought four llionsaiul 21 2 tbe my hat. or avother man. i. 13 The subjunctive idea is implied rather than expressed. ami.. you should f 5?! wliip Go 18 Js^ #^0 1 & 4 10 lu p i% aud school-room briug you are just putting for right. Liu. the latter to duty. 20 Yoa luust not take me to be a mean fellow. The at Nanking.uld ce." ( the literary style) a final "t^ 111 W^n-li particle marking the completion of the idea. and then states tbe facts in such a way that they are disbelieved. Before doubt. So also 4 We might with equal propriety translate. means other people. 2\) 17 This auiinul will not go. 12. you should not liken me to a mean man. > f He 22 tauls of silver to habitually sells native goods for foreign goods. common word being . without attempting to illustrate them fully. way he rubbed out. strike lamps. : for matches. though "When used twice Dot always. 52.

106. be well for us to go to- it heart another. a rack siippm't.M tli' sidi?. 4 There > > to to be at mis. … 6^. furthermore. the same kind: Les. Bad. You must not fight with people. Again Wail thing. bird's bill ' iiitereourae^ the face. C/i*ou\ hatred. a sort.. To revert to return to repeat. to ropcnt. -Iw cnemij. agreement. Chany^. ward to it — 1^ To in 7V/» chia' san^. go away. honor. a secoud time agaiu still. - and 04. to trust. a tarn. blows. a eJiy. in- coutinrd. and To aud A • aguiu. Tsai\ Kopeated. MolnunmcJan: Les. birth. eumity. by nature luis li:ul :iM(.: 8 lue. Also. evil. to A come frame. — A Tsivei^. My 11 0 peace with. a stautl. aud. pay "ill not WoLildu't gether 9 In *ol- m 1^ what yon say. uor even see me. a foe. T cominuuicatiori. Lea. ugly. of duty or ac- vicious. to go towards to evil are ia Good Shan^. a path. '. 104. Cilia}. the lips Also tm* aud By shtng^. To l)iti(l a taut. lieaceforth certainly iu addition to. expert. ashes.1- Ik trlt some reason 7 • o coflc is 5 I Lave no intercourse with him. Also. 1 f0 a 4- 0% > ^ 2 edly. Ta^'chaw/. An enemify a competitor. to unite. AwodK lie-. 0. Harmony. come to blows: Note 2. docile. tij^liL . 2G uuil 120. etc. cannot be scoured clean. staging of. a time. Tli(! oue talking with The whole way. is a month then. to review. pressing. wicked- to clussi- way the snout. 71 liiK auy - Lai^ wauf/\ is road. a class.-t un/i'hf. his see Sub. to withstand. He ^0 him repeat- 3 I have already spoken to Ihcci^. To go -. merit meet. CV'/"3. au aperture. ihc qnarrel virtuous (goodness. his a sort. > He and I are not on good terms. an autagouiat. l':i':( rep lUti'.T:— Les. 170. originally. to rely ou. Wan^. ness. 25. all: —— Les. or kind.^lit. to fisticuff. 10 Tlie good aud the enemies. many. tofi*. a spout. gone. "Weapons. fa. a competitor an enemy.)ther every one. to fight. nature hy natnrally. fro. home lips Foil tioD j^^ to fight a battle to Tsai^ at with his youuger brother. Want/. skilful. vile.^ so Translation. pust. and then. aud. To fight. even with fi. repeat- La'' A myriad hwe? ten tlionsand. A Lu\ a Jig Id. An opponent. UL^aiu: see Sub: Les. 41 a cliiipter in a novel [e] the 8urfrout. likewise: '•"*• father Tiug 12 see Sub. connteiia nro. Ashes. revenge. au e(imil. tofght. ilculiiigs. iu the guests. formerly. Yit?.

. WiUt yes. daddy. kindred. to admonish courage. tone --- - - Sound. for me to go along icith you the itlca 10 of the sentence The sentimeat Hcaceii horn i. related to. Together T'ungK friend- ship. after I told you you need not come any more 21 He has already made np his mind it is useless to exhort him. 4 " you the idea of a concession on the part of the speaker that as if we should also have some show of reason on your side reasonabU. LungK to eye. to unite. fixed: to A classifier: T'ung. really. to Sheng^ chH^ up exhort. important. 123. The eye. more. without. to value. monrnful. to be. a handle. 125. certainly. . 724. the a pendant.: . 110. to deliver np. None. more general and proper term for elsewhere in this sense. sound. Lesson MANDARIN LESSONH. WoiUdti't it be well sense. hearing. hard of To C7 to settle. advantageous. dealings. accent. not having. Tif"j4. at rest. akin. 776)1. a voice patatiou ^ LiangK WV. hy nature. To meet. pity. sell is iris. ' daylight and till 18 Are you going to talk nnreasooably SI ^ him him you should lit. & waut- '/(?"3 3 A increase. lustrous. the a lobe.ch'-wang^ worth while. ing: voice. eveu IS 15 Si He not a good man yon must have no more dealings with biui. jl^ 0. too stiong for Chinese ethic*. a bead of flowers. for. which is the Southern form. lobe. The intercourse of A Sheng^. 20 Have you come again. price. the Les. _ . unprofitable. be cl aster. 116. A ruler. cial. identical. decide. 121." the is. Notes. to advise.: chwg^ The ear Chi\ united eu- to The ear. what you say is addition of is a common idiom. to rule. aud. does not give quite the same Witli it the translation should be. to benefit. fix. fall. sarm. |3¥3^ " you do not go if this week. the ear. ^ 7 The "to however. ckHK Relatives not of the same surname. largely used in Shantung and It gives is represented by some in the translation. Useless. trade. P II c o I« i W -^? 13 1 have already told yon three times have yon forgotten again 14 It !^ . bright. lord. to decide. to conirauni- cate with to copulate. to mincL the alike. a host. is Wheu 16 : you speak to raise yonr voice a 17 Talk to ^0% 1 C m 1 will it as well as your wife SIS kr land are not worth 19 His honse and over one thousand strings of cash.^ K < 10% 31 no matter. It conveys The that you and I are to be companions. re- mouize. with. au ear. be of no avail. determiuatiou iK to 7nake joiu. to bar- make known. Clear. To all The pupil of the Citing^. Les. flfty. benefit Les. 12. 2 is fight. relatives. ChicK - worth . in- To C/i^uenK friendship ter cour se Chiao wang^. opeu. Will. show what Deaf. Papa. Les. etc. Les. A school-raate. is .tlo. ckin^. CVW master. To -.e. Toe?. g Yao^ To CkiadK ChuS Urgent. eyes.

The third expresses what will probably follow. To protect To protect. all to ^ ~ it rendered simply will or shall. To approach Chi nccompany. is It iuto comparison. and with \vhicl\ tho 4fidertioa conccrain^ the worth of the property is brought force Its may be approximated by em- word worth. schoolmate and also my relative.. first lost in the translation. an assembly hall Heavenly Father tiau term. X6 is 18 The Assumes it 19 what clause docs not aflirni as a fact. Les. //"I keep safe. To approach uow. to Also Tien^ Fu\ exchange. 24 It is here assumed that tho person referred to is » woman honco is rendered "her.^GPH her a while. to accom- to complete. a suIood. to screen from. to insure. A classiner :- - LiCS. by tho mention of a future time. can so. must. . la wliicii is only so Nanking Mamlarin prefers 22 Wlien speaking this sentence woukl be omitted by many. own its I shall go to-morrow. 2 & 23 His old ^n 0%ISI1 eyes are dim and hia ears deaf. radi- cal the beginning uativo. (' in case they were sold. proper. this. source. a cinb honsn. Tho second expresses what will necessarily often equal to. in time or in argument at onfe: See Sub. See tively C/' Sill). phasizing the often. Its presence implies a hypothesis : is commonly used. capital. to warraut. Vocabulary. . then. loiultr ( great ei') voice. might. To want. forth wit If etc. They are often The future equivalent to. You come has agaiu. also Les. to teach. going to.• : S2 rry 22 iry son and his daughter were bora O . restaurant. etc. 24 To f > fiither's He 25 /r. or certainly follow. largely loses in which caso special signification. the present. may preach (Mrs. morrow go. a school. must. perhaps generally. 104 ' • To . however. omitted. or is often joined with . wlien joined with sentence the verb to be is omittetl. supply a verb and iransUite. Pao\ To protect. ptrou. forthwith. / to~ . 42. gener- ally to need.0 Wang 26 Old Mrs. to finish to modate. posi- instrnct. . at once. was introduce fl but into the fienttiico by something tlia I preceded. yVn^. just noit\ ly or speedily follow.r. a cot- a document. own. just or Certainly. fiflirinative. - A P**." X JjESSOIsT Common Future Forms. surely.^g her tell is is my the same as to tell me. KvoanK . is said. often equal to. command. is often i?iiplieu with out any special word. c/iia<A ail a Chris- to defeiul. irAeu you speak to him you thoulU sptak with a litUf.. An ami Must. as. These words do not always require *' will " or " shall " iu tliQ translation. however. what the person intends slionltl follow. a Bchool-room : 7Wiv inn. to 110. it principal nmc . These three words are used express the The first expresses wlmt will ini mediatefuture. root. Tho ori^^iii. determined on.'* of age. to guard to aid. 44. 13 la the South Nort li it is always used with ^jj is in the We here translated as a verb. - Notice that iu this used. about to. to be surety for. Lin) to . the same year. to escort. eertahdi/ will uccessarily.

Ill can master this Trimetrical Classic in a few days. to keep. 12 Wait two or three days and I will certainly go and see him. 5 His business will certainly be a losing ^ {zfoBi of g^ml rj 3 isps^ OF^ want presently. at once. ^6"4 . 4 Mr. to disperse.then. To receive. telegr ij-li to To hiuder. to dissipate. to collect. To transmit. . at once. Forthwith. come here to teach school. … -. in future. to pnt on deposit.to gather. Li4. 8 I will go home and stay seven or eight days and then return. novJK sA'!2. 33 m _ Translation. wire or line. subsequent . presently. hsien\ to To preserve. hinder* to prevent. M Wait a He little and intends to I will go. 10 You may go ahead: 1 will be there 9 I o is not fear 6 In a short time the carpenters will qnit work. Note k'an'^. Yien^ cl ient Tien\ Instantly. I 0|Aw >| 1 2 ^ the Heaveuly oue. Li^ To scatter. 13. yon not yet finished writing Aas. . OIH^ 13 13 so il-Qils Tsi^ 14 a jiriraer containing au epitome of Chinese phHosopliy and history. Ch^wan^ quit work.Lesson MANDARIN LESSONS. 11. - SweP hou\ To memorize. Nien^ hwei\ liP< am on the pointof finishing. Li will come presently. 7 After three or four weeks I shall return home. to file. forthwith: Les. evidently. to institute. 162. ^the telegraph. to establish. an auintentional wrong. . to be in error. IIao3 sh'i\ Ts'un^.. to harvest. a fan It. just now. to propagate snmmon. Yien/^ I promulgate. to miss to prevent. to have a clear understanding with you about this matter beforehand. oieiice or cliarity to retain. behind in place. to subpoena. o „ You need Father will certainly protect you. Shou\ come tell To stand np. to wiud up. to separate. -. Also chwanK After. soou. Wa\ To mistake. on the point of. to waste aa opportunity. to maintain to lay by. Ligbtuiug. Scm*. The Trimetrical Ching\ the tainly o% Soni When obstruct. (time) . Have guests come and yon. to draw np a contract. Classic. - • to harxi down to to Virtuous deeds. ^electricity. an heir. a balance to credit.. to hinder. Also san^. next. master : A To to. to appoint. deeds of benev^ alms. . on the verge of. About -. to I will cer- to set np. or Tan\ The same.

to turn over to. to breathe to si^h put a stop to. respiration to rest. manner. to take or Rain To Hsiu Ch'ing will certainly be ou the Sabbath. To sleep To pnrsne. to reject. at ease. to rend. otc. 1 uot go again to invite him wait a little and he will come. 17 Mijjht with equal propriety ttoulil art ri'jht must JirM havt rt ]>ti reiulcrt'd. when th6 " 5 sffiny. fh*st 22 The wiud has changed to the northeast it will certainly I thiuk on the contrary. /"(2 j. interest. to leave off.e. to uemoHze. moant to eKorU. 11 Nothing in the sent«nco inrlicatos whether "I" or **you" Of " ho" thould l>c unod in trunHlating. 1 raiu. risk. just at The two forms hand . an'l nunna to cimiil over till you 1 1. or dront.4 Notes. aft hero used. aliocj 10 roud with a alight cmphtiBia. 25 In ray opinion his busiueBs will soon 0?^ " 26 Wang split 5an*. and ox presses a 8lr<tug prosurapl tiua wherouB proporly cxpresaea (ip|)i ehcnBiou. To Hsiey to give up. fame. brush away. open. 5'] re- 18 If JJi-olfi M Chwan^. ou the other hand to comprehend. guefits Itaviiig guoits come. translation docs not quite give tiw full the idea is that just now iiiul huie 1 Unxo of purpuso to propiiL'ut*? religion. Which rlicutcd b'-wl by Ihu t-mphama and in '1 thi'tii (ruTM tlio in tlie the North. . To YoQ need at church To tnru over Tu? 24 close up. A --.g . ami putting "k/ww " «011001 i. To shut the door.1: ^ w ^ tnin- to put to rights. to sacrifice:— Note 23. 144. and • 4i IC a*' Ht tiHints to corn* nicanini. min^.. style. f^ye always foUowotl by 16 the Tlie . rarely oa rarely in the SouUi. rest. i. to reverse. propagate to 17 If you would act right yon have a right Leurt." come. is moro or luas local Ii4 it. fashion. to veer as the wind: Les. to stake to quit business. to drive. 23 Even give up the whole night to if I will not fail to deliver it I it by day-light. >W >5 there at once. to rest. T/t€ '"""I.e. peace. 16 It . to place. The 13 here to would be ^ hoyt n&y tnat ifl. + u m %^of A 15 message seat by telegraph |3 20 This plan 0|-*^>^ o Do 21 will certainly not succeed. to risk. nearly aro quite cqnivalent. or by. to linrry. _^ *-0|^. to stop. Left. reputation. nod or doze. example. the speaker intended couocction. Also chwan\ oW' must yoa do not first have a clear nuderstauding this plau will not Work. to - ' • to quit business. 112. to to give up> The Sabbath day.. by the time: a vacation- 3 Kwati^ wind up a shower. ' is in- >9 more widoly uHcd than The J|ft is standpoint of gathering toola. Quiet. wind air. 19 This plan will probably not succeed. not waste time: go as soon as yuu get up. to qailize. Thifl Bcntonco might menn. order for leaving. Shwei\ or about. in ni(jht. IV/inri^er right htarl.^0^ " ray purpose is ligioD here.

-oneself forward. VOCABULAKS*. DO o^ue had meddled. n«<ir to you they will go to hell. if perhaps. in the South though both forms would probably be understood ei-ther North or South. snpposing. the lead. to set at variance. 132. T'iao^. f in the South. carry. but how analyzed is not easy to seo. to incite to contention. supposing. to raise up. knew it he would cerwhip you. Like. the it x "v\ The Common S ion op the Subjunctive. - de- to Also A sinner: To repent a Christian term. To take Ck'v} t'ou\ distinguish. 9 If there is nothing to prevent. to to regret. Whether is added or not depends chiefly on enphouy. men- Ewei^ Kai^. # As There are a number of other words of similar should. to briug to notice. In Kiukiang also is used in the same sense. np. to reform. is has a or f our word sacrijica The three forms are not precisely etc. to To Soa} incite To sow discord. Also ti\ to to To change. put take To repent and reform. another. most used iu the North. to tease. 5 If he does not first meutioQ need not lueution it. m equiil in forae. fi- ago. If. 8 If sinners do not repent. different from. the affair would have been concladed long 2 If the tcacbtT or will aacrijice XiEseoisr whole night. to remit. does with it. nor are they everywhere alike current. Jod^. a to repent. mix. can any one else do so 7 If he does not repay you. . jiS ^^g 3 if . same as. iail. To provoke. ^1 V'i\ To to Tswei^jmK -…. 4 If you are waiting to nse just give QSQ Ig: Q? is more ccanmon in the North. 14. it 6 If your younger brother does not take the lead (or. the responsibility. should. I ^ will go. supposing : See Sub. come to the front). to tion To s^arate. means the same without a conjunction. . - - sammon. It pecnU»r force very I it.LkSSON MANDARIN LESSOKS. to . after death &- 23 The will to you. meaning and nse. A prison. If. to irritate stir Pi2. I shall return in six days. Tii^. amend. 85 Translation. 22 expresaion it. I will repay you. to part. that it will be iutrodiiced by This lesson illustrates in a measure bow the Cbiuese language expresses moods and teosea without any endings or even special forms. _= 1 If you go I also ^ taiuly . to Also tia(P\ as a lantern. alter. as. which and by: See Les. to rip open.

to be wanting. au eucyclope- a palace. wards to wang\ to expect gaze ut To pay . to Fortunate. add on a piece Les. station. happily. Fortuuately Rank. a jmce of feet. … of. To be /irv"3 True. To deceive. a deficiency. 2^0^. would have struclc (or. i . position. To walk. hearty. Good. a Buddhist term adopted Hell by Christianity. still be so fat 16 If bis tiileuts are gooil. lucky IlaingK Tien}- blessed. we should have beeu were really as poor as tins. 14 If he had not reviled rue. FknK . to peel :3 Also yingK to betroth Les.. to call names of rak lot tlir ('liiriese p:narantee. 140. library. to acquiesce. & to tear off. Iii 12 If off. uatuml. . iu couseqnence % W) puK To wane. ought. very: to allow. Hsu?. a wny. - CV'fV. TV*. to a company. 130. proper many. a course. talouts. a are. a classifier: Kwan^ Conscience^ tlie moral ualure. frontl(mmi8 house. one's to cull on. a inayision. happy chauce. to To promise. I-1^ oiQ 10 If by to-morrow yon still have not learned it.. to acold five A its /'ai* To hope for. 17 He has aixain promised to pay by tlie twentieth: if at that time lie still would he ^ does not pay. instinctive. cumstauces. willing. That which Fi'?!yi. It's if "of ^ ^ 1 ^ t > SIM 5^ we had not sat down tluit time on the road. a defect. S Pod\ pa\ To skin. To Pang^ help to assist. false. . in right.… > S6 rr. he can leara it eveu iu two year^. A . yon A may to be warrant. permit. dia.iatig^. rcr. 11 fortunate yon came to our helf): you liad not come we should have been in a dilemma. I. genuine. gifts. luckily. to help. To to Also Jhi^. a store-house. 3tV. is to assent. Lcs. stautly interchanged with ITw*. mild. V-^^. assist. To grant. (o look hopes. sincere. a set Cl MsJi. thrashed) him ^ ^ fi^ *BJ Wang there before this time. rail at. puuishraeut. excellent of kind. truly. iV A . to behave towards. 125. to injure. a footing. to trecdt. to- respects to. in fact. To ..ile.lit. he certaiuly has uo couscience. to expect. to help. to aid. reality. a fiertire to (lo rijj. - . K'lveiK I 15 If be 50 Ti* yiL flj 13 If the Third really said these things. 1 shall strip off his clotbes. to uncover. I tihall certaiuly puuisli |j yon. owing to . r > fhiK Natural endowments. to fine. Ti^ Con- P'-ang^. f/our residence. pfontle. a share. ii'awy To 1^ . cir- Fat. to fleece. To wait. to allow. assist. ti Fu\ - part. to hinder. snitable. /'"8 s/ian(j\ A duties a Htaiion. to promise.. to consent. \Vang\ step. punish. to assent. 7"!*.

Very most. to put one thing for another. the even to. often used for -… v<?ry^ excessively see Sub. throw emphasis on the subject.. and this is the grammatical The Chinese. n/'enmrds . etc. South thuu in the North. to serve as. ) by inserting tsao. etc. 144. teacher 1 out he will certainly v:hi. Tliese distinctions whic-li the Kiigliah expresses so aiiniirubly. or by the end of. Tho grammatical inconsomething they neither understand nor appreciate. exceedingly. 137. at. or ab least finds it indicate tlicni ' thus the first. powerful. ^ Li^ hai\ . very see Sub. altliongli it might be nuule to express. exceedingly see Sab. stiffen resolute. 19 1 19 If I had here. This term is much used in Central Mandarin. classifier dpfjree Les. verily. advantageous. to hold for security.. before this time.}> you. to leave the firrt vorda without any logical construction.. to benefit. 15. Severe. it form au intensive. I 18 If any one should treat you in this H: 11^0 37 way. return would be within. in the highest see Sub. etc. and the second by inserting hou* ai. the Chinese does not express. to the point of excess. and but little in the North. at. A To arrive summit Chi\ Tswei\ To carry to the extreme. Stern. Ch'Sng\ to decided. really. greatest degree Sincere. known yonr should I residence was have come over before this to call upon yon. in order to etc. is not simply Btrengthea it. the best or highest in character thus making the superlative. Or If you go J aho want to go.. . the crown to carry on the head.: : Lesson : MANDARIN" LEBB0N8. wholly. the Hen^. exceedingly. also Les. profit. most. Tiie literal meaning is. very. joined to adjectives. exceedingly see Sub. in the Excessively. . very. very. early have arrived i. violent. acute j I/i^. There are suodry other intensives: See Les. The or quality. It often preceded by or in which case the two words follow the adjective they qualify. do not hesitate. Strip of his clothes i." will not pftss in the South. Very. the summit. however. gain. to reach the end. respecting. certainly. of. To iti'e More used stretch. Notes. Sharp. "ght be rendered. fierce.. barsb. though 15 equally good in the North. to. 19 guarantee you also would 1*11 protest.. Less Southern than in Northern Mandarin. Notice how the Chinese language attains to the idea of '* should have been.e. t'ing It a question whether aspirated iu order to is Excessive. very. often equivalent to a superlative.e. 125 The TingS.'^ early. uscni in top. use of at the close im plies that tht. but not at all iu the South. fortunate. As an intensive it is used chiefly with adjectives of time or quantity. stern. T'ing\ To straighten. bnt in use the meaning is not essentially different from is that of alone. If the. top. JI 6 The Chinese might with equal propriety be arranged. Ch'ing^ perfect in virtue. 23 Lit. VOCAEULAEY. exceedingly. the six days "th(mt it the meaning might be that the party would start buck in gruity is The six days. 17 is ' ' Intensiybs. U\ real Very. at this time. IJ the teacher had 2 This sentence _ hw'cn it he iconld certauUy ha whipped ymi^ or. interest. used as a kind of snper-soper- in place of . order.

at least once a day. tidgety: Note 10. in^ - exceedingly book this will take.size. good. V 71 / 3^ Cha\ just. onoHcIf. plaus. tricks. T'ao^ HsiK if old ch(i*. reasonable. girl is very provoking mischievous): I dislike her exceedingly. take it but once au hoar. 10 This ^^ little (or. tftll to wash in a sieve to about. to excite* Les. impartial Ta* deceive. )1' '"cA lii^li-priced. ^ stir Provoking. (in To be pleased with. one time: Medicine. the main part of a thing. general Public. 6 k drugs. to estiraate. 147. &" essay. delight. to cheat. niauaf^e.^latiUf. 12 This medicine is very powerful at most. thirty years old. iiiudiiiucutal tratlu . to rejoice . the itch. Joy Ck'u'anffi. PUB Ouce. very de- ceitful. d^cfiitful. as to. nil //tin* yienK DinfOHilion. to delay. with reference to. ulcer. late. troublesome. ciipncity to ent "r (Iri' -: Mize. hus- table a dnke Kuruf fJ' i A fit*. f o fierce. excellent. 6 I take you to be. A sore. Also . Kung\ ^^ ^v^ ^•ndi - to common. 11 This ^ 1 C Lun\ son. M W I g& His dog 1 ^ - is man 2 This Q ingly 0 * tall. glad. to toy lifetime to or "fit '' rnramrr. to Crafty. a iuj\ U'JiL'. hivei^ loud. at the latest ou Saturday. ntrifj} ^ To scour cook. fair. the earliest he will come on Thursday. to discuss. malicious. chem- icals. an to rejoice. false. ^ciiiipitwtior. . pliysic. Sir. Just. artful. IIi^Ij. equithe male of animals. Mr. tao\ To tbiiik ': tritlo Kwei\ To disconrse npon. perverse. at most. liCiul JLian(/\ A ft to baudle. To do. ifeit \s\m) to prepa re or cook food. righteous. a highway. Slow. Wang the Second's stature is exceed- 3 4 S very is ceediugly just. impose npon. u limit. treacherous. to clean out. Les.38 Translation.. three mouths* 3 8 Chang the 9 At Fifth's heart is tirae. "1. ^ SIJn\ To cuuuiug. to reaover. In some places. character. C/"2 cheap. to gladden. ( iniucnt. expression). a steward. Joy. dilatory. boil of yours yon should frequently wash with water. 5 To write 7 o - > ex- 5 Your pocket-kuife is extremely sharp. to give joy to. Taol The hmly. i^ ^^ Ta' iao\ The main road. at the very least. to he pleased with . to rejoice. a to like boil. deceive. mischievous. My cook can prepare first-class food. merry. according to. calibre.

you be careful how you use it. Black. ii3 . — Les. dark. reputation. grave. weighty. at the very- is hundred cash. The CkSni SM'v? To value highly. go liiiu. a minister of state. a mow. at dark. power might. after all. the couutenauce. in the Buperhumau. to attend to. but forty mow at will most. brethren. oik*G hard to 14 I exceedingly is find. f 21 This cloth jji first-rate. A classifier : TTu* ^^r^. high very powerful. To Chv? true God. intelligeDt wise. offerings. lofty 14'J. ~ night. to regard as important. emineyd ^z^r^^rr^. make him these answer very well 16 To SJi 17 presents The three brothers have. the face. P'eTV^ Pai^ Vien} Hei^ Hei^ hsia\ A /{"ariA capability . . thing. Ts'ung\ Discrimiiiatiug. latest. H N'eng^ Pu*. to publisL . At night. about oue-siiith of aa English acre. at the by the seventeenth. bunor. precious Chung\ dignified. tsai^ the chief rnler. respectful priced. the small roiul ss ll is 19 Western dogs are very docile iu tlie day-time it is ouly wbeu uigiit comes that they are fierce. very great. loss A by-road. Highly valued.'^y^ Presents Ti^ hsiung^ FTiX Mu^. to follow a calling. worth. to slaughter and dress. Hifrh.: Lesson MANDAIUN 15. 18. god Shin\ human spirit. Skill. to value. "heinous. Honorable. IQf 20 The true God is Lord of heaven and very wise aud earth. sion or perception. least. a basin. a steward.to diguUy. or.kwei\ to honor. Hsiao^ tao* KweiK Honorable. A . a creature. Chinese acre. home on reach propose to the fifteenth or sixteeutli. the Also ch'wig\ iTdoi hwei\ is aud buy of iTsm* a path. Ts'ung^ viing\ Discriiniuating. I also will At hei^ The gods. Heavy. clever. honorable. tub. business. The cheek. a RTipernatural (good) being. A . tht' non ego wu^d^. to diffuse. ols80 i^. road. affairs. of laud. dignified. Used by diviue. precious. TsurP. four P S must 15 This book is very precious. clondy. precious rare Note 15. " 13 It # i ^ ^ 39 LEBSONfl. Tmri}. address to honor. matter. great. at dark. quick of o/pprehen- Brothers. honorable. obscure. a term of dear. severe. kan\ Ability. Day-time. Lien^. cwalted. an article goods. a beiug. a ruler . A ruler. heathen sense. to honor. to spread out.This wash-basin l^i^ 5s mam go the to better. Cloth of any kin J. Tsai^. many for God. rule. daylight.

The construction is thoroughly Chinese of yoiii's. r>r is '' j "r "r To-morrow. and the It is very 1 to be uudcrstooU after and in similar cases . 117 to 120. In some places. notably in Peking. or Yestenlay. as used in Shiintung means pi-ecious^ rnrc. arc iii:iiiy other ways of marking time. |S com- being used instead.h''rt pause. but retains its 7 n'-rmal yound in .e. Jidyrty. 6 It to-morrow will is To-morrow now time will to reap the be the Sabbath. the other in other places. stir up by is rarely used in the South. preciousness.. Day after to-raorrow.. the one in some places. 1.. The clauses should be separated by a . jJilH Yesterday. or at lea^^i u question is raised as to which oad to take. in hex ng nearly always* replaced 10 Lit. f . at the beginning of this sentence implies that 13 The a mistake hail been made in going by tlie small road. It is replaced in the South by which adds to its ordinary meaning that of rarity or is often expressed. it is used in the sense of misckievoHA." " u ia better Are 5 you go to market to-morrow may buy five catties of fish. Common Time Particles. wliich leaves out of view all reference to the [M rson affected.. W II ''r II T tJ "r " To . subsequently. TIio julditiou of i Now. Wheu 4 0%:^ 7 . Kao's disease 1 you ^ 2 Tlie pecond clause is in apposition with the first. . u-ill do very weli. at present. viz. is the present contrast with the past. Afterwards. 40 Translation. ^ ^ f 2 Mrs. provohirif/. your (/"•' boif for. especially in the South. then. in now absolutely. . somewhat 3 To-dny is the third. In some places. the sense of late. South is ( places U 21 common itliom.. r i To-mornw. 0 3 air is bracing.' arc ('"ll'i'imjil forms in conflfant use. *K'MrLvr. Tk' twu forms are used indifferently in most f'lac«*«In Nanking the forms with are rarely Day after to-morrow.Shantung.. Lit. : «rB r After wards. I W pK'toly supplants mild to-day. repeated for emphasis. at present. In Poking it is ouly so used of peraous. Tllie mldition of ([fl is pcculiiir to Pekingese.k . - atifjer i. The two forms are "^ substantially equivalent. See Led. very 16 19 * or can do i. Day before yesterday. I^t Tlieri' Day before yesterdtiy. chiefly is used. It is never used iu this way in . rezatiotts. still there just harvest. ]ja is peculiar to Pekingese. u 9 is to-day. and •dpfilemeutary to it. iu 15 the Sense of bting liard to get or hard to replace. they. which The In the being heard in some is a very at the close refers to the person of wliom the cloth was bought.e. ill wliich sense it is used in most places. Both forms are used in the North. iu future. be the fourth. Tiio "anger" excited is evidently that the party affected by iho " mischief.. this boil i OS here used is read tei^ in Peking.

baps. the weather UangK sedate. right. current. to gather. Les. Ta^ ma}. standing grain. ready : A 14. husbandry. A market. to divide. off. according to. To 7i'2. Mrs. 99. flock together. 16. bread. but in foreign used of baked bread. the south side. before yesterday I By 11 1 n5 Day 10 him aud he was not I > 8 Yestenlay my belly ached the whole day. firm. plain. mild. bmcing. Kan^ chiK serious. Ch'ien\ Ja^. Ya^ C/i'u^. is or cakes. vulgar. Cheng^. like. Chia\ bland. recently. 1 shall start to-morrow. vapor. air. the Chinese. 9 To-morrow evening I want to invite 3^ ms- 41 Vocabulary. applied at large as a terra of respect to any elderly woraau. the former previously. K'ao^ shu\ To hear a recitation. Also tu^. ancestors. . can yoa foreknow that which And 13 S U f^ Q w see at this time the bread. a sheaf. The belly. foreign terra the beginuing: T'oa^. as if. „ ^ ^op . . Warm To well-lfehavi. ShiK ^ . to A fish. safe. Southern. 15 If I succeed iu hirini? animals to-day. the crops The The even—. NwanK take he} per- " Tsoar- cut. is sufficiently steamed. 05 o M. trade. ^ Hsien\ To manifest. apparent. to col- market or fair. tlie abdomen.'d. to harvest. to distil. Note Secnre. cool A father's elder brother's wife. Hsia^ wan^ Steamed bread Man^ J/"/i2 z'"2. to exa* mine a candidate or a pn[til to question. nM. Steamed cakes or rolls. and I have not seeu him aguin siuce. always steamed by Bread. The ch*i\ T'-ieri^ reap.g Lesson MANDARIN LESSONS. the temper or miud. the atmosphere. saw him in the second mouth. families the term Moc)^. if. K'ao^ 4 A deceased father. 109. coiiipauy. 1^ 0 ^ Hi future is 14 The time has now fully arrived. to decoct. Ta^ niang\ Standing grain Tu\ warm. Growifip grain C/iwanff\ Yesterclay. a crowd. before in time or place. 16 General Wang has sent word saying that he will come to see me day after to-morrow. Skou iu As. Nivan^ he\ to deduct. t/ie Jirst. • pnie. Note 3. ^^ ^ i . all . To iTSi* presently. I must go and benr my class. the presence of. for the occasion. to equal Les. as lect to compile. 12 I ^ lie went to home. Ch'ing^ to Refreshing. market:—Note to cook by steaming. a To go to farming. Warm. Chin\ Now. In use always doubled. to reap to To advance. Same . at present. To begin. satisfactory. Farming. Steam.

to knot. UBU. S 3 " In fnany dUtinguinti U plarM np|tli«<l would them from the the th\rd. grass . o| To ou 1^-$- W Ch'? hAhi\ go morrow 10 Seerag he 1 \>-^1^5. wild.' S 42 IS Pao Chn-tBl 17 iinf da© in raau. a common a desert the couutry. recora-penee. ' li. frnit. uutl is. a man. to stiffen Also chie^to bear. Tien^ pao^. Chinese. Such nuuUota lue not prrvalunt in tiie 8011th. llir-y arc iil wayH iirrnnt^'i'/l ''• " (("''"' iM-iKliltorhufMl c'»ini' in rotiiliott. ( in thr ' 'A1J k>vl'h ""// a Hliglitly liilleiuut o/J harvest 8 oil" (l. 4 In N'Tth China.ieel.:^. w. nule. find u ould n Tins. to settle. robust. start to eet tu-diiy field cast iuto the uveu. female. tough. to inform. to wait > about iStt\ haiii.iy ns h<*rr nscd. L'tikiii^we. Hence romca to mean to 70 ma rka. IH mostly iloiu. A staj^e I - Herbs.j tH'ii. a gazette^ a newspaper. to lod^ (' a coUHtcllation. PaoK To throw aside to throw decide. (he nvjht. tho As diHappears Ia tho trarmlfttlon. M ^& 3 18 Will it uot do for yon to stay here and tonight |^:::11^0 of ^40|^ I^ c 20 The grass of the to-morrow s K Chie knot."All ilvuluri follow Ihuuo murLvU. to fix. pmmisiiig waste. til it is. a telegram. a disk. straw. a barrow. a fine - to-morrow and wo till 23 The telegraph noted Chinese dynasty. . 111" \v!ioIe 11 Tlie »« ttf j§i ill I Ilia connection 13 >S " huru iitvuuuivu. where one lie Di«:lit /m A i'lf* railroafk will succeed by aud by. it " Just nou tivie. he will is will talk Chie\ agaiu no doubt tnru out well hereafter. a rough draft.hjtM't t" clmuKc t howover. to shiK A Uan^.*<H to off. diatiiiotioD in Knglitth. the cars. to wlioi e the l)usiiif8» soconrl dUttnguiflhud «e h«To no luch Ijc to thf firMt ten € Pt Uing teBcliiTH (. . the niuning baud. coutract. attending one each dny. The telegraph ..iily - ' * i . strong. to revenge. ist^. M inHcrtcil before days of tho month to and tliiid ten hunvo from tho 13th un<l 2. savage. auJ strong man. a cart. is 21 I never saw him before day j^0% A to- so diligent now. wJieeled carri(ujf> Read Hwod^ Wen chii^ in A hin^ chT-. rustic. strong. carelessly. weeds. Notes. a large strong man . liy shopUfepui s. nnororu! -. vigorous. tnarknU arc held in lo •'' all the principal "ry Hvr ilayii. ni<:lit'8 re'^t. 11 ri. Tiu}. 22 This bubiucsa caunot be settled to- To bear 11<^" /<a«* fta. 11 rests for Oufrome A Lwn*. to take turns. railroad car. 0\ C/tu again. to report. portly fellow. go anywhere.u in d iy. A I have only : just seen bira to-day. to rotate. biud by a tie. as fruit. To cast atcwj to or pitch to lose. Hi- viz. hsiu^. it already become an lias accomplisbeJ fact in Cliiua.'lril. to : time he will certaiuly be a robust ^ ^ very hardy is A Ch''^. a revolution. 7Vf7{?*. To Ting^ kweP-. to set. hastily.

what 5 ceremony do yoa have Wliy is it that you are not happy to-day 10.^ ~m he of yours? does your oldest sister not come sew to ^ S is 4 Here when you marry a wife. . 8'J.' that a letter has they use come from In a different connection fn might mean that Wang Ta Jen had received a letter.t • MANDARIN LESSONS. i. and including a promise to attend to it at chiang^ in this case. See also Les. none. Again speak. 15 10 seems to say that T. It has but a limited use iu Weateru Mandarin. A received 'A. something. why did you not seek treatment before this 16 The expresses both intention and In this sentence a term used in foreign schools schools they have no occasion to use such a term is pGi* shn^. a common phrase for postpon22 ing any bvisiness. What. "Illy to hire salisfactorily . When precedes the combination means. n of is always elided. iiESsoiD^r Compound Relative and Interrogative Particles. into shop-. anything. the sign of an indirect question. l^it^ 10 ^ A7 4S of C 1 Why 2 What 3 Why did he strike yon [relative] . —— explain Ike books. the meaning here a letter and that CliincRe- in native . is suuie future time. Lksson 17. not at M is in many places contracted Iu other places is used aloue for Neither of these corruptions is heard in Eastern Shantung.~reptat the hooks y uku^. 1 Why 7 necessity. ivlu/. or The secoud is In use. ^ 1I Translation.. why did you not come aud tell me 7 "What is it 8 "What is yoa are wrangling about the of price silver at present t 9 From what place yoa did start to-day ff 11 If have yoa delayed till uow to speak of this business you were sick. is also used indefinitely. and places prououuced in the same way as is sometimes spoken ) but final ( is . the the colloquial form. meaning any. "Whea followed by the combiuation means who. is most The iu cever so M-i'itten. as well as in mauv other places.e. Colloquially. aud there seems to be no rule governing its use. because of what. both North aud Sonth. 6 Having spoiled my tools. ically . but they prevail iu the middle and western parts of the province. Theoretevery indirect question should end with Practically it is very often omitted. nevertheless. to succeed in hiring. at all i or with a negative. . It is more used in some places than in others..

U(Mer. A S/<i2. on account of. woman. to mix. 89. 44 Why 12 o|: |3 111^ I do you not pay attention wheu speak Whenever yon wish 13 me give SI Have you any 14 g come and to go. good Liu^ hsin}-. To take a Clrn^ iitf sister. ssi. Vp Ch'iA. excite. sou's wife. /1 6hhiff\ ij^ HVi* to be^iu. Clu'crfiil. To govern. to wrangle. oneself. a pin. To treat a disease To detain. - --. 71. a cry. Vfhat:— see Snb. . the price.^!: 101: gboir 17 This article >5 iio 19 Could yon wait a " > A uot good for any thing. wherefore: Les. 77. to stir up. 9 1 to sUtrt. wife. . flavor. also 188. a stitch. to dispute. sister. to incite. 6. (Xaukingese). Ilangi. Tung^. a mercantile establishment.• - • A tSl^^ A A brenstH. to cnre. female. -V'//*. n trade. . (s. : in 'X Tq> chi^ chie\ A Clitn^. C/i *'Hg eutliii^c Utensils. chie^ Eldest altercate. to strive for To wrangle. a store. to hold on to. to leave. //.. precedence.. thus small circle. of ten soldiers. a gnild. to hccd to cure to oversee. disease 15 "What disease have you 16 This year I am eighty-three. cheerful. thus. to regulate Also tiao^. a uurse. to stab with a needle. also n]tplie(l to uiiy olderly huly. . to have au appetite. to give good to hear in iiimd."/ '/*. because. 42. to suckle. little is uot and allow me go aud atteud to a something first to little Vocabulary.t$^yien\ ^ij To C7"? Au TV elder sister.. a toife iu ciir- shake. to delay. See h singly from which it is often disor by a tinguished by inserting a dot. A row. to to Les. Ono sound a call shout. like. Chin} haien^ A jlQ. aad can not attend to auy thing ut all. (lunglitcr-in-Iaw. a series or order. a wife. a the . K'ai^ wei4. to rule.— . 6/<'i\ wife. ns a fjueat. a marricMl The . used as a contracted form of file Au ma\ J/ort*. An interrogative particle questioa uot answered see Sub also Les. ^ To move. milk. etc. to marry. . to For. to tight. ^ fixtures: tools. i ^ . u dclicucy. to cumlemn. to jtrick. Eldest needle . T'iao^. to keep back. C/(in(j\ asking by yes ' to contest. K'wai^ hwoiX\ The market reut rate. Also wei^. Taste. 110 If ft" in Chia^ To wrangle. nao\ any or Fie. is 18 To show respect to your elders any thing difficult. To harmonize. to take action: To move frntornul jrrandniother. cim'fiil. To be heoil spirits. Hang^ Needle-work. word. sewiug. shiK Note interrocrative particle joined with various words indirect questions: see Sub. to quarrel. A classifier Les. Les. To enjoy Also read shin^. to Bnck.

a difLes. ud smoked. her literally. fur. resources. at least. capacity. — inclndiu^^ both natural aud acquired ^ innch a great (leal. 2. a room. to or stream out. I of [laius oil his account. at the to apfiroucb |ioiut of. a fault. any amount* Y ever so macli. 8 We might insert ' in this sentence. a defect.— '"d but the Chinese piefei a implied in the order of the words. eiit. to jayigle. Cha}. To ZV An to} yang^. to do mtdlticork. means marry a daughter. ^> S ^ 22 The k'ang kig. is thoroughly colloquial. LtJi^. ia nirely uaed in the North. »\iow honor. To mistake. yet he Nvas about to start he when said uotliin^ at all. to A' To burn well— of fuel to draw. fert'uce. outlay.e. . whilst. that you dare to pat on Buch airs His ability 21 about equal to that of ia his father. -. 57.. strong feeling that it should be there. an elder Senior Mod^. a disease. Elders superiors. is ia untranslatable. shlii'^ house. osteuta- tious man- How Todi s/<a(A ner. It is to be here used normally. to be emphasized. 12 The " when" 11 This use of to be quite general. to use.>'W. - mo(X\ .2 Lesson MAKD ARIK LBSSOMa. to swell. to deabout to. and to many others. to sustaiu a. "nd the Engliah learner has 4 Ciiinose. to lavish. 3 f+ 4 uned. my}* rever- to to worship. 6 a is 1 equivalent to 1 Though written written 7 abovt word»t osDtral pftrt. Chiji^\ ^ Tsu"i Chang\ to show respect To ching*. to sew. trouble. anyfhivrj at all. to dispute often put for the importaut or No matter what. an apartment. goods. and force of be strongly ©mphaaixed. though frequently heard in the South. man 1|0^ uorth room does not constantly smokdo not kuow what defect well. aceud.in-law. a snperior. Mao^pingK A fault. 15 16 The is is . as a k'ang. do needle thread i. -. To honor. and for some years. atrs. a peccadillo. riW..e. qualities. 23 That iss^- iu the draw it is kuow auyhave taken any amonut really does not tliiiicr. 10 The order sentence might be changed aa of this follows thu3 agree with the English urdtr to set forth the object first. Pen^ shiK Ability. Also cTi'a^ to differ . a discrepancy J^n^ A &/W. duty OB a tiaugh ter-in-luw completely overshadows her duty heuce she is not usually called a wife. to j^ive rein to: Llh. S3. however.irae rewhile it will tolerate it. Change shang\ A mold respect to. l)ra2^2fa(locio. opium. but seemi spoken without any emphabia. a model. it is *1 but is not so widely generally pronoiinced aa to dintinfjuish is character eyes i. however. or a stcve. allow. Also ch'ang\ to Jfa iJcnV. The s. but a aa a wife ch'i^ daughter-in-law. to Ken a girl is tirst marricfi. grow. prefers to omit it. 17. Mao*. The is to . mould. I it has. spend. Not E S 8 to bear... 4fi Who 20 are yon. tobacco or to rusk heedless. au idiosyncrasy. W A JS"4. a pattern. To rnsh forward heedlessly. thus. marks apply to the I7th sentence. yiod'^. The same. or to feign Smoke. To look dowa ou. duty. to and tfV. trust. The proper word for wife is which. waste. tare of feathers. but not Vung ksing.

in coin- puny with: dislike. Chiii^. VOCABUI-AUY. small. No: 13 the niotlify This "so of is more or would prefer the suutence written for yon. Ron<:^li • Ihi*. 105. approximatiug it in turns it Pease to " the" joined to au adjective of quality in English. coarse.: 46 f& Trakslatiow. 21 The proper structure of this sentence afttr father. . All A /1 Ic'toai* Sr^. etc. Active. A'"'"'* 1 Fine. IMen^ vile. A peach. and repeated for rhetorical effect. snbtlc. trifling. Liang^ Tao'^ Ling- liquors. lump. will vary very The much with the cii'cumstanees of the case. to Jind fault with. the spoiled. aud asks that the next be hot. Nor not these to be cousidereJ good oues 12 If yoa have any soft ones you lu ay- all couvcnitnt Some 10 is are as local. Aus. vulgar. have careful. Of men the iutelligeut arc few. the ripe are few. 3 It is not proper to mix the coarse uud the fiue together. the stupid uiauv. wliich is neither better nor tlirows a little more stress on the vai/ing. 6 That fat one is his daughter. can you not ^vorse. Lea. clever. 0!: * i 0!!$ ^ #8 0^ oirn 5f c|l >J first ^ clause s<0^: is used to we should i lie first say. not the blac !c. fastidious. 20 is separated. Have yoa no better oue. translation.. 7 These peaches are uot very good there are more green oues than ripe oues.s. however. 5 The gnest compluius tliat the wine is cold. gross. All tor/ether.. te ^cJiers are clmrch members all alike. cold. 2 He wants the white. ineuiis. 19 In the 1 c to buy good ones. the green are many. cool. a piece:— Le. — To distilled. (Lit. all at ouce. Cool. icould it be at a iuUt me oue. can you wait a little the second. delicate. When is joined to an adjective into a nonn of quality. Who 11 ahruptneaa of the request if (ioat that is not clever. XjiESSonsr Joined to Adjectives. 4 First use those odds and ends.) 8 There is not oue of the whole family ow^ ^ want waut I 1 it would tlcmaiul witUuut feeling the it iiow the pronuun 23 Note requires f omilted where the English is it. but the Chinese uuit etc. I spoiled ones. to iiM uviTsion to. large.s Aus. save lliat tcait etc. distant. Yonr servant are you called T'nng-Hsi. as the pood. 9 give ^ 0. —— formenteJ^ spirituous malted aud to^a'tber with. 27.— some are true and some are false.

to effort. Also t'xA fresh. Ready ready nm worn disagree- staut. A tree Zoic. iu textur^^. doctrine. some alive aud some dead Clever. baudsome. a. . p:enerai"ion mankind. membership. church members. Also chia^. smart. reatiy material iu the bouse: is m. deformed. are two daughters-ia-law ia that family. to lower.. ChiinK Note ticket. out. Dull. ^0% K a male and that is one a i'emale. Ft vise. Talented. supposing if. a sect. short. to'aviiil of. talented. to ius: to fif. To cause a friend* Les. To hit the centre. 71 . a to make a siguul beautifuL fla. stupid. oue pretty and one 15 There is homely ^ ^ 1 ^. koniely with a worthless. he^. See ckiao\ One w]»(> to do: A PiatA church. Your hntnble servant: ti\ young are not one cap- ^0 Of the trees iu the yanl Rome are high and some low. neat. . m An aire. soft. pretf}}. pliable. yielding. to veuerable: a . shameful. stupid. some large and some small. are uo short buy. of oskf I thiiik this oue If) §. conSee chang\ iu Ticav?. to excel. # Li* there If cues you need uot are too old and the olil too young: 1^ ^ oIe iinsnitable.. able. hand. laborious. 9. Le& spoiled 97. 18.^^\^ Fei^ --- wear.s. troublesome. few. Foolish. Jwan^ . ancient. JfiTx^w. att. *S/m4 ^ Ai\ sMK To spend ready-made. Long. to : to display the same society or beloD. Capable ck'ing^ ^ efficient. HI CJmng^ yung\ or through. quick-witted. small. Chiu^. To Ch'ang\ Old time or cHstanoo. handsome. squat plauts iu general. tliere is able person iu the wiiole family. tenets. Yhi^. Oh'i * borrow. the licreditary. teuder. fei^^ued. weak. brief r^. Les. an associate. Soft. times. trap. to : happen accordas a to full into. (Jhung\ Shi\ a siofnal. be Pretty. Soft. stupid (Jk'wa/n}. lovely. put on.> Lesson 47 MANDARIN LKS80N8. tine. to Ugly. To paste Hti? a si^n-board. 123.ike to Hsi n^ shrewd. sticky. pliable. new . to as cash ou a striug.2js to will Superior. to inscribe. - Chiao\ when needed it no trouble. elegant. on perforate. . Tu\ -Qs^- Ch'ouS. a church. -/'1('""3.^v-cr. At home wear the old [olothortj: when you go abroad wear the 14 ^ ^ new. to tfike pains. silly. The long are 17 18 The o ^ Hsiao^ 19 There To renew. recent war rant. . wanting.short-comiag. Fine world. limber. foolish. Chici?. Short in time or distance. See ckurtf suitable. teudcr-hcorted. a A compauion. ~~ ns clothing.iiM . to stiing. Hsien^ demeuted. negative.

33* VoCABrLARY. Sub. to m fg'>' . cove?% to ]>ruvidf. IS this sentence has reference to fowls.. hy to one'8 self. Ho Shang^ tang^ droaii). . (jcntbj .. and. meritallv. U^\^i\ to tliiuk I'rivolous secret. . IS supposed to be asked by a magistrate of one appearing before bim. but coUl its place. > 10^ ^f lpio„. JW. see Les. dilatory. . allows of its omission. or to binls. Its use iutimates a iliffeience in Christians a. 3 I shall go presently. or if lie when lie the calls bos a degree. \^ Man'.. is may bo so repeated. (hUng gloomy. Stupid.. 12 If is here clearly implied. -. . 7 8 To-morrow I want to start early. sn- vl/i*. Adjectives are often repeated for the sake of important ami ever Most adjectives aud some adverbs This idiom emphasiM. He is coustautly beiug cheated. trap To in uud by. 2 Do you go quickly auu ask 1 1 Ist^ 0^ l^oulp! TJ^ * gf . 19 Note the opposite meaninge which the two here have. -. 9 Men frequently make a mistake ia this matter. to round. . i^c^m " to hiru come. Dark grudnull}'. li^^htly of. 20 LiESS isr ijc Or. stupid. whicli add» to the spi ightliness of the style. obaciire. to interpret a cliiins} iiiiwiiddy. Adjectives when repeated generally become adverbs. Pnn*. Uemiss. slow make Slowly. pLM'ciliona.48 Translation. iiil splierical. quite taking were used in this connection in the North. 7 In Peking never takes . dull of upprehensioii. Notes. does not appear in the has the force of "nor." The translation. there are high on6a ikni low ones. If colli. Frequrnih/^ . simply little owe. C/t'tuv^ little 108. sluggish. eic. youii*^. act. to truus- every while:— Les. :x: Adjectives REDurucATED for Emphasis.of course. awkward. however. t'ung* ahin^. net cheated^ to be victimized.. For the reduplicatiou of verbs. it MouM imply U"t th« wine was not only not hot (as it excessively slioiild be according to Chinese ideas). — Note - • iiilmiiiister. In such cases the party adis dressed generally speaks of liimself as is 1 is ustil. In some and never takes In Chiiiaiifu either in 7natU . What you say is plainly coutrary 1^ to reason. Siiunle. ^ The earth is round. 6 Mr. 4 He is covertly tiudiug fault with yoii. to tlo. . to full into a 6. 5 This man is constantly lighting with bis younger brother.s a a literary man. combined with the negative. Cliaug does not know bow t do business. liiniself . places neither Nanking it may be used. doltish.. fltciiltliy To presenthj. 6 In the South is very little ^ used. reciirriDg. Rounds circular. 9 The questiun unless he indicates that the sentence is in addition to 10 some revi mus stiitenieiit. loolisli. it would seem as (Lesson it ouglit 2-1) to be ami it might be so said joined with the second and the correlation of the clauses. to slight.

to seud. . perience. Confused. to To compel. 11 off H SI When 15 %^ 3 Wheu a man has passed forty. coutradictory. aiscouraged. contradiet ory. portnne. . -. good weight. to flee. anxious. low 13 It weight'il one hundred ami twenty catties. a time: To stamp. to rejoice. force. Alsoyo^/*. 10 Jlcrcafter I want you door geutly. 57. A R I N P 49- LESSORS. : Secret. Gradually^ step by step. '"ig leave. no great incorae. ^ . Les. ruined. to be pleased with. to asseverate. to iiu- read chiang\ and chiang. to tread on. . Chiu^. to. a sort. Also to To abscond. to constrain. to Bitter. 16 to attain to. 64. Lon^. endure. painful. Fhi^ suffer deieat. Chia^. yes. to Broken down. separate Distant. r "( 2 7"i To destroy. importunate. a feeling of oppression. y Hsiang^. lucome. T'ad^ still. ch'^it^. to To deny Ck'iang^ tswe^. anxions. uneasy. The neck. private. slowly. XD . Ought kai^ T'a^ to ruin. to from. to fade. truly. . grow infirm to rniu. excited. ly. quiet. to beseech. ShwaV. money funds. luis tliati C $^0 He 14 . to escape. C7. severely. by iuquiriug. infirm unpleasant. quietly. ei)feehled. 20. many thiugs at uuce. urgently. to snffer defeat. T-weP-. to I'iace. scarcely. To decay. alas I ^ . Sad. exactly so. To play truaut. in the face of evidence.. TsaoK or to decay. iu extremity. be from . to abuse to spoil. I:. ifoiK Unreasonable talk. obstreperous. See chHang^ pruisc. heavy-bearted. Ch'iangK to To advance. to sfcrengthen. c-5i 12 Dou't is impatient: by aud by yon 'get will nnderstaud. to order. or on. hurried. To meet damaged. aud for. . pleasure. To become. to fail. au item. tsHve?-. tell me. Also weigh. come qnietly aud 4 rj no more barely enough to cov^r expenses. C7ri. Ai^ kaoK impatient call compliment. To to style. to shut thia 11 This child is extremely stupid : it useless for liiin to go to school. c/'hig^ To grieve Impatient. a move in chess. fun. Barely. also Uusubmisaive. to pity. to exLes. To Li\ absent. Secretly. H To make iuqmrj. - claiidestiuely. outlay.' Lesson • A 10. keep To wear away. to entreat. scatter. urgent. to be happy . Mm\ . quiet. Ch'iao^ Chi67A from Expense. i4 vikn^ pu4 lod\ Melancholy. eager his Earnestly. duty bonud. grow be away Fhi^ ftrO' pu^ i\ Coufnspd. up. 'iien3 to find out to Les. Pai^. to decline. Joy. urgent aiflictious. strength gradaaily declines. to canse. to keep away from. enter to go in. to make progress. a term (iu algebra). to lameut. Auxions. To go to to To destroy wantonly. to To beseech. sutferinga. receipts. only. a class. to j Chia 1 ./2* you have found oat clearly.hi-CK/:^. Tswei^ chiang^. Sub. lone- . melancholy.

'iMv :ui 1)' both in " to the It is u sul)sMttite to others. ~" and ' and Whi a is It particle having various nses. you in llio of coarse coninv'tlitic's. but Southern — 3 Both forms are in general use. 23 "Wheu a mau the time so luelvery easy to all is anelioly as this. aud yet you it is asseverate in this way. Miiiularin is constuntly spiceii l>y such ready-niiule phniseij. iis which has beeu It. is sometimes Kiukiaiig. 18 Clearly aud earnestly yonr fault. propriety render. By usu they bocura« familiar to the uiilcurucd as well ub tlie le tuned. 1 Peking teachers object to doubling teachers approve. used |u'''li. We 20 all kinds weigh with the taid of the scale beam consitlerably above the level. In Pekinf?. It bu joiucd to almost any active verb. he. ImtuoIv wiili » old fbnu "(wt "1:"". implying tliat the party took for reality that which proved to be "thin air. bat is may much more frctiueutly joined to some than it is it is read choa*. but always read ihic 18 iraracdiately when or follows the intervenes. the most important and widely used of the auxiliary verbs. appropriated from the buok language. verb.uitnn. If hi to useil indefinitely for is re])luces. If * the translation should be presently. Jv'iinki. Perhaps it is from the idea of pawn or surety. cun not. when :|ua! next sonteuce.i. instead of by Some would fl write be used. 20 You ought to whip him severely for 19 ^of I having played truant p in this way. Chinese books is to write simply The derivation of the meaning is not certain. cuti. His strength will gradualy decline^ it would show more clearly the force of the but it would not give the whole idea of the sentence so - well. in weighing some contest on the part 16 If the sentence were rendered. It is Biipcrsedt'd liciird lit^ if.i^'." of . 21 Your children also are quite nnierwould you veuture to assert ous that they uever abuse anybody's ii % : tliiugs? 22 The reports on the street are coutradictory. This distiucLiou of coufiued to rekingcBc. a link earlitr. in Ejistern for ixs reatl- negative. made to weigh light in antici- Steelyards are nearly always pation of this custom. is to is of the purchaser to get it higher. plays anybody. Notes. jo . implying that the party found himself « H untie fily placed in the power of another or perhaps from the idea of an opening or empty space. are taken from the book lanyuaLje. recommend you hereafter to keep far away from him. often It the force of the present participle.9 ' IS 17 I IS SSi ? M 11^ OS! ^ > … ^ gg^ol1 ft 5 My idea is to go agaio eutreat him. It Sli. c/tao^. « oit( 22 Such expressions a"^^ The Auxiliary Verbs all might with truant in th" wag. hmvi'vcr. but the general custom . one of which corresjioiuls use of used in in a me re as an anxiliary in Mandarin. 7 13 The properly. become it is sick. and there is gcuerally 21 It expresses the carrying of the action of the principal verb iuto effect. general custom in China. and by. whip him sever el i/. Shautung and elsewhere which.

Also t ung^. 20. K'aoK To lean upon. A Les. a deficiency. talking is easy. S/tun*. a pass. vacant. A Mu^y 7nou\ it 18 C7/— /"i To Chi^. A . to bnmp. to of. to. To perceive. . a permit. A finger or toe.Singly. a crevice. it. to tell: See tso^ tsodi* tell. An empty K^ung*. to rely upon. to reitiem- -ber. she. to plan. leisure. to receive from. Glme\ chiod\ to be sensible awaken. belonging to. to shine to front toto care for. Hei^ Night. a senior. as. Hsiang^. oue worthy of respect. to meet happen on. to wish. and couveuieut rod of teQ Chinese feet.Lesson MANDARIN LESSONS. 125. Ckwan\ …. ontjht at night.. - - - - A To comply. to lead. to refer . special. aa introduction or preface. > i >. classifier: To draw ont. . to to feel. to be sensible of. place. a brave luan. A Linf. yie*. . f You 5 oil. yoa should get a man to guide you. . a defalcation. 9 A woman ought to obey her hnsband. this. Note . at night. Ch'i^. Fu'^jen^. to . to lock. time. to guide. yoa words are important pay at tentiou to thera. to proceed of possessive iu fle. 4 To talk is easy. To ChacA enlighten. also used as au expletive. fal 5t - A t'/itt/i^. A Soa^ lock. 3 You ought to wait the teacher's lei- ^ IT §! The man 1 51- sure. to iutrodace. to act as guide. to expect. 10 If yon are not acquainted with the road. . perform- ing ( 6 lock that hack to He entirely relies a inone}' for door npon his father's living*. 55 53 Si Waug 12 Mr.out a secret: let 14. to direct. certain person. feels that I treated him nmastly. collar.. ^ y presames on the referred to fact that he is strong. (luce. 11 They two are sitting at the door These 7 ^ ^ 15 6: is difficult). 61 Translation. a necktie. Also chiaoK arouse. to perform is difficult (or. husband a man (vir)y a -knight. 8 Do not address tliis one when you are speaking of that one. VOCABULARY. to married woman. to into thread. a wife. to obey. Les. to accord with. unoccupied. slionid _ CJ^ o f talkiug. ChuS j^n^ Tsu^ To let ont. to yield to. the man referred to not conTenieot to nse the name. ^1 Yin^. go. % |§ To Chae^ feel. shenyK The . 79. dati- Master. employer. as a needle. To think on. to quote. wards accorduig to. so*aiid-so. used when to reflect. . to trust to. P'kng\ To rnn against. solely bent on. to be near.-to take: lead. . to rely on. fo point at. sign WSn Li: see Snb. 2 That man has a mind to beat yon. adjoiuiug. to mentioa. that. to direct.

'. cousequeoce. beiug. Men take to that with which they are constanliy IS Soutlicro MandariD. generally used with a negative. it an a Bultatantive. Hao^ shhi* K^i^ Ai'shiK Matter. time for the yet.' to strike. tho North. 6. goods. tbouf It 20 is occuionally liere uneil causalivoly. imitate those with ^^. To attach to. it i» followed by a atatomont of TIu cliaractore am tho itumber <f chiwactTd it oont*ini). (5. to stmnble. sides make mouey. pasted up by the shopkeupcr ItintS'-lf but tli#*y mwl as if ex* prcflfling tho good wiabus of tUo pai ty on whose wall ihof and use . referring to a penon. to fall. further. He does uot iuteud to pay it is a waste of time for you to dim him. and witlely undcrstO' d than either of thcae forma. it is uo matter if it does rain. 16 When 18 Men yoa have on rain clothes. to loss. uo matter It's if you do keep for it the present. ( timl 15 Or. It tdiotiM iNjkiiig door talkitw.ifl ttou*- 'I III Bitting at the hi' t See ia read tuoS* liut •" iii M"tj U notx'fl is also iiioit plu<:t:H rlii Utter no moans in Lor- wii cli'irnuteiH are l»y only used will) u nvgutiro. Same To TieK . hindrance. to repeat over and over. . to as strike against. to associate with. A Chan^.^ m m m t 52 g i| He 13 C is not wiPing to act according to his master's wishes. as carefully. is considerate.'i to obey. ^io whom associate. 16 k& in more broufjht in eonlact. mail) wiitioii \t\ r. attentive. hnt the phrase Fatig^ sh't* Same Same:— Note To act according according to* To slip and 16. h U no matUr tf you do $ i frt-quontly written . don't Q 15 meution it.) 24 '•fl^M III . to embarrass. not meaninjt. to at- Carefully. " May he who is opposite me 20 i# J tbey My 19 o 1 OS-|f ii ft 1. to stndy. Thtxf two were Not«. follow Also an\ to. 21 &- i^g^ short time. temporarily. nniversally spokeu huu^ siunyK To act S/ien\ an iuipedi- oppose. hinder. Kwan^ To keep. to obstruct. attentively. reatly XI Or. for the time being. but to aufC. TV (lis* Riches r'ie". Take good care of the baby. the ciiild to fnll down and strike on the gruiind. make up a y wealth to property. 14 If you meet hiui on the road. Notes. and do uot let him fall down. 6 Tho when you ftiiotli' r II) Do not pretenrl to be speaking to Uiis one mean tliat one do uot whip uiie rouu over is. cautious. -HiW^ sh^ng^. if dttain him for iht prtJierU. isfoill aa. meut. is the form found in books. or o^tpression. C7"i?. knock. Moreover. pocket knife has already been fouuJ ior is already fouadj. j'". gnard to protect. 17 It will not do for yoa not to follow ^1^- the rule. adjacent. 23 iU*. Shoii?. to to tend to hinder^ to impede. to full. is \ron "lo ItOLh natl "' J* i« U'-DTiX in All's Hlioulders. Me/i* shu^. Fang^. To To 22 23 Temporarily. Li. ChincHc verba are often so used. " chADK*'«l>lo. be- Les.'U VVlien it ia dosireil to iaoKtc ft clmiHe. Les." also. totnmble. To goto school. s. His son goes to school to Mr. Or. briefly. 138. paste io to post. or allow. Exactly opposite the door there are pasted uu the wall the four cliaracters.

to grudge. To To? fa\ send. ^ brush against.). he talks iucousistently). selfish. . bis own. but always in readymade book phrases. her own. -. a Pa*. murder To commit murder. to suicide. 10 To commit suicide is as great a siu as to commit murder.under obliKatiou. an associate. - - A companion* friend. ended To 8ha} Ying^ tang. See chingK To end one's own commit mouth. the antecedent beiug understood. A band. 2 I do not feel easy to send you alone. 0% I 15! AIM o% 1 8 I do not like to speak to bini luyself. . to be free from anxiety.e. confidential. * my own. Intimate. decide to Xj:ESS03^ IXIIX: thiug - The Reflexive Pronoun. oneself* It is frequently and follows it. 3 Correct yourself before you com'ct s G others. Cli? Self oueself.. 7 One does not know one's own faults. . 101 and 158. all Les. special. This term is joined with the several personal pronouns to make m}fself thyself. to bid. a partner numerous. 6 He is niy confidential friend. . kill. to please. Lesson 21. the Les. Sha}jen\ . to the uttermost all. paK set the mind at rest. entirely.. Lea. Self. 66. I waut to keep 12 it my own for Yon ought nae. private. It may sometimes also be trauslated. while written. strongly is colloquial. . partnership to eater into a partnership. CkinK . to wish. etc. involved in. 5 You should love others as yourself. every.. 66. Both are used alone. 9 This is not a partcersbip bnsiuess 7 • ^ ni 7«0 iw He slaps his own month (i. \ His owD. to life. HwanK Sk'i^ KwaK To hwanK call. this yonrselt'.. 1 My own money is not sufficient. is Vocabulary. To A P'hig^ Ping2 yi%^ friend. Self. and more frequently spoken. empty. 4 i my it is own. It is also used alone in these same senses.. to be sparing of. name. To exhanst. love. a Tswei^ tail. a company. to utilize with.chi^ Ai^. the jaw Also pa}. UP to satisfy. a clamp. should^ <lnty bound. Q Self. to dispatch Hwoc?. to To employ. a . Ill cannot give it to yon. to take delight in. to hail. Also kwa To be connected . Ts'P c/nnK The lower jaw. private. To Fang^ kshi\ To adhere. CkV.. Each. etc. finished. mand aiun lkssoks. and N. Translation. -. a comrade. to (c. When thus used. the precedes the verb with which it is joined. crust. to jostle. or The second form The Naukiog equivalent etc. A fiioof?. Ought.

. up To (l). urM*. cheat. a porniit. in proper order OT comliiiou. lu person. 9 lie was nay themselves. accuse. Muritoiiuus dueds. To distri'sst'd. P^lR d ^. as a tliormometer or a watch. to ^et worst of the ImrgiLiu. a lens. 2)saiA /Tg'i. To to Moa}^ mu}. his elder brother's spectauot his own. oneself. with a scale.ith He now create. to make known a signal. achievements labor toil. To show. to save. the real state of the facts. to libenito. ni:ilce. to ^ He ^0^1 brush against. yI?" to iusnit. a lookiug-glass. ii }fan^. Ml. 90. to trouble. riadK The exterior to manifest. about. a""W"*. K'P} K't^ cki\ to show. The cross— from its resemblance to the at. rescne. ^ has upwards of tweuty mow land frugal aud if lie is temperate be can make a living. to To govern subdue to repress. To follow. nsed as a suffix to Vien^ c/ciuf/K La or.i^e against with. to nuirri) nr at. I fear this bnsiuesji cau uot be satisfactorily OS ) Rea'l 17 ill rJ SSsl Kicai^. to act. to Also maiy } impose upon. befool metallic mirror. deceive. > lioi > hi-m.^ l^^E :5|^^^:_>- > ^ kmd\ — hing^. C7?P " . respect. 15 Heave a aud earth could not create ^ W respousible. propria To do oiio'h duty. To suffer loss. (V/iu*. feel after. u wrong. find fault to ridicule. uot is own mistake. . To Ch'i^. Kung^ To to merit. to feci hitu'r. to T'Ou* tang*. 7V3 Note : . to deceive. to be ternperate. deed. to seek. down fell These are 16 cles. to a cxtnun-. can not be saved by trusting' 19 If you do not go yourself. to fill one's proper station. guess To estimate. case._ m m S . to . to publish. Merit . nearly Satisfactory. to agree with to restrain to estimate. persona. S/"2 murmur To make known. Ch't^ k'wei\ to to follow a pattern. merit. virtne. 20 commence. to TP U\ Spectacles. . : liold a gni(. kindred of a diiferent name.. o oSk To swindle. character +• . any instrnmeiit. as To bind by contract.. to la)' np. brother. to denj/ one- self. to jostle to An eUer Ad 18 of i-oiiiiil To A man arranged.'n*. Oneself. To hate. to speak at iHindojn. a trenty Les. biirtU'iu^J. to the Piao^ ming\ ^ Piad^ pai^ Kin' is'ur}g^ To be able.To curry ou the back. weurieil. it of himself. 16. condensed. . 14 Nobody touched (31* ckia Also pei*. ) • t f& He 13 1. elder brother A owu his does not nee(i any one to go him he can <>o himself. hi\ The To /'. sbow ( to docov. Shovi^ chi^. to guess. to Icitluup. To conceal. to hiiiKI. The same yoJ}* \v). a right augle. to malice. to be frugaL To restrain oueself. to publish.

Lesson 22.less or more elsewhere it always means upwards of to XiZessoint affirmative. Convenient. f—o letter envelope. virility. and follow me.ofteu asked by putting and then it twenty. not repeated as adjectives are. are never repeated. A risin^fevg^ (of the I'i/hjK sun. but probably for the purpose of distinguishing the word from Names of relaothers. ]>ublisli is nearly always protwenty. the heo/rt lar to our phrase " to set the heart at rest. is an iufiiiitive clause. Mang\ ft Pang^ mangK To help do extra work. in opposition to is 22 You should be careful and not de- $1^ 2 >b> Lit. yit^. the sun. ma'^ nia'^.. yangs To plau. to let down. but as used it So adds emphasis chie^ yie? grandmother. which will 8 not bear a literal analysis. yourself: and It is mother tit^ "V. we do English wbeu we add "or not" to a iu direct question. a charge. day. an . . account. or lay dorvn. The superior of the dnal powers of nature. etc. T'ai* fit. nai* nai\ grandfather however. It expresses a slight feeling of shame or embarrassment. 14 23 You should not speak at random. on a level. Fiig^. military. assist An Change Right. occupied. ^ simi- younger self.— ill ^ it. ^ 23 implying or answer. a direct qaestiou is Besides the form with idea first in the the very . to 5. to constitnte officially. CJda^ To get married Ch'v} chiaK woman). attend to. 125. but is a little bookish. an iutreuclu'd camp. and take up his cross. to the clause following You whether go(jd or bad. 24 Note how the subjunctive as idea is implied in - ikiik: Question. Busy. save in one or two It is used in the South. the front this world or life. what form of question is ch used. complete to equalize. somewhat not used in the North. To appoint. suitable. „ nounced chie^. 20 mean upwards of is have. This IkinQ is yours to decide. The lu Peking it means about and is often added. people already know. A To marry a husl)aml. 55 You bponght 21 1! i- > 3 O2 tom 4 . bard to see how this phrase conies la. . Uic object of the verb 21 Affibmative-Negative offei'iQo: the case. Conveuient. to get a liviug. and than with . c:issifiei' The : -Los. for emphasis. hci^ mei*. heaven male. an encelope^ a sealed packet. all. elder sister. Tills in the negative. less categorical is some* Vocabulary. alternative iu the is ready-matle phrases. Esiang^ chia> Note Even. nuiform. to seal. at once. 25 If any man will follow me. thus we tives show a special tendency to dou'ule in this Avay 16 facts need uot also sister father is a very common phrase..:• MANDARIN LESSONS. a debt. proper." also in o i ^ ni on yourself ceive yourself* > Loi! this loss and yet you come complainiLig against me. might be omitted. hurried. let him deny himself. thougli not usually over twenty-five. twenty —. when yoa do not know the bot24 here used for others. serviceable. /'2 Pim^ 2'2 Fang^ pien^ ChH\ To be homesick. (5). or us an indication of ende^imieut. 12 Lit.

ShweP tu\ Have the guests all arrived we arrive by snuset To destroy. an affair. entire.. an endorser. Chien}^ cheap to j^i 1i P'icn} • Ailvunta'(e. The throat. a skillet to tear.oi 3 o conveuieut to-day . Rice or millet boiled dry. P'ten\ -. ^ Ki\ as Also Bail. to crack to solve. the upper arm. the base veyauce. 5/ To gather np. the whole to mond. Rice or millet after being hulled. snbdne. deliberate Kivo(i^. secttrity. 1 _ § oij! oSf Is there 2 Would a f. little earlier me 6 Is c 5^ P not be better lor you to go it morrow of II51S any more paper 3 Are you homesick 4 Is this kuife yours 5 I am going to invite i «JI 1 A an earthen bowl for hoiding live coals. to tcitJi.. ajter all. to storm: Pu\ depre- To repair to (It'^^troy Les. to- daughter of yonr family married yet 8 j^os- Fy?. Pit Lf(no^ settle 10 Is this euvelope suitable or not 1 1 Have yoa still any other business 12 Does the climate in China agree with von 13 Is Mrs. to gather up uud lake away. iguoble. Fao^ jinK The throat. a in beluilf of. The fore-arm. 'f\]J^ 7ao* ti^. The foot or to a luerchaiit. • A(lvttuta*}^o i* 7*a* mi\ inillfa f»JJ lian^ fan*. to out or to go out as fire. to make np. Ch'-u^ ciate. 102. to yield to. In - ( as Rice. To consult The upper arm the arm. to repair. l)razior. to strongtheu. a piece of business work. … To To TuiipK fljf . the gullet. Au To hrial /"otJ*. throut. freeze Mean. The Immerus. i • To smother. . to Alsoj^'w^. to consider. See pien*. ^ acconuts 4 §1. . Also writteu Chiac^y chiou^. aid. The put to exterminate. a cook-bonse. finally. A speak kitchen. tlie ond."'. Chhig^. to agree to. M To mulce a livinor. Climate. /v'i* put out to fire. a traveling smith. 1 shi\ To put to hriiif? toj^ethcr. ^ to discuss. ir"3. S. cheap. cou- frost-bitteu cold. rei'orm. go out. Ilwod^ p^hi^. the oDsophagus. distinguished from ). to deliberate. /A'/rto^ /J Iv?' chiang\ cheap. wuK backer. to to arrange. . clear away. to repair. to swallow.^ Clotliin:z. ^ Chhuf chiK To A tinker. to trade.1/"'*. iron kettle. to of. • Acclimated. repair. to snbtiiit . \fp consult. to stand the climate. Li's throat well to-day Does your upper arm still paiu you ii ^llau\ to it 9 (Jau Ii -.m m m t 66 ^ Translation. To adjust. company can yoa come aud help : 7 Is cho eldest 6 ^ Y^ingi shhigY. To Shaug'^. to . to criticize. in order. to put in order. freightage. positively. to re'^^ard lightly. to patch. ten..

form. His goinq is very quick. in the second form ou the is al')"e give the meaning in the translation. Is your throat well to-day? 3 form that 4 To is. this feet frozen (or cold j CT^k ois! Has that food spoiled Have you liuislied washing 15 16 week's clothes 17 It is very cold to-day ^^ i 57 > ^ ^ 0. 13 Far anything tliat appears in this sentence. . as well as iron. and rice. and the second. in the expresses millet mean dry 5 woi'k.e a a Lesson 23. 39.. "When fi^ follows a verb it gives it the force of a participial uoun. or makes it equivalent to a relative clause. to complete the affirmative form before the negative is bt-giin. but to assist the hurry . luid in tiie last lesson. ixix Joined to Verbs. is the proper and more prevalent the rule in all oases is.. is understood to it all.^ oi 4 W ^ 11^ 0^ Has the 9 Four hundred cash do you not thiuk price of silver advanced these few days St book. but. is common way of ex- often omitted. and also to some extent in other plrtcos. 28' 151- The kettle in the kitchen is cracked broken) shall I not get a tinker to come aud meud it (or. This knift is yours. the first sentence might be rendered literally. To adhere in all cases to the book form Goiiiuis labored and awkward. * first and . Notes. Properly applied to assistanou rendered freely ofteu used of temporary work that is paid for. Please listen ami see whether it is correct or 01-^ >s 18 o > . aud mends crockery. will it be enongh 24 I will say it again. has he corae 22 Is this idea clear to you? -3 If I give you three thousand cash. XjIESSOIsT many places a Northern expression. pressing " I Wonder. first form on the second properly meais. 27 do not know. would it do for rue to get some one as security 27 I want to consult him about a small matter I wonder if he has time. if asked. is it not To give this meaning the emphasis should be thrown. a slight em- phasis should be thrown on Hy a different emphasis tlie sentence might be made to mean. i.Thus.—freezing cold. In the South for the reason that they have no when used akoie. . wouUl fay that the first is the right one because they have been acLUStomed to see it so in books. # 25 Has the fire iu the fire-pan gone out 7 Oil 0% are yonr all. Li in which case the meauiug would simply be. The second form is much used in Shantung. tliough most teachers. m xd > 1 ^ > 1. This is a common form. The money which he earned was not much.^ > i n n lessons. brass and tin ware* Les. 20 is . has a different meaning here from wliat it ami is read with a different emphasis." The 23 The Southern form to help with any extra for is the . in a mender of kettles In the Nortli a is a traveling tinker who carries a forge and a small kit of blacksmith tools. it nay have been a<ldresseil to Mrs.e. for this it cheap t 20 Do yo-u eat dry rice He said he would come. While this is the analysis of this idioin- .. after 21 not.% : U 26 If you are nneasy. 2 7 Instead of repeating -is made to stand the principal verb in the negative it.ro:e" but is used in 17 as an exa^'geration for vtry cold.

to become farm liar with. plain. 7 The parlor is uot. Also writton substance. Kai\ A Barren. to interpret. to Square. to Fu^ Vien^. orderly. It is (or. Flesh. meat ChvK Lan\ To to Ts'ou^. rasL II season.2003 right. dissoldte. lor iustiiuce. substautiul. August Ilwa^. a roof. opportune. well. swept clean. Skilful. tanff*. July . To buast. fleshy. 1 18. Iiiclcy. ^ 12 I fear you are speakin. Chhig^ mom J^ang^ boil in water. tuttoretl. He He very fast. in the uick of time. 59 IS "f* Translation. I shall hear He 11 comparison very ap- this iisetl ])Ositely. practice. tion [it Sacii substitu- South than iu the the iu was the original form. ad an uccouut. possible that Vocabulary. waste reckless. to happen or hit upon.. To practice. 8 Look at this ])ainting of mine. jnst. TH^. careesfj. shrewd. wily. corporeal. trials. . Pi^/any^. to feel to realize. To make money hy Chkng^. a stroke in a character. to oover. exactly. Also To guthor tosrether.d"T. soft. order. to arirne. to cook. Also moCi^. mellow. to grind. according to the connectioo. 1^ prostrate. 64. at the exact cut. A collect. lat. Also kwa\ paint or draw See hwa}. to conceal hot Tlie (Ae hot season. to translate. . custom. the becoming for. Clear. line. to |iriicticc. 2 3 The summer rains wero very ^Teat. wild. to away. to sharpen. brilliant. a l. 4 Til ere lius bet'ii not a little money spent this month. a wnj. empty famine. an illnstratiou cooked tender. to . ChHcuA clear. to pervade. J* Warm. . puiufnl. full suffer. flwang. 6 Mv father is very sick. To /'V. a bureau a cupboard. off. may without often be sabstitnted for He 13 you spoke rashly. level.) fear more freqneut is North. the limlw. Moa\ To lahor^ to earn. a sideboard. to linmhle oneself. rotten. trenial. Hwa\ ' fti. liut. kiiui To repeat a^aiu and again. learned mucli. a mark. a line. 9 This word is not transiuted quite 1 :^0^ * K ^ ^ oi R i ii o oil 00^1 . to To opeu out . 5 This knife is not ground sharp. to roof. Ck'ing^ c/""a. The body. did not make ranch xnonev. habit. n safe.2: rashly 1 01^ atic nsage. . tepid. ingeuious. Chu\ To draw a . brt'ak or tear cover. Slmrp. to skilled. a solid. Hsi?. Bright. Jou\ — a painting picture. distinct. Fan. nib. A in Kwei^^ comparison. unreliable. I 10 If you speak slowly. distinct. mild. to build a house. to embody. and also learned appreciable change of meaning. A Unsteady. a time: Les. settled. straight^ not oppfirtiinely. Opportune. jii^. [and se6 wlietlit'r it is well painted. chest. a good Euglish rendering will take a variety of forms.

is) not one. Not E s 2 Or. avail of. 21 The proper and everywhere current form is is local in Shantung. elegant. honorable. in is elliptical fr . an ode. V X CE S S. the form of a supplement to the character a dot "great" is made to be " too great. soon. youthful. To sing . to call out. indulgent. K-ivan^. gratifyiug. The coviparison which he The 5^ is liere thrown in be- used was very apposite. : Broad. ami sings hymns exceedingly also well. z To tsweiK ojf'eiid. forgiving. to take a toife (l. to sia agaiust. a hymn. Ch'angK-. spacious. I I J ^ Genteel. elicits accommodate. is To Shit^. liave just bought certainly ingeniously made. pardon. pleasing. I beg your pardon.)." by . presently Also chiang^. I ^ ^ 14 Is the Mandarin yon have learned sufficient for ordinary use _. very. > 15 This meat OS not boiled tXMidor. in CJdang^ chiv}. Young. benignant. indulgent. 24 What I cleared was (or. To forgive. to be generous. MANX) AUIN Lesson 24. . 25 When I was youug our family was rich. Satisfactory.third of what he cleared. this character iudicates a sort of afterthought. is Your coming 16 truly opportune. to extend. fine. 24 one i XilESSOJ^ IXIX NTENSI VE3 OF E Tlie composition of Too. as a roll.'Iif. 17 sometimes means io he detaim ly but 19 more freq uently it mebins to upend tinier or io waste. finally. tween the parts of the clause in a liit^hly idiomatic way that eh o aid be noted hy the learner :— (see also 22. to sign of future fine-looking. poem. to hold an auxiliary verb:— Les. after all. time. excessive. to excuse. A ShV: Chiang- Les. to discuss. 127. I ate good food and wore good clothes.^%0^ Q t ^ C% 59 LKSSONS. to search oat. 23 If 5i?s!@ 1^55 ^ o| mien\ . 11 Might also be rendered. 28. To take. 21 Does the wife you have just taken for your son please you 0|^3^^ 22 That stove you oil o have ia any wise offended yon. 20 Lady Lu >s m > is naturally amiable. 10 I spent a deal of time ou the road. To examine Chill which ^^ ffi2 To . is 17 This sideboard 8 Waug Ta Lao not set is Yic*s house strai*. He is not mahin(] muck money. c/(H^. Nien2 ckHng^. into. Peaceable. In the South. that commendation. 14 Or.S f ) .-- the end explain. beg yon to pardon me. 55. agreeable. elegant. is very elegantly built. to be lenient. Have you learned sufficient Mandarin for ordu nary appears to be used only in Central Mandarin. amiable. to Les.

The morning. Tii\ to to omit. stupid.). dawn. p:enerons. Ch'a? soiled. oi 0% alwQC too tired to-day. ' I'hi-. filthy 7:''3 ± see Sub. Bad. it/i: make or steep. still. go beyond to than. 5 The days uow are too short. _ o • oi 1^ 2 Yoa speak too fast. and together mean. to reiterate."'i*. half-witted. perplexed. cold. cruul. tired. To urge Chi? t$'u\ alort. Morning. Tsao^ shau^ \% Ckiy more. Foul. at. F"2. 4 My clock is too slow. Beyoud duty sense. 14 You take too much time iu writiug. o 0. weary.Translation. an exaggeration of nseil of things that are iu some way dis- same is 1 Afterwards there was too ranch re- 11 The tea made this strong. vicious.. a fnneraL fnncrjil rites. maligyiant. will not 12 That 9|-55 lu the too mali^^uant. fine. sharp. cluver. Vocabulary. an apparition. mid)'. outrageous.|^. P^ilthy. prolix wad. Too.10 ^!. S " . urgent. 3 Your clothes are too dirty. liberal in want UnmixcH] of.. oltscrvo han'. OS- 6 I 7 10^ % 8 o Too. to a funeral. intimate stantia] Filthy. Tronblcil. c1or6. excess. or to go beyonil. be'yond measure* Tbe accent is on the second character. . nasty. Dirty. to draw. tea (Pekingese). To Tea ^ Tmng^ llou\ Thick. excessive. quick-witted. while ill it is on the first. 13 To have the fuueral to-morrow will be too hurried. deficient. To ch'hi^ to btiriul. exhausted. dirty (l. 1 sometimes nsecl Both words nieau to pass over. . semen. very: '. foul. as tea or coffee. is much you petition iu his discourse. pin^. Fan-. so r'/2 To pass over. to soiik. exceed P'ao^* Also laiK (L. To . dirty. annoyed. too. The morniDg.^ am That water is too 8 That raau's heart 7 1^ S3 mostly It is too hot to-day. or propriety. . clover. with. fleecy. hasty. Tu\ tea. by. . shrewd. to defile. JlrpetUiou$t tautological. as tea. excessive. as a qiiilt. sub- strong. ^^ ^ ^ Cliing^ hsiK Cli'-iO- Smart. Hurried. export. pressing. to dirty To be as the plant or the infusion. grieved. moruiug was too little g-irl is by nature too precocious. too much. to repeat. gossaiucr. Ang^ To steep Also p'ao^. Poisouous.. subtle. practicc'l. perverse. smart. r' jj^ An * In. Yien^. the essence. on.). Uukeinpl. 9 If you learn too learu it well. To carry P'niK tti Smart. ]^ largt. . CV'"yi ming-. as. Strong. sharp. • • con- fused. urgent.

to allow.^ht. the ti-ngue. 13 is Nankingese. 26 1:^ Sungh true. slack. as a door. to K'e^ hsi}. 3 South is §p is very forcible. 16 Lit. to scold. 83. majest if. excltable. To grasp and hold brace to adhere Oil u}. 'Jliiiiese is in whic^ than the rcdundcujb Kn^lish. . HslangK Straight. conservative.^'i^ blame to also spoke too severely. punctilious. an to restrain. spougy. pn rpose]}^ Ih{}. Tsi"tsl^ YienK and you my opinion. have in more elegant . to satirize. to waive. frieuds. Gliauff. 21 mail should make plans yet he should not {>lan too much. 20 Titj^ Chia Mu's scholarship is very good: it is a pity he is so arrogant. while the singular is quite indefinite. We attribute speech to In the North is not applied to llie mind. 2'o g 1 To Jang^. with efjnal propriety. To he regretU'd. ridicule. too meajijre. pretentious. is Nankiugese. careful. > C He was 22 Wi To Ck'-iao* mock. yon ridicule hira too excessively. I shall not submit to it [hira]. Chin^ coniiuissiouute. idol. saiil of one who has no regit id for the liglits and feelings of others. 7 11 darin. iiisaue rash. 24. be spariit<^. to em- See Les.I Lesson MANDARIN LESSONS. 19 III teaching it is not best to be too lax. an forward. ravinu". uor yet too strict. careful. straight- …- onr intercourse with iutiiuute Careful Choa^ this trifliug present. to jeer at.. might. outspokeu.k'wang^. to upbraid. yield. to the lips. or 26 We however. retiring. as. i^m 5551 A s!- 3 23 To give him is 7 1 o iu To carry. npri. steru. what a pihj Alas K'wang% a likeness. extreme. This man'^ heart is too poisonous. but more or less local. Notes. Stupid. you are the most outrageous. is is one who is always changing too sanguine in his planning. to esteem others. ! Mat].. Hr fjjl ChA it is 24 Of all the violent men ia the world. 61 f 1> He works 15 My 16 and rnannor Bs. close. careful. to hlarne. be f!3 The plural torm usually iiirlicates a limiteil quEiutit}'. in expression " too excessively " u duplicate intensive. strict. the Chinese. to. 17 If it is very dear. Severe. I li ^ am is too coustautly offeiidiu*^ people in ruy talk. to regret. 25 It is not best to be too pnuctilious 0" T. J 8 This pupil is excessively stupid. loose. To relax. 27 He insults nie too outrageously. 1& > is not very speak in 2 of 8triii<(litrorwar(l: 1 C ^ too fast. 01^ III Like. diguiiied. refers to 21 his plans. arrogant. image. 8 Lit. ie Central aiul Southern Man- My Hps are too direct. Cautious. To similar. clumsy. respectful. \9 is Pekingese. Dili gent. courteons. buy a little less. To ridicule. easy-going. pro lull insoleut violent. flabby. uuskillfnl. Boastful. In the used alone.

largely supersede and is. 1^ A '-/'i* to a compain'on the rmiilifyis in a shop. u berth (l. To ^ fjfive. ^ to transfer. —— Lea. rather. FTwoi* chi*. S g ^^ 4 was he he startlug. Ceutral and Southern Matidnrin. and . a comnuh. A . for. . The Dative. when nseil as the sigtfof the dative it is read kP^ To snbs tit lite lience. . especiully iu the region of Haukow. 147 {]! )''' 2. and \ylieu it precedes it. but never when the Yangtse for when it pt'vly I\raiidariu. rft'u^. -se" »Sah. -" 3 Please do nut fail to bespeak a vn^e me. but is used to some extent in the South. u pitcliLT.). To see Sub. a local itv. the verb it means to.e2 . Pal. T'i*. is much nsed along meaua to. Also Boiling water. when it follows to. 28). to: . place. it is generally aspirated iu In Naulciiii^. for jj^ To orive hepce. P Bteud of. tlie In the South. 28. 12 The guest will leave to-morrow do you weigh for him three taels of 11 o t/ 0^ ^ 10 I ill^ & silver. .. to Sh To buy or )tl:ice. for. in behalf of. to regard as: au iustrmneutal verb.. of boilinjr water for me. do To Lp8. uo matter o am not worthy to pnll np his shoes.. To. with. 9 Will you please write a copy for me 8 Jesus g ^ Ah G will write it for yon. 2 Briug a pot.^. soli un < red i t a situa* to (rust. however. CVu'*. I *5 for o ^P if g *^ >^:^^ 1^ 1 will trust you. the regular uud recognized Maudariu form. a state. the WSn-li equivalent for as a sign Colloquially it is uoL so used in ot tlie dative. jii.% n Translation.. of... To plan. — instead of. a Btratagein. Family. ik When 1 ^ 0. It is nearly always read kei^ iu Pekitvge^^e. wife. If you qnilt luy shoe soles. u since?. 4 If you can not write it yourself. 12©. 1 lU. also Les. . Also pa^ and 3>a*.. Kather. A classihcr Les. I will hem your coat. A to cousiiier. It always precedes the verb. which Vocabulary. 7 If yon have no money. Chia} k'ou\ CA>'"4. a circnmstiince Les. pot. YiP. meaus for. aa. 1^ ' for or iu- take.*7. To take (see Les. to conirafio. North. To take the place . compute. I 3 made atonement for the sius of aTl men. wife. to take hold of. tiual particle imply- . 5 Oan yon find a situation for me? 6 I cau uot lend him my overcoat. This use of but allied to is is not prothe Sontheru coast dialects. left these five hnudred cash for the servants.. a Weii-li iti*' ilouia. Thoiigli properly nnaspirat^d. to seize. tion. Ckia} hsiao^ A A Mil 08.

5. to ex-jel. AVuii^ taught school a ill my steud. a picture. affair. old. Ch'iad^ P'ing'^. me for cash) yours them Arts. -bij. 23 Pao-tsf s raotber is rmrse. 23 ^0 63 ^ 14 You not come for it yonrself: take it to you presently. when you reacU Peking you cau IG This m give 0^ it 17 I cau uot to him. liiiiir. The same. To fjivp'. Note 23. to 0§i 20 If yon expect to trade eveu.li to entrust to. I can not trade with yon. to cup. 22 Give us this day our daily bread. > nf To lit come revive. Ke\ To examiue thoroughly -. ckr to a decision ray- you please make the -T^ ^dL Licing^ a story au a'lventnre. begin2357.fore. the world. drink. Ti'i[f 0^ . ksia^. 7"3 P: S'i An Kwa^ To jiair. eqnitablo. oriiriiial.g!ui to reach. ..e. a coat. YinffS pinS* Pa\ celebrated sovereieu of China. :i --. oJ\ a cassock. to be s/iV- to level substitute \/cr. 19 1 kuow a very iuterestiu^ story sit dowu and I will tell it to yon. ask to To imitate. All uudei* heaven.^ To charge T'oaK to life again. py^ thert*- of course.. A ""o2. uf'oil 1 will b. au image.- Would you 15 22 >s i sell (i. A shi . Shoes. match. --. other places . in some 'ii:riiu(liiother. tiou. to extirpiite. nailj a spike. for exchange in these dollars of All ri. l:\i>*Pii(l. KuK to --- draw. Also Food and drink. peaceful Tai to worth to quilt . ^ To trade even. a rule. Mainfiia. To hem. gaiters.- -'-- on former. to accompany line. All equal P'eiK to iVa ^ . 13. a peg. 0. a copy -- to to rely upon. • affect - A a uing D. The cause or reasou --.ig^ S ig^. 21 Bring those nails aud put them on the wiudow-sill for me. said have reigued 1U3 years. m place of. Les. uo boot. come self: will decision for tne I aios:m Yao yielded the empire to SLnu. A . a dyuasty. 25. . the sovereignt'/. >. To a wife. you to sell me. I'ui'fK'st^. a gift a superior. a benefit. ma}. to write All ancient emperor. on the South street for Waugr Er Yie. Shfui^. A t\ … shadow. a model. 2:i55. whose reigu be- 0. one to do for Jesus. to onlinary i'roiu Nan'- weigh in scales. of a thing.^lit I was just about to ask ^ 1 month 13 Mr. to redeeia^ to ransom.A Vr7i^. is Wang Ta Lao Tie's letter. to bestow. Chiua. to influence. siuguiar or amusing affair. 18 Ar I >^ IT:- ^ J . . level. to pad Even. to pinch and pull the skin as a counter-irritant. places. io a Hue. a Note copy to write by Tien} To pull up. an as a sword.^ - LfSSON MANDAIUN LESSONS. wir. Hsie^. upper g-armeot. a geaera- Also ting\ To driuk. in a nurse: yin SoiUli. pledge. chad^.

2 Right before your eyes. . 3 Marriages in Cliina are arranged by go-betweens. 9 I jnst now saw your two children l)ehind the house. warlike. ^ The drink and food. aiitl clavisu clu'w to iuvulve iu a to Imrk. ill To writinii. underneath bta thiu paper aud traces the --. wife. egotism. it is customary to give n. bonudary. small " tip " to the servants uot. 7 Is the house in here yours 8 Wau tbe Fourth's dog is constantly ont biting [people's] chickens. to falsify. means either A . Tlie back Idiulred on See shftffe. M/'noK J»l!)J ^ We say. divinity:—Note local family. Chia} chiien}. The rm'aniii. ont-heaa. Lrs.iifi ng^. uf Oil nest. etc. to leane a Btroko tlowu Sec Radical 4. oat-face. crime A ( I/.: liitxl iip. in-head. great or small. a cock. is [3 form. so niiK-h as five himdrcd cash. the roar. To bite. to turn the back to repudiate. in the To skim pci^. I>'ie. A Ilslang'^ fang^. • bord(T. iu-face. Tlie usage varies coDsiderably iu dillcreiit places. VnfP. all which take after and coniJ^. . outside. fair hand. . to fasten or tie to. border. " from the translation of the LonVs prayer. South.u. or the teacher in 22 This in other places it is meaning. and fi^".something for his journey. \V liieli for in is most snitiibic in any case can only he iorvrnod hy practice. are used only in tlie 12 Chinese ideas of hospitality rcfjuire that. in the severul casesissnbstaiitiiill)' tlie same. Beside the postpositions of pi ace. FcimUij. " ?> saw them behind tbe T'n-ti temple talking. in the Xortli. equivalcia to chiiracters.I Translation. ^ ft'J used (lay by day. iriven in Lesson 0.: luit Edge Pieni r iLi A somewhat inelegant a is - colloquial the OhiDese %o farther aud say. This is a request to some one uot to neglect the business entrusted to him. in stead of leaving it to which tlie Chinese reganl as an u nparallelcil example his sun away a guest from Tli« use of of patriotism. /"(''' biiic with tIi(Mnsc'lv(»s the won Is head. 1 On lea vine: a Chinese inn. Oimd-hfj a SllbM'I [ISS. the VOCABULAEY. to th row aside titaf/r. A horse . etc. . It is save l»y constant use. to hitch. not readily understuod literally. that he yittKltjd the empire lo his frieiul S/i an. cavalry. and he outside. coDfineci to the latter 9 some places Iti ami children wife. 18 It is related of I he ancient emperor Yao. off. for China is specimen tx i with reference to a second wife. f^osi o^y c% 0% ^oi #oss 01 Notes. A To C/iuen*. 5 It is very cold outside. . A to f otlior houses. in sending a rlistaiice. you sluuiUl iiiuke liim a present of . 23 means iuside. high Maiulaiin. . or wife is " copy written by This copy tho pupil places a page of a large. temple ti* -- love. small lioiiso nt lie siJe of the court between to care ibr. honsehoM.>rfantli/. chicken jiii'l to (lie loft Sltwan\.. tiiero are also such as et(!. 6 My family live witbiu. to repeat. 4 There is fire inside the earth. 10 I jiropose to bnikl a side room on the west side of the vard. 1. uuless one has beeu ut the iuu a number of days. iV/i. however. and you I 1 > ^ dou't see it 3 I was inside.

no ^ * *0 & gi^ out. 51. To laugh. a . a deputy. or The Tsoa^. a youth. g P'ang- P'ang2 piev}. to undress. and ia quitf^ ^ 0* 0|§ At the 11 5^ Hair. together with: to join — origin or antecedents. and the which they live. The son of au ^PIj A A A 1 ^ au alley (Pekingese). lieietical. to evade. : Chfov}. juvenile. to A Ti^ A • . Les. the t'oii-. is it not 14 Waug. The "ii62. 18 Did 3'ou also search ia the drawer 19 They were talking inside. let him take the outside one also. 112. 85 L 1^ ^ off oi o e4 2 Si ^ S: your iuside garment. Hsiao^ to alley. To set forth or serve a meal. to be second Shdo^ yie^ 20 Please take the upper seat. " topside. and you follow after. 21 You should allow the teacher to go before. from. draw smoke. finish. to P fv? the ut- to smile bemoan. most: To cry. to aid. but. Ghao\ - pad.. 16 The big child was on the inner side of the k'aug crying. to Les. side street. to select.!. to perceive in^. . Acover chao^. above overhead. to as a pipe* right. and the little one ou the outer side laughing. [-siangS official- side street. on the contrary: K' a} The side. Lesson 26. secondary. Clothing. sideways." Shang^ piev} - fan\ . the skeleton or hard part of anything. a garment. An completely. term by which inferiors apartments in desijrnate their snperiors. A Ku^. - - bone. to turn over. east side of the honse it ia sheltered from the wind. a saddle-cloth to drive with the wind.4 .The --- Shang4 To take or allot. A lamp shade. hang^ To ChA/n?. Fan^. rebel. Upon. 137. following. Fa? Toy? fw" Human hair. to ridicule. Kwa^ To return. 22 You may take off your shoes with- ^ > [t^ide* wiuitiu'_: Jilo- > warm.. side street. side. throai^h. a tray. and. ^ To/' ear. To cover over. the cause or iustrnoieDt. even. at the side of the door. off. See shao^. 110. to listen by hear- Les. to escape. TungK To take T'oa}. second in position. dress. . Shao\ Young. near. drawer. to reverse. 83. the hair on the head.. to avoid. a hollow an air-pump receiver. by the left. to shade. At To blow.MANDARIN LESSONS. to permit Fm* …. lamp chimuey. to weep. The same. and I heard them outside. A'us Vov?- A bone:— Les. depraved. the side. K'ai} still. 17 If a inau thiuks to accuse yoa. all. Les. 12 i luadverteatly left my clothes In13 The ijorse hitched in front of the larp^e gate is your young master's. To connect LienK let. 0% > H\i\ . 15 The upper side is the right side the lower side is the wrong side. 47.. Les. PingiMen. out.the Third lives in the innermost door in the east alley. to honor.

125 140 ami 147. The gods in every village.sons See Les. resoluto. runners. % Nit lictora. A kind of coarse native soap. . might. . too hot. on which I hey are worslii[)ped It is to this viz. though they all have the same birthday. M- 7 which the house is Lit" this insiders house from the were if - to . see Suppleineut. A seat of diguity. a large /2 The cm]. Oil ogi Notes. This lesson illustrates fonr of the most common classifiers:— See subject to Lessou 1. classiHer of tliiugs in lumps or fragments. ra\ A Ckien*. rich. A sliop or saloon. 42.^. eartit. ou the top. An awl. feo slice. a 1% to piercw. . in or near functions. pieces. Ts'ai^ Yiien^.tSub. . 29 This sentence well serves to illustrato some of the and 25 uses of the - word 5= XjESSOOlNr English speaker before the * XXV Four Common Classifiers. here tcithin. and on the outside. viz. . yard. To divide. it is very hard walking. bo translated in the plural. Also rICieK . article.. ''r ''''('dj. handful. especially of such as are regarded as worthy of res]iect. classifier of persons. . a park. 21 This sentence raight be taken intlicatively not in the inside of the book-case. Black Tsao^ barl. with equal propriety. 17 The fjentence is taken without change Mandarin N. — A a hamllVil. the inside of one's head are boues. a hniulle:— See pa} also pa*. fur . toii*. The lowest god in China with magisterial J There is a 7"u» ti* temple. would dcpeiul wholly on the in the sense of on manner of saying it. temple that the son] first repairs after death. fertile. 28 This lamp cbiraney is not clean inside. 38. 29 fsl > . soap. a garden. to snip. dirt To eiit. T. . and also one in every Haien city. It would be smoother colloquial added . tion. 68. For fall list of words falling under these classifiers. Fat. 26 The climate here in the South is 25 The 3^0 05^ ^ ^ OS- # s It has. ])lnmp. OlIrt CUasBitiers will be illustrated iu a number of (htnre les. shears. Riil>. each of VoCABULARy. A piece. a coveving. Ckie^ Mud mire. It \V Inch meaning it would convey. To divide. which have classifier of things or can be held in the liaiid. is exclusively Southern. nn piece To ^Sk-iri. mortar. or shrine.o ST ^ A 23 strong wind is blowiDg* outside. theae many temples are all different individuals. and the wouian on the right. The use of (ojiy or above. aud If 2'i not inside the book-case. hair..e 20 The omit is ia and the Chinese strongly inclined to put will allow it. . a classifier of wide applicaused in general of particular articles regarded as separate wholes. clip. 27 Has the meal not yet been served to the family (or. it is on the top. Iron 7*i«* au See m. Fci2 to ?hear. IcHtlier. 100. li'i'ulle. lirm. the second day of the eeoond month. Chwei^ Chvm*. but prefers to it. i. guests)? Ans. . it is 9 is it man ought to be on the left. cluda. it Scl. Edible vegetables.

Chat in Tsao^ straw cutter. pitcher. —— in which sense Peking read sh'i^ it is Sonp. to A chou\ to brush. • Thin f thinness. then ^ Melons encumbers. 13 This ax of mioe is already spoiled. 12 The water iu this bottle you may pour into that pitcher. noon.. An offensive smell. • . Port^^pao^. a hatchek. dead ^ ^ Ch count . gourds. 112. To talk about. watermelon- vacate on the contrary. bat. A tao^ A 7\a<A still. hsiu^. shu and sod*. porridge. SkangS Chungi . cleaver. A t'av^ Kwod^ Vai^ long too thin. Cka} C/i'i^ " a spoon small broom or whisk used to wash dishes. Life-time. spoon. all. wood usually made or norcelaia. Siiwa} chonK a large pin. £ hinged shear or cutter. 3 shi^ a level off. to life. to scrub. to censure. 14 That piece of foreign [cotton] cloth 01 Kwa} m ^ A A P'iyig^ To Tao^. 3 This piece of irou is too hug. talk familiarly. 7 This piece of soap does not take oat the dirt. to scoop. chat. finis. to scrape. cleaver. To cook. -. of 4 This fur coat is very genteel. . a ladle a spoonful. „! ^ n > 1 The awl has no point. _ ChungK pntrui. a Yang^ puK Foreign cotton cloth. kitchen range.MANDARIN LESSONS. the T'an\ un</ sMn}. is To Hsien'^ t'an\ etc. furnace. o i U The two ladies have already goue. Also CTi'ou*. meau. CI Translation. Usiao^. Hsi^ Jew a} which you bought A 7V(xi"aoi. 5 This piece of land wonid just snit for a vegetable garden. The same. Alsopod^ A shovel. F't3. whole. . to chat. invert. The same. 2 That pair of scissors is not usable. 8 This businefls of yonra is not according to reason. utmost. The same. . a key. tainted disreputable. The same. 111^ i ^ 01 oisi Krai oil oli Lolalm ^ 9 Please cat me a piece of watermelon. . Khig\ A Tiao^ keng^. spoon in Les. Ch'wei} ^\] stench a scraper ladle ont. - - - . 6 That article can uot be very expen- oi! oil sive. the to die A Shwa\ Ch'-weV- brush to discuss. Hollow. To shwod^. A ^^"2 bottle. a small broom. to An ax. .. See tao^. cbit-chat. couveraatiou. 127. of . Cfumg'^ shang\ SkuK ^ Shao\ Midday. -. thin. poor. a meat chopper. A foTk. to reach. C7i(aTiS. The end. thickness. 10 Three officers have arrived without.. a to jng a pour out to empty. a kitchen range. Lksson 27. . Les. cloth. to gossip. - To ennmer:ite. to exteud. Thin^ subtile a thin leaf.

not the chair. if •Notes. These words may sometimes be reiiilered by Vocabulary. C8 15 There is dust nuderthis chair. but are geuerally best uutrauslated. double. bear np. 23 Foreign spoons or moans beneath the chair. XjES^OI^ IXIIXIV The Instrumental Veubs less - . a ad a whisk. want to bay a straw kuife I wouder if they are to be had in the 21 . a in in mm Cliinese use than we do. collar. the dirt. be is nsed instrnmontally of anything that can taken or held in the liaml. T'o'i\ To . . a 1)0X. a The palm of the to grasp. The same. and as an instru mental verb is very similar ia \mt h a little more bookish. of 16 aod c:ilW in the Noith. a fatlunn. aud is jiiliiirs. the exteruled arms. to find. the cooking range are a ment chopper. and often. (n. llie The a coat. and they are generally made either of China-ware or of wood. do not hesitate to speak.sides. and must not fight about a small matter. to lapel of . take. by accommodation. have six knives aud six forks. 20 I just now saw the two geutlemeu 1 >^ j > ^ rj 1 g > ^ oi e We . The same. meaninjj to remove. or take Foreipn soap out. which would be.). or part. and ia others. aud also twelve spoons: 1 won- 22 On 23 I n iiof ^ der they are euoi\i^h. to say. round collar ou a womau'a dress. ling Chang^. a plau. ami of mental opfnitions. - Separate. a semper. nU( to control. 18 This is the great a Ifair of your life. 7^ Ling\ Pa* chantj^. ^ some places sonp spoons^ or other places they are called The dippers. much spoons the form used in the North. 15 side. 7 is here used as a verb. 19 are Datives of the same place. a hoof. a slnp. 16 Of the silver bought at noon there were eight pieces • Did yoa count them 17 That piece ofmeatis already taiDted. ready-made. li T'od^ linf be- fiirtlifrmore. and in the South. The palm of the hand. of other thinj^s. Wljetiier nsed as a classilicr or as au iustruineutal verb is kuowu rueauing to often nsed of hy the connection. (s) hand. bringa broom and sweep it away. if you have any thiiii. . while are used Id the South. 18 Said by an officer to a girl brought before hini mutter concerning her marriage engagement. is lifpj is under tlie are called in stirrers . a ladle. a<Mitional iiuotlier.. 0^ 1 room chatting. a paw Chang^ A curtain^ a screen. Bn(>port with the length of ^ ChinK ^ The =^ Lined.

. to squander. A biittoQ loop. Yie^. tossed. . profession. - A -. the ZTsiiii/aA Lvp- . Ch'ilen^ • A corral. this Yon cau 5 set the stove ontside. to gamble. strong. i\ Militar}- tactics. A K'ou^ min^. - . and fro . time. 11 Yon cau (or. Do yoa go aud ask him to come. ouce. 10 Take away this dirty water ami pour it oat on the street. shake. Estate. a sign of the past. a spear. button. Lesson 28. majestic. He got angry and struck me two blows with the palm of his band. Slitng^ chang^. f^\\ The same. to bet. One yangs .' T II? Also kun*. A A knob. ^ I of . lu books. to disdain. the seat of the mind. haughty. to suspend Chang has gone home. - ring. maternal uncle. All aas. intimate. to ruin The . to scatter.Pronely uncivil.--. "Turbid. Chia} gitn. off that frig-hteued the Chiao^ publish .iHli ssi o^^s to Is 0^ 01k- ^ the leather trunk. Pa* The cry of a cockatoo. Your shooting 12 Chao^ to dwell npotij to be auxioas about. --. to rocking-cbair. i I* Ydng^ To spread to to wiiiuow See kwa}. to be proud long time Ao^. to treat rudely. ^ Yao\ . kind. may) put the key ia 9 Mr. A jiurickslia. a jail. ch'e^ Ma^ kwa\ Xitt^ to maternal uncle. the luiud. up. to estate. To tread on. bolt. 21. 3 Take away these dishes and put them in the cnpboard. a key. but yoa must not spread it abroad.Family ioheritauce. to iutimidate. ksioA Proud. a button. KwaK To hang up. cooifidential the bosom. ft pub- lish. a baud. Pa' Wi The cockatoo. trade.MANDARIN LESSONS. Wu^ of. See Les. 4 I intend to put a new collar oa gown. tlie > 0. button loop. a button hole. 6 ILOi^ 8 I will tell you this affair. a pivot. muddy yod\ yileK . Note y belly. —— of To move To Teng^ To Fw^'\ spoil. step. raise or to lift H 2. ' §8 A P'an^ ^ ^ A K'ou^. Wu^ yie 2 scare. C'/nu* any to grasp in the baud. intimate. firm.t'. A Yao' sh^ Gh'iang^. To noise abroad. drawer. A loop 16. To'wager. A 1 P hsia\ to kick. as a bell. a belt. martial. Ti^ - "rto2 {3 A The fist. to frighten. The child has poked out the fire. short outside coat. disturbed. key. to tread . Chang^ yang^ a surname. '"o'2. to bnttoa. In the heart. a pistol. to Military. 2 Take my doable coat and put it ia 1 ^ . To threaten. dear. patrimony calling. skill. abdomen.a doukey. fierce. Proud. overbearing. A . 7 Go aud bang np the curtains. 69 Translation. to kick.^A dirty. one stroke. to A gnu jast now baby till it cried. a clasp.

Ting's son is all the time gambling.. 24 Go quickly and tell your (maternal) uucle of this affair. 25 A jiuricksba ran agaiust me ou the street. IVequontly used simply to express the completion of the action. but belly. words from i.e. verbs followed by is very large. 23 Put that large rocking-chair beside the table. as tlie seat of knowledue. 20 Briug here that cockatoo's cage for me. 16 Li-tsi ruined that pair of shears of |jr ^ is to others. 19 Mr. yon must not spread it abroad. to hanij log. It mean. a ^ Tiau\ A sheep. takes men and sees disreyards them* .^ to iu Notes. Yang^ and main hiiiUl- 7V'.o : 70 % >^ I 13 ^ P > ^ doukey. 18 Do you go over to the East Street and borrow Wang the TliirtTs 17 ^ J^0% not willing to teach his skill 14 Between fist and foot he killed the man. iu a cotupouiiil. and has wasted all 01 f. / intend to take this piece of goxciit [the ori'jinal one] exchange a new collar... flB his eyes. i e. 7^iv{/^ A 7Hn{ fang\ hall. to many It sometimes Iiuh an inceptive force. 6 The Chinese is similar in structure to and besides English."3 The central iog reception room or hall. but ia more is a girl's name. u gout The To corulolo. —as by a cord. Vocabulary. I J . 15 My mother died and left rae. joined as nn anxiliary to verba indicating and. to . It is common to name giria flowers." 8 Or. 1/ 1 tell yon this affair. by accommodatiou. mine. jjn- osi 5 He keep this thought mind. 22 y You ought always 0. oh« stroke aud one kick.. not Do tell to others what is told you iu conficleuce. 10 is 14 ~ * aod fc-w etrokcs means muddy and very expressive. M . a pnrlor.^ Lc ^ If his estate. and otiiers. raUicT than dirty water. and tore out two of the buttou-holes (loops) ou my coat. Chao the Second is too proud he can uot see other people. pity. but a is does not nccedsfirily It 16 is after fruits the vulgar spirited kicks. ^ Lit. a conrt room. conthe heart atid helly Ciiineso regard not only the heart. Ho got angry and took and struck me. fioinetiines dcuotes progressive actiou. to auspeiitl. It is generally to] lowed liy lu PeThe number of kini^ is often replaced i)v . 17 also tlic 18 it. Ihe thigh. 1*5* its fidtndal stents. 21 Mr. The When 19 them 7iot in an precedes is always used alter diminutive force of 51* tlius sho\vin<i the The Auxiliary Verb nioti'>n n|» wards ami Lit. not used in the South..

as a hoat. My 11 oi? a household. . 1 ^ 21! door of one Uaf . to arrest. to sort. 7 %f 1 oi have some I business to entrust to yon. Lesson 29. to sapport. 13 The large coat is not yet Lemmed. to diacoant. e I To a gnrgling sound.i. : put iu confiuement Aleo k^. to startle. ra To either written or printed. apart or into disorder "a Xo break in two. To stand up. . to wrangle. To command. a mediciual powder. A to To dhpid0. to drag. to discrito fold. . uiiliceusod p. to contend. ffaingy Pao*.break off. SanS. Ching\ To strive. Fiis book-case finished String up these loose cash for me. help. in the arms. a baudle. to sign. wrapping bandies. to Paper with characters oti it. puli. P^. to fi6iz«. 71 Translation. A TVj* - to harbor. To fall open. to ^nmrd to pawn. Chan*. Les. to paviu<]^. to annnl. This medicine id to be taken mixed with water. to Bip in No sfi". square brick or remonairate wraagle. to curl to stop. P§ i Haug up 10 0^ iss! A 8 9 ^ tl. to quarrel. to barter. Hu^. to briug up.wn aiiop to inortgjige. by th^ buy on credit. to defend. to stand a stage of a journey. to tng. . to reduplicate. minate. to take hand . to fasten or stretch tu pole. To wrap up. and they were pnt in coafiuement. enjoin. to direc?. m\ . to cherish prove. A ChwanK Fangi chwan\ - ^ Fh\> pf^ jPu*. . to order to chargo. to contain to undertake. an opening iudividiml M an A To prop . To awake. Hans. To stamp. to Fu\ To tile for - To roll up still. j A cloth for wrapper. to abate. [me. to hold Tiao" To Hliake to fall slip or fall off: Chien& S To gather up. to decide. to ^ ^ to-morrow lier 3 4 > ogu C ^ -^olg > Chao has not yet finished building hia main hall. into or down. 12 These square bricks ought to be piled up in order. f§ peu has fallen on the floor please pick it np for me. -. 92. A Fv. 1 - to ' . window. to assist. brick. to leau upou. this picture. mu See To infold. oddrt and ends. to collate. 14 The officer gave the o/der. dispute. up that leg of mattou. to wrangle. to coutract. 2 Will you please get np a little earMr. to reiterate. To To La}. A To drink. — V - - - Ch)ien\ to pile up. - To fold Tie\ order. Cheng\ tered. I- ^ g SI 5 > 6 . to plate. Pao^. Ch'wangi hu^ Ch'Sng^. It is too warm in the room: yoa may raise the window. Please reckou np this acconnt for Is Mr. to warrant. to with. to --. The baby has wakeued yon may take him np.C makdarin lbssoks. |£ srat- Chtng^ ching\ to aronse compress testify. a oundU. to stack of grain To : Tsi^ cht^. r.

10 Foreign pictures in frames are generally classified by AND is. 20 Jesus took the child by the hand > (II > paper with that all characters on Notes. wind —A . Jh" shed bui/ding. To both of them aud JtjS are frequently added. linnt np. to. is used in the North. u IcbLival.'". it should be acter. off. AS Auxiliary Verbs. an ox. . to k-iiip h(>f>f. to tran- . in the South. the empliasis be thrown on If if on used alone. to exainiue. vpiit ional- i^^^ V^' ^ fffi A to incliule: a snare. is used in- ceptively. oilgoln olm 19 Gather np . and a mei itarious tiling to gather it up carofvilly and luirn it. Jtni-'ihf il One sound The former more properly means to prop. to . the latter rutber than by " ' emptory order. a trap case classifiiT mao\ A ii wnippcr. Some would write as the more proper charQ If used. is the meaning it is. to write out. and tlieu tie them up iu a bundle (large haudkerchief). temperance. a moderation to Also cki^. To — A platter. a tedious. PUcn-. are regarded as sacrt'd and hence to defile tliem is a species of sacrilege. or tk. To cow. brass cap to protect poiut of a Oliincse pen. began to revile each other. io cut A.tiled by others. 4 means 14 the Tlie form of expiession in this sentence is very com- in Cliiiicse. huilt When building. A. They are uot confined. coa- Les. to 18 I had gone bat a little while when it began to rain.-. 1 meaning is simply. £3 section reirnltite. having disputed a while. fao* A aw. is added as an auxiliary to verba expressing' to verbs expressing motion upwards. that here means at once. thus preventing its being trocl<lcn under foot. 41. 42. of the action. sometimes express the success or practicability. he gave one short per- it often does seems inappropriate here. Cliic'^ A to niiiicc. read ckUcan^. 2^ me 17 The)' two. to - Niu^.72 15 These remnants of cash amount iu i^l all to seveuty-five. implicate. a verse. to verbs of luoLiou but are used freely with many Besides the idea of motiou. 1 W it. . classifier scribe. To encase Pfto*. reach a market to up an afU'air. 147. to confiscate. to quoslion. 21 Roll np snch of these clothes as should be rolled np. how- ever. . It Los. • • to coil. ^ 16 Your speaking of this reminds of a certain affair. 42. a plate. flrai*. aud I'okl snch as should be folded. the The same. Written chiiracturs. necessarily teJica the emphasis and the meaning is. and she rise. aud motion downwards. as 16 18 to hoist. w 1 I* ^ ol aud assisted her to stood np. they others. Vocabulary. being handed down from the sages of antiquity. Les. though its tone is not correct. pull. . 7Vi* To chop. limit of Lime. 19 it is considered a ain and a shame to defile paper with ch:iructci s on it. 21 mon Les.

paper.5 olsl CI ^ o| g . To Nao^ ^(3 large jar for water. price. dawdle. . 12 It was half a day before my entreat- Loli 01- off the self.. The head. of. Please bring them <& up A P'ai\ branch. to beg . to to search for. 4 The child wants to get ou the k'ang. to reduce in rank. a class. a tribe. A Kang^ ^ dredge. 1 Pull up your shoes.. . 10 I am come dowa by appointment of His Excellency. ancestors. Au rials. A vitreous substance like glass. to appoint. 11 There is a spoon (clipper) in tbe water kang. bag A "s!*^3 : see one's self: The brain Lao^ pei^ TsvA Below Hsia^ pien\ amuse A Pei^ pray me. Les. Write out this verse. Take down that piece of beef 7 0% 015^ 8 oiHH i > ±. —as a bird. . to repress. ask. ramble. {ten. You may take away this plate. to practice. 33. to Tai^ the water. -. etc. for play. —as a . Pieni writing mateink. To hook or haul out of Lao^r.Lks60N MANDAUIN LESSONS. and not aJlow it to get dry. to See lod\ also Za*. Please write them. to for me. ies prevailed. Grandfather. ancestors. a pocket. - -C' maijpiey jay.. to make game to send heavenly down. - To play with. forefathers. to dally with. ••• jackdaw and The magpie. . B f M > 73 Translation. etc. Fu^ . to dcpute to sen J to distribute to each. the wits. The magpie. the miad... pull him up. . to fall. a Aucestors. Also hsiang\ messenger. * transparent glaze. sort. To descend to couqner. to intimidate. To bring into subjection Waiv^. to aiui at. . fall. To play. an A Fod^ . Glass. take up these two chairs. 3 There are writing materials on the table below.. alight. 24. 3 Yon should put the cap on the pen. Zi'i JcweiK gam Grandfather. 30.. iukstone. opulence. 2 These two characters have not been writteu. to amuse oue'd A Also ya^. ta feace. J9^^^ for. ^ W 3 ^^ . 9 There are no seats upstairs. A raven. sk'P. a purse. To play or toy with generation shang^ F"i Fa*. -. Rich. ink. Fu^ Riches autl honor wealth. angel. camphor. to to trifle. iiJ 5 Take a chopper and chop 6 bone. Hsi^ ch'iao^ ^ Lao\ To . ^^ down-stairs the apartments of inferiors Note …- Yien^. to work at a trade. Les. abnndaut. to . ShwaS. to grapple To Ch'iv?. afflaeut. Pen and Pi3 yien\ - Chiang^. a crow. 33. Do you go and rake it out.

21 There this is a pane of glass out of window. 17 M'v yonuger brother fell off a horse aud cut bis head open. Wa^ wooden bucket. a To carry with the hand. 43. the uogative applies When to lilt. to twist To carry in the hand.e. ^0 „pnT. is A To '/''' To till).) obstinate. to iHsno fort Kiuootli. which we can uot fully express iu English. empty. . a Christian term. . to transcribe. : - - . . Ying^. to 'l''i'. word ID order to limit the 14 This is a strong way of saying that the good was both great and unexpected. but to it OtU 6 dry. A Chincso . m Pee ilnsf. IS Apricots get ripe early. These forms give a peculiar ami admirable force. Ch'en^. to put me down. is . to dig out.• 4 14 This opulence has fallen heaven. two equal to Kiiglisli hours. aud I put yon down. to transfer. but nithcr tliht it can not take place. lilt flow wander Les. li Al. „^^ il-o^ g * 15 During school hours it is uot right to go out of school to play.-u S(3e Vi^. A lion r. is the more general term though is also widely used. IpA^. in*. to as a bucket. peaches. "1) to :amj.M. * Notes. the hour from 7 to A. When a negative is inserted after the principal verb and before the auxiliary. Its metaphorical is 20 22 for angel. Hard . to piucb. - - M - To copy. to get verse The word ofhooh is added fort u no use for the head. .. to I flout. nufeeling. 22 There is a mag:pie outside whicli has just flowu down from the tree. . -. to gauge. necessarily: to vuciite. A:j osier or 'l^iiufj^ This distinction uot Vuv(] Using. 17 mure general. referred to - XiESSOliT Negation akd Affirmation with Auxiliaries. ^ Ning". is Pekingese. the meaning is not tlmt the action does uot take place. of iiromiiiciiitiou . but is here used as a verb 3 yet it does not mean to dn/ the pen. the clause is repeated with substituted for the negative: Les. To haul abont. onrrlit. Cliineae lionr. it is desired to affirm strongly in opposition to a previous Deflation. a pail. TV . 1 The Chinese are much given to wearing their shoes turned down at the heels lience the occasion of this langua"'eis properly an afljective.. etc. To .8 o'clock ch'tn^. 19 This bouse was hauded ^ glitf down from him from W r |0j% 20 to saw an angel coming dowu from heaven. as would seem most afhw natural. list. i. You may put it iu. Vocabulary. 104.auxiliary. Pi* Th'r. stiff. LiiiK it-. excavate. Shr"ckM^ pia(A A watch. not to the priucipal verb. a cusk huvh't. (s. 0% oil I dowu his ancestors. of 0% You want 16 t ^ want OB- to late.

to rzVi's* Thick. jim^ small. to gulp. (s.S Trousers. The whole body. Lesson MANDARIN LKSSONS. the kidneys. foam To breathe. •fi? bubbles. S The same. resolute. 6 . Sliang^ pan^ t'ien}. 9 If you dcpemi ou preparing. you would. egg .stF i Q IS ^ ^0&>|§5|1^0? food after it is ordered. Hsi^ m'4 . Fm^^ kwo^ To '""4. > into the can not get it ont. 2 The shoes you bou^^lit for me are too small. . n\ Ch' scatter. iu fall. sigh. to dissipate. I can not ^^et tliein on. a testicle. ike small of the back. dense. to expand to straighten. hidden. intimate. The Chiurse cau uot make them. a quarry. a ballet. Watches come from abroad. ^ must go to-day.. You caa not 3 detain us if. -… A Great Britain. Yim\ _ - . sufficient. froth to waste. Froth. to entrap. to explain. A pill. a small Wan^ Wan^ yao^ -. a mine. to drip. T°o^ . Y/"^i 1 pant. breathe. Color. quality Quality of metals. the middle. The same. s^* The Tsu^y cliu\ The forenoon. Shoit^. paper small shoe of silver of about ten tads. to satisfy. close. stretch. or gold. 75 Translation. foot. to make np a deficiency. the hnmerns. o| ^ * Lmn tliiu. pit. f Pang\ The upper arm. Chhigi a hollow'. excellent. Tan^ An To 13 14 . ^ ^0 y^^ oil —— ' 1^ * rJ H O * 1^ . I fear you can not excavate it. you will certainly not be able to do it in time. gamey. pantaloons. to Salt. A fat man cau not put oa a lean man's trousers. To swallow. Tien\ to repay to add ou.tliis Yad^. to redress.1 can not carry this bucket of water. hue. 8 If you go with him. secret. enough.. 7 The ground is frozen too hard. Also yiev}. A small in^ot of silmr --' Flourishiug. . The SM}i* To loins. the waist. delicate. expressiou of face. Fine to breathe . ^ ^ 01 "I- 1 I can not afford to buy tljis watch. venery. brave.:^^|>^ _. entirely. sou^ Khigi. sW shai^. To last. 31. [beat into a froth. 4 can ijot cop J it in the space of 5 His tongue is thick. A hard. The whites of these eggs will not Is a boy four or five years old not able to get clown himself? water. touch. My pocket knife has fallen 1 K'u^ Mi\ We 1^ 0|5. T'ou^ ska7ig\ Yien"^ moan. to wroug. to splash i 11 12 . I fear he will uot be able to say it.) money. it is xny opinion you will not be able to keep u p. [oue day. kind. manner. and . saline. close. poor. shen^ ball. To fill up.

' . is constantly so used of anything clone oa or for the occasion.6 15 I felt that I could not but promise him. Vocabulary. nor hold np her head. is i The two terms so called because it is Sometimes written 7C tiix. A . . lHng\ low place. or neighborhood. eiul. to the larger is "sc'l in the Irom its in I ho payment similarity of tifty taels. means. I am subject to pain iu ray stomach aud when the pain comes on. time of 13 is ordered. 16 English bard to learo. Tiic impt'rid court. I Applied to tluu articles with That face. \ Tlmt i side or edge. iE This side or edge. iire aii'i joineJ with the words . for the white 14 15 but fif^artf In the former case. Shecan not stand on herles^s. I fear be ablu to earn it. also to opposing parties. use some water to wash tlieiu dowu. (- MSi'TluH ta. t 5 OS! ^ 7 1 > 21 ^ 22 ' market > I price. . ^. My eyes have already failed. but hf'art is i% 22 is • of tlie salt e'jg are botli widel}' used.tl- 1^ 20 OS- . >^ if I. even when you have a ready-made pattern? The quality of this ingot is below par. Applied to tliiugs havin . Can you uot fill np this pit in a whole forenoon If you cau not swallow these ]iills.lacc. . 7'. hollow. ^I^BQ'^Timt end That Icn^fi. writtou [U]. A rivfj' . side or ftn'l These forms Jiro much more mvA in Oliinese tlmn are the correspoudin*. XiESSOItT Deiinite Locatives. Can you not make it. to express this niid that end. This place. 1^0 I 0% 19 . of things. It will not exchange for you lli 0^ >| 17 >^ > > 18 || ^ OS wjl > ^ . > Notes. rejected by Southern teachers. or neighborhood." seems to say that the pain here put for the stomach. so that I cau not do fine sewiug. or margins. J faces. soldier. or after the guest arrives and is ready to eut. . I cau not get my breath at all. 23 ChaQt^ the Third's wife is diseased all over. mean. the better and more widely imed word htvfrofh. the sovereign. eoncave. a creek. APPhed aud to places. a See diuo^. to the boi- ) 81i|^litly place. excluding previous preparation. this distinction 12 Some indicates fti and between is teachers insist on using want want of skill. 20 and others on using of an is to the slang pliraae.s^\ rh'J\ Narrow straightened.y*ac//i7. narrow- ^ A IH minded. They Amy often be transhiteJ simply by here aud there. forms in Enj^lisli. niurtiul a pawu. _ if is will not ^ nor straighten her back. . the conception is of pulling tho trousffd on to the legs. of putting the logs iuto the trousers. ders. to prepare 6 food after it indicates 11 In this sentence ao'l in t-ho 9th. Sff This face. . . Often a canal. " it merely accidental. IIP. uor lift up her arms. is similar in form (but not in elegance) won't go down. troops. d} uiisty towardri. uml in the latter. i bookish. also to putties opposed to each other. face.

--. also Les. L . and that side thiuThis end is large. There is a deal of confusion over 1 2 V 1^ 1 5 3 oil oi! o% 4 5 . —— a title given to a Ill a a by the servants and of his wife's faiaily. - To tnrn See fen^. brilliance. to e fleet. clever. aid. a ghoul. supernatural. a to through. a Les. lieterogeueonSj mis- celliiueous. ed. ckie^. intention. 112. to further. rummaue. on that side. T'ie'^ C7"34. to relieve. change.1^ To pass through A See ting^. …. to transfer in rank. Les. a bout. W. • . shady . -A over. positively Les.s level that side is concave. private. $f to prevent. hades.. To - . soldiers. cunning. 119. and there. a . To turn over. excellent. 10 Here it is light. son-iu-law. To ascend. that side is 13 Ou this side the argumeut is fair on that side it is forced. anarchy. female. scrnbby. to take offeuse at. set iu array. to be surprised very.^ 6 4 oil- 7 §40^ I > K: La7i\ n\ I Tsa\ > oi! ^ oil I5i i Disorder. bent on. snpernatnral. crystallized. Note 8. 77ii. to discontmue to decide. to slip and fall. X'^^'any^. 14 The table has a drawer on this side. Clearly. to reverse. honor. To tiine. the inferior of the dual powers of nature. facing To . hitherto. LESSONS. To break Ttvav\ I all the time. il-^ Si This side is wide. to battle. Oil this side of the river there were robbers. Kwai^. Ke^. disorderly proniiscuout. Towards. aud that the lower side. [shaded. and that end fiue. HioaK there are idlers around act as mediator. to stop. heretofore. to apportion to share. In this phrase ChhiK . Na^ Mtf Ku} . manifestly. secret. sbiniug. am This side is somewhat smoother.io vacate. glory naked. smooth. certainly. Con/used. Smooth .…Mixed' confused . to overhaul most jjlaces. 11 The people there are not fit to associate with. poor. unusually Note J 8. 77 M fi- Translation. aud that side is narrow. to put a stop to. -- -. to distinguish a tenth. : Inferior. polished.j Lesson MANDA'RIN 32. Kt^ pan^ ^ TouK .. ksii^ yie^. a A shadow. ILsu^. to pat or keep asunder. or snap in two. dark. polished. determined: is. Hdang\ . 1 42. solely Smooth slippery. Deflected excessive? partial^ prejndicLes. to set: fickle. Sou-ia-law. rebelliou. -Q. 116. confusion. aa army. 12 This side faces the sun. clear. ^^ isi where oi^j oli M- 8 . to separate'. aud that end small This end is coarse. To make up a qnarrei Strange. Pu^ chi F^n\ To divide. to — Pi—. Les. read ttng'^. raonstrons. tangled. a a A division. . Fhi^ ming\ Fan an T'hig\ . to fasten. This is to be the upper side. to separate. younger members A A son-in-law. SInooa} Ice. on that side it has none. Light. . This side is thick. PH€n\ blacksmith. only. a hurst. 49. Dail. 100. dark. mantel compreheDd shelf. kaavish. the points of the compass _ A chiangi . 102. cloudy. Tliis side i. thoroughly: Les. candareeu or tenth of a mace.

able. ^TVj}\t. or SItai - chi7ig\ State of affairs circumstances. This end is about two-teutlis of an iach higher (than that end). This is the ri^-bt side. it is not right to shield one side. are understood to be 26 parts of an inch. view. OF VeRB S. anou. . look. This side /aces the light that side harl:^ the shade. fjo out leak air. style. 26 There is a small hole on this side. fit. 20 You are manifestly partial to that side. Kwang^ snit- laminons. and that end is cold as ice. Vocabulary. wbioli is wiilcly 19 It is foniKl used. aspect. 12 Lit. which lets out the air. and blame the other." It form is . without specifying the fact. perhaps. but often used as 18 It is & species of intensive. meaning excessively. thuu^h not. scenery. iu the Sacred Edict. satisfactory aiglit. to delay. uud partly to specialize the action expressed. what are you coming. or was it the daugliter*s [wroDg. and that side will show you a picture. ^( T'ing^. the This end of the k'aug is very hot. or. In muny <'aftcs is inserted between the words.. Was it the son-in-law's side that broiler ht the suit. or tenths. TjESeOO^ RkDU PLICATION Verbs are repeated. To dry beam tho sun. form. To Ching^. rather. entirely t^^^ng hsing. to erase. stop. 25 Look at this shelf which yon have put up. a a curiosity. [with us. ) Not ES. by which the second verb is turned into a verbal noun thus look a look. sights.. The meaning is substantially the same. The blacksmiths of this place are very poor there is uot a good oue amontj them. is a very expressive phrase. Properly. as we say. in to sun to . 21 The Chinese aro fond of having pictures sot in tho backs of their mirrors. which cut me off on that side of 23 > > acting as mediator. fri'jhfful. " to take S— Lit.over here for „^ * M Wheu % „^| What the river. 1 5 16 oil ioi lio^Ml 0% 17 18 idoi Boll> y 0^ oil 19 i 21 This side of my mirror will reflect your person. 24 Yesterday there came a great rain. When so vised its tone in most places changes to kwai^. very.. without appre- ciable change of meaning. 26 A relative must bo supplied by which to connect the clausea. The pjirts. n. 78 IS . ure you rnmmagiug my drawer for? There is uothiug of yours iu here. 9 The two forms are quite equivalent which is used being a mere matter of taste. 22 The crops are later here thau over % 111 ^^^^ ^ 8 3L is often inverted (viz. only applied to thinf^s that are disagreeable or unexpected. is very likely that the original ami full that with ami that the has been omitted in some cases for the sake of brevity. partly for emphasis. monstrous. whether is inserted or uot. and that.. and its use may perhaps bo explainod by consiileriiig it an exaggeration just as tho words " horrid aad '* frightful *' arc often used in colloquial English.

to for. ever . to capture. Lkn\ To luen\ long for. 3 Take it away and sun it. K'an^. prove. a scale. Saltish adjust. to increase. to learn from report. shining. walk for to visit. to scald. : required. to seize. to renounce. Mr. be sure aud come back early. to cut with a sword or edged weapon. to test' to formerly. a soldering a flatiron. to Lard. to mention. to to wipe off or oat dust Also mo(f. 7 You ueed not tell it out plaiuly you ctiu allude to it iu a general way. to to chasten. to be excel. to bake. sha\ skai\ To sprinkle. to bum inflict. usually. /a - Hsiu}. To wipe. J "1. A LoiX^ Vi^. burn or Kwan§^. to pleasure. 9 This end is a little wide. [or to separate. to scatter. an account. confer upon. to blister. ^ to salted. a balance. to digest. fat. chief.. To let dote to on. A in music. 10 He came aud sat for a while. lard. to give up. aud tlien went off in a hurry. . several See shu\ also sod^. A 'PiK ^ Fat. Skti}. - - To Loa\ laoK to superadd. in gen- approximately eral^ rather. 33. Chi} Hsien\ 1 to to allay. To chop. to repair. elated. for taking all 11 this trouble. Les. Chi a}. to to comb. Liie*. The clock ill the parlor has stopDo you go aud wind it. to A shu smelt list. a proposition. Ch'ang-. a resnm^. to Unable ^ to yangi Ycmf give up. 79 -__ TRANSLATION. 12 Wtish the kettle. number . slippery. a heading. a destiny. smell. rub off . Sa^. oil. Ch'^ng^. to resign. 2 ii iof OS 1 0^ the state of the affair. fame. steelyard. . necessary. 11 When you go home for a visit. grease Oil. cultivate. § Go t. to give alms. exhaust. Kou^ nails. captivated i\ Self-satisfied. Shu\ Les : C Finger or toe _ To melt.5 Lesson MANDARIN LESSONS. bitter. - •' • A coarse-toothed comb. to cancel. to fade. hear. and then try out (3 come lias ffi: (or. iron To Lien^ Ckia\ or suet. to quit. to iron clothes or press a seam. fate. to discuss. slightly. to slop over. 7zi2 refine. to clean To adorn Tang\ for the purpose. . Take aa ax aud hew ofi' some. 192. To ramble. Li. is : nth 11^ S 1 > o i C that Tlsie^. To Wen^. To take Fei^ hsin trouble. theme. to to try out. to abridge. armor. fat. to The To iu or brandiug iron. go. [yon go? 4 Why not sit down a little before 5 Thnuk you. To add. a subjt^ct. up. liao\ liao^. Euoiigh To taste. loving. To thank. a finger-nail. 77. Chi^ chia\ accom- modatiug. 8 Do you go aud listen to what they are saying over there. pass away. hauker She^. lIsiaoK To plan. to cut off. OS: quickly aud look if your father coming). number one. to abandon. thank you. to fell. to to spill. iron or smooth oui. news. 1" • 2 We have come to take a look at f ^ 1 SI 0. brand.

both North and South. A bosk phrase. rendered he/ore. the idea of seems to be the best character to which to attach nent ami this meaiung. 1 5 When yon made it. A more in ti. 23 When you. tlie s- 1 Lend me (tlie use of) your kuife to trim my fiuger-uails. aud sweep the floor. is preserve its normal meaning literal translation WoiUd it not be well to sit down a liftle and tke.jMy. iu llic front. is wash face. though the construc- means not properly passive. yon oa^bt to go out for exercise and recreation. it means rorit^j o?(. aud see if it is full weight. utid used instoud. iroti add an them. and then iron with a. 17 Tn Coking the tone of 18 \Vc Kpcak of an^. who. to aud comb yonr hair. 24 In a yamen. 21 chanicter used. There is . also. ullotted to as ' In the irar. oil tji 20 In sncli pleasant weather as t. translated in the passive. or apartments. both chamctera is 16 tion ia insist instead of on varies. thus. or wherever there are seiviinta or employes. is to . in ailditiont to ''c*. Iml is hIso iirfcd to nunia some one. to he offtuded.iit ti to bo ln'jini. in which the first repeated and tlie opposite idea atlded witli a Phrases made on thia nioilul are common. perhaps gonerally. l. is one i»f hc^n'ns the characteristics . liowevor.riiiivo.e.80 13 Bring the steelyards and weigh it.n (jo wouM 7 Some teachers The usage sentence. hent changes in to ch'i}. 17 ^^# .eretnpin the morning. to go into the presence of tlie officer. aud dast the your - f§ icith a A book phrase. the houses.ev co'ilin'. 29 tff HH Ik properly either a br'imlin^^ iron. or head of tho house. It shouUl be noted. Homttbodif. and hisolfioe. are l)cst •LIESSOILT.satisfied air. tliat with tlie Chinese llie tipartmenta of subordinates arc h'cqutmUy. ^" ^ 4 0 ilT isici o lirsc tilings iu ^5^ tcis 24 Wait f the raoro general word for' winding a clock or In Nanking watch. wait till his passiou cools and we will see about it. i. infcrinrs. * in Peking tr» pTOCttd. in iuquire.irons. did yon not taste whether it was salt or not 16 I intend to go to see hi in to-day and ask him why he is ofieaded at me. 21 Eveu to this time she can not give him op. or residence. ami witli a neu'ittive.' the Chinese. TnK iNTEniiooATiVB Personal Pronoun.liig. but the syllais not read 7Jia by the dictionaries 23 ble ma ia everywhere used. II ia u<H luiich used uluug tliu Yungtse. llaiirou. 22 Judging from his appearance he is quite dated. Notes. nohOihj or an. liow- sliort (li>tau('e nort liwnnls Uh use of u pure MauJariu. is jtropcrly intcrro. the idea of lidding something being prominent. 10 First sprinkle with water. I go iu aud ' 22 head in this till is negative. in the sense cleansing or removing being promiof to wipe of}'. Read wod^. of its melting. 4 In is the translation.f S o 3 ^ f. It is niidoratood. c 1 order are. It ia applied only lo persons. seems to I'd our spoken of as approximation. f[3 Ihm'm^ ever. is referred to hence. to take offencej and .e sense of to mention. The tone differs in dillVrent places. 14 If yon dou't believe it is spoiled. 5f 5^ i l. authority for using the rear. smell it. or a small pw"u for prosFtin^ ae^ms but tlie term is ofteu ust-d of forThe sccoml cliaractiT chanues its sound in eign iUl. table. meuning to tons (he scff. 18 He is very angry just uow. fiiuny places to yroir.

A mountain. to stir np. Shame.. Fhi\ Powder of auy rh'a?. the man Chaug. to Ts. Chiien. hand oh. the See chHe^Les. important. ^ "Yo^^ie J feeling. 34. village to gibe. wild. to smear. 45. -. T*P tHe\ To put one's of another.@ I ^ • . . . to keep in subjection. Chu\ lift . . sympathize. powdered soapstone.) - be ashamed. 7 Who has paint and does not rab on her face 8 Whose playthings are these It is o 01%0 o i W Who is at hoaie keeping house Who is in the kitchen Ajis. TshiTi^ To press down. Toys. luouey. mortification also Les. C7i'a3'i' to paralysed. surname ' Cki}. to guard a large mart. to blush. a outsider. wei^. tilize. . pock-marks. 13 Do you think it will rain to-day Ans. a stranger. meal. To order. precious. to play a keyed instrument. charge. to lay the stringed or Ch'in\ P See confused. 81 Tt^anslation. to blush indebtedness. to draw small circles as marks ot punctuation or of emphasis. a permit..hwang^. Wari^ to m watch. a small circle. A a clan. doniinuea. numerous to fcrmoisten to grow. etc. ^ llshig^ - • modesty. … To keep the gate. to encircle. to enjoin upon. hunger. . chalk. a signboard. Also ckuen\ FangS ch'uen\ To . to charge. To Ckus /"4 Swei^ pienK At . See Sab. to whitewash. straits. C/tie\ seusation. self in the juicy sap. Arts. a hill. Ma^ To Jang^. difficulty.iran ^ 0. kind. To rub K'ani men% ^ . Who ShweiK Fu\ To pat. who can tell 12 Every 1^® o J55J it VOCABULARY. as you like. lute or harpsichord. CMiA clamor. Disgraced. to clamor about a secret. . whose who Which A'"3 A whom iia^. perfect. That. I Mo o| 10 2 1^ man stands up for his own employer.Lesson MANDARIN LESSONS. Numb.s^" at the door 5 Who 6 Who is that pock-pitted man the parlor playing the in is or. to wrangle. Shan\ Hsiu} C/i'p - . play tilings.% > oifi ^ „. do not kuow whose it is. haralct. a pearl. Famine. ashamed. chatter. untamed. a row Wai^ jtn^* A circle. to spread over. Urgent. Who is outside the door Whom have you come to look for Who was it that told yon this 1 ^ 1 % Sfo 2 g% 3 4 Wlio is outsick calliu. Humid Ts'i^. applied the piano orgoM. to enjoin.. a notice. a to sneer at. on. at vour couvenieuce. country village. scarcity: want of shield. A An oblong brass ring used as a paper weight. -whole : A To An A snrname. cards. to to appreciate. A Hsiaiig'^ ts'un^. No one. 105. 1 1 Whose is 9 this paper-weight Ans. - as famine. straits. all. a tablet. Same CUn^ cMK A ChicmgX YxiK . pleasure. earnest. to feel place for. s. to let out Also^'a/^^^ Dearth ChP. gem.

whcie 15 The translation given supposes the sentence . it is rendered both. Ans. emn atul when jtreceded by to 1)C ^ It All. the }>:irty. to any other. All. with If should he. X2 A neat way of expressing tlie idea. a a J uo oue will yicLl " %^ oil whom owu melons B . the whole family or All. 13 is here equivalent to - Its use iu this con- than that of 19 This sentence 'ovs out of the custom of hanging tablets over the door with complimentary or sentimental inl''t\v families are so Iiappy that they cmii hang up scriptions. here refers to the thing toM. in frc'jneritly joiiioii pronouii}* 11} witli au expletive. elegant. not to the person tellat the end may be omitted. when used. is 14 more i» ^ is colWiuial. 7. g He all. whose is it You sbould strictly charge \\\m uot is Who m to tell anybody. of th^ir anger. two things previously spoken Wlicu of. but ia slightly bookish in the SoutU. All together. whole lot. The it lea of the proverb is that one who h&n merit naturally wishes to display it. Is cml useci.'il 2-i ohictly used (^3). Its sense is collective. 3 7 liere 'f means the white load with which Chinese worn' II paint their faces. en masse. in toto. Its use or omission ing it. It is onlinn nly applied only to persons. tlu» otiior It follows iiulefinite the nomi. who 3 ^ shame fears nobody. who does uot know every body Xo one can ap[)reciate the feelings of my heart. 15 Listen to that incessant clamor ou the street. Its sense is distributive. 22 Til is seulunots allui ds ii good exercise in uiupiiodia. If it was not yon. see Les 158. as it fmjnontly of i«. Kvcry bod v. All. 24 Just uow they are in tlie liei'ght of their aug'ei*. but changes the gnunniatici\l sti'iictWithout it the translation sliould be. nection is loss gemrr. that it is to every ones interest to stand up for the man through whom ho gets liiH livcliliootl.21 14 Chiang Yii Shan has no | CSS 1b 15 row with 1 was IS "Who 19 ^ 20 H> ^ 21 1 ll 22 ii3 1 it? willing to admit that his are bitter can lirui up a "no trouble notice at his door All living the same villas^e. it to the translation of the last clause Tho some one haviuy a row with some one be Oil the lop Lit. The dues not ah or the sense. not your fjiult. "Who is making a . If it is This is not my fault. . ^OTES. ii'it. Indefinite Pronouns All. all together. the whoU' crowd. It lu'eoedes tho uoiui. ami prevails in Central Mandtirin. ^ should be quite empliasis thrown on I'iie ami on tlie ilillcrunt for the di^furent iDtcrrogativc e rulings. Tcferriuir to Its sense is comprcliwisive.tc. with a single person or tlun. Who told you this? ure. it lias the force Umenns severally. an irif^cription setting fortli tliat they are five from care. All. at 16 AVIio does not kuow that mau'a bad reputatiou 17 There was uo other (outside) person here. Fur other words of this cluss. every single one.

1 . Ckwan} ksinK Undivided attention. a'"2. effects. —- AH. elegant. old and yonng. to comprehend alt. I do uot knowanybody at all. general. 2 In both ^fn^lying" and writing. . many See Sub. shi Chien^ unite in one. whole. 1 nn i"o^ I 0% are sick. together collect draw cnrreut the to oppressive. 9 10 oli 11 * ^^0% 12 o| si 13 14 . Insulting K-e^. Whoraalldo you kuowin this place? A 71 s. To run quickly. Ijotb his back and his legs are unserviceable. reallv. Oar opinions do not all agree. oue hundred aud eight hsieus. concourse the majority. 3 When a raiuj gets old. Translation. His whole family. results. 104. flavor graceful. He treats everybody meanly. 6 2 oi 7 8 There are here. plot of ground. A finger. the district ruled by one magistrate. : man da kin lkssons. 83 . That talk of his is all false. 0^1051^ in all. cm Voii^ Pan?-. A To kuow the flavor. A The well. to taste^ insalt.) besides. capital. to diminish. 1 35. HsienK A conuty. none of as kuow. a siugle purpose inteut on. metropolitan city all. to perceive. to make kuowa. To go through. reliable: --. have a sense of the fitness of things. the whole Les. The province of ShaDtung has. to Opinion. the whole T'ung^. At what time he eft. a president: TungK to deduct (math. a man should have a just appreciatiou of the fitness of things. iu general See Sab. 136. to avoid fru- Also ksings. to control regard pleasurably Ch)} To meanly. 5 Who all ure there iu yonr family? Have all [the gentlemen] come? Yon may take away all except this. Also k't'^. every one. the whole. ckuK "T^ Shrng^. The fruit of aa excavatiou trees. sentiments experieuce discernment. a pit. I have uot a single cash iu the honse. to oppress. a truly Les. Chung^. one-eighth of a Chinese hour. 4 III every thing. class . to show . vulgar or f\j Fa7i^. in any case must be. ' Chingi ch'ings alacrity. general. to treat Shan} tung^ a clue. near. 15 lol > HJOil 16 1 * Tu\ Hi A tou^. fitill. a while. to commuuicate. Ch'ii^. province. nse to sparingly. to pervade To gather entire of. To everywhere. except earthly. - operate on Tsung^. Sort. iu all. To seize to to all. one should give undivided attention. mortal To exclude. over three thousand soldiers. Lesson 35. manner. to comb. K'k^ poa^. or fifteen minutes. generic generally. into oue. everybody. Your two children are both gifted. a toe. the world A - LmgS. gal. little divide Les. Ching\ /T 3. to save. commou. to Province of Shantung.

. helter-skel- T ftr^ To accuse. meut to accord with. drown riaiK families getting into a quarrel aud going to law. a a complimentary term To play 25. a suruaiuc read kP. 28. 171. Precious. to press down. / go a treasure To play To throw down C/ii^. 't'f')tj>t coin. 24 The w'iud capsized the boat. 2. appearance. is aU of his getting np. inj^ the rattiin. ship. As at thimble-rig ^ A I:itercuur8e tmiliiig plaut … ShaiK Yhn\y&en!K A u UilKculty. a bind—: correspondwith soniethiuj. can not venture to decide M B > o| G ii my self. to weight. . To (Irowu Kao^ ckwang\ to 'ai. is 25 Tliese thiogs are . Alike. Les. to law. not forth good fruit is liewu dowu. reject. he is skilled in all of them. ter. — Dice.^ I well water. 18 There is no river water iu the capital.. vine. Chwayig^. cards. au emburrass- :— Note f'xisiin. in You two 27 e Oil all in proper order. nil confusion.*. a boat. a Pad^. to indict. be- youd bounds. 21 It i^yLO% > I it a subtle affiuity.^ p(Ui..^ 71 fire. 22 Children can not be all alike. 26 This scholar is outrageous. a juuk. i'u'C?i- lcu The cause. . thimble-rigging and dice throwing. 0 . and why. the reason. 20 Every tree that brias:etb. See ya*. 106. because. ly The business concerns [us] all. and where. to fliug away. TV ill Note cou fusion: (" Wicked />- ' A iuc'>"'i""ble. Vad^ t'ienK gem. an accusation^ au iudictiuent.^ 3i 84 i 7 ^5 "f* always carry my spectacles with me. the same. pa} tsao\ Topsy-turvy. 20 I know all about when. be did this S thinLT.^nd 1 Arrange them 0y> o 28 Card playiug. aud o cast into the ^0 151 .. He eveu dares to swear at his teacher. lonir orecitin^. to shovel. Can the tea fiugers be all of the same length 23 You must not follow the crowd ia every thing. Form. a very diflSeult thing to please every body. previously facinjj. therefore. 183. To overpass. and every body oa board was drowned. 8 . or at.. Mlis Les. connections. to accnse. aud how. All the water used is _ . Swer ts'mg^ To follow. Les. /Ca7i4 p'aiK to reach beyond. A Ch-wan\ To soak. to — a quarrel a hanger-on. to as earth. steep to overflow to tarry long.

J Lesson f s MAND AlUN LESSONS. 21 i. all the water used 22 25 h(u'& !§* so. * is heavens seven disorders.. Such. to get the 'Cv acctptable. poti. . trick. It is should uot a question wlietlier \ How.^er. in that way. always be written. . recti y it loses its interrogative force in as and perhaps elsewhere. yet a first-class in this 13 "at still listen. ami read as @. CW/"4. 17 liere means. 3 No matter what you say. ^03 S used up all that patches My bahy has never cried so before. ^^0#^4^> by and on^-lit not to impose upon your brother iu this way. to hear. . The original and proper order of this phrase undoubtetUy is./W. thus. with . at following [my] body . bat cases tnu. the water eaten 18 for domestic purposes. To insult. sentence is / have not a cent at Pekingese teacher. of is interrogative (see next some when used in two correlative clauses or when preceded by snch wonls as (11. in this way. bnt as read nin^ or n^n^ (the fiual n is elided The book prounnciatiou of it is all others.. to all. but not elegant. (14. is so.. i.) Iu some parts of fShaulessou). afraid iu The noraial use The use of @. li hearts of all pltasiitfj. 36. threw out the and wrote . 85 f Translation. here used @ is. so. such See Sab. is common. necessity is generally expressed In the South is used. to be defeated minns (math. in reviewing this lesson. ii The more coraraou to he some long and some short. mn\ " Thus. with me. 15) or when immediately foletc. Tshi\ An interrogative particle wliy followed by generally what? See Sub. can yon still uot keep accounts? In that case. iu the case of case of 1 Such. he will uot ^0.). always. or Particles. Fu\ To carry on the back. is not without authority. fS ovcrtoj^piiifj the Such." this way lesson is .e.e. Such a 1 P 2 You 4 What! have you {li- . It is somewhiit similar to the game. used somewhat like our phrase. Its use in all in the house. oi- 26 . the comparisoM is completed by as this. you should uot suffer liim auy lon. to slight. Haviug a])iised you iu that way. called thimble-rig. When i here includes colloquial form is that so used as to involve a coiiipari- . term for confusion. often iucor- Vocabulary.. what mauuer. (3. in the and by as that. however. to oppress.e. Knowing so many characters as that.. The sentence in the taken from a Pekingese book. a book phrase lit. i. a method of gambling much practised in some parts of China. fen thousand vices applitiil liyperbolioally to a bad boy.. so. . to suffer to turn the back on to abuse. 2S MoDAL' j.e. iu that way. with the teacher as climax. rather than by all. i. lot of 5 6 7 8 Note 2 In Northern Mandarin . all times. used instead of is . 13) lowing a negative. a most expressive tight arcUhnfs in use).s'.^ 1-0|^ n'eat fellow as you. I will decliue.

kwai remiss. according Ts'uvg^ lai^ To Age. Toa^ judge of. Nai. [prompt. !i(liipt<'d to use. Lasiu deem. 7Wt clous : wron<>:. . 1 ' to robonod. To arrange and record auDals u T iad^. ft TuTig* twai\ Shwan C/(i*. 91. See Lcs.To dear with. . by 153- P'w^ He answered 1 1 M ^ I H % ^ ^p> > ^1 ^ JtillL 9 I can not do all that work iu this little time. I fiud out. prompt. 47.. skill. he will not study. after all. to sustain firm. to select. Also The shoulder. 16 According to what yon say.86 % > ^ * 12 a very important matter all means.. To slip. as. padding* pieces of old cloth used for failing Do just 15 I do uot care in the least. .Inner garments.4 piiii. there is DO use in my acting as go-between for these two families. remiss. to arrange . To carry on a pole com- slip- Tan^. . or or stim]l)liiig. dheerful. 1 to benr. 14 Yoa are not yet very old is your ^^|^. hard-hearted. The niisteady motions produced by expect. pasteboard patches. chi4 ) (or . silly to stare vacantly loHer. f7''". No matter what you do. Chien^ pavg^ Chieii^ See Viad^. Vou^. fiiU(^t making Heretofore :—Les. as you think best. the phrase . Chiev} U on the shoulder. 17 Tliat scholar is esseutially lazy. 2^ To jump. ready. pulse To anticipate. tan^. come to some satisfactory nmlorstauding. .. . lm(l LeH. acnte feeling miserate distressed. in hsiang^. tpdc/i. to Weak.- to anticipate: Tu7hj.. to suffer be patient. to hobble. . j > Ixvi-. A 3h'P 0. according to whatever asked. . go-between^ a match-maker. to tarry a siiiipletou. stumble. long-sufferiug. The ahonlJer. Liao fulfil skil led. time. . Cheerful light-hearted. Ihiang^ IAe\ : Pain. JlJ au ludoleut. Rliameless. 10 I did not anticipate he conid be so a year. to. 18 "With such a slippery road as this. disinclined to exertion. carried on a pole. No. graiu. ready Sliwang\ to to. Nien used for f| in See pu^. Les. disinclined Foolish. to arrange order. iieriud. bnoyant. to to office.51 1 . i(»iJ rely on. .UWyv o * To spread. a load. to choose.0 1! $ioi % Rags . Choorfnl. hcaltliy. ache. Peng^. hciirty. also p'u^. materials strass. to couform to To P. To estimate. vigor0U8 quick. I did uot 13 Tliis > Jhi^. sudden. to expect. Tlie top of the shoulder. prompt. . patience patkiUly . vi- ttuj 135. The burden a picni. colored glass ability. averse. Fortitude. vigorous. lieakliy. to trust to. To Ting* ahi\ to accede to. to forbear lAao 1 to repress. ^ is miud nt^enK ^'1 qnestioued him in this way and in that way J and. I To think of iao^. tile officer we must. years. to suffer to i*!!^ Lan\ to forbear. fing^ /V/i. Lazy .

2 f it:. socks. or refuse to proceed whereas means.. obstrnct. Cho(f A Sv/n\ of. to catch. It is rarely heard in the South. to tear A C7A Pwei\ To piish away to secede A Mo''!4 To grind a flour at a mill." Some woul-. - graduate. - . . 37. Hi P ffsini ton? t'higK Pain in the stomach. that when takes the third tone. Vocabulary. 19 The two forma arc not quite equivalent. 1 to avoid. No matter how you jnU it. Nuticf. to . by all aiul this is or the use of AV. doltish. but llie second is colloquial aud somewhat uudiguified. To shun. ^ ^0 t o ^ 1 if . as well asfciirj*. ". represent it. flee S from to avoid. small bell To scratch . one can not but walk nnsteadily. stopping) in this way 20 Are yon not afraid of injiiriog yonr shoulder by carryiug' such a heavy load 21 This youngster is hopping mad (jam|)iug up and down with anger). | 87 feo 19 What 22 What a pity that child should die. to A lAn. is find " hopping 7nad.I wiitc no authority for using this character in this sense while the mean in "r of i$: is quite suitable. As many rags as that. The two forms are quite J equivalent iu meaning. means. a surname. to he absmt- to loiter listlessly. to taboo. How? How? MM why? why Where? . The double way of putting the coaxing is a characteristic Chinese idiom while the use of the word flit intimates thatChineae coaxiii'j chiefly deceiriny. See mod^. first degree. to stop. obstinate. dyspepsia. to maintain. ^£ to shirk decline to resign to extend millstone. IFa* year. Vague Yu^ seize. / to stand aside. graudsoiv. Nothing will serve but to whip him. to grab. fat Notes. Pi To . here rendered what. au impeclimeut. to hide to shirk The proceeds of the ch'eng^. avoid sacred names. to bracelet. to to infer. set. Stockings. It answers to the English. To with claws. SO. Here and but I - XjIESSOo^ way you see Les. S{iipidy obtuse. to avoid a deli- cate or forbidden subject. addled. More literally. is used interrogatively if. Chi\ To seize. is - :k::k::k:v Interrogatives of Manner and Place. you may count me a contraction for is . how. dull witted. to lay hold of manage. . ship id.-. out. To get the . 13 [micli 16 minded. here read Or. a wristlet. chi^ Chin4 to keep obstiTiate. such a fiue. Hivei* g$ To Chvxx}.Lesson MANDARIN LESSONS. or 8 More 9 mect'w. and you have 3 is tliouglu 4 The vsed thtm all up might be omitted. No kind of coaxiug does any good. the harvest. MA is The is that case. In literally. and it is also read penfj*.-•. According to the to stop or not imfrequently dropped out in this way. hsiie\ to Obstinate. do you mean by loitering (or. immovable. are both used. mill. 21 a not infrequent form is a phrase used in some parts. though the force of the We might render.ff- keep clear a band bell. but use adds its empliasia.

to fltand upright word a remark talk sayings To talk with -. deportment. In the middle. conversation. Haing. or Yii^.weiK How 12 1- > bracelets are oil 9 -^ci^ yon 6 To judgments of Heaven. character. ready complete. - How 13 part of. to ease satisfied. Tieyiy. is 3 0%$$ ^ To Wei'. a part in music.8 Translation. cbftste. right. 14 Suu the Third is an intelligent man how is it that in this business he is so stupid (immovable) ^0 acter. disaster. aud ^^•he^e 10 o^r %yj 1 is it „i he iutencliug to go is the harvest this year Ans. Hsing*. Note Pi*. misoi\y calamity. How is it that you did not bear 4 here did you find yonr stockings 5 What about the Inisiuess I eutrusted 1 2 ^^ 3% W 1^. perpendicular. I have dyspepsia. to protect. iu. To •fQ Pei\ ^ to tell. arrest 11^ 0^ him) 0^1>^ How is it tbat yon have not yet gotten the meal ready Ans. Nothing" extra only oriliuary. to regard as. to increase. U . See Deportment. Tsou* Crosswise. hung^. hsing^ and hang^. to dance. H Conduct. 3^^ • do. . . to prepare beforehaud. and have uo appetite. p'i*. tlie phrases.. how is it that you did not come and tell me 7 Where did you catch it (or. all. transverse - to speak. -'i- is it that you are so lean these days Ans. Ifu'Oti*. Alsop'm-. . '. A P'in^. Properly pi"*. my. . Shu\ Yien\ To A Also to lie htng erect. to be confined 22. - . -.^ to xx* When 8 Do you know where my the stranger came. i >^ ^ ii Why Wby did you not go to clinrcli is it that you have not sense enongh to avoid au uupLeasaut subject 3 The bell has rang. To add . Iling'^. At To prepare. to cover to protect. to prearran*^e. Tiao^. … To shield. or Words. . coiuinct. to play the See wei*. Doings. I was hindered by going to griud at the & ^mill. condnct. rank. entirely. You were told to come quickly how that yon have come so late 11 Where did he come from. character. to effect. to act. throw j>repare to provide for. to anticipate. across. order a rule or guide actions. wholly. char- kind. leap. to hop. already. To shelter. Evil. lauynage. sciiteuccH : to a ]»hrase to tell words provide lie in. a surname. Chv/ng4. np- speech. woe. bnt often spoken p' i V IM pi*. to jump to palpitate. to To yiie*.

is here equivalent to why. may be applied to any one but 18 Note that fj LESS you 8pea/^ as required while See Le8.'ili surprise and reproof. m 1^01: the matter with can uot come to school Why Aiu. No matter is it that you did not speak of these things sooner Ef 21 what oue asks you. My wife has presented rue with a baby.. classifierofthiiigs distiugnisbed loiicrtb. i that yon do not do your 16 His scholarship is only so so. Dui ing this month tlie un)tliei on her k'anc.in the mouth of one who is a pupil in school but it must I'e mem bereil that boys get niai rietl in China. A brauch. " How is it that.e. cros-m'tse-j will. I to-day. that there was nothing 12 The force of ootewortliy about the crops. although its proper meaning is how. How is it that you have not gone to church is tinguished fi'oni Head. and that siicli subjects as this are spoken of hy them vith the iitnu'St freedom. or by some one sent or instructed by him. 23 Lit. (The same thing is true of "how" in the English phrase. what f<orl of a speech is this ? expressing K'. falls ^j* apeak 20 ularly Classifiers. g is f Whij must you <jo and jump into the }" of icot you persist in bringing disaster on yoursdj? S / i. or speak perpendic- is ^ used when manner woman^s cot^fvprneni spoken is ctho the wonth supposed to sit lie served hy her husband anrl sisters-in-law. MVs abilities are very good. of. especially when the cause. though the usage from uniform.. 22 Mr. ivhi/ d& xxxv Four Common Sinirlo. What do yon propose to do You do nothiag but cry.e. eat certain kinds of fond." on " where " if with 10 It is quite uiicei-tain l>y whom the person was told to ronie quitkly. 80. you disseut. you make no What reply. It is some21 times heard in Peking. Why have The Chinese fails to mark the disyou not tjone to church tinction between the imperfect and perfect tenses.. and of kindreJ iu different places is far under each of these . classifier of le clussifier of various animals.as fitlier by the speaker. rathor than for breadth or thickness.i 1 Lesson MANDARIN LESSONS. [7C A pair. or reason. ~ things as dispairs. 38. Such language sounds strangt. o 15 > y gfc}ii^«lll .of g is aayhow yon. ia the common Southern form.?" The sentence might be rendered. Sub. 8 is J. 1 We might with equal propriety translate. 18 I 10 Why 20 No matter what is saul. but I do not know \y\xi\i is his geueral deporfcmeut. eithei. etc. What is his general character i 1^ it at the proper time disaster Notes.^ 1^ How is work ^ * 89 y^oi hear that Mr. — classifier of horses. and I must provide for her the things necessary for her confiuement.good or bad that is. animals. followiwj it. is. o i n^l (Jlniug. why is it that yon persist in courting . . also of some animals. How could he get a degree 17 I have a miud to hire him as a gate-keeper. and properly applied only to persona of some social. 23 What do yuu mean Whea we are all protecting you iu this way. but it is implied that it ". tiiey were average crops. standing. For full list of noil us falling classifiers see Supplement. for ' 22 If this sentence be made to end with the emphasis it falls nn " know.

0. aud he H^oi not sufficient is lost one not go this will 1>9 use two. . >^ A nance. a line.. wouder where that dog has rnu to. To open out . eartheuware. Tilts. to miss.. A a sta'id for f-iil to a stand. wicked.' classifier: A P'ad^ branch a switch au item a secalaw. the sea. island. strong. tiou. also Also^'i^ Li\ a blister See p'ao\ Younger sister. approximately equal to oue-third of a mile. single. A serpent (M*. vegetables. to err. 12 Miris Li wears two gold bracelets. 4 -oil truly a is .. snakes. 13 I have rhenmatisui in this leg. CIt chie^. a mate.stiuy. fa- to fail. one got lost). fate. To lose ouc's way. insects. : . stu- A F"i ruasou. oij i the Second 8 One rope 9 Do you want to sell A certain man had 10 0181|^ - we go by that road it further by at least five li. The sole. VOCABULARY. treacherous.g . - J He was eudurauce. I Imva rubbed blisters ou both my feet. tal. used in the South. The domestic T'an\ . to it i SJt^" . (or. a village.r. au alley with gates. commands. The sinews Tad" The female of equine animals. diviMi' Tfi'ai* t'an\ to sluing. Wang 1 *s . Chinese novels. Deflected askew. cord. loH. A Tiao\ One Chi\ — A place. To command Ming*. deadly. houorable. Miss) bubble. a decree. A pair. Mi^ To charge Wa^ life. To ride i' To take Yao* ming*. dtu-k. orders lot. (le. infatiuUeil. A classifier: P*i\ JfsiaoS A of a sort or of a pair. A confused . a strinj. ami on that one there is a boil. A Siting^ To lose filip. life. a brickaiyer. to bracelet:— Les. 1 o-i I 1 CiiD to-iuorrow. to neglect — ckiang^. A classifier: JSee Sub. (U'IikIc. confused. 6 Both my eyes pain me beyond if § are worn shoes 5 I o ol- fiae must be over three 2 I tl)iuk this street long. snails. A suako. Chiv} kv? t'eng^ to sit astride. Ch'angi ckhing^ terrible. selliug meat RD<i stall. lo JuiHMiji'st. a rope fish W onus.ippiug ieilow. . hill in To? yv? pctied. aslaut depraved. subtle.. See Les. blinded. . liviug creatures. 7Vao* A t'oi(? Chin} Wai^.^ rasoj g 3 Both of Pao-ts'f s crooked. To an P'ieni tou^ yil- Ch'unff the RhenmatiMii. Wiv^ an ordi- unendurable. uoble. the nerves. a Chhf- " measure of three liuiulred and sixty paces.Nti. If 7 t! &|^< riding a large she-ass.S7"i. ChinK Metal metallic money gold precious see Sub. The same. awry crooked. pottery. 47. Translation. iu see Snb. to fascinate. cow a luiiidred sheep. 124.

Yie^ chi' Mao\^ torn this 16 Chiang.— hare. rest.3 out five pheasants. Gentle. the luasou. dignitied. Used as a phonetl'o aud frequently read he^ and fc'a?. ample.. 22 I bought seven yonng chickens. * remnant. cat. To nourish support In Peking. ckwang^ A chi} i^lS A mao\ Yie^ a . 19 25 Lit. There is a h\g 20 Go quickly and see suake at the foot of the south wall.spaeiuus. . T liiy If 17 " ?< of„p I- 0k tliiuk that this horse has the greater strength. The png-uosed Peking dog. 23 Ou a huckster's stand were spread oi A Do yoa I 1. * Ts'ai^ (mend) raay patch stocking. mauy. Chang the Second very good circumstauces. a hare.a Lesbok . streets. No TES.s the more lipcaiise it is cue (»f u paii*. 24 The faniil}' are a > lulsl 1^ o| Shan} The same. two cocks and five hens. it or (24). though because it is long and by X3 A leg is classified by The latter i. circumstaTices . iu* Chod\ cat. take that little. . and two males. very tall. foil off the bouse and broke one of his arms. MANDARIN LESSONS. generous --. "Wide.\ To sip. In the same waj. K'wan^ _ remainder. 141. 9 (Tows are generally classified either by is used in Hankow. o A1 Yoa 14 1 ^ \ »1 kou^. etc. K'wari} . 25 Catch that small Peking dog in the yard for me. You catch h im /or nie. Ba^. See Les. 15 There are two boats fishing to the south of the Ch'ang Shaii Island. the south. They keep a cow. to to provide for A Loa^ A rabbit. 1 . am- to bring up. 15 When applied to hills. the pie. and a donkey. Les. H^0. 38. A deer a stag. 21 There are tea ducks and six geese in K f the river.&1 5 of Mr. and . south of the hill %vhen preceding the noun it means. vat^ue. as. liberal. applied to a man. besides Ha^ pa^ - ^ in OverpI us. Peking dog in the yanf. ch'od^. mule. The same. kindly. ch'ao^. The wild … Tu^ Yu\ pheasant. ice cold. P P(xi Large-mouthed. or has that one cook went ou the street aud bought three soles. nieana Following the noun. ten rabbits (or. abundant. bares) aud two deer. 172. 19 Both of the child's bands are as cold IS The 4- as ice. men. to langh. : In easy yifl. houses. southern the southern street. to develop. implies that the individual is and inasmuch as is not ortlinarily applied to suggests a tinge of ridioulc. . it means south of as. means north. to rear. in Pa} kov? easy circumstances. south. The same.

5- I 2 Have Has Denoting the Material. Shani yu' The same. provisious taxes (iu gniiu.To hnsbaud : chia\ Note 10. (Sbantnug). chuel A an horn. Chung\ Hc. or of burued brick 13 The mau who cooks is called a ch'ii- 0& Denoting the Agent. in sucli words as. tarns them into descriptive ailjectives. P"i2 shu\ The sweet potato. jilniit to ntlfioate. may give him a couple of cold o ^ mH^ J sweet "potatoes.iusuch words as letter-carrier. a Note 3. eel. is the 1- business of the head of the ifamily. auj^le . book-keeper. is He 7 10 • kuife mechanics can not wear good clotlies. . (Peking):— Note 8. * 1^ % . corresponding. is not at home. a deacon: [See ^>a^ aud T. number of adjectives formed iu this way is limit- En. when added its object. fer The laro.to the EugUsli terminiitiou er. Is 4 intend to bnild your house of snu-dried brick. can not take the respousibiiity. We liau'lle of this i > 1^^^5^3|> deer horn. corrcspouding to the teriniuatiou en. otk-tenth of a dollar. 10 To lay iu grain and buy fuel.) jjtt^. fortunesh the number lu teller. something to hold by. Liang^ or ^ff H—t. to nouns of material.t us hmd of the famihj\ the iiKister ol' the house. i^'oiden. Uhuf Skxf} - (Constant.ut § >HnS li^ 3 The muleteer wants a cnmshaw. tliat ministers. Ti' kwa} The same. iadi- rates the agent. etc. . '/'""yi Pa* . 125. (Soiithuru ). To sow. purchase grain for use. 2'i-. Yon 8 There is a beggar withoot. To saperiuteud. a T" to ljro{)agatc. Persevering. Ck. ^ Kan^ ckiad\ To fullow antl drive a beast of to be a muleteer. ski** A A Hujiorintendent A handle. hain} A yam ilie sweet potato. but in Chiuese 6^ serves this purpose with entire regularity. aud gets but little ^.9 92 Tkanslation. etc. 4 I 5 6 The the chair-bearers come the letter-carrier (postman) gone oil desire that the man I hire should be able to keep accounts. Rutious grain. cumshaw To act as book-keeper. 1 - -'. to a verb and money. a corner a cape a qnjirclassifier —— Les. i«3rpctual persevering. Note . of terras so formed is limited. should do it with perseverance..Li:lish but iu Cliiiiese the usage is entirely uniform with resi:ect to all such iiouas.. —— Chiodf chiaos. Do you 12 when added We The manager 9 11 . wherever yon wish to apply it. A Chiv? ckien\ Kxmv? change bonus to au employ^. The farmer works hard. lu English the leadea. eartlieu. . wheaten. Vocabulary. Kwan^ shi^ ViP burden . Also chuny^ to .

Clouded glazd. ^ * Ch'u\ 1 exert one's self. Hwa\ Cheit^. beautiful ornate Chiim. repair. to scul fro A to strut a stage table. If g ..nrbancs It is the servant? > wrangling with the carters. servants of an officer. tell fortunes. honor. Who 20 US making that is outside? Ans.A atone.: Lesson 39. man. occupation. 19 At first sight. Fang^ wu} Houses. . Glory. Clouded C/i'a(?3 PuTi^. excellent. fine kind of glass. I am a watcli-muker. valDabLe. S^^^ — Also tan. Yii^ tiles or brick.^^^^^^^ • cook. a rank. Atteudants. Les. to build up. Unbnrnt T'u^ p^ei^ TWi*. grandenr. out. raud brick. four are business men. MANDARIN LESSONS 03 tsi\ S 15 What is your occupatiou An8. splendor. Liu^ li\ brick. excellent pearl. tea-pots are all silver-])lutefi. . hou^ . . to serve. To To - - - - to a troop: Keri^ pan^. I Shao^ liao* -.. jade. rung\ jungi 16. - . To spread to #^ and T'aP. Precious. Business. . To Swan^ iniiig^ Cka\ At first The heavenly a terra introduced into China by Buddhism. in (::ilk'd 9 underdtaud military ^ ^^^ g OS: aftuirs. buildings Ckk A tao\ street . an order a scold distribute set. the abode of the blessed Flowery. rare. for the moment. //3 To Ts'ai^ cku^ gild. . at first sight. effulgence. stone step ornamental tiles to lay brick or stoue. liard. /j"2 brick. To wait upon. diaf. to serve. p'iK Uulinrut C/ii\ s Ch'ui ^ A tsi^ A . splendor. Sh'i^ Sun-dried brick. or Glory. 140. Chn^ ^> Tobacco. To regulate. T'u^ cki\ is a most glorious place the walls of the city are of twelve kiuds of precious stones the gates are of pearl the houses and the streets are all of pure gold. ' see it is glass. fjiase. r Hsiu} . ball. and wranofle make a disUcrhance. tobacco leaves. Some of the rich have gold-plated the five brothers. W sway a peudulum. A pearl. to rinse. to —Note rich T'ien^ Vang^. I am a literary nmu and do not 16 Our 17 Of 14 ^1 ri£ and the man who waits on table a pai choa tsl ti (pai t*ai ti). . mud Suu-dried s'i^ Ts'i* Pai^. a rock shi< . xem J^s!^. elegant glorious. tai\ A tobacco pipe. to plate A to I Note 3. To wait npon. g 53^ — — To UK Heaveu 21 * A a bead fine. I took this pipe mouthpiece of yours to be jade but on 0% O if 0%^ I. |3 more looking closely. Skhiif- ^ ^ . #:^^5-1 A 18 f^^^rg fortune-teller has put up his stand at the side of the street. unexpectedly. suddenly. i^Vfi. heaven. glass.

Yte7i^ ts'ang^. bu3'ing grain. 13 sprciitls ao'i correripoinU in TTor'l "out" a m after verbs.. To srrren. same term is elsewhere used in Lhe N. iiidigo color. for deacon. way for electroplating. in a^Ulition t<) who are hired to the price agieed The idea iM.1 ^ t4 TUANSLATIOK. all. A classifier: to cover. a 7 The term h«re rendered The on". he gives a few caih for tlio party to treat himself. in fact.l As an anxiliary. is The to do duty for both. expect. in verse. a phrase. at minister. i what I say him out. ill. ) As an auxiliary. biJe from observutioa. 1J s 6 My chickeu has run out. would require aiul Mie eli. / always followed by A full but one 'lii.fl^ois it iinhbed I for me cuu not wonder it. 3 Muleteers. Kr. wliich is calleil probihly is that the employer in such cases ought to " treat. 8 There will he time euoufj. simply Kiukiang. The term is also frequently uscil hy womeu as the The Auxiliary Verbs or ensure to tlm use of tlie const niction made old is Come ont. A B(op.-! to wash up the dishes before yuu go on the street.lcd. other ill is ia used only o{ used to designate the servant who it. 7 There to f 0^ 5^ is uotliiiio: hkkleu tliat shall not be revealed. to conceal. a line Vien*. rejected from virtuous men. who has . Go out. and do triinsient jobs. are used and 16 Both terminology heiug as yet uusettled. 42. Q Sweet potatoes are of comparatively recent introducIn Peking tion into Chin".To hide. boatmen. Les. C/<ii*. --. *' mana they are called l. J . and tlieir name is not settlud. 1 Clin you niiderstand 2 You go and iu cull 3 AVill you please jmuctuate ^ o it 4 Tlie door is too uarrow be carried in. a sentence. and Come nearly . IjOuK To protrude. a small present. 5 Empty the kettle for me. but not of tlic family. i?o tlie is company of Notes. ' construed with umlerstood.os^i 9 oi: You can not get white cloth out of an indiuo oi 10 He clye pot. VoCAIiULABY. ^ a period. or liead. always. to reveal. tho To gild by tire in the is . of tlie family disability. in Shantungs they in :iiu] Hankow. to 1^ Tien^ . to .* npnn. o in. Also 1" ludigo. ' in ' 10 fij (l^ ordiniiry designation of their hu^? bands.otli in are called and (read shao) Nanking. is also nearly always followed by or and (corresponds in a measnro to the nse of the word "iii " ai'UT verbs in English. T. secret disclose. liciu-ly us much used as ." but this being inconvenient." means rather. It is not See Supplemeut. fl^f is ordinarily the but in case of Iiis death or father. The term is only used the table and waits upon connection with foreigners. 4 the cii 1 is here to be of the sentence.. another moiuber is ipp<)intcd to control tlie busiucsa This is generally tlie eUlur brother. to expose. who has charge of some special business. but freely tlmu " out " is iu it is used much more English.. .

^fj Jeng^>^. receive. crowded. 14 This little acconiifc is very simple. To him Kwei^.. Punishment Hsing'^fci^ /isi\ To S/ni^. how is it that you can not reckon tight.^er sister. Li has come. to throw away To examine.. to bear. a group. . rejoice. to fied a soldier. An army C M^n^ chiin^. going to is 20 The earnings of ten men would not be enough for you to speud. Hwoa^. be glad pleased. a snare. youn. 13 Select the good oues. To Chien^ to reject. To imitate. otk The stopper of 11 f 1 95 satis- A father's younger brother. guard at a gate. . Les. to inquire into judicially M excite doubt Note To talk. A lo A "^ in a surname. a report. to pull apart. torture inili- . … rank. . the truth. An devil. (n. to suffer Les. A A . i ping. divide. 12 Wheu you have washed the clothes you should pour out the dirty water. Also^'a^. 1 f #% s. and throw the bad ones away. castigation penal. punishment. in.. filth. . toils. ^® You had rain. boss. The soul of a dead man before it is formally eushriued or deified a ghost a clemou.^ TsiA up take in the sedan chair. MANDARIN LESSONS. facts. to choose. Moc^. To delude M2/"oW. the devil. I could uot please him. • I 15 I can not find that he has auy fault.The ShiP. Worried. a crowd. select. Small (c. Hsing^. A Chang^ a demon.s^obliu. .A PingS. to discover. -. elder sister. Lesson 40. (s. 0^ 1 SaiK this bottle is very can not pnll it oat. to To discard. „i it L 17 S ^ L A TweiK 18 It . Also cork. Snperinteudent. Sisters.) A petition. military. to contain to endure. manager.) Pa}. a conipauy compauies. not To report to a superior. law. A to scrutinize. * out. to abandon. vexed. dirty.) Ans. 21 Wu's gate-keeper is too strict. kwei to blind the to unsettle another's mind. to beguile.. . The senior .4. Geu. 79. a delnsiou. Ck'uen^ t'ao^ head-man. 16 If I should tear ont my heart and give him to eat. si**. 147. Wv?-! To delude. a cork. and To grate the better s. a placard: sordid. to befool. a . Rubbish. a devil auy monstrous thing. a file. Mei^ a Devils. to receive from heaven a petition. distiuguisb which to ^ ^§ Wu} Cka?. 7'i'ei3. Of these two 19 Mr. to or snspiciou. luvite To teeth. to tear or cut Ts? billet. foal. a writing ShouK fretful. sisters.. pick out. A writing scroll. Ta* shuK tnrinr^. a pattern 17.ch'vig^ Hwaii^ tary officer's gatekeeper. Yon will certainly not get your > classifier of stopper^ a piig Ts'w^ j is I can which. come a card. a sister mind snare.

tl the North.e. it indicates motiou back and awruj from. the son of a brother. changed "sf'(l is usi. in i. iiow the verb is left either euljject or object.." but it . r/tiao An orifice. in the uftice of head-man It really requires idea of " generally South. can always be seen from his eyes. point out the clauses. wlien lullowed by -^. iiucle. AND as an anxiliarv. 16 and often l>o. to n'mprelipiid. plan by which toils. to accuse to deny. the chililren of a family. either iu respect of time. avenne:^ the /re*/ a cavity )ty which A Lai^. you have beeu ensnared by the devil. an employe. here makes the clause The relative. "VVlieu It gen- followed motion over and towards : when indicates motion over and aiva?/ cases the original idea of motion that of change. /"2 to fHls'-Jy: nephew. the uuderstaiidiij'T. or clue. whom good men have eliminated from iheir company. In like niumicr. I can not find out wliat fault means properly. To depend upon. *7 man ' See may proverb applied to one from a vicious or tlisreputable 10 A witty saying. positively will not do auything. Vocabulary. the proprietor. to vi)]y on.. 25 If yon.e. sometimes used to mean both brotiiers and sisters i. Lai' hsae^ To play truant (e). to used ind very idiomatic way. If emphasized the ia without emphasis. The Auxiliary Verbs as an nnxiliary verb. meauing that the person referred to. a ltd it.^ 23 Witliout torturing him you will not get the truth out of him. It also j^euenilly tnkes or after it.e. expresses the idea of is. by sisters.. not mean to tal-e out the kettle. Pow ( r . that of tlio lesson. erally takes it iudiciites followed by from. it is hard to escape bis olb 01^ have a I can be sent When 22 > it r <jo out in a vor come The order is often . but is often used in It is also the singular. pretend^ to truiup up. > I 2 in. family. to ignore. to cover tlie money. petition sent in. In of any business. tlic tlio niiii'l. . but simply its contents. either of an elder or younger sister. tcassmue. does not here mean to ' lift the kettle and pan. 19 In the North. lesson is ilUistratetl hy ' 3 punctuat* - The subject of T ES • meaning would Lit. expresses the idea of turning back. . the antecedent being the clause. rauge of it a of verbs followed by each of these " Supplement. 23. is 26 over. of th' headin place of Women is \ frequently call their the head-mun of both tl»e and house. all Note 4 9 be. nse is For nioiv limited tlian tliat of full list auxiliaries see Tlie . but simply to empty it.out does the contents. A he has. tlie inind nrqnirns knowle'lgc ch'iao*. i. an aperture. is refuse. you will put ine iu a very embarrassing position. or of place. so far from being a <jood ma". In ia lost ia after or it many it. 6 24 Whether a man is pleased or not.96 Ans. hushamls 20 is tiie also heard at sea ports in is but Lea. ^ > t the is here uscl as a principal verb. When followed by it indicates motion back and tonmnh . 17 if. does not properly illustrate the subject Tliis sentence has both . So cirnwistavre 7ne (hat I can netthi ntiihtr rthraf nor adrance. both of which must be supplied from the context..

to play at. To escort for protection or honor to guard a military station an outpost. It should be Go and find a man (some one) to 0a move over this box. 4 This was borrowed 0^ . Lesson 41 97 Translation. S/"i. Dask. confused. Sliwei^ chiao\ Red. Trifl— licentious to follow lewd women. please hrinir it back M"'ain lor me. Dining-room. settle meut. to reform* Illegal. blue (of the sky or ocean) black (of coU)). Wei^. Hun^. down Kerosene. no. a parasol. Turn over aud look. . dark.^ 41^ CMngX skouK have experience of agency. 147. Coal. to set off to an ornament. to deceive. especially bard coal flap. oil.tli $^ yon school. To turn about. Les. to rise from the dead. the end of a string cite to contention Fan4 ChHng\ To yard weight. M # oil 1 . • . sort. and 1 will also return it to him. A to shift plum. 74c/"wi. to regain oue'a senses. to class with. brigands dissolute. to 3 Mei"^ yiu^ a deel- to content! for victory 'angt San^ > to transfer. Mei's steelyard weight to play with? Return it to him at ouce. This rooster is not a match for that one iij a fif^ht 6 help ^ ^ 7 oi oil 15| J 8 9 "O^L j 10 . umbrella. a casket.e^innins: marnnge engage- vice. There is no such character on this page. To revive. a small covered box. obscure. instrumentality Nod^ To move. Mei^. Uwod? yiu\ The lead. 0%| Jt- I L ^> i it is Your 3 m^o^ to fiud him and thron^rh my instrumentality. sleep. a prune A weight at Toa^. to become insensible. the be. Hwei'^ Vou\ "'3. ehore. a soaudiug Wi You ought reversed. glossy. Mei- See chioa\ marine capacions. to lead the life of a rake. to . muddied to faint. ruddy. nephew has nm away from bring hina back. t'ing^ An Chiao\ iii- Green (of grass). sea Vermilion red Chu} Sleep. To Coal Shang^ hai\ tSlianjhai. to lie soot. dissipation. to go to the sea- P'"(92. kind. a To adorn. a surname. Tofight . profligates. the unconsciousness of sleep. Lei^ The head. Is it n'f^ht (proper) for yon to take Mr.'iti to learn (Jhinese very hard to get the cine. Shou\ foremost. chest. Tin Hung\ a surname. -- S)i\ jcwetr^/. To 0MSu^ hsingK revive to come to life again. _ Please correct this erroneous char- 2 When acter. A classifier ornament. to gloss over chief A Hsia?.MANDARIN LESSONS. a local name for Tientsin. kerosene. not so. I fiery. When my watch is repaired. a Species. 5 This end does not fit. OS- IffiJ first be. a coffer. Head ornaments. To Yagabouds. seditious robbers. Diuing-hall. vicious. sleep.

tsinese. has nothing to do in'fh hucK rictus (Iff 1)1 ut tony. supposing. 20 These ten boxes of kerosene oil were seut from Siuiu.'"" atid fjnmbling.'m"i'oi/. 12 Mrs. tli. we must get hack again to-day. t. ia Tit transposition. and avoids every form of dissipation and > ]M*ofli^acy. druid-inwsH^ Z. He talked the business over and over. J| ^ mid i. Snu is iu tho diniug-room go 11 1 ' her over. thir fltr«H3 naturally falls on jft Thu firnl mcana the second xnuana eiinply to in the Bocond. but were sent back [with a refusal].u> an'l (S tion with "mc M tti on thn word W hring li'aisoH." in that I have already t Z h"rc the advanta<jc of you when one liiippeiis on aUn uscti others while eatinj. are slang.it tlio propnsiil m hs and were sent buck again crestfaiU ii. or Assuming. Iwr coming. or not. Would it not do for you to move over here Have you eaten? A?is. is nlw»ya In thia neccasai'v tu the scltluiiu'nt <»f a nianiugo conLuicl. opifiioMr "< cx. 2 It is & traditional idea that the mind receives knowledge through a perl urea iu the htart. that so the light may tiud due a man has. The folks of the south village brought a box of jewelry to settle the betrothal. 23 • And 'J'luH in nnd are ft all inchulod in tho ttTiii ' pithy fling at the pi'oplo of TionUin. I am no match for him.>ru« a nothiuy Co the point cx* ilccision. ( 'i. 17 A present of jewelry to the bride elect. Dfrtjninga frcotl of oUstruction.t^hai by mistake. Notes.e..HS 13 i 5^ il > 15 16 olo J^oil^ 4 01 14 ii 17 1- 0y definite opiuion. god of wealth) was reported to have had Kt-von Buch apertures in his heart. it ffilU h«r ovtr [by inviting] dining-room. the quicker as the (fi>fW cdiioiiizod . he was very seriously ill. turned in the right direction. and. an hero used.. t'tc. Cha 21 fainted. and tlie tyrant is to havo these his huart cut out to ace if it was so. and the more of these apertures is his power of apprehension. which w lionnos h(xvc is uUu u&ud |J£ in colloquial invite hereto come overt of the pn rty inviting. and the word "partake.98 With such a tongue as his. mast send them back I -4- Senior has now reformed. and it was a long time before he revived ai^iiiu. 4]n t?a. thus aaimtling the light which is to have these openings ffWen knowlofJgo. or iiliout to oat. as ia iiuiiBatisfactory cated by the use of 13 bhte./"fp- .S K ' ttrniioo.li< fia \\ onl ill: ". 23 Ten oily-mouthed Pekingese can not get ahead of one tongny Tieu- 22 Thiit 51-- iiiij^ht He " Loi ni- 1M agaiii. is in somo places quite in others it lias sonietbing of the statulincsa of as here used for 15 colloquial.. There is no place there to sleep. case thn friends of I ho intcndod krrocjin wvwi wiih t lie prt-sentB in (hio form. I have. after all. Yua had better take it back again.r--i^n S ' no (5 ' ia iiot'prooiHoIy tbo fiTHt. . 11 Tl'' more usual form ." «ro only usotl in connec- ^ft J" thu ** flietinctivc eatiiifj. "When you go over yoa can take aloa^ his umbrella. r"l hlark or 2Jref<scd \0. at Uto closo of this sentence might be omitted 10 The ithuut detriment. being no concern «o ilf finite. What they took from us.tj^ > id 18 £ S oji R - ^ 19 This broom is one you brought over from the side house. These terms are linked to^i'thcr us a coniproliciihivc summary PS 21 of dissipation. ^| . expressed uo auti invite . f'.

a chart. diagram. vigoroaa excellent. to lease. o 99 Translation. platter. See Sub. records. A very good-looking book what a pity it is torn When you are ont to-day. t'uK A geographical map. copy-book. A T'u^. -. For a large or plain surface. jTsi* J/g2'* . iug paper. a map to plan. A ng^ phi^ S I* -. Bright. of things in suits.. tilings for the scholars. the u umber of volnineH. biiid into a book.. person should have at least two suits of clothes iu order to change 3 oil me.cine or ink. and sticks of ink. classifier of root. - 2V . as i. ^ An classifier of pieces of silver ingot. it did not occur to me for half a day what he meant. a p7^ece(ient. to aspire after. irrespective of classifier of wrapper.I Lesson oil • MANDARIN LESSONS. black writings. A kind of heavy brown writ-. Peace nj ]he .e. The same.. The A The wholes. to manage. sentence. of make anothercopy-book 1 Please 2 When you hny for yon should keep the accouut 4 si a 4^ > 5 ^ ^ OSJ 6 a I |g 7 8 I OAr iu separate book. an --ordinance. Also ting\ A Tien^. I have a friend who made me a )>resent of two maps. glorions. . pSn^ 1 . or sets. emperor Kanghi: Note 3. To extend. a law.. nouns which take these several Supplement* lull list of classifiers see VOOABULABV. ^^ojll 0^ ^ 10 Wlien he made that remark. a radical a tribunal a Board.. That Kaiii^hi's dictionary of mine is in six Vao. 42. and dfty sheets of mao-pien paper. . A dictionary. row. . A A books considered as treatises. classifier of clauses auJ seu- tenct^s. To . two sticks of itik. a stick of mediSee Sub. A 9 for washiii"r. au ingot. canon a statute or code. to wish for. • A • r . classifier of tilings in rows. buy for nie ten pens. to plot. a reference. a 4- class or division. A volumes of a book. dark. works or things presenting classifier of reed. The snm. Ink. [for me Will yon please explain this sentence Do you and he go aud carry up that bedstead. a section. tien\ modK- - - Mad^ pie?i}. 11 The Oue Thousand Character Classic iio- > XIESSOI]^ XXj Classifiers. to mortgage. harmouions. classifier of sura. classifier of book covers and long tubular things.

( A an^ A CAou}. Firm. 16 I wonder who borrowed that old astronomy of mine.^ Ji ii OS- M ?E 1! *0| . a cushion. material. $i 7V2 Gong. I only wish to speak a few words. rale for me a ^S-tsi witli eight characters ia each column. 'hemistry. of state. 20 This table is not steady.j . Hsiany^ kung^. (Hstrict larger Snchow. to enconrage. to penetrate to pay A Hwa}* Shi'O- S Thg4 The science A iu or re- A . a case in law. Form. 12 This book of Natural Philosophy priuteJ from wooden blocks. has one landscape painting worth twenty tads. the records of a case. alter to transform. to trausmutu. constant or set fS'Wr (r^n> (any* duwD . secure. to melt. to wedge up. Win^. Find somethiug to prop it np. Congee. J ojls l„fg R 1 Ma 13 Mr. ia tkc aon of a uu actor. to aronso. . to btrangle. a region. 0|> ^oi E > is 22 1 want you To CJtiang^ ChiangX. gong. nsed ae an Glazed crockery. to make good. 15 Please. China-ware. ceive. to give table. to starch. a drum. literary as of prayer. secure. stride civil. classifier. 18 Please put that book in the tao for me. than a hsien Capital of Kiangsu Province. a form. starch. stable.t : of form. to prints to gentleman Lt^. body A An^. A7" wu^. To ////. to shore np. to swell to warp. A ^^^ Character Classic. 17 It will not require long.. to progress. To look Astrology astronomy. drum. ter at a con- to procfiioaticato. leiK manner. form to. species of thyme. To ^\] Hsian' rein to rcHtraiii iii T'i(*rt} it! 4V -. similar. 19 That little scholar Li T4en Pao is certainly gii'ted. for style. (o decompose. The One Thonsand Ch'ien} tsi^ win^. teacher. book- metry. Lines. TienK Also chiang^. 7"*. t" iuflnence. Lo'' A TTmS. etc. Les. 125. ffsirtgS. sjrup. tuke un irapressioQ of. me two iron. ornamental. physics. shape. to exact unjustly. to put rcposo. To wash and Chiang^ hsi\ figure. geo- bench. ^fc mi seal. w6n^. Hsiny^ hsUe\ Wen^. broth. which ^ . variegated elegant scholarly. a stamp. A l. tiuent. To To scrntinize the nature of things uatural science. n form. 21 It requires seventy-five cents to purchase a geometry. He can commit to raemory ninety lines ia one day. veins make to To advance money. study table. a minis- A minister of state (aacient) iu to ride. iircotnpaniineiit in sitiLjing or acting.. a stool. pas. to bulge. Stm(lij Hafe. .. 100 has just lines ia two hundred and fifty it. enter. Peking. au affair. • Also haiang^. cymbals.a* hsue^. to seal. iucorae. an official desk. starch. 14 Yon should fiud some one to make a tao for this chemistry.

. Hsie^. Grief. is added to distinguish this style of printing with moveable types. Yao^ A tale. corrupt. Yiy}. to evade to let off. gt-iieral use tlie is so called because made in the and by the order. 3 Till' last time I weut to Sachow hniiiriit for Mr. melancholy. to put after. With a negative it strongly reverses It is not infrequently inserted bethese ideas. or hoard. Notes. a false report. Go out to-day and buy me ten pe^is. <^ostin(j^ two tlionsaud two 11^ . which are called type plate is a stereotype is a ji H^ and th7'ce (21) are f'hree pS". of six or eight volumes each. which has 19 not been previously seen. The use 1 of the classifier Those who decline to drop the classifier causes the dropping of the which second character of is the more final . low-spirited. engraved with characters for print—. XiESSOIsT . corrupting. a wooden block.)AraN LKSSOXS.p - 101 MAN. arranged in two h umlred and fifty nieasiirus of four each. to dissipate. one of its more is a common term in the books which are introductory or elementary.To thirst. to explain. The Auxiliary Verb as au auxiliary verb. it is often heard tai. which case it adds to the force of the affirmation: Compare Les. magical. is incorrect. Vocabulary. to dispel. the second and most illustrious emperor of the present dynasty. of the Emperor Kanghi. 9 lu Peking. tween the principal verb and another auxiliary. with very little. demoniacal Men3. and the dollars were chopped into sectors and from and used instead this came the term now means a dime or 10 cent piece. to forgive. expresses completion under the aspect of practicability. evil. anxiety Ckie\ To open to nntie. 3 Kanghi's dictionary 10 term. -… - release. are usually put up in are iiiserteil to indicate that the two 6 The words a thing. depraved. six benches one cane bedstead. similar. costin.^ and liniuired fi f'ty cash for each ii est. which titles of 17 is to coininon characters. a singular inversion of the natural order. is from that . to long for. also sometimes used in the same . Ihe Chinese usually pile them on long tables at the side of the room. recent. 21 When dollars were first used in China. there were do fractional coins. A-r electror\. sorrow. a rumor. 22 Instead of putting their books in . the sound of The term is to starch but read in the 4th tone it to starch. . An $^ . Waiif^ the Tliird a set t:il)les. 11 The book called general above. & md of bniss niiisical iustruineuts. Which meaning "'as intended would depend wholly on the pauses made and inflection used. ire necessary in order to f They might. change of meaning. hauiitecL to escape from. is generally written for * When doubtless the proper term is means starch. or learned. mourning. in propriety. fo extricate. ' names given by foreigners. one round table. To amid . Deflected from the right. XL - . 12 special '' apprehend. Near. however. In speaking. A book. and two upsts of stone-ware basins. A Large works is a number of volumes enclosed in one case. or Jive clauses of wo7-ds. heretical. 31. being Where hard soft. Bounds are used. to approach. or portion of a book. Lesson 43. reign. which bo«k-cases. no character being repuated. feasibility or {s consists of one thousand entering the door. which is simply a corrupt pronnnciatiou. if any. are to form the pair which here means meanings.u: thir-teen thousjind four bnudred cjisli.: Chin\ - . soon. be omitted without damage to the sentence. 6 The first clause a rhetorical inversion for - by which streas is thrown on the 7 The sentence might also be rendered. etc. is sometimes substituted for it. or (wo ciawits^ way. to Also chieK - K'e\ :. to excuse. and in the 1st torn'.

Je?i^ lun-. " Damp. to conceal reflect on to limit. becoming auy law of the land pnniehmcnt sMn^. to dnce. Les.. Water at a distance will iKit qnench (save from) tiiirst near at hand. Also shi^. She\ To lodge. iii- a tent. you are not then to be blamed for ir. humid. a hamlet. viz. tiiuc of mouruiug. need not fear the force of a strong wind. Chiefang Hsiao*.. Fang\ deceive. . damp.02 Translation. neighbors. to.i^ry. Demons and ^rocls order. - small sore. a neighborhood. CAi*. to excite. Statute law. surmise. He who stands firmly on his feet. Those are all flying rumors uq wort by [purpose. If you did not know. You provoked him. a stable. 4j[]] ^ cause Flcatcn (personified). Duty.. class. iK'ity. a dwelling. brass. An alley. my. a neighborhood. 2 Do not be deceived by brother and and father wife. the Same Tsa^ Iwan^ sure enough. Chiao hwn} as oblii^at ion Intoxicated. ^ ^ Kwe? A Wang^fa^.. to stir rp. I never. 32.. the . soaked SAi^ Lun^. Neii^hbors. hns- Tlie five relations. stories. it is no wonder you have the itch. No wonder he [caught fire. Wliiit shall we do? the stable has 6 Hi si oil 0% 11 12 ^ 0% it . got an. and officer. To doubt. contiguous. This mode of speech will answer the With such a damp house as this. tlie to assist. su- To provoke. a cottage. the gods. A hoodwiuk stupefied. Copper. Snspicion. . a neighbor. to hesitate. to patrouize.* an honorary portal a factory. right conduct. God. AV. friend iind t'rieud. a platoon. ships. parents ami seuiflvs. JP. Yuu may evade the law. a shed. species. invariable. Liiml son. but you can not escape the gods.. Kwai^pu^ eS\ No wonder. 3 RestrainiaiT momentary anger may save a hnudreti yi^ars of sorrow..oi! 13 Vao^ yien\ False reports. ^ Man^. natural relation' Refjiilar. drunk S?^ Tswei*. and priuce brother. well ---' ^ Chie*.. to things statiou. neighbor. Lin\ civilization. To T . of belief. r ""y. moist. To attend J' Shang^ . .. That house 1 oSl ¥ m > „> > ofj S ^ 7 o Hi 8 9 10 0^ > is uot worth while trespasi^ins: on your time with this trifliug a ft air. peruaturul beiugs iu geueral. humid. the truth. outward his 4 It 5 > not is [docility. to control hindt^r to to test. Wet. Pin^ /en\ itch. ii'v}. regard . to to do. i$iol6 5§ h40^ bauuted and is habitable. to Near. to To povern. P*^^ A slio<l. /" to Hsien^ P. Ihitif to . f& damp. the powers abuve. moaro iug upparol. flying rumors^ alarming The rh'acP- tide. to bring apou. Education.

One can not stop to guard against suspicion. and so render. nor the coiuiterfeit. 10 ^ is the general and proper term for itch. He will not behave himself. 18 I have aa old brass tea-pot. nature. I jj- Dutiful to parent?. is As a comprehensive a class. . to expect. the yonngest dan<^hter-in-law. drop. regular coUoquial form wo»l(i he. it claya the and good. It properly expresses the idea that matters are beyond all remedy. in that case. . of any kind. howhnoioingj is a thing you are not to be blamed for. 9 Note how each of which ad \a to and modities the force of the principal If the jS. Jung^ yao^ to long for. It might seem most natural to make it stand fur the first clause. to pursue. nnder her control.long hope is an'l not.. 4 5 lit QiOS- o JK ^ o i 0 & o| 0^^. and evil* are As a are superior. glory. This use of the word is the only meauH that Cbiueae colloquial has of expressing peraon- 17 The use is aJity. being subetittited for it. 88. which properly means a boil. as a philosophical terra in Chinese cosmogony and metapliysica. inferior. referring to her being recently married and young.^1^ * of ^ w Lof45 sl-oi- y 6 o gov . A canonized - becomes a The attendants messengers of the are Used impersonally. 25 I have been so poor these two years. clftcoiBcation of uU The term spiritual beings. but in . here takes three auxiiiary verbs after it.e. used when any13 thing disastrous or alarming suddenly occurs. but is oft on used as a mere exaggeration. Vocab. Yhitr 7i"t This. ever. for. Splendor.^//a^. The business is urgent. It will not do to trust to his appearance of docility. to form a conjuncmay be regarded as combining with meaning. : 14 Thia night also simply mean a young daughter-in-law. The translation given combines these views. 21 Tiie human relations mast not be confused. viewed from the spiritual side.^ ^ i Hsiao^ shun*. shows that regarded as personal. [not nsablp. n'ere dropped out. sentence is from the Sacred Edict. exercise authority. This fajiguage is admissible. genaine. - • 20 The geuniue can not be made counter feit. ^ien^ To P'an^ wang\ . To follow after. it refers to the (supposed) inferior and superior powers of — referred to. that I really have no way of living. 5 > 103 for.R * Lesson MANDARIN LESSONS. B To F'an^. honor. 22 That man is not fit to be naed. B A proverbial couplet in rhyme.hing is 9 Rl- NT She 16 Educatiou is most essential. the South it is rr-rely used. - look towards To illumine. 43. the translation should vsrb. or. 23 Will you allow me to speak a few words with you 24 Every one. tive miverb. a man ff^ 1. The addition of a at the end serves still further to strengthen the expression See Les. A common saying in the mouths of those who would H exhort people to virtue. men): you can not deceive God (or. . then. in the first clause. is not the correct sense. what you ham done. may 6 here be regarded aa standing for the matter and be rendered it. to Chivai\ effulgence. b«. to cast aside. 3 A proverb somewhat Wen-li in style. when he is first born. the gods). the unoaaonixed. is dependent every inomeut on hia father and mother. 17 You may ciefrand others: you can not (iefrund Heaven. 2 More literally. but it ia Yuii may deceive man (or. look Jqt to . 16 The is transposed for rhetorical reasons. i. splendcr. To throw away. subject to authority. are canonired. to Also yie\ NoTBS. He ia contianally getting drnnk. or Bore. The The of glf A. 26 In looking out for himself. charac- is «i common exclamation. and terize these same powers from the physical side.

and rcferrinf^" to past time. however. coupled with a concessidu sometimes havin». contrary to the usual custom >vith the term When thert. as it is often Teachers say that its Pekingese.e wot verb into the passive form. but.ei"g found in Northern. he it. (I) (14). or states a consequeuce. mean and . 4 Before an active verb. in the plural be understood as using ho would be understood as using it in the singular. peculiar meaning in this connection comes from the custom of bat. etc" but is oft en untrans(18) C-39).g 104 m nst 0% ^ tlie bounds be seen. luanagcmcnt marks au accoujplislied . additioual force and perspicuity. . is are not re33 The son nil and uieauing here given to cognized by the dictionaries. ' fled.suijortlitiate clause it draws a conolusioii.^ 30 We 31 Look at cau he * 3 +1^ np n How man. nudutitul . ] 3) as a of the imtuediute future. 11 variety of other uses. The word is very widely used. to 2. the forco of such phrases as. write The form ^ or. . thaCs sOy all rigkt so See Les. It is latable.)(. Here. but soincltow. have beeii ucig-libors for over ten years. meaning to approach. J t has. etc. of which the followfiii^n deretl. 27 My writiui^ is too poor it really is uot 28 Yon can do uotliiug at all to me. thus turning the used indefmitcly: Les. 32 I uikI c 33 The W2« the briiii^ was pnrsuiug dropped the goods aud thief.?liiiig offenders beyond the borders. seeing that I him hotlv. aud now thai. a tlilFerence of opinion as t(' tlie proper writing. (28). (2) laa. . and this character is established as the juost suitable writing.2:(-io(l sou am uovv luokiug for g'lory ou high. is 1. eten^ even /. The the oliject. It is 27 logical sul'ject 28 but . l:. ing (1) At the (3) At (4) As a openini:^ of a sentence it means.il form leaves till sucli ilistinctions to be.iG). 3. priving' the idea of. so I will. . aud has also been several times used. it. 70. so. 22 lS is here somewhat redundant. The want of a plur. Teady satis/actonj. iniqht as well. nieaDing. an approximate classificatiou It is nso'l as a principal verb. Central and Southern Mandarin. is cnrriiii^ orK of tl»e most important and ever rcclmracters in collixjuiul 'M:i.^^ keep within still of reason. (4) (11). it means. inferred from the circumstances or connection. it "ie!ins/«s thc7i. being put for are used together. and may be reu- lias fdretul'v been illustrated (Les.. 52. accommodate ones self to. you cau ^ o| . etc. on viz.at once.i.i^et 0. is The first expresses necessity. they generally kbove and bolow. to fake advantage oJ\ to be rmdy. 29 If you ^j^o with some speeJ. (5) (13). added as an auxiliary to a few verbs. spoken. . my heart is filled with joy inexpressible. Fewer mistakes are made in consequence than one would be ready to sappose. 19 If the speaker were a polytheist. at ome. attaches to made is ] to he seen hy men. is Some would added to give la some places the accent in 26 t . yon are going away I iini very lotli to give yon np. thrown and [Jit is This phrase seems to be quite tHtng hsing. forms the much used phrase Join-'*! Willi wliicli has a variety of uses uot easy to ciuo&iiy: the end of a sentence it marks a decision. ia used as a principal verb. (ir. (8)(G). reply. however.iid:irin ami its skillful ' sneaker. he would of course but if a inonotheist. '^Hi to back in two <luys.

£ L Lesson WANDARTN. [would. S ^ g of | 1 Even 2 I if yon do get angry. Kcng^ ^ To Chien^ King^ tie\ alter. 149. It:^ No 8 % Nausea. and ill every thiag willing to make allowance for people. to treat scoruf'ally. See tmA to be willing. regard. . to act superciliously.or must in be. but somehow he can not express himself. ••to make allowance for. o g . matter whether When 9 1^ o little not. favor Mia(A to condesceyid.LESSONS. To wish. i\ [^ o"3. imprndent.veryqnick. he does very rapidly. --. to To show contempt. . yoii eliould make s<mie allowance. . very rapid. shift. Flexible. To warm. Also t'n^ lie way [with tlie be]. In favor.^ i§ will 3 Yon ought to do just as yon said you 4 Wliatever he does. See sao\ A broom of coarse grass. Slii^ To inspect. • Mao^ 5 is Even Nauseated. or bamboo : the sao* chou^ plant. Les. Sao^ fool-hanly./heng is mild ami peaceable. pliant soft mild. to make best of. to spit oat. To select. the trouble is. to make the A in luck. teuce. 59. Fhig^k --. coarse broom. A card containing the horoscope of a betrothed persou. 11 He aucli:*rstands it. precipitate. to tolerate. Mi of I man a powers 10 L water. Sao^ Rash. To stoop. a to desire vow. 1^ ci i^. . 44. gentle complaisant. . cliou^. to disdain. willing. Ckeng^. Willing. it Mild. a votive offering: Les. Chiu^fuS. age. . vomit. whatever he says is tliat 'ing^ Also the law. a flat iu music. oS< ^ exceedin^rly nauseated. amiable. …Yuen\ '^^ Chiang chm\ ^ JouK . shi}. no good. Yuen'^ To pnt up with. To to bow down. - . this is 0^ a he saw the business was going wrmi^ lie left without ccremouy. To vomit. a card. to look at. gentle. years. Quick astbewiud. 13 I will take arlvautnge of yonr broom to sweep be lore iny door also. Te^ shi^ to steam. . agreed. to abridge. 105 Translation. See # hsin^ 4^ P > ^ > £3 jh T'u4. is Peaceable. (. to bestow. --- Whi^ jou} iz3. bnt someliow I can not vomit. To Oui i\ also wit\ can't translate this sen- if yon are not willino: [to this arranu^emeut]. meek. he is too precipitate. o 11^0^ Gli- do am 5 . When 6 When 7 Somehow yoii take out the rice. To accommodate to. to ex- press conteynpt in the looks: small. 12 Mr.^ it slight. Serious a surname. you can take advautage of tlie hot kettle to warm . to look down apon.

while one's the same V@'/^ is in. I mean to I . Thon<^Iifc. to exaggerate. 25 Is the rice (food) ready A/iS. To 4l tion Rf J ri* /i'ou^ tvii^ be bilcut. eii^lit linndred casli per foot is a hi^-h price for T'ieu Hsiang*s broatlolotli yet for some [roiuly. is already settled.S . GK Bmaildotli:— Note 24. a second time. to clone a door hiy up. ijolhiug to say. to return. to stop up. The Chinese C/ri*. Monrnfiil. /''3 fa\ 1.*^ Ts'u} ts'ao^ ill and forth to change the mim!.) needle. to brag. 1 can wash them for yoa just as well as uot. It is 1-0% ois 1^-1 rf » A Afei" chien^ at time. idea. t(> rcflcer.\t the Moan. Ilsiang-. to oxcluJe. 18 /jg. Ijjfj Pi*. inferior. la} To thread a Jr//-* ( l. 24 As I look at it. that on tlie sixth of this mouth the betrothal pa[)erd are to be esclumgeil. yie?t\ To sliut the mouth aud opinion infeiito consider. u?iwor/onanlike. . autl sluit his luoutii so completely that he h:id uot a word to say. if 0^^^1^0% K S 21 I 2 22 The feast is quite ready but when I weut to invite him. The Aualects foot often ts^un*. a final particle: Also K'q} la} viz. npin-olioiisive. J"K A //. 19 I settled it definitely with him. a banquet. a table. happiness a favorable oineu from the gods. 23 She can still do coarse sewiiiij. reason he will not sell. reply to restore. Menciua. noe. 17 Even if they take my life. The trouble is she can not thread her 2 Mol^i^ £• g nl„- needle. feast. How is it that he has cluiuu.. valno. Good luck. for some reasou he would not come. an entertainmpM. Tli(> You need 0^ I . K'w:i} hai^ k'ou\ 6V Tlie shuy (tf I'ra^r. Along with. C/'. The same. C/nu^/ist\. To talk Les. 106 14 I do not care if he does treat mc with couterap*. to obstruct. to nhnt. |^ The Works of 1^ ^ (I 7W Coarse. We'll see where it finally will turn up. "While I aiu at it.Vs/w"3. Price. [go aud see him. Eveu he is brii^ht. to go back on one's seH'.•>'/- betrotlial card. Rude. Four Books Til*' Dortriiie To (\vo'. rude. fast. do you thiuk he coukl comiuit the whole of the Four Books in halt" a year jnst took np his owu words. to boast extravagantly. Lcuruiii^'. tHH. to mat. fja Ts'acA Biiclc To Imast. 51^.'*cl his raiiid simply talkiug^ largo. gramlchilJreu. 15 It m IgwI^O * 16 I cau not find this tliitij^ anywhere. La}. aad Ch'oit^ - Children 'iud .-- hand A^^ain. 1 I m 20 He was not corae to wash them.

! put 20 S§ implies that the owner of the broom had just finished sweeping before his own door. 6 took up his legs and left /—a meaning that he left suddenly and without sometimes shortened into colloquial phrase." Nanking. 117 l"s (or her) birth Note 31. is the common. i& 2 properly means a icicl-ed but heart. and yonr cliihlreti and ^ OIJ y 1^ h:0^ W > E> . but not us in the 19th sentence. The exchanging of these cards by the hands of the go-betweens ment. to invite tlie guests a second time. The 8**cond part of tlie sentence is only intuUigiiile in view of the Chinese custom of seudiug round.e. 27 was ijot raised on your rico: you have no rig. 30 Yon have no auxiety about food or clothing:. 13 This sentence The use is the pecuHcu'ities adapt or accommodate In many of one' ft self to becomes places an indirect apology for taking the of 15 • The use of points to the 6th of is a folded card of red paper. 2G The price I have settled with him at two hundred and sixty cash per c titty. as the The iige of the party is given by means of the case may be. wlucli the tr. is probably the result of an attempt to say is very various. lie (lo('3 not change. See Lea. here repented. Thus nsed. and is used for the is another name for the same. Wheu emphasis is desired it is always inserted. but does not generally contain the eight or agt characters. natural order. Au is onler to give first in P The it. is very signiticaut. month. livinj tbrifty. day. 22 The 24 "cloth. the second a verb. iul<liUu"J L-niphasis. is not entire! 5' "itvg hvinf/ it 19 means (0 the point of pcr/n-t readinr.B > MANDARIN LESSONS. 29 Nor am I willing to k rep cousbuitly scolding. With the . . which is joined with all the classifiers. The is g are not precisely equivalent. 6 and favor ' and 12 to tolerate is . eight characters. and the often inserted between the classifier.. so that his advice prevails and he can get wli. and hour of hence the name. ally. as "which" does in English.uislatioii fails to make a dissipated. If you iiisnit me. brays with a month like the sea. as here used. or it may . I will just (liscluir<^e hiiii.itever he wit^ln s. the other include the wholt iiRal. first is fill adverb. Kxime purpose. htj will not coustrain ns to stay and if it does Dot suit his wishes. others while the peculiarities is to of others. tive. is put tigiiraLively tor nausea. '28 If it does not suit our wishes. It is notice.. and properly belongs there in all cases. is not always strictly interrogabat passes into the declarative form in the same way. 30 of giving is may is to rvfer to rice specific- an inversion of the more emphaeia to the words know Pekingese. Notes. If. The ( is - •). broom. is here applied to one who is in the confidence of a superior. two are Central and Southern. The on which is written the proposal. 1 have a right to whip yon. Of course not. Ans. the vurreni month. age card. . aud very much in the same circumstances.him. 25 Of the three forms given. shall we insist on stayinij A)is. is very different from that* 21 is The required here. for the purpose they are not lazy or and Classifibrs. after all. when the feast is all ready. constitutes the marriage engage- a similar paper. marking the year. 1- ^ 107 ss^ol m graudchildreii are all (loitig well it st'emsto me von ouirht to be sritisfied.KS. and differs slightly in The order of tlie last clause would meaning from more legnlarly be.lit to whip me. make allowance for or here expresses the apeakec's impatience with a 10 peculiar elegance uad force. and in fact tlie fact that only. but diligent i. . or its acceptance. colloquial term for a feust. Lesson 45. made and . In Tlie pronunciation of cloth is called ha la. em pliasia there required.

^ (jkuen 11:. a surname. /V praise. infreqneiit. Rare. Seo chmg^. a prison.. a kind. a fold. discriminate. H 108 ^ II Translation. feast. 5 Jast nse whichever t'ao ^1. Shoi& enclosure. resolnte. to boast. The grape. To P'u^ nn lined garment —— coat. A LdoS ku\' The 2 Chung\ to prize. tltoang^ ya? ts^at* ink stone.^ht in. . to praise. Vie^ shou* ^ fierce. . begimiiii^'. < Fierce cruel. brutal. Rare. nearly sound dictiouary. . . An Yien^ t'ai ^ rf? To be pleased with K'an^ chiingK Chiang^. . a sort. to criticize. almost. ragiug. J'icrce. to ^^ A Tsi^ kwei^* JLUK jian^ Rare. of a dy- To go To attend a hs? Tsoa^ hsi\ Used To at a sit feast. 57. is ^o.C/iing^. Au . to eulogize. a beast. in a series vocabulary. to brag. Fu*. to fkLes. seldom. i@ £ ^ Who Who 4 Yoa 1 is man by birth a bad kuows which inkstand is bis 3 Which of these four pups do yon 5. bravo. Cabbage. which is better the know which one 9 I really do not is these three chairs Which volume 10 of of is his. wild boast. is sewing of these two large gowns. liqld in. ferocious. . a sprout. seldom. natural philo- t!ie sophy are you now studying Vocabulary. The /7"3.. to go to a feast To dispute. commonly called "date" iu Chiua. to land to prefer. 1 15. V 1^ uncommon. TmdK The buckthorn or jnjnhe. To exhort. A bear. unexpcctodly : Los savage. . tiger. Inhnnimi. IJ\vei\ lei^ argue. to debate. to To (grape). to expect. The vine T'acT- attend. . to deli'. . the f^cc chhip*. tiger. to commend. A LIsiung\ Jl^ Mi'vg^. siid- deiily. ch'il*'n. germ.. au abridged lion. to encourage.i ^ 0|1 0% IGi lew that you have is it come to invite to the feast 8 Examine these pens and see which oig ^ suitable. severe. 6 Of 7 Which gentleman lioi „^0 yonrs. to to. scarce.}:^ prefer " H^y 01 2 8»y you want to find a man by the name of Ch'ia but which of +>1^^ the Chains . sparse. a 8iinn\ . to sort. Pien^ lunK for its 1 class. cruel Jlerce. Ch'in\ An Shan^. The discnss. hasten. A seed. An name ancient kiu«^dom uasty. to to repair to. shirt or jacket. grapes. K'wa} chianf.The A I'ai^ ts'ai* See first (month).. crnel. wild animal. Cabbu^fc.

58. 20 ia Southern is uuiversally used in i XXAT The Compound Relative. the meaning would [because] be indicated by the emphasis. every word he said was interesting.ESSOI<r 13 . this sentence would more nat1 If the urally lie taken to mean. even without the . its Lit. 20 Here are hoik grapes and dates. IVho wozdd have thought *( f That ink^land was his! As spoken. a whcU that. tive sentence in tliis is here used somewhat as we use ('one. Every interroga- and if the leason might end with a language were regular and consistent witii itself. NOTBS. would do so. as written. coraponud relative pronoau who. is this IS Both ends of this load of cabbage are .. That small- est on 0. The thirteeuth. It niiglit bo translated just as truly. p 11 Lit. [As] I heard his words. Which would you prefer to eat There are two dictionaries iu the 2 book-store one uew one. LkSSON 46. you didike which piece : .e:ood. the North. 11 109 Which of these pieces of silver is it with the quality of which you ar ti # dissatisfied >!| 12 ~&- the two whom yon have heani debate.. . or replaced by . -'j^-a X. which do you think is in the rig] it Of - my 13 To 055^|>|. 9 Note how far the auxiliary is separated from and from the principal verb. want 19 Which is the scholar yon are al ways bragging about? Ans. Which end do you 1 7 to lie siieeploM and h>( dress whichever one is fat." 4 Tbe first meaning a man named so-and-so. place. These \_pi€. Its meaning. A which. touch is not full. 14 Just ride wbichever horse you ^ like best. ears. Which do you wisli to buy 22 The lion. 6 The Chinese here makes the comparison by simply askini^ which is good See Les. 1 of 5 Which of those three pichires do yoa prize the most (prefer) 4 10 Go 17 What day "^ > IHI!^ unU I of the first mouth Ans. The sentences are jusL as the Chinese teachers have made them. The two meanings might of course be distinguished by cureful emphasis. 2 PerBpicuity wouM seem to require 5^ at the end of this sentence. As it is some do. i. " That man ivas by birth a wicked man. the tiger aud the bear all „^_0|1 I K_05- 5 1^0 1 1 0|! 8 these three kiuds of wild beasts are very fierce. and some do not. the things The clause it introduces usually comes nieaiiing between the subject and the predicate. no matter tokick. The use of implies that there had been some misiuulerstaucling about the person. aud iu Iti other cases the such cases ends with sometimes omitted. all is - .ce^ of] sitvev. and one secoiid-haud. that which. is entirely uncertain.t g MANDARIN LESSONS. all were interesting. were omitted.

plan. to To place P'ai-. to trouble. a pattern. to distribute. 12 Is tiiis your little sou that yon spoke of? 1 3 He did not examiue me on any thing that I had prepared. procedure. Troublesome. fVct. 'u'^ c/i off. 125. cliisitier: To read aloud T'(}. < . is iiad their observation. boll add Lo. ^ Ch^eng^. trne. A statemcut. . strung*'.= ol ^ have furgotteu I 1 2 Every tU'm<x that he says 3 oisl books the all I Btndied. is What you have meutioued already I kuew. iarge. Also fou\ sttiibj. Chai^ Experience. (•/"• the iirh^. wanting. Lo ussigia.. a few. to worry.^ he should not is he tells ^5.J 110 •J Translation. 11 of y tliat is was bnt remember I if is it o% if ine I learned what ^ i^Qf snrprises his lies with such proficieucy. a stage. statntes. U turn Prattle. To be Ch'ien^. Yon have eaten more has has experieuce little than he has salt n'co. read carefully. to estimate. A Also into owe. to pro^ posc to plan. to drill. 10 This id soraetliinc^ that Wliy do attend to. To arrange.alocality. a section. sell oft' all euoagh aucl littlo. icidt^. wondorfnl h'-p. To sell money. to to To experiraent on Lien*. liberal. to dispose. J^o'r Remarkable. an essay a chapter. I fear. tittle. Ji . to to train.… C/i'tien-. 10 nr. C//ien* wen'K Kwant/.icl p'ai'^.. surprising. YOCABULART. embarrassing. jiay to debts he owes. nhnormnl. . policy. ^ men 4 The expt^rience of old ii? i^^^s- large. C/i'i^ . an obligation. " just 1 ent ire jxt- W. a turn in a revolutiou metamorphosis' maiK practice. deficient A Loii^ soa^. cee A iSiib. |1{J . to select. CoutpUtr. spanious extensive. Broad. thecanse by which Soii^ 'oiu|'lete. wliol**:— Les. to iutend. <^hing^ lieuK - to change. uiiuatural. not distinct. surprisivg. 7'ules. iu order. To arrange. 11^^- . a set of raloa. l:wai ^ |5Ji Il^ien*. . inl to to bother. ^ To transform. Observation. ( nit: a rc-t U» liaiil. a jy'az's. . a liue. a task. to arranr^e to stretch '1 A rule. A plMCe. >|->^:$^ > o He who 6 many surprises. wonderful. Les. Yii ^ Eytraonlinarv. Cantonese. all. a road.affairs. to pla?" Ck'ang. troublesome. bothering me about it 8 off the shonltl he come you The plan yon proposed will not work. debt. variegated..t inii . a regulation. wide. niibroken. oi What 7 sioll What 8 Evcu i) o. to ad- a row.. ho has. .

to cause. 18 I heard here all the private cou versation you had over there. See kung HiE Chien^ A Fan'f. secret. To to CW collect. 18 1 fir- i\ '- • fi 2X I* pri. a term of houor: to bid Les. added This " to the often done for emphasis. that one ia a great deal and more experienced than another. and which we have seeu. Ve and auother have here one to the auxiliary. ^ Ill Tsan\ ts'wan^ ^IJ^ To amass Tien} illicit. In Pricing the phrase ia heard hsi^. either in 23 In these neat phrases original its sense as a noun meaning -place ^ or as a relative pronoun meaning that which. ski^ void. wiiat y(m is keep an account all of. To accnranlate. secret. Everything A Q olil r t'orciliVe way that he said was true. Illicit K'wei^ tung^ La} chi^ hwang'^.. to pile np. highwaymau. a sou. but is not t'unfj hnnp. savings. Both the should 22 This sentence was made by a Christian teacher. Debt. 23 The Lord of Heaven is the omnipresent. 17 > § *ratliered 10 Wiiat he promised thiu g. 1 k'ung^ rohhei\ a into debt. to good. partial. a sou. 2 Or. a term of respect. an order. the firmament. son. under- haud. See Les. S. n< ^^ 15 c g> ^ ff you speud yourself. but the writing of hsi^ ia not apparent. of expressing. U IS wi'lely used. «g could he help ruuning into debt? {CBo 20 The amount. that command. an opening. omuiscieatand omuipotent God- law. worthy. 71 Les. to cause to do: -- robbed him of all he had saved. Note 19. Notes. the gods) does not know. but be spoken lo?. strong. young gentleman. is not elegant. deficiency. not eveu any of the thoughts of his heart. con18. may be taken.xiijul v"lj. Private. and the sense will remain tlie same tluia sliowiug to the other. one year in halt' year's food. cMng^ To test ifu.^iit to & V I- f^raiti not sufficient for a ^ 5- I 14 iiie i. how the passes from the one meaniug . to rob. ^ 21 That night some robbers broke in and = 01. The same. ^^ ( ^ S§ A Tao^ ChHangS testimony. selfish. aholo. to ward off. came uo- to We testify to that ^ 9 i The exjieiKlitures of the year exceed- How ed the receipts. a bandit. to store up. serret. a prucection. K'ung^. to guard aqainst. emptiness. To come k'ungi dyke. masculice. A tao^ Cii'2 To rua robber. speak that which we kuow. is jil nq'ienMy rear! ehH^. Your LianyS ^ %- nothing that he does.- Lessok MAXD AlUN LESSONS. The Lord of Heaven. 171. accumulate to board. &^ 0^>^>< Eveu ou. 13. differs from yonr couut by jcist thirteen cash. a levee a defense. j»ny«?^. Grain (garnered).. Private^ personnl Ti^ chi\ fid«Dtial Note to Dothino. your: A Lanjji'^. $^ God (or. is ^ A Lin^^. 46. Empty. 22 There is nothing that a man says. as I have reckoned it.

an emporium. a ripple. A steamship. an angle. . large steamer bus just come alougside the wharf. take words ])e . not ti) liave strnct 4 I gave him a lari^e piece of bread. a daughter. abbreviated uunierals. to set apart. io space. lips. corner. a slam girl. as flour. A Cliie7i\ spade. to bolt. Voa^ lo kai^ iVii piebald. ^ g iY My 3 It OS- S • 1 2 many Specific i ns to what . A pillow. To carve. A Ilwa\ Y\ dark ^ ^^gg Chan U- A plow poiut. 5 These shoes are small. To swell. boastful.. to clnp. ^ A Lod-. Clran^. See chen^. Ch'V\ Lung\ A colt. A jetty. an interval midst of.ch'toauK IIwO'? wave. dnrini^. the clapper of a bell. aud yet he thinks it is not enough. e. is cloudy to-day. a yard (meas. tongup. iu tue 'fjj To the knee- Les.. classifior: The same. .). In general it may will take observed. to fill in a cavity. halter. Suffix ever the addition of makes any special modification of the meaniug the combination is defined iu otiier cases it is not. 68. For fall list of words taking after them. -. . finger linrts. a knot. A Also ckkn*. till. lump. A flsiien* t last.: 12 f§ Translation. a coulter point. or of a poiut. [midst Ckung\ ckie7i\ Between.. I liave in the honse a kettle of taros cooked. Pod^ lif^f kai\ A plow. > 0 0% ol^ 0^ 0^ ^ * 1 4 0^ 7 8 10 _g The iiddod is No riilf to can i»o him with The snn is not necessary to stretch thern with a last. that. ^ vast an edge.. a coulter. roa^ {h)g CI. words iiivitlviii^ the idea of a Whenai'tcr them. The Tlie lipa. The knee pan. The between. Cltht\ Chie^. swollen. a wharf. net. vonr fist.. A 6 ' The head. 1^ Yon ought visible. a plow point or share. I have uot yet bought a plow-share. a mart. a sock- ClihA To pillow . a rest for the back.uiveu as to alter tliem. et Also cMn\ on^ to leau on coatigaons. fi§ J/a^. to spread oat. in. . y A The f5* ^hP-. . see Snppleaieut. "3 toillira A Po(i^ Weights. a sieve. in the A joint. ruffled A L<ng- a mart. Vocabulary. These small stones ou the road are very aDuoyiug. Are vou foud of them 9 epe'2inlize tliein. It will be 0. A under two years. to arrange. How can I plow The old lady has two maid-servants to wait OQ her. a length Seec/a'e^. ajetUf. ganze. to stuff. steamboat. Ch' "r fork i Hwei^ ch'un^ Chun<f plow. a lun.

to turn four table legs wood is Walnut 0?51 A7ZS. _ I M is a little lii. without a bridle A head-man. carry in the bosom. a Hwai^ as securit3\ 23 I want ^ in. To cherish up. <- to pnt or hang\ cart compauy — Note W. so that even his lips are swollen. to agaiast. 2''2. what use impossible to ride him. hia^ A The ends of a coffin.. toiA to close coffin.shlK to (S-) piece. to harbor. bright. Who would venture to meddle in this bnsiuess which does uot conccru him 19 The end of these things is death. a A Ans. pestle.) tsweP. remember borrovved twenty thousand cash ami mortgaged three acres of Jaiid * 24 To ohstrnct.1 W . the best.The catalpa:— Les. the bosom. . To tarn Hsuen^ ChHu\ . the end of a plug an end to think of Twei^ 'o"2 Ck fill the What it is A classifier A sluitter. to stop. Note 15. beautiful. But you //-"3 All oppoueut. Elegant. . a beater. of wood.^ #^1«' 03551 1 . -. . 140. 0j @ Kao^ "4 P eiK Korea. To intermeddle with the tongue. but is short a pestle. 2U Wang Ji Hsin is acting as head-mau tlie cart company in Chiuaafii at a salary of over fifty thousaad cash a year. ^ w-oi! Milder the feet of this stove to raise it lip. Property or goods given in pledge security. A pestle. mortar. 18 His oppouent is violent. in a lathe. Anything extraneous to duty au unimportaut aflfair.Lesson MANDARIN LESSONS 47. . private affair. Pa3 . He has a mortar iu the house. Tod}- is best necessity is there for having a bridle for such a little Korean pony Twei^. a stopgap. want I one somewhat larger. an end piece.s small. mule colt has broken 17 Tliis end piece . graceful. Pou^. stone or metal. 13 The kuee is the joint in the middle of the leg. A bridle the reins of a bridle. Hi 113 15 The son of his ^ man hath not where to lay Ijeu. 20. 21 22 §1 & n40% 1^ • i TV. the heart. A foot-pestle. (s. 10 That. to Les. A Twei4 VouT- r""i'"2. A see. 147.d. HsienP. a A mortar. £| g OS: Get four pieces of brick and pnt them 11 ' ! . huUer. o| He m pestle (s). 14 This pillow is too high. 12 His t(jiigao is diseased. ill " .to criticize the aflFairsoI'uthers. mortar. .

h. for knee. These two words here illustrate liow. >M in of their men have come Ans. Ill the South tl is used instead. How ranch travelling money have you still? How mauy sons have you By altering it slightly it will answer. au oniiuul. ly ^ a little. in the Soutli but never heard in the North. "o[£ ought It iu this sentence. itf the pu-tlo than tl)o whole pcatle. 8 This sentence might with equal proprit^ty be rendered. 11 Which of the brothers are you Ans^ I ^ did sell for How much 9 . Over ten have come. the first is Pekingcbe. but always means n. I have had uo letter from him for a long tim e. How many? bow much? innr. I need six or seven hundred strings of cash. slight- ilow ma uy Used Some. as its object. an association of carters. series. f la-isiticT limy be substituted for rogutive. is rather tlie stoiic hco-d the South. How many some. In neither term are the first two characters properly significant. many. Chinese plow iniplemeuls.1 • B • 114 A Translation. 8m. Auy special As an inter- instead of geucruliy applied to corupuratively a riL'at Muiulurin. _ the North a brick. 23 -("Hk is ^ treoa. but in the South it 11 III 13 Of the two terms is is a brickbat. uu'lor rertain cit cum8tances. hut is not useil in on tho wootU'n used with different prefixes for several kinds i^flS ^ ia Wi'lmit.the Chinese language can be exceeding- g ly brief. J SB- How many 1 5- How much 2 cow . llioi 5 6 iij^ 7 o% L o?^ 8 MiQ" for H^0 that black piebald it. wliioh controls the whole businefis of carting iu a city. LESSOIsT XX/V Numeral Adjectives. the secomt Oiitral. I will give yon as mncb as yon paid 4 fJJ^ you How many 3 I- c4ps have chestuuts your hand I am the uiuth. There are also other collo- The book term quial terms for knee. A a ^rcut deal (18). a few. 2 There might is no indication of time also be rendered. and Uiu thinl SoutliCTii. 10 If it misses by a little. Rarely used interrogatively iu several. no matter. is variously used in difforent places.. They generuUy exact a fee from all c^irts entering the city which are not coimectctl is with them. The article referred to is a triJinmihir point of cast How which serves in place of Iiolh coulter and share. by contraKt. prefixed to a auiubor makes it . or piece of a a whole brick. Ilow many? how much a good many. a few. ran I plow \rhen I hare not yet bouffht a plow point was intended woulu be imlicatcd by the Wliich coiistructiou manner of speaking. 21 is tho proper word for a postle. the first is Northeru and 15 sentence Til is is as a verb. do yon require for home expenses per year? Ans. Notes. head-man of some kind. introduced to illustruto. A rudest of their many rude is one of the iron. with the use of 20 A is hsi^. numbers. Of tlie three teima for ]doir point. to strike him with 7iot the second Southern.i]l is .

A 7nu^ todrill. to cure. To T'iao^ sell (ouly used of graiuX Spring. To take tronble. (s. yet. to take delivery of. - Road money. mind high a surmirm. a subject. medical. 115 How 2 2 3 There are only a few men of ability ill the society (chnrch). a principal man. I have a lot of business not yet arrauged. contented. To 1^ tao\ to bandage. to implicate. a theme. . 5 How old is your child this year? Ans. Aiis. a native of Sonthera Shantung. S I can not tell how innch anxiety of mind I have had on account of that affair of his. (l. - Yoa^ kan^ Chiao^ li^ . Hwang^ shang … . writings. to be anxious. The eye. an order. eten. To spend. Shop The same. Ilwod^ shao\ To Liu\ to ex- cake. a section see Sub. How many Chis. surpassing. under the emperor K'ieu- A sh'i\ Also I[au4. fixtures. VOCABULAKY. Different from. eminent. Five years. sevAlso ckP\ see Sub. 4 lio^ 0^ fio +. to involve. a tauk. era] an emperor. a biscuit Shao^ ping^ CM ""2 made His Im- perial Majesty. 48. a press tlie A Pinrf. Hwan<j^. to to put off. Kan\ how much provoke arms.i Lesson MANDARIN LESSONS. 7Vai ksini. the practice of mediciue. kill. mncli coal do yon propose fcotake I propose to take five tons. . pencil. . Chie^ g Mu\ official au adobe wall. fourth emperor of the present Tartar dynasty. P'an^ ch'an^ ts-aiK money. durable. satisfied. ts'ao^. to use np a rat.) Cha> Hsie^. to barter. to restrain. To expend Hao^/ei^." A baked cake. carriage. to void consume. medical science. Lim(f\ -… to abauclaut. Lao^ hsiung^ Ch'an^. merely ix but. firm. A Yung^. firm. ^ TweiK a little. august a sovereign. imperial. some. to bother. cliaracter foreign Ts'ao^. toexercise. To P'u* to offeml. A shield.h^'i- and TmA A new ton. Regular pond. K'ienlang— the expenses. John.) To lay aside vacate P (c. to eye. make Ck't^. exalted. word "ton. Sii exchange. See kan - Ch'ieuK -- stable. 3 ^ market street. C/i'UH^ Heaven. "/ ' A Ti\ series. a father. Tohold: A To be to putforth. Great. Freight. a mouse. outfit. r. A baked cake. When you start. 6 I can not start to-morrow.-0 ^ 1 #05« are a beggar that does not know w hen he has enough. to undo unload. to concerning the teu stems or horary characters. The Li^ @ HaoK /1 degree.) to heal. To bind np. rich. High. be sure to take a few cash to buy some biscuits. A text.. a term of respect. redoubt Imig. couseqneuce a stem. superior. a leader. a qnill. a moat. Medicine. the miud to designate. to charge the with. an index. ^ Yon 7 . tis FMngi chestnut. vernal. A To make grow rich. lomanage. to The emperor s. joyous.

takes after a ptar." When a «niuU uvcn. but usually about a huiuhod or a thou- 23 is it is mi gar in tlicm. M liavt! The uaagc tlio fi^i at the end. 20 Please. Acnral hundreds. much is really superfluous. ftU *' will you take ' cut manner thoy nay and 13 of How much will or. cashier. or acsivino sued varies very ciijhf.. otherwise the ten or eight gives to or cloth. but in tlie Nurtli to nuoh uuUiJc." 24 The text first Jobu. It is uot . lii)s wouder how mach grain Ch'in the He Third has. aud he deal left. Ans. 1 Note that a pi urn but f . ami say. know is liere not.selling off in detail. is in chapter and third verse. four to not sure). I. like Here means TIic How much will the quanlity equivalent in of . but such in a letter. *i ninch. and myriad. It Cliinese something like the force of the English tlio It is wortliy of note that is round numbers ten. to sell or dispose of as a whole. arc BomotinieH niarle In tho South naino kind of a cake. instead 20 V"c say " eight but the Chinese attribute to the buyer the act of tho seller. 17 Not to know its cow with white spots. 23 The Emperor K'ienlung aslced Liii Yung. htiHine^s. 4 The meaning of custom of carrying money 16 In inquiring ages young persona in their teens. Thoy inches in diamotor. tlio jS 2S The only lis wot overt only would be uaud OHC rUum Sco noxt Lea. and sometimes includes cousiua of the same family name. then The or ten " the Chinese sny ten or mdnnijf. Sub. is it. 2 3^ is a chestnut. it. is not is tlie the waist. its only used of children. 19 in ages. and a spotted cow of any color. 14 am you hero uacil as a verb meaning to trfuisact or ia I hag to be inserted twice. style of thia sentence word is not colloquial. Imked on both sidos in Tliuy aro round. to is gives a tinge of impatience.• : fs ID I 11^ > Hi have still sold. does not take aftor as also is a black . 0^ ^ ^Qfi Gaiu. uot used in the South. Please write tuc a reply.. spent several tens of years at medicine. with Kugnr or <laleR it use of expression. "How many people do you think there are ou this marLiu Yung answered. as in (3) it means ovur or upwards of ten. or of If (of used somewhat out of often heard. " u matter of eight or ten taels. . lu in a belt encircling colloquial the combination is is It is 12 much \N'c aay. and I can not a great may be before I can dispose of niy shop fixtures. . Fame auJ ^. IJyH^ *>^: o-^ many goods natell bow long it second 25 Please write me a reply stating the price and the freight. i.e. IIow meat How much of silvor. "How yon unload will much In will would be eighteen. saving. as here. here refers to the order of succession 11 befitting the circumstances. on iu ' i/fcrciit places. it ineana aeveixU tens. 1 Q% &. about an inch thick and from ftix npptic'l lo til (J in tho inside. 11 21 He 2'Z I not over eight or tea taels. meaning to probably derived from is . and ex. ket street? " *' Only the two men.ict equivalent. 21 you weigh "re unleavened cakes. look and see how much I still owe. but when it thus usod only with thousand. precedes tho numbor. Bomctimea confined to own brothers. it etc. <11^ * > has been selling all still has a great the spring. follows. hmulrcd. Not ES. you have?" vhich usual sense.

well. 10 That scholar is give a to repeating whcQ he recites his lesson. a receipt. Few. 95. only. Only. OuIy. see Sni>. 3 He 7 "on I'cliVve him Making u liWu. simply. 2 Ck'ung\ proof. wholly. a Single. Only. always talks well. Are you the only one that has come 2 We two will only hire cue animal 1 3- m {ff-oi liE between us. I fear he will become a stutterer. seldom rare n widow Ta7A . classifier: pine Diligent. It is also nsed as a coujuuctioa: Les. but. Pei^ shii}. Ting^ Opposing. . Vocabulary. bouks. . Snug is always telling lies. specially.iriven to.g Lesson 49. aloue bill. attentive whenever. even.. chiefly Simply. Temperate. wljo (5 OS. simply. of a book a section Les.— as a nnmber. 117 Translation. economical. t Used the same as Only. Tan}. nothing more thau. . nothing l)iit. when yonr father aud older brother are both willing* 12 Tlie tliird day there was a very strong head wiud. but never does g to of o^cg M Is have brought only two huudred cash iu my pocket. : is Simply. to repeat. 4 Your word aloue is not sufficient proof. . colloquial. but. oaly. . simply. iu Central and Southern Mandarin. Kwo?. to do over See thung^^ To stutter. A ~ — enduring a sumavie. to reader illnstriaua. —To pick flaws. does Dothing but find fault. to stammer.. SungX C/iie^ Hsien\ To turn the back to the teacher aud recite a lesson. Manifest. solely. and we ouly went fifty li daring the whole day.— au : ing\ To P'ien\ A leaf. lean ou. laborious. nothing but. but. ^ 1^^|^|"0 of viz. merely. pa> to repeat. 83. nothiai^ bat. only Only. according to: ' ChHiA Cliien^. If lie is not controlled. Also Only.' depends whollyon two 8 He 1(1 0^ thiugs. Les. To double again. yet Lia^ -… The to diminish . alone. 5 There is ouly one leaf not yet copied. yet. nothing bat. abbreviation for Tio yien^ ^p 1^ bnt. to make manifest. odd. 95. uothiug but. bat entirely ttcng-ksing.filo"t'. diligence aud economy. .however. etc. I 0% Restrictivk Particles. ouiy. merely. 147. . As here nse( is not appreciably different from save hat its use seems to be limited to certain couuectious. siin|>ly. to trust to (lence. Not exceeding. eviLes. frugal. 1 1 Why do you put forward your dissent. nsed as a coujuuction Only. ^ " MANDARIN LESSONS. - M Two. Mr. merely. contrary. conspicnbns to exhibit.

To Thig4. the future* JOing mhnf in business. ching. words. a calabash. Esien^ chHeii^ 4. A common surname. 20 I know only one tliitiij. I know that I myself do not know 0 .^.waii\ To An honorary degree. ami Lao^ hsh)\ To wean/ toil. 72 hwo^. appearance. . blow. a bank-note. To increase one's repntation.^ K oR IJ i eat nothiug else it to auybody than to him. Natural feeling. to doubt iu sus- pense. 24 I have no ready money at hand I have nothiug but a two thousand ^ cash bauk-uote. To suspect. right. hereaftt-r. mercy. ivhick the presents a7ui acexpress good-will. 15 Do you only eat tliis one kind. To do or suffer wrong. a wrong. 21 These few days they talk of nothiug else save of how to get a degree. verily. to increase. a phrase. J^rt^clrinf. caring uothiug ibr the future. to breathe. Lao^ li\ the mind. a calabash. u poem.Q lis SS " 3 It will not do to listen only to one side. BP. W"ik1 coin. The monstaclie. money spent for unneces- sary things. raise the eyebrows and stare glare on. a hollow-stemmed plant. Wan" Vjl C/rwri^ aiui other incidental expenses. A reed. is Dot enouf^h for fooil alone. it isr^ enongb if you do not oil end. that is.^vv He is all the time vociferaliug witli^^ glaring eyes.^ E ^ anythiu<x.i H I clw. laugnage. Legitimate. nientiil stiiily. form. yien^ ch'ien^. To Waiuf fei^. Luck " To add /1 'rshig^ kwang^. speud to no purpose. warrant. 0^>^ 3?^oi " iil^ A fw Lwau the Fonrtli talks too violeutly. TIu\ Lir will knowledgements A gonrd. you must not believe him. to filled liish'e on. • grievance. Sol). good- 7s^'2-. a ticket. Before the eyes. infu7i. the visage. to 18. a A gourd. to praise. needless^ to no purpose. proper. 19 You regard only the present moment. To wearJ/ th to labor. bodfj pliysioal toil . ^^ 22 i-o. iu the prethe present^ sence of Ready cash. augment. IS lie is oaly talkiug in fnu to you. . . the beard. Wanf. Chh really. Uic back. Ts'ai^ ming^ 7\ to Outward mien.^ 23 Seek for merit iu iiothin. the face. incidehtal expenses. 17 He spends every day in the opinm deii and pays no atteiitiou whatever u> 16 Rather entrust m > oij legitimate business. 1 A P'iao^ Ma Jestiug. iiow See Les. to say 1 14 It nothiug of the claims of society . An expression. 7V/4/u>"4. in private I. a writing. style.

Mr. It in cften referred to. thus. Inisinesa my body not. coct tu endure.Millet. A string of cash ia often carried hy 8 imply hanging it across the ordinary belt. ^ hing To . . viscidity -. wSUinij to hditxie 12 a little peculiar. etc.— to the talk so blowu out on the moustache. to select. This contraction 3 The use is not used in thn South. MANDARIN- Lesson 50. LKS30N3. as here. Mr. ranch-little means qnautity.e.. pufpuae QtTALITy BY When two adjectives of opposite meanings are joined together they form an abstract noun of quality. by the term. Vocabulary. to persist. to talk in a loud vociforoua way. fluid. to of. fully. to de--. be trusttd side'n worth. . thickaesa. to cozen. oti 7 his Notes. Hsiao^ C "1 mt ckouf.gee. The same principle is hIso applied to verbs.t nothitnj but ( purely ) lia. The 22 Ciiinese frequently' wear in front. 2 . that you go out of your way to entrust it to him? This is the Chinese interrogative way of expressing the idea given in the translation.cceiit bt'ing hentvoltnt or charitable ac£g it means to do ri(jht> tho on and are here practically equivalent. attributed to It would hardly commend i. Not opposites joined together are used iu this way. -. gruel. but yoii will shed lustre ou the whole village. however. consistency. stiff. They are often joined for enumeration 22. Thin-thick. 27 If you ij^et a dej^ree. hence the use of 16 Lit. trouble. scattered thin.k€ form an opinion a momtache. depends entirely (m what luck he has. character Good-evil propriety somehow^ any way. . Tientsin.. to simmer. very. coa. is there no one tlae to whom you could entrust it. . 28 I was uot. the gram9 matical structure being. the ouly perdon at hornt. ehara. sap.G:ni(led liy tlieir uppearaiice. Hsx^. Who can not q'lial ii It One Lit.. 26 Whether he timkes money or not. 23 This 18 a popular ethical Bome of the Taoist philnpopliers. criticism. you will not ouly add idstre toyourowu family. etc. ^ CAin\ c/iinfi^ T'ieni ckin^ A ford. somewhat different. OrrosiTKS." $ Or. to make believe. canary seed. his wears only on bodv. which answers the double of a pocket ami a purse. Why do you sptcialli^ it to him That is.Su ng teU. on the wai^t. 2 j In choosing. ia added for 3. . . itself to a Westeru mind. Thick deuse Ch'ou} viscid. eniru-st commonly means 8 but here the Hccent being on i. man priiicipl'?. Loose. Soft boiled rice or millet. or for all 23 coutrast number of whicJi the lesson coutuins a of examples. Why do you epeciully suspect me of stealing it 1?:^ ^^ OS: ^ > & > 119 My 29 wears only on my mind. liere is the idea that the person ia this is his " forte. Its proper name is *X k'wn* tou* tsi*. not ou his mind. or that of who 13 fifty — him Tho of road. Right-wrong Ski* /ei\ Hao^ tai\ moral. Liu is wholly . as corae-go for intercourse. ft broad quilted or leather pouch. nearly all the common nouns tlius formed. open thin. to befool. farnear means distance.. to stave off. buy-fiuU for bufliuesB. 26 to to. It conveys addicted to fiudiiig fault. strife Ao^'\ To cook by boiling. is a book ph raae adopfced into the coUo- . The lesson illustrates to excitedly that the aaliva 0 blow is blow a gourd. sense. saliva. connected with their girdle.' men. to choose.

Ta'i hsiaoK Big-little. pci\ and estimate Motion-rest. to lose.<". superficial light. 0# C >^:10155|2^ ^cl^ . Soft-hard mss hardness rigidity.2:. to lift the I carried by an auiraal. stir to your High-low. as a color. I tim ready tu lay a wager witli yon. place.To a ml inncli as (just) that von speak jiulgmeiit seniors 1 by water ce by as is it loiist J Sku}* distill) clifiers travel. -. to send back revert. 6 How can a do u key carry such a lo. big as you are. soiuuL due Far-uear yH't'n^ chliiK as a beast. a cliauce. Pet^ Tsuri}- To warrant. -. Shallow. to inquire. to exchange. (s. simple. position respect due to age. excitability. size.^^^". profound. aud yet you do not uuderistiiud the respect overturn. )Vi P<''0^ the roiiud return of goods* To pnaraiitee a thing trip hwan. rank. . to To heft iu the band. A T*0'\- The load To )*. to Deep ChHen\ / j return. Lai' hwei^. cktivf/. for the time guarantee. profit. depth. to be defuateJ.kliuut 12 The haudle of this ax is exactly tlie right tliickness. capacity. gaiu.ul as this Have you uot tried the > li o 1 ^^ T> > weight. Base. beiug. discretion. to couqner. Light. long very. o I^N:! 7 I 9 The 10 How 2 As 11 K ^ - o Aq overplus. to ^Jr? cam/. To differ. the weight.. old. to defraud. false. To T'a?/ Shhi feel aud search soniul to tnj . plebeian. dry. weight. ma "4. [nj -j^i Ilwei^ the intense Go-r ( turn y""fA z'^y^erzVvv linrable. ching^. To deceive. fineness. a venture. w % o rsld 0% I listenetl a while outside tlie gnte there was not the least sound [stir]. coarscneas. &tiff* . to 1017} to excel.^| o f i.heavy judgment . Lose-wiu. to assure. suitable. land thickness. : 2fa«* To to be Activity-iiidolenco hiny.31 120 Translation. [does. to distance. Jj§ Tien^. motion noise. erroue- size. abstruse. a tvager. 1 Tung^ ^ Pao^ hwm^. extremely. lit. statiou. 8 All wlio buy onr goods have the pi'ivilege of retnrning tliem. oils. Ying^. 3 This millet gruel is cooked to exactly the right cousisteiicy. 5 If yoa dout believe. 1 2 Stave the matter oft' somehow or other. to Deep-shallow. . 13 He never gets in a hnrry in what he s? ^ laiitl b}' one half. Drought. and it will be all rig. calibre. camel. easy. hob up and down. ol: All men have n moral faculty. /"3 — . to explore to spy out. 4 Tlie business of Tientsin is not so great as that of Sliangliai.) gffc Oti".

viz. thickness. to injure Level-deflected. be is sure to be constantly getting into > " . 21 Tlie temperature of China is not the same in the North aud iu the South. come- / Kad^ 1^ station. Tloit^ ^ pocr Hsiad^ hou^ Thick-thin. or righfc hnnd form. liu'ess. The IS Chu}. qual- 1 itj/ jX Looks are of no great importance. repnlsive. . iuclineil. but just right. to abridge. but the width is not J o|t|f ^ It ^ AT" seiitimeut of this conplet is very good. 121 Do you go down 14 first and try tbe depth of the water. deflected^ - P'ingi tse^ To diminish. the idea expressed is the same. homely. to distinguish. if* he is not twenty. to refuse sordid. Lksson 50. To have or maintain a cer- taiu state of mind. temperafia^e. size. Ch'ang'^ . he must be eighteen or uiueteeu.^ 5!. Low. dwelling. K^waii^ cka^. tl . he has uo idea of prudence iu what he does. or just right. to yield. 7 Tse^. 4 Fhihpie^. common. Li CkUi Thiu-thick. rank. however. to 7*emain in a condition. to wound. oblique.. pi-udence. - plitude. * correct. Do not merely regard the price asked. illustrates 2 It is a question whether The sentence. ]X trouble.. to reside. beauty. High-low ai^. To lower. To live in. Chin^ VweiK twan\ Long-short To separate.MANDARIN LESSONS. 20 Tbe length and tliickuess are both sufficient. 22 Judging by the height of his stature. breadth. 1^ *i 1 J A S> oS< J 51 ^ 51 sufficient. The comiatence to which this millet is cooked is just right. mean. low. am- Je\ Hiirli-low. . Aslant. below. height. 24 Iu my opiuiou he has one serious fault. Z Though the two forms are somewhat different. humble.. 15 Put ou this short coat and see how 1 How 6 is 17 Goods peu this (lifFer iu for stiffness? quality. might be rendered more literally. The first. PlS Cold-hot. [about its size.. ksiii}. 1 takes the place of because is a book construction. This millet gmiel is xo cooked that it is neither too thin nor too tkici:. 25 If a man is proud in mind and without a just estimate of himself. judgmeut. as here used. ThoeiK looks. damage. width. to droop. he may be said to be without common sense. tcme. 23 When a man takes uo pains to distin- 3^0. This method of using two negatives with words of opposite qualities. an inipoi'fcant principle of Chinese polity. to loss.^ ^ 6 guish between loss ami ain. height. Wide-narrow. To draw back. illustrates the subject of the lesson. but the tones are not f li TP-. to back out. and the second. ill-favored . spoil Ch'ou^ chun\ Ugly-pretty. length. Advance-retreat. thickness. unsightly. Ugly. to siuk. Notes. only 9 so that she is thrifty. to retreat. is a comniou way of expressing that a thmg ia medium. SunS. to excuse.

C

122

Translation.

^

1

Yon onght

to improve yonr time.
you have never been to school,
how c'au yon write?
3 The tears he wept wet all bis clothes.
4 Poverty ami hardship are very effect1

2 If

lio_i

ive in (liscipiiuiuga maii*scharacter.

0$

I

>

yet not able to tal k
7 His resolution is uot at all stable.
S Get a hammer and pouad it and it
will be firm.
9 When a girl is once married, there is
nonudoiuf^ it,eveQ if she does repent.
10 Verily, it is fatigiiiug to travel iu
this hot seasou.
I

Loi
IG

'

The proper and general pronunciation of
name the general custom in Chili is

cAiV, but in this

pronounce

Q The

it

II Not to know,
to

cfiin'j

carryahurdtn
superceded by
to

but

now

it is

It

is

t'oa,

and

und

rarely used in

meaning,
this sense, being

13

shw

and

aiUled both for emplia-

rhythm.

Be has rwt the hast fast or
he neither can nor will hurry.

tiiat is,

13 Tones are divided into two

the vocabulary,

is

—M

for

its

generally read and used as given in

classes, called

a set form for expressing the idea
g
that goods ui u sold with the privilege of returning them, if not
is Southern,
The expression
BHisfactorv.
nn l means to guarantee the excliango of ud article unsuitable

The former includes the
the two level tones and the

in

together, and detlected tones together.

is

size.

implios a sort
give a •"iifferent sense.
ami
9
of estimate or opinion of the speaker, approximately expressed

by the phrase as much as

while

fixes

it

at

jicst

this

aiiiuuut.

.

The

in this case, implios censure.

repoats the idea of
sis

was

origin:" reading of

A

6

1

4

I wish to have mercy ou I
have mercy on.
child almost two years old, and

will

flE^

Is

Whom

5

that

is

vernitication

and
latter, the

level

-,

Jf^-

that

is

amJ

The

the three deflected tones.
require that

,

^ ami

tnnea

rules of Chinese
should be rhymed

U

is a very expressive phrase.
It in
19
eludes the ability, diligence and thrift which luuko the moak
of every thing.

X/ESSOI^ L Definitive
Chinese bein*^ a monosyllabic language, and the
nuraber ol'syllables limited, the couseqnent repetitiou of the same syllable renders it absolutely
necf«sarv that some means slionld be adopted to
meaiiiti^ of t he same
diHtiu<:^iii.sli the different
syllable.
This is doue to the eye in writing, hy the
different composition of the characters, analogons
tij (lifft'r'i'it spellings iu English, as /lere and hear.
In 8|'e(cli it is done hy coml»inini^ with the given
Fvllulilc iiiiothcrdt'fiiiin*; hv lahle or word, this comLiiiatiou furraing, practically, a dissyllabic word.
1

There are three principal classes of theae comLinatiou!^.

First.

A

word of similar meaning

Hint eacli serves to
device

in

dirttinjL^nish

cued, with verbs,

—as

the
in

is

added, so
This

otlier.

with

Combinations.

and with adjectives,

as

uoiins,

as in

t

The object is added to the verb where
Second.
would not otherwise be needed, and wliere other
Ian tMia^e?^ would regard it as reduudaut,
as in

it

fiS.

Third.

.

A

''tc.
.

tu'hiiiiip:

word

.

is

prenxecl,

as in

a sumowliat similar use iu a few
as in eychrou\ wh,tl-batrow,
words,
liliistnitions of ail tlieso classes have occurred
in [trevioiift lessons, iis it wjia itnjx^ssible to a void
This losaou has
sucli coiistiiutly recurring forms.
betMi (leftTrcd to tliis i>Iace tlmt the student luiglit
be better able to uuderstaud and appreciate its
priuci[)loB.
The coustaut use of these combinations ill Mandarin formw ontr of the prime disliuctious between it uud Weu-Ji. See yuppleinont.

Euglish

lias

Lesson

MAND AUIN LESSONS.

51.

R
I

rhe hook

is all in confusion; there is
not the least order iu it,
12 There is a man on the street selling
honey.
He asks eighty cash per

11

tt

1

8

123

catty.

13 If you cao not drink wine, can you not

1^

OS-

£

op #

I

Hi

%

-

cat

A

14 His not being" able to sleep at uiglit
is a serious matter.
15 It is not necessary to write a letter.
I will tell it over to bim which will
answer every purpose.
IG Li the Eighth is coiitin ually slanderiag people. I thoroughly detest hini.
17 You scape-grace
You are certainly
ill-bred.
How is it that you are so
disrespectful to your teacher
18 Kuo^aig that he is given to getting*

o

i: o
Si

I

;^^0|

by all means
way.
19 It is cloudy out of doors you can
uot see, eveu with the moon.

yon
keep out of

slionld

augi'}'-

his

Vocabulary.

Kwamj

Kwoa^ mcn\

K'un^

Poverty ; trouble.

k'v?.

Difficult; distressing; hardship.

Ckien^

Nan\

To pound ;

to

Hou^

/

t'i.

hwei^.

To get married
man).

To change,

/f—

1

To

kai^.

to

Hsin^
discipline; to train; to refine; to learn by experience.

alter;

alter, to
to

To

(of the wo-

to

repair,

to

to

Also ktng\ aud cdn(j.

Difficulty, straits, trials, hardship,
lieiiK

sliiv-

To be sorry for, to repent
change the mind.

amend'

Difficulty; embarrassment, adversity,
suffering.
See nauK

' Moa^

knock; to crush to

er to pieces.

Time.

yiu^

K'uH^. Exhausted, wearied; distressed
..... to go to sleep to besiege to enslave.

1^

Tsa\

To love fondly to spare to
begrudge to improve time.

hsi\

cbauge

to

amend

undo.

Bitter, toilsome; grievous.

Hsm^ tvK

Toil,

pecially that of a jonruey.
Ilsing^,

Nature, disposition, spirit; property,

Nei\

quality; faculty.

'it Hsin^ ksing^.

among; a

Natural temper; character,
disposition.

To

Lien"

'

*|

pity, to commiserate.

To moaru

Min^

To

pity; to

To

iJhoii^

Ckou

to pity*

for

revolve, to turn round

A

full year.

Order, precedence, a preface.

A

Honey; nectar; houoved.

To narrate

Shu'

To

^

Ch'wei\

stable,

Wit^.-

-..

immovable,

A hammer

fixed.

a mallet; a club.

tell

relie

Secure; constant; pertinacious; ^ixerf;

Firm,

bee; a hornet, a wasp, etc,

Honey,

4

resolute, coustaut.

assuredly.

a time.

order, order of precedence,

Feng'^

Mi^

iuciusive;

wife.

Second, inferior; order;

Rsix^

aymr,

Stable, firm, strong; durable, lasting;

Chien\

^ TsK
^ 1^. Regular

have mercy on; to commiserate.

swei^

loner, internal, interior; in

-

.

To

Yien!^

Hsiln^

to tell in order.

over

m

order,

hate, to dislike; averse to.
*

To

To

to

[nud P.
See oa*.

detest, to alioniioate.

instruct; instruction, precepts.

;

124

11

M

N:

lij

II a-

V
o>

20 Judgiao: from this man's appearance
he is emiueutly tuild and jteaceiilile.
How cuuld he do so cruel a thing
as this
2

have

It is uot over three years that I

oil

not seeu him, and his hair and eyebrows are nil white.

A

22

raau's words and deed a are the
counterpart of bis mind.

3

23 Tbey two,

the one firm and the
other yielding, cau uot do business
together.

.-

Ch'i7ig^

®

oue has cause for rejoicing lie
unconsciously becomes joyful, and
^vlien he has cause for sorrow he
uijcouscioiisly

>^
to instruct (with
authority), to discipline.

Kangi

treat disrespectfully, to
to slight.

Jod\ ja(A

To teach,

Chiao^ hsun\

till

When

24

To

poa\

To

avoid, to keep out of the
shau; to flee from.

strong

Weak,

way

The

Her?
Hcn^

Cruel, harsh

CrueU

tu-

yielding ; infirm; delicate; debilitated.

^

Yien^
J/"'2

^

Joi? joC&

'1^^

K'tvai^ loaK

inei-

macP

Likeness

Ch'i}

image

vexed.

Ts'an\ Hard-hearted, cruel wounded in mind;
miserable.
(l).

Sorrowful, sad

To

feel for

grieved

To

Shaiig^.

Hard, nmjielding
iutrepid; sharp
(music ) recently, just now Les. (55,

injure, to

grieve ,

inelaucholy.

grieved, sorrowful,

com-

terpart, figure.

Kang\*

G\iiA,jo](fuU bappy.

Grieved, sad

PeP\
Hsing^ ksiangK

Pliable; tender; delicate.

relentless; savage.

The eyebrows.
The eyebrows,
The eyebrows.

.]fei'

feeble; pliable, yielding

Weak

Jwar? joa\

Cruel, savage, brutal

Od* tu^

flR

intractable.

bead-

violent,

decayed.

of^ to

Yile^ liang^

Firm, resonte

chHaiig^,

coudemu,
Too? pi^.

becomes sad.

wound

to distress, to

mortified.

Distressed in miud, sorrowful, sad.

life

Notes.
2 Or, YoH have never been to school Horo can yon write
is a book phraso meaning without order
11
Abiding a word of opposite im'iining
or m^Jho'J ; in ron/nsion.
Willi

a negative,

is

a

common

rliL-torical

dcvico of Cliiuuse

stylo.

^

.

a maiif or

i%
to -yw'ali ct

il

I'S*

of a

To

dit^i'minate evil reports ahoiU
man privately^ so as to do him an

viulatiui)

and

ijf

teach

is

is

_
Jud.Lring

by analogy from

again, jinlginc;

Q

SfJ, "'o wouUl expect
which howover is never
by analogy from such words ns

instead of

to find

used

used alone,
totit; ot

chia<y but tlial to teach with authority

chiao^,

19

The

soiiio places.

ts in
ilislincUoii of t"m:s usually iiiHiiu.
Sett cAiao*
iVkinj^ icaclier srvys in cxjilanaliun llint
ill

My

r/iitio*.

to

sometimes omitted and

used

LliL'

J]

/Jti

cxpi'ct
'Jc to moan moonliiiht, wliilo in fact it
It illustiMtcs t)io priiiuiplo ')f tha
aiinply incaiiH the m''i>n.
lesson, but not any of llio tlirots clisscs spcciiiLMl.
\vc

would

injury.
IHlj oxprosROS the U\e& that tlio boy Um not
17
bo '11 |iri»[M;rly ta'wht by hin pfironln or tcuclusrH, niid ttlao tlmt
be hoa uot proQtod by bia Uoohiiig houcc it moatiB iU-bi ed.

is

is

simply

ia a honey beo,
is honey, but
12
13 When ono lias declined wino, tliia language is used
hy wnv of inniBtin^ on Ilia eating tho moro.
16 " iVhirh irif/ tniHwer everj/ puriwse," is an approximate

16

vamannerly.

22

is

iloubtloaa adileil to

distin^^uish

it

from

tlio

aamo sound

as

-,

*

&

in

order more clearly to

tho boily, which in

many pUcos

Iiai

i
Lesson

o

MAKDARIN LKSSOKS,

52.

befool people.

^

^4,

o
1^ ii

I
i^0

^

^

4pS|;

>

o.^
1

^ 3o.^

.

to

[np au<^er
5 Are yon not tlms purposely stin'iijg
6 I fiin incapable of doiug auytliiu*; to

I
MJ^Of

XiESSOi^r
AS

Xj

[tiug,

baby

7 This great fat

.
1

an ade[)t at swiudliiig.

beuefit yourself.

^
gf

13

2 This liiD.i^nage is purely evasive.
3 He can not wroni^ uiiy one.
4 Yon
slionlil
not injure others

Mf^

oS

He

1

^

,

125

Translation.

i

-c{
145

f

?

is

truly captiva-

8 Wh(^n you strike, strike hard
and
n'he] you help, help effectively.
9 These brothers are coustautly iusulting people.
10 If yon are not respectful at home, you
will not be respected abroad.
11 He is simply deceiving you, there is
not a shadow of such a thing
12 What good is t lie re iu learuiiig to

worry people?
cau uot allow him to impose
upon us iu this way.
14 Do not take aloug many tbinp^s, they
are only an incumbrance on the road.
15 The old woman Wiing is very clever
at stirring up a fi:;ht.

We

13

.

A Personal Suffix.

The word
is added to verba to generalize
them. It may sometimes be rendered people, or
a man, but is generally nntrauslated; or rather,
its force is compreheuded in words which express
When a
the idea of the verb and it combined.
contrast is expressed or implied, it is equivalent to

others. When joined to vcrl)5^ ex pressincr emotions,
in (5,) and
thoy become cniisative; as
iu (7.) Sometimes both uses are fouud in the
same word, as
in (27,) aud in (28.) This use
is very extensive.
It ma)' in fn.ct be added
of
to

almost any trausitive

vorl).

See Sii|>plement.

Vocabulary.
P'ierA

To take advantage

Hao^ shou\

C7"i wv?.

cheat

T'i

to

tao^.

mate

an ex-

to

make

Te^

To make

all sorts

of excuses;

^

ch\

To be

deficient; to wrong, to

defraud.
Li* chi\ To benefit oneself, to act selfishly.

Lei^,

to

specially.

worry, to an-

to maltreat; difficult.

Good, beuefit, advantage:
Les. 08.

To

Hsiung^,

to

J

To hnrrass
noy

HaoS

;

On purpose ;

Nan^ wei\

excuses; to

to tergiversate.

K'wei^ fuK

:

(w.); to excuse; to delay.

To evade;

purposely;

special
Les, 15^.

sini^le

specific

prevaricate.

Hv?

A

to straddle.

Skilled in any art
pert, an adept,

I my

Wi^,

to

to defrand

swindle

To

scold,

to abuse, to

impose on

involve, to implicate

encumber ;
Ck'an^ moc?,

to

to trouble

embarrass.

To

hrowboat,

troiilili^ <-ul}uiiir.v.
;

to

Also lei\

pester, to tease.

-

S

2e

0^

,

1^0

16 Virtue does not fear the light; tiiat
which fears the light is not virtuous.
17 This habit you have of pestering
people is exceedingly offensive.
IS But doesu't it worry a mau to have
such a worthless wile as that I'all

01

*

to his lot

5

esteem yoii
he has to make
fiiu of peo[)Ie, he will not ameud
as long as he lives.
21 It is reaUy pitiable to see him suffering so from the cold.
22 How can one show kiuduess to others
w'heu he has do feeling of sympathy

20 That dispositiou

»

I

0%

o

..

^^

^
oi^

,

m

for

2

i

3

G% ^80

To look down upon,
pise, to

ridicule, to

K( lien^

^
03

A

Yimf,

To

pity, to

To

have mercy on-

To protect

to care for

show kindness ;

…-.
Kum/

To ahow

criiiiinal;

To

Rode,

Tail

Lan^
Vf-

tai*

An

offend; to traiisgress, to violate

to

be exposed; to assault; au accused
Les Dh
worth while
:

TsaoK

to

flurried

uervons,

;

Worried;

Chit tsao^.

irascible

irritable

oat of

patience.

to.

respect,

to

re-

Ts'tvei^M ...

gg

idle; lazy; remiss.

Diaiiiclined, loth.

Liang^.

over.

TV

rest; to stop.

urge, to press

to importune.

to estimate, to consider;
the quautity or size of; to think

To measure;

See liang^.

TH^

Umg\ To fed

for,

to

sympathize

witiu

expiration; to call ont to; to speak
to: to iuvuke; to cry aloud.

To

Ilsiei hsi^

I,!

vcTcnce, to honor.
jff^

to be iudigaaut

vexed, sorry.

damp, muggy.

treat with veneration
to show respect; decorous, reverent.

ching*.

Fan\

to

to revere

To

at, to

to insult; to scold.

hate^ to dislike

spite

to eutcrtuiii.

Can; able

iV"/ kou
fj^ Kung^.

disposition,

to fulfil,
response an echo
respond; to promise: JSee ying'^.

Ckao ying

be

To entrap; to dupe to iiupose upou to victimize.

Lao^ lungK
of;

tempcraraeut,
JHsposition,
idiosyucrasy, pecniiariry.

chH^.

P'f2

To rebuff

Ch'eng'^

Ilhi^.

digestion

to

'(

to es-

ma hfun

is

To talk lond, to storm
blow up."

Ch'weix /ml.

to des-

to,

friends

am lotli to go to see him; be is
given to storming at people.
26 His methods of entrapping people
are invariably successful.

to hoax.

The spleen

P'P^

it is

if

25 I

teem.

To

doses

esteem lightly.

To have regard

Skwa? hsiao

iu lar^^edoses

intercourse witli
conrteoua.

#

sh'>nld not. ha

takeu iu large
injurious (poisoiions).
importaut principle iu our

takeu

24 The most
VI-

05;!? 1

Chung^ kan\

them

23 This kind of medicine

OS-

ChHng^ k'an\

you look down upon others,

will others

>

4!^

When

19

IJV

-4 aorcercsSy

a witch, a medium.

.

,

MANDARIN LESSONS.

LkSSON' 52.

27 To deceive tmd to hate are two faults
Very easily cmnn]itt('(l.
28 I have never seeu snch a tronblesoaie

%

.^

.
<J

child;
for a

0" 9

.

.^^5^i^

30

si

.^

of

I

_J

31

.

32
>

^
^
A

,

will not leave one's
it is

arms

vexatious.

pronoun

lungt

Hwoii^ liing\l4^^.

I

to clieat to befool.

To

deceive, to befoul.

To

C7

An

Kit^ yi^.

old saying

i^r/"*.

To give alms.
To give alms,

to relieve tlie

poor.

Reputation; fame.

Miiiff shhig'^

Pen^

beguile, to befool.

Aucieut, old ; of old

Ku'^

34

all patieuce; after qnestioaiug liini foi* half a day I liave
foil nd out nothing.
He has just got home and is not yet
rested, and yon forthwith nr.1^(3 In'ni
to go ai^aiu
AVhy are yoa so incuusiderate
His wife is a sorceress and well
versed in the art of deceiving.
The old saying is; The door of charity
is difficult to opeG, aud equally difficult to shut
Do you think relieving the 1)001' is au easy thiag
When a man has the repntatiou of
being a thief, not only is his own family disgraced, hut bis relations aud
friends are involved ia the disgrace.
When we first arrive from tlie foreign
country we can uot speak a single
word, which is very embarrassing.

Chou\

soj'c&ress^ a witch.

Simple, stnpiJ, rustic; used iu letters
for the

33

NT

11
.

^

it

moment. Truly

29 I a in out of

%

I'iZ^'^.

127

autiqnity.

Original home; native place
own family,

chief}.

T"(} jhiK

To disgrace
to

a tradiuon.

oneself, to be put

shame.

No TBS.

!

4

is

I

a neat unci expressive book phrase,

often heard in colloquial. The
force, so that the proper connection

When /i

that.

A
is

carries with

not and,

correlated with

is

it

a telic
hi order

it

but,

always means

here refers to whatever the person iu question had

5

which is usually a noun, is here
been doing or saying.
used iis a verb and, as expressing an emotion, is used caiisutively.
Q The inability here is such as depends on moral causes.
8 Approximately equal to lohat is worth doing at all is
worth doing

well.

Note the

may be

said to be

15 Iu
\V lien

ways

force of

.

being in apposition with

9

it.

23

is

Northei n than

in

quite t'ung-h.^ti'j, but is much more used in
Central ami Soutlieni Mandarin.

In a hnndrad arrows, a hundred hit the
a ready-made Wen-li ph rase, expressing with equal
elegance and force the idea of invariably,

26

others.

The

word
The Chinese has a touch of grim humor
which the translation does not bring out.

of thn

is

followeil

IS
Marruige

by

.

in

is

plural.

added

to

both words at once.

the

is

placed

first to

tUe sense of skUfid,

it is

emphasize
nearly

al-

heie used somewhat depreciatingly for wife,
regarded as a lottery, as is iutimuted iu the use
is

is

d

,

centre-

23

if?

used as a verb.

does not form

a

phrase

usually does.
is used causatively and conveys very
strongly the idea of vexation.

as

it

who, by burning incensw,
is a sorceress
31 A
making motions and repeating prayers and incantations, induces her patron divinity to visit her and give the assiitunce
or infoi miitioii which slie desires.
32 The difEL'ult3' in beginning charity is that the claraoi a
of the beneficiaries will not allow one to stop. These clamors,
if not responded J^o, easily pass into violence.
33 la thib sentence, which is from the Sacred Edict,
is

sliouUl be

Wen-li rather
expanded into

tlian

Mandarin,

-

For Mandaria

i%

1

128

2L

Translation.

_

S>

it

?< |j

ose

:^0,

1^

W

oii

been grievously injured by yon.

leg has been bitten

by a dog.

The Sim ia hidden by clouds.
4 Good men are coustautly being vilified
by the wicked.
[word to say,
5 I reproved liini so that he had uot a
Liu HsiPii Sheu*,^ was offended by me;
(or, I ofFeuded Liu Hsiea Sheng.)
Both childreu have been spoiled by

7

il

IIS

I Iiave

My

3

0^

0?^

3

1

2

yon.

m

tliat Ohiang the mason's leg
been broken by a stone.
9 Every oue that takes the sword shall
1)6 killed by the sword.
10 He was roundly berated by me.
Do not talk boastfully, and you will

8 I hear
lias

>

o

i

1
1-

of 0^

I

avoid being" ridicnled.
a ]>ity that such a fine book
should be worm-eateo.
13 Li Ta Yin lost his suit and his degree
was also taken away.
14 He was very much grieved because
his silver was carried off by robbers.

o

4

-

LESSOa^ L
Passive
to suffer,
is nsed to form the passive,
regular and proper passive foriu of the lauIn the North its use is largely confined to
jrnaiie.
the more stately lan^niaj^e of books ami of literary
men.
la the Sonth it is nincli more extensively
use 1, being the ui'tliiiar'vfm'm used on all occasions.
is tlie

,

to teach, or

to call,

is

What

12

Forms.
the passive, and, in the North, is the generally
used colioqnial form. It is oiily occasionally used
ill the Soatli.
Peking- tejicliors ^i^cnerally use p^

.

^vliilt! tSiiantniJg teacliers prefer
In purely
diitiese Mandarin hooks the two characters seem
to be used indiscriminately.

also used to form

the older, and

is

tlie

more modern form.

VOCABULAUY.

A

Pei*.

bed qnilt or comforter to suffer
from sign of passive: see Sub.

by,

Yun\

'

Clouds, fog

V's'aP,.

•l/j;

A

.

.

-

-

clond.

Kivan^,

-

1!^^

CkuK

H"'itmil accnstoniod
to; inured to

To

laugh

to

at.

to

Kwan}

addicted

KC\

to indul'"'.

inaiilt; to di.slionor; to rail

outrage, to debauch.

at; to

langli at; to ridicule; to

s'iK

.

.

.

A

Skin, hide
.

at

Insects that eat books or furs; to eat aa
these insects do. (l.)

grade from

.

*/w*2.

To

sneer

screen to shade; to hide, to iuterccpt; to protect.

:

rail at, to berate'

To Imigh;

CA'^i h&ia(A

J

Cht To
.

1^

To

shaded; unraerons.

Variegated colored; beautiful, gay.

.

Ju^ ma*
r7'''i

.
.

lawsuit, a case in conrt.

armor;
Hico

io rhnnn^o

to de«

to strike off,

riem

I,

sorry, sad.

&

*

Lesson

MANDARIN" LESS0N3.

53.

^

wonder by whom the viaegar bottle
was l)roken.
17 Truly Wang the Fourth is sharp; yoa
were
deceived by him.
18 It is a pity you listened to his advice,
and thus were lii adored by him.
19 Whea a man is g*ml he is imposed
upon, and when a horse is good lift

01

is

*

M

I

already beeu arrested by the con-

"^

.0

oijn

ridden.

20 If he had not been stirred np by souio
one, he would not have gotten so
angry as this.
21 Thatdrniikiird Waug Chang T*nn^ has

.1^

I

my gown

lire,

16 I

L

#

large hole was barned ia

by the

..

^

A

15

y

.

12

[a kick.

stables,

#

0|1

22 I struck him a blow, and lie gave rae
23 If hereafter we are questioned by any
oue, w hat have we to say
24 There was a Bible here, but I have

Lo,^

not seen it for a long time; it mii^t
be that some one has taken it away.
25 The mau who briugs suit is called the

and the mau

plaiutiff,

Loi

a.i^aiust

whoui

suit is broag'htis called the ilefendaut.

26 Wang, one of the head lictors, illicitly
extorted twenty thousand cash, aud

o

^P

A long dress coat.
A cellar, a hole in the
A cavity, au orifice.

ao\

IS K'u^
Luug\

An

orifice,

Tung

A

ChiuS

follower, a disciple

empty;

t'ur-

-

.

.

A

A court-house,

Ycr.

To minister
.

-

to,

prosecnted for it.
I do not know.

The Holy Scriptures, the
Bible.

A

Yiiev},

a cavity, a

plateau; origin, beginning; natural

W

Pei^
a retainer

futile, in vain.

drunken

a tribunal

to

a

serve

fellow.

an

Tsad^

The

Private,

cha

To

To

CIde}.

policemea.
nuderlings iu a ya-

clandestine.

accuse falsely; to extort, to

lift

as a cover, to raise up; to

up,

bring to mind

Official attendants

illicit,

lictors

squeeze.

office.

undeiiings,

plaintiff.

defeiidaut.

Policemen;

pari}-

Si^ hsia^

gfj^l^ Od^

Les. 126.

The

Yiien^ kao^

to see through.

low fellow

Z*.

1E§ ShSng^ shu\
ground,

Vinegar, pickle.

7'"2,

beiuii:

originally, really:

a gorge

A'cave, a dell

Ts'u^

now

dog whose owner

a hole.

hole

@

is

A

27

Ghie kcuA

To

to state to snperiors.

and

reveal

accQse,

to

meii, constables.

charge, to prosecute,

To

Ckoa}
Ilwei^ tat

Shzng^.

seize; to arrest; to catch

To answer,

Intuitively wise

to respond.

aud good,

cred; sage, wise.

hohj, sa-

Tou
Ku7i^.
SoCi^,

--

-

-

.

.

To

tswei^

^
A

steal food.

stick; a staff; a club; a

cord,

ii

rope.

kuave.

Also soa^ aud soaK

130

came
whea

>

eat,

struck him a blow with a
stick aud drove him out.
28 Li a KwoaFnhas been deceived until
he is over suspicious. Even when
yon tell him the plain truth he
suspects it is a lie.
29 He who is oDce bitteu by a serpent, is
startled the next time at the sight
of a black rope.

>

^

something to

ia to steal

14^

olf

I

^OTES.
To

7

by

spoil

indulging in the

practice

of

12
same sense.

is

more or

less

as here used

15

is

wSn

being largely used in the

exclusively Southern.

It is used

North of a rat hole, or of any hole or cavity iu
solid, which is used to contain or secrete something, but
not of a hole which perforates.
10 A common suying made humorous by a play on the
which have the same sound, differing only
words
and
in the

i\

,

in tone,

22 The

The sentence may be translated passively thus: ffe WCM
and I iva.s struck a kick by him.
is one of the divisions or classes of underlings
26
in a i/a imn whose business it is to act as lictors or executioners.
The classes are usually divided into sections, each having
a head.
These headmen are distinguished by their surnames.
Hence
is that one of the headmen of the lictors whose
name is Wang.
ly.

struck a bhto by me,

vicious hnhit?.

active form gives the sense accurately and brief-

27

fo steal

aomething

to steal

to

put

applied to one who from being repeatedly
28
deceived, becomes excessively suspicious.

The Instrumental Verbs
are both ia common use as instruand
mental verbs. They may sometimes he trauslated
an
as verbs, bat are generally best rendered by
instrumental preposition. In most cases the seuse
be used, though
or
is quite the same whether

a mouth; i.e.,

in the mouth.

there

and

.

often a choice in regard to

is

rhythm; also

phrases or connections one

iu certain

uot the other.

is

nsed aud

In Southern Maudaria

is

used

beiug rarely heard.

almost exclusively,

VoCAEULARr.

^

Esien}. ...

A

pole; a wooden shovel, a shovel,

Snow; snowy

Ilsiie^

7"'i".

To

to whiten.

scrape up; to manipulate;

make a resnm^; a pinch; a haudfiil.
A deep diah, a bowl.
Wan^

^

To

Yao^
7V"!2.

To

i'iiWL^

to

dip up or

rhythm,

A

out.

To
rs'oa\

3/o(i^

To rub

hctweeji the

"W,

IR/i' change

hamh

sewmj; machine.
Pnn^. *r^."r:

A

literary essay.

:

.

To stroke with

A

T'wei^ pao'.

to twist; to

by rubbing.

fondle, to

A

Also miK

iu the band.

stroke affectionately: to toy with.

stTiib

sew, to stitch. AUo/!"y*.

ts'ai^/^nif^-

off,

Also motA

.To ml)

Soa^

tailor.
'i'-ees

pivot; to shear, to cvt

fe^'l for.

1^

style ; to transfer, to

See Viad^,

:

To stroke with the hand; to handle; to

Moa\

To cut out g<irie/ds; to cut, to trim
to regulate, to plan.
to dimiuish

jjl^ I

^^' A

bull out

move

Chiad^

take with the fingers; to gather
up, to

to

A tane;

Tifu>4.

...

p!(tm

t(
t

the,

hand, to

y witli. (s.)

to plane, to level off.

A

carpenter's pIauo<

MAN:T)Ar»TN

"Lesson 54.

LESSOJTS.

131

Translation.

3

Take the wooden shovel and clear

1

away this suow.
2 Take a bowl aiul clip up some water

oti

oil

western conutries most people do
sewing ou sewing machines.
4 Please take some paper and wrap up
3

J

III

their

oi

these mecliciues.
5 For washing the face sonic like to nse
hot water, and some like to use cold.
6
have no stoues here for building
walls; all oar walls are made of
pounded earth.
7 lu writing essays, I have become
Iialntnated to this style.
8 He seut wonl by telei^raph, and could
not go into particulars.
9 If you use the scissors with yonr left
ha ad again, I will cut off one of

>

We

55^||
>¥>m

ii

o

^

g

0^ 0!!

fs

05;^

0%

I
0%

Hivodr- pan^,

,rfii;.

A

/

.->

form or paire of movable
movable type.

type,

To try
tempt
;

Phi^

to

fItmnKt'

test

to

tu
.

to exaoiiue; trained.

Native ; this place.

The

Hung^ hwa>
JcaA To d'/e

Q .a

M

'!

Fhig^

FM,

.

.

A

Glue

.

gnm;

Chie^

safflower.

T'imi
Ilsingi..

.

.

.

to

glue;

precepts.

A ferule;

eli'i^

fy?*

vile, refuse.

A ferule;
Dignif}/,

a rnler.

a ruler,

(s.)

becom-

propriety

The

raao:istrate

a

who

presides

^pr eject,

sticky

obsti-

To subscribe money,
to buy a title or an

Chden^,

A

A'^^i.
.

-

-

A

a gradation; a rnle;

an

ex'ctmination. Les. 68.

K-p^ ckia\
telescope.

a planet; a spark; a dot.

ami

to contribute;
office.

class; a ranli
to classify;

paste, to stick, to glue.

weii^ citing^.
star,

from

small eartlieu furnace.

To

A

to eucircle.

iug, decorous.

_

ChftY}\ niens

.fraiu

T'P t'ung\

nate; stupid.
if

.

over a

Ordure, dung; manure;

Chiao.

t

Auiliiie red.

Iw^.

.

ring; a bracelet

Chk^angi

to taint; to infect; to catch a
disease; to soil; to imbue; to vitiate.

PHnS hung -.

.A

Chie^^ To warn, to caution; to guard; to re-

experiment

ti^

The plauet Saturn.

T-u^ hsiiig^

Mineral acids.

OhHang^ shwei^
Shi^.

your fiugers.
10 Wliea yoa write to your teaclier, yon
should use a sheet of nice paper.
Wan<^ Lao-yie was pleased with the
1 1
chiM aud stroked its head with his
hand.
12 "When yoa are too stingy to nse a 0^0 od
]ten, how can you do good writing?
13 This board is not level (even); take
a plane and plane it for me.
14 Tiiis book was printed with movable
See how distiuct it is.
lead type.
If it will not brush cleau with soap,
1 5
then try a little acid 011 it.

.

Literary graduates above the
the rank of
A; viz.3

m

K

132

11 |f

16 All native cloth of good red color

dyed with red flowers.

§i}
17

know how
You haven't

to nse aniline red.

you want

buy this and bay
you buy it with

What

_

^

When

19

1|1^

^

that.

you farm without usiug uiauure,

how can you grow a good crop
20 You uced not nail it; gluing it

>

will

auswer the purpose.

iJj;

5^15^

a cash on baud, aacl yet

to

will

is

not

18 Cookiug for one person is most
conveniently done with a furnace.

>

s|

We do

21 Wiiea

you look at Satnrii with a
yon see around it a largo
ring of light which is very beautiful.
"When a teaclier whips a pupil lie
telescope,

of^

ini

21i

{Hi

should

tlo

it

with a ferule.

with his

strikt^s

list

If

lie

aud kicks with

*

o|l

m

-

of0#_^

>

]) re

.

but

its

use

is local.

is

cxprtsses the idea perfectly,
vvidoh-

(usually into u duab pan or

ii

but

(1,

''

i

it

means

Kiukimig and Hankow teachers
Pltase

T-'iU,

tctke.

to

scrape

,

wliile

"write

When

%.

13

Th
iiseil

ami

ivrap

thczt

up

books the telegraph

is

c;iu

these impecnui-

r.iise.l rim forsuppdi-iing ;i te i kuttle m- a sti-w-pan
Tltesi
fm-n;iccs buni eitherolrii-eoalor 'Jims'? <'lii<1 sticks and are fanned
or blow II with :i sni.iU bellows huuce the nanio, wind /aniacCf
wliioli U usctl ill til': .South.
91

23
is

Tlie transUiLi'in only i?npiies the inalruineiit, wliiuli

fully cxpres.'^ed in the Chinese.

means

South, but

ill

a/ertilet botli in the

thtj S'nitli it is
is

only app'iotl

North mul

t.'

tlio

iti

the

fiTulos URtnl

applied to the ferule useil

by a

gonerally CciUed

was introduced into China I ho people dubbed

it

What

" furnace " h-rc roforrorl to is ihc sm ill e:\rtlieii
hy tlie Chinese, having holes in the bottom, ami

hy oflkers, while

scientific

out and out, the office of

feet.

.

22

these meilicines

with jtaptr.

8 In

S

furnace

atlur th;in to sliovol.

Chinanfu teachers roject both w ords and write

4

Cliaug

have
to
have a degree. Look
Chiug Taug, how he
nowaday;^,

ons crinliiatos do

,

Shantung,

to

is

bon^U'lit,

but tlie balance of
1 For ftliovel some wouM write
authority ia in favor of tiie ch iractcr in the text. There is
As
greut diversity in regard to tlie word meaning to shone f.

up

people

at

T E

usetl in eastern

23 Witli

inouey

m "

loses his diguity.

liis foot, lie

TIio transUtion dot? 8 not fully bring out the force of

means, sole, sheer; that is, tlio party Ixihght
sheer uso of tuoiitiy, ovon idin^ all the proprieties of the case.
The theory of (' lincai! examinations is
till" tliey "rc for the purpose of liringing to li;^U the talented
de^'ree
is tiinoroticiilly a passpni-t, to ""ice.
men, and a
Ah is grnt^rally tlie case in (Jhin:i. theory and practice dilTur.
Morv'y will f^et almost any of lice wiilumt a liiorfiry ilegreo,
and ilic ili^irree without tli'— uso of tntjucy rai i^ly, if ov'-r, pntcin 03 lui oflicu,
Tlie i(iv("'m""iit. uponly sdU its titles anil
orticoy, and tho money paid for lln'in i.s fa;;ctiou3ly spoken of

use inipli(*<t tlmt IIhj "il>j'M:t, Imd boon referred to
Heforo. unrl the npcnkor t;ikoA tliiH r>|'p''rtinity uf Hliowin^ a
Rpecitnen of tliu printing ah uhoii »u auy, " tlierc, tliia buok,
•tc."

heinj; tin: fiiftt of tlx; ton stoma, or cy hcul
as rontrihuted.
chanictors, is ukimI to denote tirst in nnU, mc:ii"ng that tlioy
oxcci tho ot liera with whom tliey aro i'xaiuine<l, and licuco
aiu row aiduil with u du^jroc.

it

23

Ilia otiice

parents constantly threaten their children in
a reckless way ns tliis. Tlic chiUlrt'U soou le.irn to

<Jhin*>fie
jtiHt Hii<:h

know

wliat

hiicIi tiir<'at!i aiiiontit to.

10 N''t« how
and

'J'Jrul,

tnitHlation

8t*ii!eiu:e, as also tlic 12th, 19th, 21st
hypothclical clauBijS intioiliicoil in the
" when, " without in any case having a liypotlictliifl

all liiive

I'y

tical partiolo.

.

14

Itfl

:

liore

hy

tlie

'

t

I
r.ESSOK

MAND AlUN LESSONS.

5.

133
Translation,

1

It

just

is

uow cm

the poiul of

lieiug'

settled.

g

2

6

3 Are yon about to return
4 The Cliristiau roliKion will certainly
be preached in all the world.
5 I am not satisfied to entrust it to him.
I shall probahly have to jjo mysel

M

l-o

V

^

f

i

^

>

will

9 Seeing

pay thee
he has

all.

been

so

self-willed

from his youth, do you think there
is any great outcome in him

oi

-

10 It

*

11

,

AND

is now nearly thirty years
came to Chiua.

Judging from

his talk, he

is

since he

iutondinfj

INDICATING FuTURITY.

In a(]dition to its nse as an instrnmental verb,
iy alsousedto express the near future,
28)
combiuiiig with it more or le s of the idea of
probability.
It tjeneNxlly takes 2}5 after it, which
does not sensibly modify its rat'aniiig(2,)(9.) The
combination, however, often takt^s aftt'r it either
17,) or
(1 ,) or
4>,) by which tbe
rueauiiig is modified in each case.
When
is used alone with an iutransitive or
couter verb, it expresses simple proximity (10,)
(Les.

^

What

are you showing your fists and
rolling up your sleeves for? Are
you going to strike me?
7 Judging from the way the barometer
is failing, il; is just goiag to rain.
8 Please have patience witli me and I

6

oi
1

probably can uot get well of his

disease.

iio%

^

He

]

is nse J in some places to express futurity,
including the idea of purpose or onglitness.
la
other places
is used in the same way.
lu a
general way it. may besaidl hat
is used in Central
.

and

iu

Southern Mamlariu.

is

used occasion-

.

ally iu the North, but is always followed by
The use of both
and
is quite colloquial,
albeit they frequently give a shade of meaning

which no other word will quite replace. It is a
question whether
is not iu this case simply a
misprouuuciatioD of

.

Vocabulary.

WeiK Not yet, never; the hour from
f/]^^. o'clock P. M. Les. 152.

PierA Everywhere aW, the whole;
;

around, to pervade:

Lu^Acy^. To
Fhigi

yii?

Ts'i^

aud

V

'i

Self-opinioned: seU-willed; arrogant, overbearing.
;

chH

barometer.

To fall,

to descend.

i.'

ChweiK

be indulgent.

talk,

To pnrsne;

to trace or follow up; to
press for a debt; to overtake
to

reflect on.

ChweV- chiu\

To follow np;

to investigate;

to ferret cat.

Yang^ hwoa\

lenient, to be merci-

./ul^ to

Manner of speaking,
phraseology.

86.

To descend.
To be

fLjwan'^jmg'^,

sm

K'ou^

entire; togo

Les. 64

A

piaoS

Hsia^ cMangK

i

to 3

strip; to wipe off; to rub down.

Hsia^ lao^

iis^i'^'?

1

fl

Ycb^

Dumb,

To nouriBh;
silent

to

supporU

i

-

34

M

^
1^

S

tar.

g

Is;

.
-

OS-

^

lio

Yon
know how to spend it. By aud by
who is going to support yon
14 What cau I do with one who is a
13

KU?

nariK

-

.

oi- 2

«

silent,

-

-

HaoK

An

official

To draw

messenger; a conIIsieiA

tvatrr

A

A

staff,

A

and carry
it is

it

A

ou

silence!

of; to be addicted

To encumber,

obstruct

to

To

fall into, to sink;
eutrap, to inveigle.

To

to

carrying stick.

proposition, au affair;
( li

to In-giii

ail,

lift,

to

up; to

move

a

the wliole.

To iutroduce, torecommend,

ien*

To recommend,

carrying' stick with a cliaiu

72'"i

To

lien\

to

mention with favor.

lose

face,

to

be

put

to

shame,

a pulley; a roller.

windlaaa

involve; to

eDCiimber, iinpi'de.

'i'o

recommend
flat

to

raise with the hands, to

T'wei} Vod}.

pulley.

To make
to

excuse

draw buck,

to

evade;

to shirk.

windlass.

Shwei^

.

.

A

.

.

.

.

A pump;

To expel snramarily,
.

ont, to

Dark;

(1

or express certainty:

sis

dragon, a sea serpeut; imperial.

'Shwds lung^,

J(in\ Certainly, yes, so; but, then, liowevor:
adtled to many wonU to give cm plin-

A chaia or elevator pump:

c/ri^.

Note 7.

'

fond

\

See haoK

Tai^ hsien^

7"3.

a cane; a club; a pole.

grooved wheel

A

.1

quiet;

to

wauled.

and hook at the emh.

Jt5 -'

love, to be

to.

Flat, tbiu; to flatten; a signboard.

.

C/^ang*

A

To keep

clog, to impede.

Pien^ tan*

f.f(ng\

To

Tai^ lei\

the place where

...

some will certainly cluuige to puni|is.
18 Let him follow his uwu couvenicnce.
It* he wishes to go I will uut keep
him, and if he wishes to stay I will
not send him off.

-

Ta^ s/iweP.

Lu\

(Jhiua, at present, water is raisofl
with a carrying pole, a rope, a windlass, or a water-wheel
by nud by

tlie ^\)'

stable.

.

III

Distress, trouble, calamity.

.

Ch'ai^ j^n^.

.

17

C/fiao^ moa^ sheng^,

ch'a}, also is*i\

Pien\

prospective relative
I will just
have to bear the loss in silence.
15 Wbeu
am iu trouble he will not
help me: by ami by wlien he is iu
trouble I shall Dot help him.
16 Just before daylii^lit ou the ninth,
he was arrested by the officers of the
law.

ti^

To send (a person); to commission; one
sent; aw official messenger; a waiter.

Ch'aiK

Sp

Dumb,

Va^ pa}

O Hi

7

jllss

I^P

there to investigate
There
a shadow of such a tiling.
cau not earn money; you only
is

isn't

..

>^

What

2

1« 3^>|

o II.

go into hnsineas, and does not
propose to carry his education very

to

a

fire

engino.

to put or tarn

^^f^Pu^ jaiiK

Not

quiet; iu the miud.

no

15

1

16.

otherwise;

if not.

~

Ji
-

s/t'i-.

At one time,

riv ( out.

sccri't,

see Les. 94,97,
certainly,

at once,

on

ike

spur

Vj the ViOllU'Hl

Chie" tai*

To

receive; to entertain.

g
©

Lkssok 56.

MANDAKIN LESSONS

I

11)

11^

135

This business is beset with difficulties.
I do uot know how it will be best
to

^

>

a.^i

^ol

^^

manage

it.

20 If I should make any reply to him, 1
fear I should oflbud him yet I really
cau uot swallow it in silence.
21 So gluttonous and lazy as this, yon
will most likely keep your husband
poor all his life.
22 I am afraid to recommend him, lest
he puts me to shame; yet if I do
not, I have uo way of excusing
myself.

23

Wheu
sit

you get nearly there yon can

dowu and smoke a couple

of pipes
while yon send some
one forward to give him word;
otherwise, I fear he may find it
difficult to entertain so mauy on the
spur of the moment.

of tobacco,

I

-^^F'

g

Q

FFt-l

1^

Notes.
or
is an inversion of the usual order,
7
the auxiliary being made the principal verb. The difference is,
that the usual order is commonly transitive, while the iuverted order is always intransitive.

14
ytt

affinity is to

'

flicted

a relative who ha., not
througli m iiuin the

'

croAmd the door

i.e.

take place

,

is

the

young lady

not yet married.

thi dumb Ions of his ; i.e., this loss which he has inon me, and which I must bear in silence. By a clm-

M

hen wells are shallow, the Inicket is let down on
r?
the hook of the (an chaiig into the well, and drawn
up bv
hand. When the well is too deep to reach the water in
tin's
".ay a rope is tied to the bucket and the water drawn
up
hand over hand. In watering gardens and in case nf deep
vt;Us u windlass is used. In raising water from a river
or
canal for irrigation, a species of inclined chain pump is
used.
It IS usually cl liven by a large horizontal wheel with
co'-'s
°
turnoil liy au
ox or donkey.

21 The phrase

hanVering after good eatP
at work, is most commonly applied to giria and
"'iini^ wo men.
It expresses the worst fiiult a virtuous woman
.

racteristic mptonj'my the dumbness
pertain to the speaker, are construed

and

loss,

wliich really

with the other part}'.
might be represented iu the translation by an
a/.«o but the sense is better expressed and the sentence
smoother without it.

15 The

)

I

"/

""tl h'

can ha\

e.

23 Note the different use of
from that
The two words there form phrase here Lhey do not.

in

16,

a,

II

\

The Disjunctive Cox junction".
is

the regular word meaning

nearly so ranch used as

we use

ot%

but

is

or in English.

the majority

Iu

cases the dis-

mauy, perhaps

in

junctive idea

implied in the structure of the

clauses, as

is

of,

(11) unmerous such cases have already

occurred iu previous lessous.

is

for the

clauses, withoat

auy special word

or else, is a Weu-li phrase, but not unfrequently used iu Mantlariu.
It also means perhaps^ possibljf.

When

often joined

sake of rhythm.
WhMke'r or, is formally expressed by
repeated, but is also frequeutly expressed by correlate
with

' is sometimes expressed by one
sometimes by two (6) (8).

Eithe)'

not

(9), (15.)

a double qaestiou

is

alternative, the second clause

asked, giving* au
is

often iu trod need

by

which, ia such cases, means

(16).

It generally gives a slight

to the

second alternative.

0}\

(4), (13),

prepouJeranc^

S

136

TRAySLATION.

.

%

to-morrow before deciding
whether to go or uot.

1

W;iit

till

2

Use a

little

ftl^

>

sol-

^

^

Do you want

w
1,

by

in

all

copper cash,

is.

or

imicli

little,

to give

yon ought

him a

cnnisliaw.
D 1 :un nudocided ut ])reseiit whedier
it is best this way or that way.
10 Does the gentleman wish to drink
rice vrater or tea?
Arts, Either

izi^

rii^Iits

will do.

hook from wliich yon are learnMandarin written or printed
12 When you are physically so weak as
this, you oaght to eat more goucl
food, or take some tonic mediciue.
1

01!

^

how it
Whether

S

0

^

it

waut a few notes?

mediciue may be taken either
four or five times a day,
Lend me a little I pray yon, eitlier
of mouey or of something to pawu.
7 Whether this or that, say quickly

L

^0^
*

4

5 This

>

OPT

^

1^

aud

You can go and ask hiru, and yoti
will know whether it is so or uot
or do yon

Loi

soup,

little

cleau.

3
„i^oil

>

soda or a

wash

will

it

ii

5?

^

o_

Is tlie

1

VOCABULARY.
moreover,

Doubtful

Ilwot*.

moy;

or, either:

perhaps,

Clip, Tliia, that whicli; what;
a \Vc7i-li parIt takes the
tide with many uses.
})lace of
as used iti Les, 23 aud 39.
aud of
t is

occasionally uj^ed in Maudariu.

Ban'

Chk"t?',

1

1:1

hull

Ilsiihchang^ sheng^

if,

A ruler,

2'iK

""

warm

--.

.

Shen^

Pu»

"/

'

Ronp, gravy

Broth,

1.

t*P.

rice

water ; a

spriu^i^.

The body, the physical frame.

yao*. -W^.-.

Ore;

.

play, to jest, to make fuu; a theatrU
cat play, a comedy.

Somet.liiug pawned, or given

t'ou^,

in pled<^e.

7'

.

P'i/i(/". ..J t

.y.

Overgrown, tangled, (w.)

Lar

.A

thistle; uutiilcd laud,

A district or oonnty
}7"2.

Tonic mediciue, tonics.

a mine; the matrix of a gem,

Vacant, empty; niitrne; siniulatec/; iinsiilistaTitijil
exhausted; humble; space;
S!",

ubsiract.

Autliorify

form;

in

flnpuoe; dignity; strength;

cuudil iuu.

in

(w.)

Eastern Shunt

iinj^.

To sanntor, to raniLle; to travel for
... arnusomciit, to malce a circuit.

To samiter about

ku'(n"j.

^.itu

-

/^vt:

]• il^ang^

nncoiiilitioiictl

a potentate, an emperor; a gen!;

Supreme Ruler; Heaven.
The god of war.
ti^

To
^vv*-.*^.

Tang*

a flourish of trunipers.

the
Ktvaii^

<1e-

n,

feiut, to make

monstratiou or

impure soda, it is ubout
caustic aud half carbouate.
or

To make

$h'i\

see Hub.

4.

V

-

To view the couutry,

ching^.

MiATtWV

fir-sr-V

to take a
walk, to visit for pleasure.

V.

.

.

to

enjoy the scenery^ to

trn vel for pleasure.
sini|»lo;

pare; contented; hereto-

^tT. fore, furtuerly usuaWj,
Comuiouly,
P.i'ii^ su

ordinarilij^

Leqson

MANDARIN LESSONS.

56.

R

i

13 I hear that you people are going to

open a

111^

<|

137

silver mine.
Is it trae
not rather false
14 Mere empty talk will not do.
Yoa
must either leave u pledge or find

or

^L

y

..

is

it

security.

15 The letter simply said
liot telling

^0%

whether

was

Iio

his sickuess

sick,

waa

sevtire or uot.

16 lu Your Excellency's opinion are they

&y

really goiu^ to fight

or are they
simply making a teiiit
17 Do yoa waat to go to the temple of
the god of war to hear a theatrical
play or do yoa want to go to P'6ug
Lai
to uauuter about (enjoy the

{<H

>

*

^

ifs

view)
18

He

is ordinarily not
a man who
breaks bis word. His not coming
to-day mnst be owing to sickness,
or else some important business has
turned np so that he can not

>

li

leave.

oil

19 I do not know whether he is studying
iu order to get a degree, or whether
he is preparing himself to go into

rs

Lasiuees.

To break one's word,

ShV- hsin\

.,

to vio-

To

Chiao^/u^,

late a promise.
.

To meet;

to occur, to

To meet;

FiZ* chien^

To

T'oc^ sMn}.

transfer; to deliver to; to

baud over
happen.

to

happen

Yi'n}

to,

News, word, specially that
which comes by word of mouth.

hsin\

on.

escape; to find leisure;

commit

to; to

Shou^

Age^ years; birthday

aged.

to leave,

.4*r^'Age in years

/

7'"2

/si'i

hsii}.

To

necessary.
T'ieriS

flesire; to

want;

to

aim; to

ming

seek after.

To

desire;
scheme.

Ch'eng^ ming^.

Fu\

usual

needful

f7sf''i;"?- 'Required,

To give

to, to

to

seek

for;

To designate,

Ch'higi hu}.

to

life*

Fate, the decree of Heaven;
the endowment of heaven.
to call; (o ad-

dress,

To get a
hand over^

Si€tng

degree,

The Ruler Above, the Supreme
Ruler, Used by many for God.

ti\

to pay.

Not ES.
1 The translation implies that the person to go was
The Chinese, however, leaves this
the person addressed.
It might also mean, whether I go or not,
quite undecided.
wait fill to-morroio to consider.
4 Bank-notes are largely naefl in China, but their circulation is entirely local. Usually they are only current in the
city in which they are issued.

7
this or that.

whtthar

ea,et

or whether west

; i.e.,

tither

10 The water
as a drink,

mm14 The

in

which

^
^

is

17

been boiled
It

twice used for emphasis.

form replaces the second
tions

rice has

especially just after meals.

|§ means

with

to Jib to tell

the Chinese

but
* *

white "

is

is

much ased

usually called

The Southern
in other conneolies.

god of war, also called

I

133
20 I know jonr works,

>

>

i^o^

that

neither cold Dor hot,

I

you are
would you

were either cold or hot.

0&

^

o

that she would get word from bim.
22 Whether a man's life be long or short,
is fixed by the decree of Heaven.

How

the true

is

isiov

,

century, in

in the province of Siiansi,

and

He subsequently

joined Liu Pei, ami in course of time became a celebrated
general.
He was finally taken prisoner ami put to death by
beheading. He was canouixed by Hwei Tsung, of the Sung

Dynasty,

in

the l-2lh ccntnrj' A.D.

,

untl in the

Lord

of

Heaven,

Ruler,

may

be used.

Snpteme

or

ai e in fact

reputed

is

to be addresseil

theatrical perform;inces are given.
These theatrical ilisplays
a part of the worship, being supposed tu be pleasing to I lip. r;oiIs.

lived in the second

to have been originally a seller of bean-curJ.

God

Either Heavenly Father, or

A71S.

He

commit

day he would come home, or else

fore

23

His name as a man was

her ruiud to

her husband to God, hoping that he-

#

>

.H^-i

Hauuah made up

21

A noted

temple at Teiigchow, built on a

rock overlooking the sea,
the same
lar

Ming Dynasty

way

as

wliioh consists of

-

meaning.

is

liigh

does not form a phrasu

jjj

a verb with

Us

two

object,

i:i

vurlis of simi-

and means,

to

the rank of
The present dynasty lias put
especial honors upon him, conferring on him the pompous

look at (he r'trr, to survey the scenery.

The Great Sovereign ( or God J, Peer of
Heavtn, ami causing; many temples to be built to him.
He
haa a temple in nearly every village. Theatricals are generally held in connection with temples. Kach templo has some
let day in tlie year, on which special worship is offered and

fe, which w ould make the meaning more explic t.
In order lo make the meaning clear as the sentence stuntls,

was

raise'l to

title

LIESSOHSr

22

it is

^

miglit be twice inserted

necessary to speak the words

each with
pause between them.
phiitically,

tliua,

^

I'lJ

slowly

'jji'I

cm-

proper toue, aud with a didtiacb

its

XiV

Approximation.

Mandarin has a large variety

of words to exthe general idea of approximation, oacli
havii)g its own peculiar use and shade of meauiug.
Ill n'LHU'd to a nninber of these phrases the usage
differs in iliffereiit places, aud some of them are
decidedly colloquial.

(m.

and

Correct, all

little difference, (s.)

near

tin;

^

Ahoiifc,

"r
'1'

riu:iit,

oft",

not far from

- L'arl)',

tlie

ail but.

far off, uot so b:ul,

fair,

Tlic same. (n. and. c.)

mark.

Approximately.

no mistake:— Lc3. 70.

fairly gootl, all right.

Tlio same, (s.)

T

[uissahlc.

buf, within a

mark.

Nearly, somewhere about, uear the
liiir,

all

hair's breadth.

Not very

c.)

Almost, very

mark,

far

little.

The same.

ft

little

Almost,

i

.

Not

Almost, very nigh, very

S

]^

_

Almost, about.
diflFereiH.'e.

Nearly, within a

Pfi

press

No
the

great

difference,

abont

[very near.

siiiiir.

or

Nearly, almost, woli

ui-Ii,

P'oa\ Everywhere current. 9t'^l^ ^terminate. or surprise. Buckwheat. . a ban^. inch (Chinese). it imately the same. to interrupt. away tang^. Ck'wd^ yien\ c/"'3. Shang^ ckin^ Ku}. of late he has been 1 1 writing. but the buckwheat is a failure. This [garment] is too ragged. ladder t'P-. Kan^ declivity a slope a hill a ter- race.. c. C/r/ftf^^C^i-^-c^r" Mai\ modK Buckwheat. To estimate^ to reckon. . A C/iiK See To Ch'ung. To ta (. reckless.i S Lesson 139 MANDAIIJN LESSONS. to beat upon. Blind. ofcfl! 8 Even r ( 11^ 0. to push. to be near. 6 The English langauge is now current almost all over the world. 16. to 91. precipice. 5 All the other crops are fairly good. 12 Just when we had reached the middle of the river. that oue is fairly good.^ ^ }w you can not repeat exactly. pnsli over . A stairway. 57. . a great rise of water Come 11 li- Vocabulary. to approximate. 7 The (lay before yesterday Yung Hsi fell dowu stairs aud was stunned almost >> 0& .'a?'. Diligent. a hank. final iuterro^i^^ative particle express- An 7s'un* ing doubt.) win- T'tmg'^ hsing'^ T'tK ch'wang\ C!iwanff4. but often used as a mere expletive. to miscarry. a step-ladder. to sever. ^% ^ < Thanslation. YVicL come 5^ It .. ignorant. sO- Wheat.. They are approx- ^ oil ^ man 4 Yesterday a > workmen. Lou^ A Ch iie^. 9 How floes this class of paper compare witli that? Ans. nearly. to bnrry.' --. or run against. a ladder to an upper stury or oft. almost. (n. A Jf"i'2. . to ex- verv. I'll sell to yon. . To ponud. ku . a rumor. " f*^?^lA report. indeed. 10 There is no considerable difference in their skill. 2 You have not seen bis writing for a long timo. raiuute. a shore.i^ht to come very near it. avt'ryitHe. Patrimouy. strike and overturn. few.v well iudeed.ver. Chia camj strike or dash a. to appraise. to considfir. Yifigi The same. u'euW" fortaue. fl** ilsia}* Chia} . cliin^. and if yon come anywhere near the price. ^ & to death. to strike to noniiht. assiduous. to (by water). 1 ^ e l away ray pipe. off. to 3et Also . To cut (T Chhoang^ to stairs. chance. property. to steep. f To fail. --. to clioat. extremely: ' Lcs. . The English language. very nearly snatch- differ very little. snlttle. steps. ^ A. The same. truly. : Les. Ch^n^ chhig^ Really. a price. they are both good o 0§ if yet yoa on. 3 I jadire the aees of you twof^entleraeti if they differ at all. corae back! Add a 1'< more. o2 back.:^aiDst.

15 It need not be two inches broader. aud onr talk came very near ending in a quarrel. Aspect^ tuien. 20 What do you think of the essays Liu Ilsi K*ung aud Wang Tsoa Ch'in<^ wrote for the examinations? A/js. man somewhat the larger family. A s/Zi*. air. deiueuced. . to tear. fwod*" /tH^. 105. rv'-'- A > [ '- 'e TAe^. the two brothers are about the same..^ jlw ^^ but carried be is not very far from it. to invcht. /nrm. to take tlw aggregate.'' To bnrst. . Ch'€nt^\ F" into a quarrel. to appraise. profitable. . niu^ Lung* of monial To get r?^ if Actions bearing^ behavior. 721 c/iie^ K'. An tioDs. but the elder has > '. flnrronnd. blem. i'. ruand a Ono a v'diajt.-U^ vj^. To consider. a resemblance. the time. The same. Very fair. to wreucb -. calculate. 14 I heard a report that on the way his cart upset.) . the cholera.IM 7 — 140 > came and we were 7 13 That ol- 1 .^ ^ Kii^ liapg^. even also: . Broken Also chaK To crack open.) Hope. 19 I talked with him a while yesterday evening. to besiege . (s.) Excellent. shoe or ini^ot of silver containin^ ubonf. If it is one inch broader it will. 0?-^*p 8 • > 0. any uervous disease. image. . coal (n. not . an em- Ch'i< hsiang^ lifcy. o > Xiu^. paying. diligently. inutriaffairs. a move. after the other. iu pieces. to fall through* ffwoa* Iwan^ "'" Cholera.r all away.to If little we work C7zii3p. The rapid disease. etc. to split. and came withia a ^^o^. to wriggle. Both have a prospect of getting their degree. be about right.'WaU Zi lien^. to sprain : V: i . exumiuaAlso chang\ Clii^ wanyi* ^ . 16 As to wealth. or at least coine very near it. down the I calculate we marriage alliance. prospect. The elophant. to .. to gne:i3. Vuen* pao^. - C7i!wi wriug. ^ falliug tojly to pieces. imf\ Leprosy palsy j^abid. u lort ificJiUon. . (c. To spnt a dollar. on the whole. bits. theatricals. To -- Lea. insaoe. I think. To reckon Roa^ swan\ nj'.s. Xao^ not a child is cau finish. 1WR . Both children were knocked down by the animal. on'f^inal. C(ia^. hiang^. the peacock. coi}srcutive^ together wil h. to burst. h:- 0 S ^:s'f^ 1 101|1|> I 7 very bank. open plot of j^ronnd an arena for drill. and he came very near being crasbed to death. primary large great. (i I'ty taols. ta'uTKj^ 5f The same.' From First. To f wist. Wei^.

aud he came very near bitiug me. that village qf ours. (generally of stone) are built fur greater prutectinn en the t'. lit.e. saying'. Pekingese prefers used with only a few verbs. thing. are auxiliaries. liave fallen through again. Notes. is of note that if 25 has just refused an an exaggerated form of expressing does not here fi'randiiig porfaiif. the north road is a little better. The south road is a little crossing.e.MANDARIN LESSONS. thattheday before yesterday his father was seized witU cholera and came very near dyiug. Ever since his son sent him the two ingots of silver. a eommuii idiomatic made if flee with their valuables in case of danger. and to these the . U 2 1. al21 most any story or incident wliicli has even the least sem. this marriage proposal would. break or stop the breath For a temporary suspension of breathing. to go. They were so called because they did not shave their he^uis. aud came very near ^\. the — larger villages generally have fidol)e walls arnund them. used iu addressing an uneducated man. and its letter use as a olassifier is omitted. there is very little dilfereiice. a dif- i. is abbreviate. is a Wen-li jhrase which use haa the In some places substituted for it. 15 17 intelligible. proper and no mistake. on the whole. lit. If I had not gone early. case. his aspect has greatly changed. . tlie II This oITer. is to be from the character 26 If stranger. they besieged tlie wall of onr village for five consecutive days. Words which are. they can talk so well that in tlieir mouths the most im•. is here put for Such aa abbreviation tlie is noun. written . and n is where two in others is streets cross. 22 usually pro- from home. 141 there are some men in the world who know how to talk. almost i.. most likely. — ~ ' means term fS may be either a the place bei'Vg derived —. is the language of one aud the customer has started — 13 that one is ly the who is 23 P3 is the'classifier of aim oat limited to thia one nouncf^il as 24 It is worthy same as mean again. $ * might be oinitted without (lutrimeut to 9 The second sentence. to speak alive blance of truth or reality. as in thia home. I Thft classifier takes the .ps of hills by several vilKiges in common. word is commonly so to aud used. i. He has just received a letter from hoTiae. both iu his bearing aud in his talk he feels himself decidedly worthy of regard. the life. people . or a letter addressed to those at taken passively. In some parts of China notal)ly in Shautuiig. 26 Will you please tell me.e.> b j g breaking it. both self-satisfied and self-im- m. although it would be somewhat pedantic.. which of these roads I had better go? Aiis.^ im Dearer.! from long haired robbers.. 3 foi differ much. notwithfjS or the fact that the one seem'i to say the opposite of the others. To fall 7 ferent do not still Diff" ng. but in addition. not young. osk o ^ ^ 23 24 - 25 ^ there came from the southward a large rabid dog. as a Iu some cases walls protection against armed robbers. a polite manner of addressing a for information of any kind. 21 Wlieu the rebels came. and lience ouly allowable in colloquial. but. aud say it so as to make it seem real. as the C'hinese are all required to do liy the present Tartar dynasty. They will take up almost anythiug. when asking 27 practical- .. Just when 1 had reached the street 21 Truly Jl^ 22 0^ || o S . my friend. iJrobable things put on the aspect of reality.e. This is the name generally given by the rhinese to the aclhereiits of the great Taipiiig rebellion of 1850 to 1865.

The local. There are. It followH the (:'>)• ^'onerall}' parinon.) much Not equal often nsod to form a direct coni- which > Better than. not up to. 9 It is uot as economical to burn candles 0.%1 5 A Wiulued else. is Not oqnalto.^^:0^\ 15 This house is mncli better than tliat IG Yua may cook a little more rice. rior. (lo) (20) to. it is TliJit. 10 Still more should not one who a end or violate the rules. To change. or to the terininatiou er. For your father or mother to own a thiu«: is Dot so good as for yon to T own ^ Lolk- uuderstauds. 1 1 To return a favor with money is uot so genteel as to send a present. j?-0^ ^ 0 3'ourself. etc. much is Not as good coiinoction better. Violent. form first in the same (24) is to. as below.^ ! 8 [ coat. is sliorh poker is better than to st'r the lire with one's IpukI. [np to yours. but you uuderstaud better. Di-ouee. tliau uot * oil Formal comparison which there is made with effected. superior 8)(35)|> often used iu It follows tbe adjective with i« joiued. 6 Wiiich do yon think is the better? A ns. better. It is better to have some left. a nitu'Ii need form. (24. 1 think this one is the better. by which comparison is liave euont>-h - LSSSOItT LV* The Comparative mor6 have to BR of coat. usal joined with in or Still Like. may also bo used :ilon(' iu tlio same way. way It precedes the as a comparative. it 4 uot so warm as a t'ur 5 This dollar is better than that one. as it is to burn u lump. qualifies. (20) (3)(11)(14)(22). better. a variety of other words and ways. 0. It is ifl uonn (16) \ it supe- qnalifies. (28)) as. eqnal to or it. 7 Mao is more exalted than all things ^{5^35 R 1 can uot compare with him iu ability. 13 I do uot think liis scholarship oonu-s 14 To beat iiiin is uot so good as to m' the effect of reason. inferior to. not np to. better. however. (10). or is joined with a negative.}f 142 ll-p " V a- Translation. of the use been frequent instai>ces in previous lessons. but usually takes 551 before it. [ouo. (13) (21) also be c floe ted without auy . arljective which roiiueclion with . used oolloqnially is but iis (7). it * sp 'oiiiparison cial may word. 12 The air iu the city is uot uearly so good as it is outside. (19. and with (6). the other are general. He 1 ^ 0 2 o 0^ &f ^ si 1 § 4 ^^ 1^ • A . as a comparative. joctive is equal to liigher.) not (Mmg hsiug As. following an jul r or mw'l" niucii better. as below.

see a. . -. etc. 'Ii'ht\ .ich iiitlividuiil looks at it. effec- : resembling: Kan\ A To move leader. a chief. waxy. pull ahout. e. Those bn'tliers of mine are not even eqiml to strangers. be. A common . ao\ . 92.^ ' poorer. used in MaudariLi in 111 a uy ))l!vases taken from books: Les.S^^CT. to transfer. Profitable.o o. that. … dtH* 1'- The air custom. ti*.4 - ' - . before. similar * . a degree. vulgar. ? Mf'en^ . then. a duUar. flying and feathered creatures.sraiu —see Sub. Ooerphis.tocouuect . rood as that.nc)^ pronoun having many uses it. there. Tea birds iu the tree are not so good as one iu the hand. A catwlle. to scatter. about. a torch. tlie feelings. These four divisions which he makes The good ones are all pat on top. to begin.» P oil > [raiue? 26 Is your business more im portant than 27 There is a proverb which says. A Les.. as. A classitier: Common. Birds and beasts. improving evidently Why do you specially select that one? oue l>et. the world.vnuLARY.V. Hi! Pei^ a step. (vith. ^^Y^. Muy\ 7"s. La* < coat. a a candle. She. tlie ono. Slwii^ liny^ Les. to rouse.^ K As it. to. remainder. payiQc^. A 7V layer. la very deed. secretly. to affect. availing and. .'':"A - Yang^ chHen^. 143 7 To lead man this tlian to 18 His disease every day. . and another which says. over. leavings. 146. to distribnte. I W )d ^ 2 P > I see use this dry pen is not equal wet oue. iu of. . a story division. to act --on |ihysica]Iy or mentally. tilings. Like. : ilj^j-Ci. to that ^ oij^w my 21 For JJO OS this is not as > Voc.. 'S'2 vij?. whoever. [form a climax. she. 58.... concern iug. King\ Moro. light. Niao\. as you desceud they get poorer and 22 23 gfow SS . - tive. - Wan\tv(l\ h( ''. In private At tlie feet. a To tnra over. To ascend. ut. Shanq^ sivanK also ching^. 99. the presence . ^ to ascend to is reform is harder heavt'ii. To reach to. it is better to tell him in private. Ten credits are not so good as one cash [sale]. ( See Sab. a man so devoid of conscience asthis is notasgood as a beast. to. lay . Les. saving. . lOO. To spread. fashion. ^ S 24 25 N40. still. see Sub. to return a favor. . to to. as if: . a comprelieusive term for the whole animal creation. to turn over To turn M - . PoCi^.: Lesson mandarin lessons. wadded Foreign money. to record. - . rJni^. to stir about. A . 28 When you see a fault in a man. gl. if. practicable. SiK . All Wax . the feathered tribe. to be grateful.ter thau that ouef 20 Whether or had depends on how* Is not this % f. to separate.'izeil camlle. ch'ien^. to excite. . . Birds. La\ ^ L:_r. also. Ch'hi^ shou^. . thau to speak of it in public. bird.

Change. mysterious. It would be better for you to go in person and see abont it. 82. blooil. nothing lilco. vessel. lis priiicipl'-. wliich cxprcases alTectioii. retAin tbo molten grcuo. polished. 17 snnuahin^' that ia impoasiblo. A fabulous bird of felicitons omen. finally rlipp«fl •kill of rAD'Hofl nrr CAlled ijfi caIM simply ufox lamp$. apparatus. To taku away a cash hurts you more tbau to cut oat a piece of your flesh. nection.adu of the moat general and most Chinese caiidlea am usually a mixture of tallow and lard. an implement. Chi neb shvb tho dintase. origin. the best way is to decline all responsibilities. a tool. 30 This business is very mnch involved. What au amount of trouble it saves. itself Ski} ^ embar- : A Z. machine. Ch'i\yf\iJf. ""pro"— day by day. r'aw Hioa^ t'aug^. me'mi'ig 11 is the verb and up or iu/liienc. law ia better thau adiitil'uldaa^luer.f 32 After ail. Jiniskedm Blood. perhaps. by dipping. — Shi^ shi^ Moa^. a court-yard. an instrnmeut To smooth. supernatural. properly moans affecLion. no need of Les.e others. UHeeud to hinvfi). natural ChiK jffj' A * Ch'an^ loom 3 ^^0|^ T'ien^ ckingK ' I 3 oil 3 ^-> court The front court is much smaller. to polish. <y)rrtparetl Nute loith tliat Ul« . uotliing. If he nndtratandtt you still more. is p^rRpicuutifl torrn for candlca. 14 " "w'd to specializo involved in tliu oa. wealth. as in Puking. wonderful.so. but horc object. or present. White silk. rasaing. in unfa- vorahle circumstances. In good spirits. ailuiirable. cxi>reaaion to is iiBcd in or rtcnote Mundanu only in 8i:t pliraBOrt. 1 Tlie ijil "but" iSJi in ujaz candles.0 rfiiiflorfffl. Intricate. sliou^.2 court between two houses. dnn.' S 144 29 The front conrt as large as the back K >s O ^ 44 2 ^-^^^^^^- ^ ^ 1|1„^0 machinery. involved. 7Wt so. state of affairs^ — Do Smooth. related by (.e. sh'i^. hut is here put to stir iu for the favor. Excellent. loax. 4 /ist'e^ The times. the phoenix. ami how many people it saves offeudiug. ii. 34 You regard racmey as of more value than your heart's blood. tlie axx purtioular reason. A dutiful (laughter-iu-law is better dutiful son-inthau a dutiful son. thus giving tlioiu a thin w&z. which protects the soft inuido and forma a cup to In somo places. tools made by hand are not so nicely fiuished as those made by ^ J • not. in other placet they are aometimeB forms a phrase. — 18 J* ""f day one day good. 8ubtie. 35 It set'tns to me that iu the present state of affairs. wen 1th. blackish yellow color. Notes. ft lid 1. A A a machine. the translation is implied by the conThe sentfncc might also bo taken hypothetically.. Oat of lack or favor. t\nd are once or twice in wax. . satisfied. i. moving power. slippery. Miao*. g ^± o ^ ji! A 33 •• -J A briudled cat in high spirits disports like a tiger a phoeuix ia nupropitious circumstaaces is uot equal to a chicken. a coutrivauce opportune. canse a stratagem 4 A ". . is iD>pru\ ing.

to agree. 145 ^ is willing to work for him for nothing? 2 If it were not for the sake of food and clothing. places instead of it is scarcely ustd at 33 however. Willing. (13) 4i disallcn\% to To or withstand to demand (. or to be wouM preferto hefiaed. (12) JV) disallow. No oue joins the church by compulsion.> Lksson MANDAIUN LESSONS.to work? ^skQ 3 Would yon fined prefer to he beaten. assisting. own i 1 o oIjR 2^0^ ^p M ^ 21 The > is a pen of wliicU only a wet with the ink. to I Freely.ijg^.irapln'ase thus: ~" " When mood. ^ demur. (18) To refuse to snbmit. free will. (1) Of one's owu Unwilling. Assent and Dissent. I can not suffer him to 7 veU.18) refii^e. Jn the case of the head of tlie pen is wet. that everything depends on oircurnstances.<i. (10) .. 8 Gettin^^ a salary of two hundred taels a year." The meabiog is. iucliued. disposed. (7) Willing. and yet you will not remain How much do you expect to earn? 9 Pay no atteutioii to him: so it must be. The "dry pen is used chiefly in the South. 59. 1 one would yon be williug or not? 5 Juiuing the cliurcli mast be of your 4 If to the extent of feasting HiichI table. and and their combinations. (9) 4l (5) Freely. in allusion probably to the patch of sky seen from the bottom the whole dry when not in use. means properly 29 a narrow court between two houses. whether he likes it or not. Use some small paper cords and bind it [the book] up. is. An. when in unfavorable circumstan. of a It has. so rndely as this. to resent. . and it is allowed to translation the translation gives the would be. willing. (8) (11) dissent. t L Translatioit. me tiao. > 1^ s-oi- 051 . abated twenty tiao. to acquiesce. preceding one. though naturally a magnificent bird. who would be willing. 24 The II bumlrcd treat is r very small porbion The awarded liiin throe and even of this he. to demur. of one's own accord. (4) satisfaction. and is kept from drying when not in use by being covered with the brass tube or "cap"' provided for the purpose. 10 I do Dot care whether he is worried or uot. in many In other parts of the country all. a brindled cat while the fSnrf htcang in the will put on the air and raien of a tiger. to restrain. to protest. (15) Satisfied. I do not like tliose coarse paper cords. rbitrators each division is A more litera. voluntarily. to resent. come to be used yard. P. dissatisfied. are chiefly but nsed to express williuguess or ass eat various other words are used with a negative to express uawillinguess or dissent. cordially. (14) To free will. more profound than sense. of his own accord. ^ Who 1 -?^ 1 . no better than a chicken.

to toy with. worried* Mich'^. lide with. To fumble over. . -. rest. The Chi\ Majtsty. To IIsi it}. set out to want yon to hang out my It yon ever again atfempt sign. Nien^. cordial. to exert oueself. swindle.'<""3 ch'iang^ butt np:ainst Lcs. To to insist Ckwangi p'ienK fhvang^. to cease to. Les.1 if A i join f lie . Wei'^Jeng'^ biiul. to divorce prosperous. work for. to admit. to of- Alirnptly: to t\\A\ to to urge to auimate. yielJ. to to to agree To Ilsiao^ To reply y/"gf4.^-|4^4^1%:'4^ > 14 When swindle people. To cheat. imposing. constrain. to boast. / Majesty grave. nieii^. to luuubng. it 12 he is tliat had struck I would never drop it. ckn\ Determinatiou. lordly. the thiug I like is to 55! f} yon don't I ]i]ay chess. C/i'u} yiiK af/ainst. Clinrch. To compel. chiao respond to. ^ 13 A mau 3 li honor lus "pamits of ami not as the slKraUl owu liis free will. to iuteriVre with. confess. A—awl. iScorcheil To rush Heartilj/. Su>. vexed. to prepare. to drop. ruddy. willing.. determi- topo. agreeable. to excite. A twister/ paper string or cord. nor to play ball. tc . to col- To resolutio7t. to exoite. Worried. to relinquish presumptuous. quit. courage. to coerce. a sign-hoard. To WeP-M^-^ t C/rung^. to invite. To constraw. auda- 1 IT). To force oueself. To Kan^ fhiu}. luscious. To submit to ill-use. he willing to You are all the tirae boastiiii^ of his iti order to weukeu my rosoIntiou. will certainly make it hot for yon. but I lira determined not to power.irive He >^ nic^ him of niy own accord away by iimin force. i* - on. cioiis: Pang^ To proceed from. » ^1!. to rely oti. will. willina. Shoxi^ t'ou\ urge or force arhitra- to Ch'iang^ pi^ C/tifi* toil. J. To presume a hunp-li^liter. o ^ . Tai Sweet. L 1 1 In this case. exertions. rilxj. insolent. (l. aunals. volunianj.i^raj>hies. result of constraint. f^^t^l' Ck'ung^ chwang^. anxious. f^ R If child. To beckon to compel oil. inclinatiou will nation t aim. Driitl meat. to assent. to it took it 16 I do not like to play slinttlecock. stop..146 II I^ M T. prowess. 82. A cnrtuin. purpose. Usiii^ chiao^ 7'"* . to labor earuestly. to restrain. 0.) to submit. an advertisement. pleasant. To Usiao^ lao^ To press upon. C7 treat rudely. reckless. do not: to force.^^^ 15 I tbT . beeu liave struck his my cliilil. fess Christianity. \ fo desist. ^ my to swindle people in uanie. to pro- teqcber's salary. toil. ^ C/fiao\^^ ffTid To hsiu}. rt) a sign. Vocabulary. delightsome. to treat iu>. 1. to roll and twist with the foigers. '.

occupy the place . 116. fox aud geese. per- the foot as a battledoor. to at- proper. compulsory. To play ch'iu^ to persecute use up. Ckes$. etc. chii^ shuttlecock. Lesson 59. — ch'ian. iuevitublv: ' Les. so as to keep it rebounding from the ground. The neighbors were all ap in arms. tend to. ^ signboard.. It is not an contrasted with uncommon thing for officials to give light offenders the choice of a beating or a fine. 64. usually means simply punishment. It is a common thing for the offender to make amends by giving a feast to the parties interested. " Chien^. conic at ouce :ind ciin. Fi'i^ Ta3 cruelly. In this i case i£S 14 to call to does not form a phrase. a stop. to destroy. to embarrass. > > law i > ^ 01- j| tel > ~" A Chaoip'ai}* /1 ting …- By force. stormy. as it often does. sudden. it is used to signify a fine. To play to --. stamp. here refers to the little paper strings which all 6 Chinese teachers know how to make. Xd Chinese boys play ball very little. to resent forcibly. to adjust or compromise a quarreL scorching heat. a period.place. Ck'iiK - nung (play) ball. promise. 3 del veil from the ancient custom of paying a teacher's eahiry in bundles of jerked meat instead of inonuy. > ^^> is Chao the Fourth. a balloon. of the to To arrauge terms of com- T^ 'mo' siiwod^.. a time. violent. forcible 18 way hat the child is unmanageable. slinttlecock P'an^ . It is only applied to the salary of a teacher. Li YinNieii agreed to let off (Jhao the Fourth ou payment of only thirty thousand cash. to go swiftly. to entancrle. ia i 10 '2 is the Central and Soutliern Form. being 3 . a tnru. etc. but here. Their chief game with a ball consists simply in siriking the bull wi'h ilie h. make peace. tlji'ough the intervention of nii(l(IIe-men. Tun4. as it does in the other form here means. checkers. a Certainb/. staccato : Les. . If it had been niy affair. positively. to violently. I would not have assented if be had paid me three huudred thousand cash. Pao^ To Tofl'j. to do what i§ THao^ is of. to rest.y liuii out wliile 1 <rei tiie diuuer. to to use up. mi 18 The dauxliter of Li YiuNien. oppressive. To rcurrango.a MANDARIN LESSONS. arul which they use to bind small books for temporary use. 4 This is the language of one who is acting as merliator. - - Hsia^ Pao\ A To play clci^ chess. coil To dwell . Not E S. Oa* . - To beat to? up. emptor)'. account and demand natisj action. T? ^J sigtj. a resting A neighbor. of expressing t figure to express the utter exhaustion of resources ~ bankrupi. C¥iuP~ To beat To bow the head.< i chien\ A Liu A To harass. of the > village to the north. and were anxious tfiat LiYInNien should take the matter u and not be satisfied till he had squeezed out of Chao the Four til every cash he had. neighbors. their husis a bands tlirough the names of their children. is very hard to transfer to writ15 The force of It can only be expressed by the tone of ing in English. 17 Chinese women generally speak of. W"'er exhausted and (joo-ic Jfown. cruel. See ch'u^. a nieal. 17 147 Pao-tsi's papa. ck'-u^. the baby is very cross. Day before yesterday her niotlicr-iiulaw gave her a violent beatiui^.imi time after time. Afterwards. ur to. surprise and indignation given to (ho English wonls. . daiigliter-ia- village to the east. and she got so an c(ry that she hanged herself. to ball.

to fimsfi. (4) (28) 5 It marks a couclnsiou more or less definite. hut it reiienilly. P etc.£ro. (13) (19) 6 it be- marks a per- expresses impatience it or surprise. 4 repeated (sometimes trebled). <rood d. yet its uso iu AVesteru Maud:inu IS limited.iug is au approximate claasificutiou of uses: its 1 It emptor)' decision Wheu 8 It iiijiuu'tiou (9). marks the end of au idea. 11 You have sncli a sallow and shrivelled look. or 2 (8). a command.: l^ai'V". (34) an iavita- Repeated with 1^ asks a qnestiou which is coupled with :i It Wheu specially empliasizod it : 0 (38) (38) modifies jinassortion bvanggestint' adonbt (K)) or a qriery. again. Good day. Vocabulary. 13 As yon like: if you are couteut. ^ Well. to discontinue. j 1 Keep quiet. To cease. It docs not "hv"ys stiiiul at the close of a sentence. speak of it. Demur as much as yon like. 8 If he positively will uot. »hdu T') . lend. 0§ > 0%^ 0^=1- " oS 5 o f? it won Id be useless to " Some ailment.iiiist. or peremptory entreaty. (5) eiuphasizes a decision. oD'. or a coucessiou. dried up. A see :' pm'tide used to emphasize 1 +r'j:/JI fcJub. or Followed by ' \'leu followed by it becomes a term iinportnujxte. shrhelled. J shall uot deceive you. (40) doulit. In the lander nmnber of the st'iiteuces the lesson a Chuug-k*iug teacher Tho?ii-h gentM'nl m ImiigM'd tlie IS to H the propriety of which it impossible to reconcile with general Maudariu.J)o yon niiiid your own ])nsiuess. it > is all right. After theraatfer has come * o^i 0 m > to ^ iil^sl-" ^ T. us M Translation. or command. r:ire to scrape. 4 I think some uue must have orteuded "tn ^ ^ * > r>f 5 If you act iu tin's way I will have to demur. 7 If yon have aiiytliiug to say. rotten withered. ^?i'eat ami with a wide variety of nses. ^0 Another day. Ais.^lif o: Lean. n house.* . to riih. (1)(I4) softens a command. Please go The Final Particle is a final particle of expressiveness. to stop. it comes an exclamatiou expressing impatience (3'>) tiou (12). .iy. ffi: . say it 4 oiwi 0_^^1 quickly. A^/i —— A-'"i A'"i' Decayed. thin. '^e i''"iow. 12 Sit down in the shade aiul cool off. to even scrape by or a":. It mast be that you have 14 Tliis is a private out at ouce. so be it 9 Do not be alarmed. (20) of the nse of is well reco<rnize<l in Maiulariu. . this pass. Pa*. if not always. . 10 Lot it . (30) emphasizes an 3 It expresses defiance. A7is. to . 6 "We will see each other again.

)• a dust pan. the windpipe. wliirlecl. or fixed time. so let it be. k _ ij Well doue 27 a"i ki(} shouK Sallow ami shrivelled. 61.A clay. C/iin^ you To tadK stop for i . to give up. I liave only to give my the Is Ans. ready to hauJ. a time l.shou^. (^y^-^. ^rrain. Please ix'turu. — See c/ranp'\ * (hisi effort. " 5 ^ 149 1 i • So ' Ck'en^. * ^ ) ^ Do 28 Who 1^ ^1 29 Come uow. g^ • if 24 If yon can at f 1s and it. to waft. hcm Liang- shady. wait jnst a little louger. - if. a dust wicker scoop for cleanbuj grain pan. o o:^ > ^ ^ LESSONS. to overlook. desist. L(\^. to iodemuify. 25 Commoa fare. practic. wind. A The throat. for. n CkHngJ hwei\ Please return. to winpublish. we'll consider fai'ther. the face of the in 64. ~" late. no attentiuH to. to embrace. Yes. Waive a poiut and eat a little. a malady. ^S If ST 7 illness? . w^ri-oo ii you are still dissatisfied. To Ch'dncf'. to improve uu oppurtuuity. tossing- ^ W'i - -. One face.p'i" kwcO. emphatic particle u!' A ^ao'. Sk^ Joseph. to drop. chilly. Driven YcDii^-. cease. complaiut malady. chronic disease. allow right. To wianow the grniu ou the thresh in ir Hoi'r Clreng^ ch'ia/ngK To rely on one's strength or prowess. AbundaiU. good good. Yonr Excellency. to hope Les. kill hini. to favor. pa}' back. final it clii^ 'iZt:i YcO-. to stake on one supreme Plen^fan^ —— threshinrj ^ftoor . to replace. ailment.bye. 1 A set time. one side: o?2ce. t "I? 9_ US while.i. MAy DA IIN Lksson 60. to be all over with bej^one enough Ch'a'uf. jOjUC" f 'It 2(3 1* ^ work will uot it all put up with it. r"'i lia-ny- it. A its.ia. to atone. to cease. refreshiug. 1))' now .to excuse. A Disease. is it that is speak 11^ with such a steutoriau voice It must be tliat that hateful fellow lias come again. A icicker scoop. To hsiu}. then go aud do yonr uttermost. win)wwhg fan. season.. If 0. iiuliil. surplus. Ilivaiig. cool. k'tvai^. it will be l)etter to drop the matter aud not push it to extremes. . the wind.nlly.ins. To avail /1 m!'e"\ of. to to A classifier: ®| Shade. To cool off. Good not get impatient. to expect. LeslUi vlm'h thus blows the chaff away from the To clean grain with a Se^ San^. to extremes. All Yellow and So be A Cheny^.y - - . 22 Are you quite recovered from yom ^1 23 First try 01^> S cliat [ When 30 ii have time come agjtiu and ly You need not escort rne. to drop. larynx. Ml thin.. 10 If you are all willing. me teu days time. 7 M water iu the kettle sufficient? thiuk so. 20 Can I stay here over ni^irht? 1 is> >p I I life for his. co pardon.^ent. to up. a )). to pcuj push Ordinary food. period.

and if yon do not know. 38 which is i/ou 40 ver b. let each follow his 3 Tins Oflftl own ill ' hnth * )r. so that be used alone.^ 1 ^ > ^ § ^ ^ 32 So be it then. . how ^ -J^ ia here expresses most forciijly the indecision aud hi'silation of ihc apt nker. if 40 Well. see his face before 1 die. 26 This style of speech miglit also be usod ironically.icob's expression of mingled udtiiirtible furco. It is not important whatever you 31 ought m « J 1^ please. perHonH wore addressed." " "sc'l ill some places in llic sense of a })la<jne XX or contat/iou^ ii"f>aw. 38 Is the water you are heatiug boiliiio^ A /IS. to a casual ^UL'st happening in at meal-tinie. is not iii'pLitM tliat Hcvi-'ial 21 Hi givcu in the traiialutioii. Do yo II go ami call him into the house. ^ . i. It muM i^i" rwi-i iiig used alone. Oil the other ha ud. do yon pay no attention Ans. Oh. 14 are principal verbs. Tlie Chinese affonls no words anto our adntinible worcla. "good-bye. in which case it should be translated. 34 How cau cue winuow withont wiud Ans. in the reply has a peculiar force. The first two characters are often oinitlud. M'ithout he that some one has ojjended him. but itH general use is as given above. 'lintiiictly In this case is not an auxiliary Its use used but the more is . 44. Ifeu rit'I wait for him. 4 of is nn fik aikiiiifucUoi) put for i^ifj the iPaUr hrnfiri'j. Sou Les. then say so. AVhy do you lie about it 36 When he reviles yon. Let ns sfop here. 33 If I do not wait for liim. purposo of I he speaker to lot tlio malt or piiHH. The meaning is. 37 The child is out ot* doors crying. 17 The common Unguiigc of a woman to a caller wlio ia bliriUt to leavtr. 12 Til is i» tho greeting of one sitting in tliu sluulo.^ 10^ e^-ok i 10 ^^^^ Is p|j j1 1. he's drauk. to a 23 24 25 a homr. It' there really is no w iud. ~r S b I* remliM's and surpi'Uu wilh . well I will go *g my iiiul son Joseph is still alive. Reply. Sub. 16 Such foolish and rccklcHH language an tliia is not inlrcf|U''Utly Ifarcl from tlio Chiiwtsp. you may buy leu > I : or IB ore catties. then bring it iu. Shall I go and buy a few catties Ans All right if they iire really cheap. I think so. then use :i wimiowiiiL^ fan to clean it. For liis fnther's sako I will overlook it. to be 'srairml by ^ Is tliere nnvtluiig iiieddliti^i^ iu otlier people's business How nuich do you consider that I iu justice to give you Aris.K 150 i 30 Drop it at once. or a host. llie common «nd more correct form. fcii'l and are (juite equivalent. politely declining the being escorted to the gtito (or further) \>y thu host. 18 This honor The (rf S in tho langua^'o o| n gnent. sny so." and " farewuU. which 36 The double It marks tlie apologctio no nno Knglish wonl will expruss. > .l.c. jSotes. 39 I hear that in tfie market. a private residence. would often be omitted. inoro or less indicative ftifiMl-iliip. fisli are very cheap. If it is. a polite form of leave taking. he may not come after all. 35 If you know. Til is is tlio We in a 33 luive illustrated in this sentence reply life . In conversation and would generally pro<fi'jy. (invfiiiencc. hut is not much coihiiion life. YeSf yes. 29 ^Lirr In Shantung language of a housewife. I ("ear ho may com e. no doubt you're jiaii«ter-I»y. Q Another form of leuve taking. ^ ! .

XjESSOItT Euphonic Endings. and the usage of diffL-reut places aud teachers differs widely. 8 It is getting late. 80 let it be. foreign speakers use them as innch as the (Jliiuese do. sound ha viiii^ a vnriety of uses: concludes a tbrmul address or au invoca- particle very nearly raeauiug ainl use to Careful observation of the use of this particle points to the coiicliisiou that it is simply i variation in son id tVoin occasion od by the preceding' \vor»l eiuliiig ia the letter n. 4 Onr Father which art iu heaven. for no apparent reason save the eudiug of the precediug word. 6 Have yon just cow returued Are they all well at home 7 Stop talking and go at once. or to au asseniou. The nsao. Be off with you. (6) (17) 3 rt emphasizes au iujaactiou or a declaration. A iu tlic luse of this cliardcter. biin. immediately. an inquiry (21). Do you uaJerstaud 13 • I 2 It will be eiioii"di for you to atteud to your owu business. emphasize an assertion or . round >j A filial pnrticle indicatiuir conipletiou. Make haste aud ope a the door.U. used to off the close of the senteiicfi. in if . I'll have the policeinau drive you off. Tiieir j) roper use. 0^0^1^ w . If. 1 1 i o 1 \pS: f^g > 2 . Notice how iu aud (30) the two words change places. We ia past noon. that " euougb. 11 With a few words I sileuced. Few. The teacher is just now going to lieai. It when is not essentially dilFi-rent from used as a simple final :it lie end of a clause or sentence aud prouoniiced (as it always is in practice) la. (4) (29) A to filial particle soraetimes used iustf^ad of ati iujuuctiuu. if any. [speech.g > Lesson MANDARIN LESSONS.empliasiti. had better be Qt* 12 It 3 iveu yon this iiiurh. and by close attention to the manuer in which the (jiiiuo^^e use tliem. t practice not final eqiiiviil(Mit either to filial particle chiving a strong. is 2 It concludes an inquiry. ia the North. Mandjiria al)OU luls in final particles. is i _© mast go (or. ) in the North In the South is it is (5) found occasionally in books. It is somecolloquially not used but (I 0) (2(5) times heard in the Soutli instead of final particle . used only after (9) sometimes used iusLead A ( of" 10 . W 0 f < Translation. you should be oft. (8) (30) A A vnrv much A 1 It but iu Teachers final particle iiidicatiiifj: certain fy. going. (25) final tion. or to emphasize certain ideas and emotions. is very diffi(MiIt to define or distinguish tlie-^e fKirticles uccurately in English. not quite i A enphouic eudiui^ winch . 3 All ri^^rht. There 1'^ in fVict no cerfaiti principle to iraide as to which character should lie used iu any <iiveii case. I am c^oiiig). 61. 5 Get your lessou quickly. 14 If you come again. can ouiy be acquired by imitation. §u Is „^^~ 151 2 Having . 9 He simply depends on his fluency of 10 Who is knocking? Ans> I am.e also varies not a little iu different iilacen. (liritiuL^'uislmliio fro 111 Pj{.

l. staid. so quick and so capable. to blow up. prompt. gracejiiL ': see Sub. ^ ^ - Handsome. ' The fate or affinitv briui^a lovers toirctiior: f/ rela- which mafcL law of Iimiven. 'I'lie . talcing the parf. as having a will of his ovn. T'leii^ H^. and lie is uow seveuteeu./7re%. a pellicle. prndent. tlie priiiciples of riglit. -. to vomit. Where have I iiuytliiiij ^I \ Loi^. P^j: you may be cousidered like ^3 Have yon uot had your breakfast? Ans. or do you prefer to go ahe:ui ^ ^ IS See. we wiil nut sit duwu.— m 152 _ c 0% house is locked up nnd my mother lias gone away wirii the key. To dry V3 [J -/ ! A creet. cou- noise make haste. Mol. n'4"3 chung^^^^oj\<ir . §3 (s."-'- of ]>liice see Sub. parti- Cldiii^ Kan^ Hemp. 21 Please spt'ak to the point. lively. ijuen^ . ajiake. betfiothed girl. I i ^ 1 . Quick. Quickly. gentle. quick. tionsltip. family wu\ Chia} IlousehoU a as thunder to explode. 16 Will you please walk in and he seiitetl Tliauks. . clever. Are yon ^•illin^ or uot williiig 22 She is so graceful. Shon^ hi'. air. haDd'Somd. dis- briilo. elegant. see Sul>. can he then be considered small Sfnm"3 p'le. a final particle: Auy rumbling to blast.1 &. duty. to liustle or A chia\ corrupt form of Note screen.^ttfa^. Humid. Mold. OCABULARY. /I.l. tljc • . j 4 retch. see Sub. Ready J/a- (hire off. final • final particle: useil in St. to cjfct. a V. '^i^lM 4} . ch'iao* .'"" PJH to eat A 24 Chiao\ Similar. I M oik 0(^ ^ A . must. to intercept.. No. lioid iuliiiiralily. a coat. q#""y. ^ " . to air. quicks sprightly. molihj . J airs. /1 . 'a* warming the Experienced. Laa^ ch'ey\g^.Sedfxto. pretty.ianfj* du- ties. fajiiily. To labor strenuously. . and ma u ages the liouse- "^ all coutrary to reason A man 20 > 111!^ uro clothes these Take them out at once aud air them. 17 Do you wisii to go with us. \ff'i-. the great toe. Pa? mao^ HyC l. particle foniul iu books. To To manage^ to regulate. I'fl for hands.) sprightly. Ma- see Snl>.^g^ The 15 > ^ w nufi chi^ Vou\ The tlinmh. fiiiiil . brazier 48 Vin\ Mol.icle filial A common finiil . affairs. /i'wai* Ilang^. Will he tlieu act 19 He also is a man. cle: particle: ~ A A To \Va^. . cerus.* nimble.. moral truth. to overshadow./. T/ie thumb. The chatter of birds. mildew. tij'lj -"/wt. . to attend to. damp. aad Chiua. ff . in tlio open A fl. Liao^ I? Wa\ a screen. irreiit toe. stead.utli youth becomes a man iit sixteen. ncocssiiry. moldy.

used in is many places in the same way. is decidedly understood elsewhere.MANDARIN LESSONS. being iu most places pronounced ka or kL It is much used in Central Manriarin. be is not at home. In some cases it is reflexive. To which inspect.as in theae sentences. man is liaviug very stylish high liviug he insists and fine clothes. . as in the Soutb. yoQ have brought disgrace on otrr whole I > Chang 1 family. The ^.. when a few words served to "shut him up. It is second hand. he is oot at home where has he gone Am. word 23 the is a corrupt form of used as a reply. thumb. 89. Lesson 62.e. 29 Li Si > 0% me a have all heaveu-im- a plauted couscieuce. to be capable of taking a wife. It is used for warming ttue hands in cold weather iilB LESSOItT - The Auxiliary of Reciprocity. clever and steady if you give him roar daughter it will certainly be for four one or an ^^^^ if I1^ an excellent match. 2 anil 13. . ia To become a man. 8 used iu many places See Lea. but is The Chinese hold up the thumb meaning 21 In mauy places two defiance not heuct. f ^ 153 25 Is brother Wang at home Ans. 14 North 'irn wni d. Ia it a uew old one Ans. drive you out or To puX up an } erect A off. the as a sign of resolution or of of this phrase. like a of three syllables accented on the first. in the North. but 2^ attain to It is implied that the other party came 11 with a T'lausible story. to hear the recitation. in the sense of is a small brazier with a perforated cover 27 A for holding live coals. 27 I hear you have bonght a hand stove hundred cash. and in others it simply strenfrthens the idea of the verb and makes np the eaphouy of the sentence. usually means to recite^ hut here it is iiBed causmeauing to cause to recite i.. though used. i. Notes. would take the pluce of the final particles iiere used. it is is anxiliary. 28 That youug man Samuel is discreet. No. . If Ques. The idea of reciprocity is often strensTtheued by the addition of As an auxiliary is used both colloquialJy aod iu books. Py U 26 That on . aud occasionally use of Peking ^=e. 20 i. 30 Chang San Chaug San Alas. He has gone to market. f^. placed before the verb to It may be joined with any and in most cases gives the idea of mutual or reciprocal. transitive verb. the two latter must 9 In speaking the words be joined clos-'ly to the first and to each other. Ia thus wrougiug a good man yoa are committing 11 * a 7 siu. 5 atively. is uot fung-hsing. bearing arms. but as good as uew. etc. A youth is supposed to manhood at Bixtecu. 26 - is here used. Shoot you out." .e.

-" % |§ ^ make a two persons' each other.IXa'To soothe. a cousort. J4^r. 8 Will yonr honor please go over? There is something to be cousulted about. responsive. np- grave. Vocabulary.the blood. connteuauce. The circulatiou of the blood is (connected throughout the wliole body. m- ture'. ' . face. . to resemble. 15 If you are uot vilHn. streaks or veins. . tonmiiitaiu. - Friendly oil good terms. To appease. origin. the I'xtivmit'Vi -I'lementary principles. Dispositiou. ck' i< breuk a contract or promise. properticH. MJ^ mao* . moilest. 3 These 1=^0. . Tiie language of those two lueii ^loe^^ 1 1 not at all agree. to trauqiiilizo. To grasp. phys- The Nu^mu^ksia}h/ k auK h. Wliat you say agrees with niy opinion. Aclasaifier: Les. descent.) 154 ffi Tkanslation. Ifsif/jf* ch'in\f^. not allow them to rail at and Do figlit I am gooil 13 Meeting on the road as we ditl. 16 The two sisters do not difier in lieii^lit ^I 01 P ^ faces with each other. Similar. si^ iit comfort. iugiiomy. looks. /-) ri'. natural disposition. imparted by Also To hwei\ nintnul confMonce. temper. 12 Do you look npou me angrily because c e5^c% ^ request of yon. See hmimj^. ModOy^^'T/ie pulse. tmi*. . race.f^o%g / = -011 I W OS resemble oS opposite of yonrs. Nature. 14 iiinlf? . titc blood. mutually. inspect. Jfsiangi^ /iao\ The Twati}. 140. correct. instinctive. • . to repudiate. ri-'r'V.s tlio (MmI of it I will not force yon. - lieuvfu natural. Haiang^ To look angrily. incensetl. m Hsiang^. tempenuiieut. 14 Husband and wife should m iitually help each otlior. wife. 0 11 7 by more than au iuch. n\ e could not speak at length. to .-ec Sub. Natural. |5| — it @jH3# to comfort.^Gf 7 05< tl^ 5i w W 0^ w.lit c^^irz . fhe circulation of IlsHe^ mod*. Usiang^ -)^\ A Clri^ /"/(3 Plensed: agreeable' enited T-ie7}^j<in^. / )' $^ Ijjj^ The blood. tft'tf/i* . " UV/'. the end. (w. 5 We should decide where we will met'f\ 6 My uatiiral disposition is exactly the 7 -^ : > g 1^ lio have come to 1 2 They two rautnally comfort each other. Reciprocal. 10 Those two places are uot far apart. rage. 4 They all sat dowu and talked together very agreeably. Pifr^.g that i.. reciprocully To by turns: //"*•- .'V^w^. passion. mutual.1 ^^| .

27 S Thtre are three frienchhips which are advan- friendship with the upright and friendship with the man is and f The rather than with in the S3 intimates that of . ^ >^ ffll ]0 That to. xvHl. covetous.- used with each part. A Fir.'' in style. 28 Wang.^IfJf^tiv I u ordinate . politeness requires out ami meet him. that is to say. This is a common and very forcible idiom. to agree. Ofvi^>^}. /'?. 15 it is whom with were willing. parents and ciiildreu alionid be nttacbed to each other is aa iustiuct of nature. Inst. ^ Cliang aud Two men.. sincere. the first and last assertious do not agree. ia . desire. a meeting. To correspond. to verify. unselfish. To meet and Y"g . T'ouK -to cast off. f-ESSOK 02. logically connected. to bid for. all. a vonclier. 6 12 is an expression iu the Confucius tageou. 20 The compound verb is here separated. or.i^etlier. li were they apart T(m)i fan( J - - - CI g\ Loyal. per day." i MANDARIN LESSONS. and Analects. jK)iHl. to meet. chdck. . of concerns both the speaker and the person sjjokeu to. desire. upright. a sliort distance on liis way. To throw down or into. faithful. and you to accompany him speciitl cases. receive as a guest.^ here indicates moral ability. 18 Constantly doino: business to. to intrust. - to • are as friendly as ever. pro[>er. or to the gate. 20 Former wordsare inconsistent witli snbseqnout lan^aage. we should not deceive oue auotlier. a charm. here implies that the request is one that 1 The iisp. Note h cor^ated. to To pass through Ta\ Correct^ upright. not in t-olloquial. 25 Your faithful words aii'l his selfish desires do not harmonize. . Yu\ . 23 If yon associate with liel [)fnl friends your tleportmeut will become correct. to correspond with. to transfer to. to occur.^0. hence it is rendered sincere. - . to^etlier to travel the G Chun. 20 They > 3 5 i 4 22 I all love have already made an apology. to the door. advance. 24 Wlieu brothers get anything [in common] they should mutually prefer one another and not quarrel. selfishness. to penetrate to corresto iuform. you know that a guest is coming. 23 The sentiment of this sentence is based on a saying If are J'rimdship with tht of much information. aud . both of of the sentence joins with which ' book form. everywhere. . 21 if 1.s: a lit I traveled eighty seventy-five Wau^ U li days how mauy after five started same road. 19 there were two euphony The introduction parties. s^ 155 27 All lionored aud faith fal friends when visiting always meet each other on arrival and escort each other ou de- 1 7 pfirtnre. to deliver to. to Lust. > ffls Tlial uow we ^ A of to something we mutually agreed and cau it be repudiated is oue anotlu'r. to harmonize with."^2. used of isslig"tlylf^e'rt.holiest. per day. it is polite to go when he leaves. Notes. to have recourse to. agree.

Vocabulary !' 3 ^ That. Kwei Hsiang have luntuiiUy naile :i]>ologies and are already reconciled 12 They nil lnokcd nt eiicli other but had nothing to gay. 160 S8 r . 3 Friends ought mutually to love each oli l. Translation meum and tuum between us (i. . . they nsed mean mutually^ in reciprocally. ^ /J Tiao."yT" drag TWi'V! To mit. ^avo tuiii a detailetl account of whiit 3" on sail]. - T^an* lun\ 'To converse to discuss. to im plicute oihtfrs. -""1^ Kung^. to declare.e.4-!^^^ |£ ti little piicatioQs) with eacli other.. that aud thi$ there and hera^ then and now. 11 ^0 • We 9 Judging from their testimony. 2 By this arraugement both are satisfied. one connection with form strengthening the other. but joined together. T ^ ^^ " 6 o II0#^ O <N uo dealmga (com. iuute. appropriate. to recrini" --. - lai*. stiff. DO oue being willing to take ^ the npper aeat. to ar- gue. The natural order would certaiuly seem to have beeu When tht'-V are separated. those CA'wiii} hw(£h\ there Dealitujs. wicked. robnst. 7 The people of the two villages assist onch other.1 C Our two forbear a 1 1 i 13 Each one declined in favor of the other. When follon-ed they may be rendered loth.. 1fii mm L(i^ ck*P . [each otlier. . make a depoaitiou. eeditioiifl. - . intercourse. to debate.. the uatural order asserts itself. artful. Mnscniar. they are fsi ^ ruis iiave with each profitable theme. all mine is bis aud his is mine). Perverse.k 1 There 4 5 Yon must 1 rr-oi no distinction of is other. to be fitting. the other. 0. agreeaMe. to testify. 8 ha C n ' uu x\ud H\v. strong. They are much of the last lessou.- ^fm XiESSOIT XiX 4 tirs[ . to -" )'. as iu (14). comrannicatiou.l>.iii. When the words and are nsed separately they mean. character. ^ Chin Testimony^ witness. OI: should converse together on soma We just recklessly accusing each other. Also kung ' - into. The Pronominal of RBCiPRociTr. eck- less. 15 In their hearts tliey two liuto each 1 6 When differences occnr betwen 1 ^25 r. to implicate. dispo- Tiao^ - nuscrupulons. as in this lesson. [other. To accuse recklessly. 8 two are very well snited with 0. 10 Tht'y mutnally help one another. etc. by There is no accountiu"r for the order of these words. iition. To confess.

to cherish enmity. to betray. arranged iu to apolegize. to implicate. men will not believe it. ^ > 14^ ^* i & 1 ^. an accnsatiou. Yien^ ch'i\ Hwtti.hen\ or through or rience. Look at that nfFair between me aud Li the. to change. - To hate hand to anthorize. and shall bi*tray one another and hiite one another. profits. make al- for. state to a superior. ^ reefs. aud so finally he refused to entertaiu the suit. to forbear. 23 No nuitrer what it is. Ll\ To pass over • give - way LdiP" li*. gritty. 20 "The corner of the ocean and tiie limit of beaven. shore. to ^un\ ^ 5^51 should to detest. To yield the precedence. husband au>i wife they Tnntually bear and forbear. instill KweiK t^-'V^V . a plea. to bedew. CinDaraou Hsiang^. to enrich. as a petitioa . To moisten. and the other snys it was that way each bus his o'-vii story. on accoaut of which he beat me. limit. 68. to discard ." expresses the iilea that things are very widely separated. 1 away order. To make amends. ^ . A classifier: Les. if it be too plausible. To throw away. . cense. gravel Ska}. the magistrate said 1 must have previonsiy offended him so tliat there was enmity betweeu us. To The same. disdain. halK ^ --- offence. . Fragrant. yet when I went to enter suit against biiu. yaeV^V*. to decline.great aud small. bow can they aviiid «riving some little offeace to each other? 18 I know perfectly the oriiriu and history of" their in utual affairs. auuals.' '-'^Bauk. to present. to C/iun^. Ck'i To - - ju"g\ -lowance • Kwod^ ts'ok A fault. to pxpe- Antecedents. Ninth. Ti^. to hold spite. origin. increase. evidence. To permit. to approve. foamlation source Origin. 22 Wben in a fuinil}.U^f^vo>: Ck'SngK Ktn^. .r^^ki^o transmit. a suit. TYod* kwQa} To reject with off. to To victimize Yntn^ e"*. reputable. an fundamental. to grant. proof. Esien to water Hoe. to reject to abaudou. Mauifestly be abused me without cause. Root. P'ei^ . 17 BeiQ^ coiistaurly to^^etber.# MAyDA RI N Lksson 63. . keep their places there is mataal liarmony. history. Ai-. perfnme. "J . II- ^ . to allow. friable. successive. . into. to. in* Much used iu names. to Jl'tveO-jan^\ Q^i^. a transgression. superiors ami inferiors. 19 One says it was this way. 57 LKSS0V8. Ji^Wrk Ken^ phi^. cassia. to benefit. 21 At that time raany shall reject my doctriae. to cast throw awav. source canse the base. in. hate. ^ I1| J Q 1 > 1* Saiid. To be generous.

a tiiia once. seQ<l off. the South. once. One course. ~- ' - One meal. Often one time. spell. i'Ook plirase. Authorities differ as to which is proper character. tliau one may be j(Hued u itU . ouce. a cotiim-)U idium. is is sentence used is much 7^0 ta:P' H 16 in to Kiiglish. by experience. one. ' \ ' o . >]>. 8 Tlie two funnsberegiven are not precisely synonymous. i. ieflv iu ~" Que hnrsU Til esc several time. a stroko: . and its ajipropritito ])lace aii only bo l(':ini(l a spell.e. OiIkt nniinTiils any of these words. (^r>:at ix . has imposed upou me not only 2 I luid 3 He 0"^ this once. ft I put him to shame for 6 He made me so angry this time that my eyeballs turued bine. more honorahle th" as that. ouce. is 'J hi her or f'Ke -'" to suiiu-tUing wluL-h preceded fife- of business firms. a time. it is too troublesome. ouce.IS Translation^. u lime. applied to liorseineu. It is two o'clock. used of the intercourse expressed i'y 22 I includes suitability in other respects besides dU' position. is Social intcrcoiusc of your frk-ml T ES. ivtm'n.:' Oue road. (. a time. but the forcible with it. In s 11 struck only one the ideal friendshi]). . but rarely heard meet. a time. one hy one in orrhr. colloquial. '^'^ 0i( used iu ^Inch Ceulral Miiudariii. ~ At one ' . — )^ One spell.e. a bout. order. yet eacli has its own sluide of inoiiiiiiii^. more I C3 rs 1 T') hold \i} not infrequently adtU-d to . a routi'l. each I'lioirs and htpi great vppcr i'' upper and hiccr is lower i. whole. formerly. terms are to some extent inter- arena. Olio union. %Q the whole trip for' nothing. ouce. for some time. a lieat. '^tfe^rectiou. If- J 4 I bave lost my liviii": this time. itiiplii-s tliat it.it once. a while. ~ tioL/Yv- one turn or time. 2 5 here is "house" usec^ as designate n business firm. writtpii tlie ~" One dowu. rnl). onre. 1^ Oac books. x.. 8 As a first effort at preaching it is very ii Gi o5sM fair. the sentence It is fiom tlie is in a'Idilio'i Saurtd E"i':t. a round. ouce. a tilt.— a round. ^ i - ^ oi I 1 have already consulted with him twice. ill - — one time. after time. _ ' ' a tiino.. 7 I exhorted him ouce. a stage. uiitl an onset. cluin^calile.— ouce. a time. to which is use of } limited. pi CCS Miie lie 20 f is used in both senses. at once. the (listuuce from oue sto]>pini^ place to auotlier. One 5^ One One NortlMM-ii uiid oue time. canie ouce five years ago. ^ ^\ and small is "wa//. bat he would Dot listen. repeat. -5^ ' a spell. a spell.:ESSOi<r Adveucial Numerals. ~ One ~" Oue ~ hne ' a breatli. a wliile. how is it that it Time „ oi: > 1:^ you hare at the service all Tlie may be omitted. occasi'/rially Uciinl in is is xcat. This peculiar form of repetition represents his proper place.

weut iuto business for a time. is now well again. -TVw Xht"ou} . 9 Each time we meet we are older: how little time there is for the eu- Lo. To expound the to WoirieJ. distracted: Jlsianfj^. and afteru'ards had the small-pox tlie a. Meat dninplings. looked over it ouce. The mirage."K^^-^. LT-:?:soy J From 2| 12 ray youth I have only once seen the niira<j 13 I rather think 1 know you this time. flurried. to rowjjf*. rude. and Ilaii-Iiu.-iturul way. a time. luvulved. it ia not veryliar d to learu.76> oterload the stomach. a Han-lin. ^ . foreign. gorraaadize. classics. . the pressioii sense of op caused by eatiu. First cost The small-pox. 24 Should we not once ia a year knock beady to your houor 25 Does your stomach still paia you Ans. To pass by. aud the victory was still undecided. to -discuiu'se oii a text . wonder where hrutliei* (Jiiaug has \v. superior Han A lin\ To resound. iudigo. to . to. graduate of the third degree. VOCAEULAHY. disgrace. nnciviiized. ChiaiJ^ To put to To 1.i^ too mnch. to . clamor. to rise to sustain. to change a time. troublesome. capital. shame. see s "* Slicr^. - i^^J^ heat. echo. here.JAkJUy:^.i3 ^ hut in. To get the victory. CA. to excel. 22 I ^5^ 2 23 cal (irifced to by tliis time."i2 fight. . Ilai^ ski\ war. vaccine. 1-i That mess of meat diinipliugs has OIHK ®J 1 ts ^ oui I- 159 overloaded my stomach.1 MANDARIN LESSONS. Blue. f To repeat FIsiu} ju\ - Pien^ Meat sh'i^. diiraplinga rotv. iusalt. Pert? chHerv^ Tou^. A commanclant. . a general^ "^""KM^^ a chieftain. a turn. a a course^ a ^ Fani. The cow-pox.f(. fall: the trade iu which horses ruu. to join battle. > the n joyraeut of fraternal affectiou E„fi^ o Lol L3 20 If a man can attain the degree of he may couskler that his of study has not been in vain. to outrage. adequate. or shall we stop Sliail another stage? IS The two geuerals M 1 we go on fought thirty-two tremendous tilts. iP ¥ oil & ^ 1 IHl^ . noise. Lari^ To Chan^ Chiang^ shu^.^ >M3 first time. preach.i % . It pained me a spell this ruorii- ^ ^ I if I vacciuuted. Chiang cki'ln. to ring. /. life He 21 lost all bis ciipital. The second time the long-haired roLbers came they were worse thaa I I:-) R #^ .

to be con- to drift. 28 Whore have you beeu for some time How is it that I have not seen yon 20 111 my 0])iiiioii lie is somewhat fatter than he \v.is the first time. a class. I 33 Yon need ries nie. to jiiiri'jy tt> hsien\ A comet.' ' pit of the storaach. and I was unable to get the better of liim. ^ 32 2 o ^. to exhaatst: to do une*8 best. some once in several tens of years. Tired. To wanflor. § L* The hi7i^ k'ou? A (7/3 k'i C7"'e"*. a place. To appear to come forth. 34 I liave threshed that wheat ou the flitor twice. a star of ill omen. a patron. ^f(P. to rt'joiu. 3G Truly this child lias no memory.. some ouce iu several years. Liii^ lod*. ]H'e(enil itn|iose mail . grieve*!. The first time a stranirer. to retort. (lie the better tnue. to upon. To be anxious. ^ To turn 1. /ai*. 3 1-1. o uot be couceriuul ufter have hatl a bout witii him wc*]l talk about it. 35 Comets appear. 0% . tiiue after time. conceitftl. 31 That old woiiiuu Chant? comes constantly. . the male of animals. to rove. a set. wearied* 1^ Sao. to become reckless. whereiipou he cxl)uasted liis whole vocubniary of abuse upou me. fati<(ut-d. tu A Flwei^. hsi)^ff^ 011 l^t besom. To ^5 To incommode. aud some ouce iu several huudreds ot' years. to levy blackto iin nortmic. the second time acquit iuted. tu C/i'u} To /iarasH. to d iff use. 27 I (or. difjqniot to Ilwci^ hsinp^* embarrass .^ Q 126 Lc/ir ^ struck him oiil)' one blow. and to-dav he has foixotteu it. to act contra rilu. ITweis tsp^eP The same. T'iev} hsi? To ChHan§^. cerned about customer. embarrass.— yll^. . and wor- . vain. Tbe small-pox. a comet. to wancie}\ to phifting..Ilwai^ k^ou}. to roam. circulate..^ > 160 |« oii ^ . Yesterday his motlier gave hiiii a sound bt'utiiig' for his contrariuess. |3. f?. 1 1 — oil S ^ . ^ . a prodigiil. flft ( arry to the uttermost.^. to cou- Memory. to inaiiifest. ^L^ f^tva^ hsin\ Sal To to bo injnred. aud the third time au old customer. a/23 cA'/a?2 flow. Tipji^ hwa}. A tnne. and it is uot yet cleiiu. §3 I / The small-pox.^1^. vagrant. to get of To answer back. tidgct perturbed. the broirne or dialect of . 30 Tbis way of workiug a while ami resting a while is not as good as to finish at one heat. J 6 ". we) have gone this stage too fust. I fiucl myself quite wearied.

and meaning that you will be ou your guard against hiiu in the futu re. Iff their father's estate. to get a degree. 51 0# *-loi T he is ut liJLMcl. ^ si |5^^«0 iti 2 Have yon just now found oat that lie is stubboru He is much improved these last few years. and is insisted on in expectation of a present. The Immediate Past Limited by the Present. 14 For meat dumpHngs. In Central Mandarin both forms are used. 2^ hut simply a inan of wealth or high standing who has servants ami oilier employes. indicates the more immediate The former is preferred in the South. TJie occasion f the A'e t'ou is probably the New Year. full i if 6 Is "I ^ 4 here translated all. witti . evcrythini. " ijot ij is is as eel iu the South in the same way and the same sense as iu the North. just this The two forms are interchangeable. ther eiiipliasis the nionieut. 20 The prime means nothing j . <^"v Just this niomeut. repiovii)^^^ (livibion sea market i. widely used term. In Cliina oonUed in a kettle. is and so get rich. mo meat Just this very moment. 22 In many . 6 Tlie Chinese assert that when a man is filled with suppressed anger his eyes turn blue. For still fursometimes prrcefled by and sometimes followed l)y it. I have srtiashed the fhi's time. Lit. 65. just DOW. very uulncky He waited for you over iiu hour. the accent is thrown on - In the South is used in the same way. "Your only an approximate rendering. 4 I liave jnst now heard a report tliafc the examiner will leave Ch'irmcliou [for this place] ou the tliinl. 13 Said to one by whom you have been cheated. is are boiled in water. present. Not .1 Lesson MANDARIN LESSONS. . the latter iu the North. predomiuating: See Les. perhaps. ami to smash this kettle to eat. not an uncle {as it usuftUy does). The former. quite as colloquial as It is also used like to mean before in order that. jnst uow. iraraediately preceding. and has just now How NOT K S 2 1^ grown man. Jnst now. was away and have just rotunitnl. idea of seeking aa education in China and by means become an this official. hy if .. is added They to U the more proper and because the (Uimplings are also called 1$ and in usually means the bowels rather It tliaii the stomach. being used primary and 35 Comets are literal sense." 34 in its is ~ ' i does not here illustrate the Icssoo. colloquially called . previous lessons has already been used in the seuse of be/ore. iind have uot yet put Llie house iii -= 1^ 1 if order. ^ In Jnst now. 19 A saying which originated in the words of a celebrated two brothers for going to law about the 13 l-etlle Li Ch'i AVeii here Ans. just a often used alone. requires bot h orerloaded and disordered to convey the meaning Shantung "•J hiL^ t^i*.e. 177. broom stars. streets and people pictured 12 iu tlie clouds over the sea. 3 As soon as yon speak of Ta'ao Ts'ao. in order that. A little ago. or S^ll Just. > ^ ti o% 5 Wliea I came he was jnst iihlc uow lie has come to be a first to talk. Honor. is not ago. aud are doubled as is. Mr. 26 The language of a shop-keeper to a new customer. In speaking. is official.. 161 Translation. b'—it is here used indefinitely for both. Ustd when one loses a position or opportunity on which his living depends. tion is places the more familiar term for vaccina- Here means. recently.

A 3. to rain on.t^( driven into a crack or split. 10 May I trouble yon. hsie^. to put aside. Uwei* Lu*. perverse.• y . jiifl^e ofappcals. as his Hsi'en^ Stubborn^ impracticable. please wedge. ipO^cr^. to to thwart to pieces. coiitinuons. paid up. sigu of the plural in Whi-li. A A 'svVi P'Oil^ I trouble you. did not ou me It the whole day but I Lad barely gotten home when it began to miu 5" i he that his wife to . to . hj Also linK Officials. a bribe."'"/*. ly. headstrong. d is miss. to move iu a circuit. obstinate. now: just. Is it now § K- ^ t *0 s satisfactorily settled I" » si.. tuu^^lo.. bow is it is just iu her twenties is 8 I was very fortunate indeed yesterrain day. Jnst when it was in a fair way to be arranged. . >"y^4. . from Yon To < IVlv'inp^ 13 fur OCArULAUY. yon go agaiu and contract all this debt. Obstinate. brii^antl nek. to drip. 7*/ H'l Clring^ chou}. * Is 1 just from the kettle eat a couple before yon go.. bridegroom. He lias jnst tliis tuonienf. old gentleman Did a mail carrying a bundle ou his back pass by lie re A?is.3 W. It will first be uecessary to put a bribe in > * ift a second marriage. .g everywhere so/L not allowahle where Imrd sounds are used f f'fn. To See chiang. tear-hor? often write A )]>'«*. 11 Yini have been stirriug ronud this long time to get a wife. loL for the iiuniuiii^s but Jl^P. to sprinkle. 162 ^" % SI # S 7 When 0^ A/?s. a taru. 12 Simply leaving matters thus. 'Jnu'^\ i. Ts^aciK wife. Z/.'?^J^rf ' A ' . To revolve. to buy. luck. passed by. Barely nearly. To second..^ ^" drop. are not the least afraid to rnu Ha vino. //ou* /t"n. raallet. literary chaucellur..tied together.. alraost. to To tft \ve(l. A A (lopartraental city central Sliautnng. to lay in. he will not make any exertion. \ ChiK is Q o jbis... is 9 Rolls a^lK ^ This lieavily.mml knock in a wvW. Eiches. Lhr. it was brokeu up by au enemy. to transport. scnrce- or ha ad. to arrange.just now fairly iuto debt. to wet. to jmnlile. to keep up. joiu to To marry a second impracticable. to corrupt. Also ckiang. lute or fiddle string. —— as a class.iven to on. 7V"o '.. 1 c/i':* 1 ^ Chiang*. a chance. a company. . Tu bribe. wet.S''wWf>rn. aeconJ marring*. A fixmons general: [vu lf*iue^ y^/>n*. Fortune. to marry . hush niouoy.. tar. bein. t ninl See Note to Sir. . h<'ie p. :^-Vi>:^O. put in order. \JB - To drop. mulish. . .!: " To arrange. tou 'r"(A To beat with a moi in vtarn'afje. just S/. to reel. The same.. Chiann^. opiuionatt'd. May Chie^ /uvanffK I rain. to estiil)lish to place. 0^ ' so old as this. The same It is settled.

A g La} Cka . it in chairs with four or eight bearers. unprincipled artifice and usurpation. bribe. . time. . watcfjCuluess. M\ oueself for a (i/Lw all one's / ^. and not fight with people. no matter. to scout at. 11 From many days . 14 If 3-on oii 8 M have beca ill and have jnst f^ottea up. . for a long To make a crtick or split by driving in a f ii pjhjey —used metaphorically of one who interferes and breaks up or (lufeata auy business or scheme. He is 15 =1 > L* 6 0. Honorary degree. When we left the suu had bnt jnst appeared. previous Odi s Lauding.- > Lesion MAND AT. title. 9 When :0 When o tj- ^ he was on the point of putting forth his hand to take it. 8 What rauk has that Mr.e. It was only by special exertion that I was able to como. a mau first attains the strength of his mauhood.strfiiu. strength ao^. was a noted usurper of the Han dynasty. Peking expresflion. ont. he ought to restrain himself. Clteng^ -^u* j5u</^ HdK -ribution. i. S/"i/"i3 Hereditary rauk. place of the speaker. # 163 have a confidential friend. that the examioor was st:trting towards the 4 is here used of the platter on which the rolls are 9 laid in the kettle while steaming. uoimiil leeliugs. For 3 military strategy and.IN LESSONS ( 5. 6 We started a little earlier to-day. to See he\ To chaut. spectful reply. 7 I am delighted beyond incasnre to Iiear tliat that worthless villain has fallen and broken his lesf. A . such as is here used. I have no strength at all. von irmy entrust it to him to bring if not.^O". will nearly always elicit a reAn abrupt question often fails to do so. bat was unable ^^ to say anytluDg. . to attack by stealth. to viir- tlie put forth 5jJc TsV to try uue's best. -orons effort. A question or inquiry preceded by some polite ex10 pression. to mutter. " Speak of the devil and lie will appear. A Shou? Also cka}. g k' To rnu np To brace to effort. repeated.^ ^ ^ 9 > of II _ ^ 0^ I a hereditary major. the flesb. to hnm. to plagiarize. wbicli frightened him ont of his wits. Ma who has just now come? Ans. Without doubt this is a mauifest retribution. he T}ie sentence is the most noted character in Chinese history. is fairly implied. Notes. is a saying analogous to. a major. Immediate and l-i^^^'J'. temper - ance. put forth to in debt. To restrain oneself. i ". Tliey now ride Although not so said. constitntion Hsile^ ch'i\ d^To fight. Ch'ien^ ch'hig\ - chje'^. to l)rawl. hereditary. rank. The sentence is the call of a huckster by the wayside. offioials. to shont . military Physical vigor." ' or To start a term only applied to and no tlouLt fixer! in the language when it was the custom of mandarins to travel on liorseliack. He muttered something with his lips.. -Vc^. a present intended as a bribe. / Donblp. I gave one shout. - mauifesfc ret- [11] . - Ti) call . scold.

wanK iW-a-w ^5?'o happen. as. he biraself. 19 Distributive Pronouns. to restore. intercalate. sympathy. call. Id Ceutral ami Southern ^la iithirin coinbiuutiou with . to belong to. or to the repetition uf an act. I #-Q_w A ^oi 1 every China years five snit. fji'en2 /"iZ* KweV-* to commiserate. every. We started a little to the see us but five or six years have now passed that he has not come. each severally. 20 quently prefixed to verba to express wiUl or irregulav actiuu. To . That piece ofrotttn hone —a coarse 17 phrase used to signify that a peisou is thoroughly worthless is frehere means all at once. /i feel for. to betake on oh ( If to. / . au official establiahnieut. . . intercalary. is hard The thhuj you are force of : miglit also mean.///«*. Each. often as. uhrnever. to go home. He was everv day at the dt)or of and detestable. Each own. reform. the second is rendered ( own. ever}*. but is used does not here form a phruse with imiepfiuleiiUy as a verb. (17) I Ju <M>IIoqni. mc-aiiiiig to hecomt stromj or /" rV('. Ilsfi}**. it is is freely rurely used save Vocabulary. e^o^ [liaiu]. 8 Each one of ns attends to his (). . to divide by oue figure. eve/y tim€ as tive. inter- calates two mouths. to revert.G4 Translation. To return. 6 Every kiud aad 7 How much money are kept ou can you earn each style mouth [ati'airy. la* men^. too (arly.il W< or is often expanded used alone.When is each inclusive of while is all. . /'".t'. 2 Every mau loves his own cliiki. as ofton (IG) for himself. ' kao^ To A ksin^*. yon yourself. 77"i each one. 0^ 10. a government office.. though not properly a diaferibabecomes oue wlien ai>[)Iied to time. to practise virtue. al- wayiJ. each his Every time. 1 is Eucb. as a servant. aud means.u 9 Every tnau ought to do his own duty. repeated. Each. to occur every time. constantly. 3 Every time you come yon should knock at the door. v-vw . Hsiu} To meet nnoxpectedly F^j)g\ to . To as. t/am6?i. 5 lu the yameu there is opportunity every third aud eighth day to enter Eioir i la 1 as is here done. To pity. to compassionate. 4 I will take a little of each kind.s"(/rfe'/y. as often Also p'ang^. To receive indictments. . To be ddiohUd heyovd power of expresshig or roittaining the emotion. . every ilATi"*. (8) To meet. but in Fekiug iuto in SI.^ 10 Formerly wheuever 5^^ 1 1 The 13 not afraid to do is to Paraphrase tlms run in debt. Men are not wanting in China who feel uo sluiine in proclaiming liieir all -spifu 16 came came to lie CM pita I he always 0>-0-§1 to express in English. pity. myself.

to cruise.— as on a lute.. Note 3i». to patrol. to confer ou. F^ii^ shou^. and each oue went his own road.- Winter. to carefnll}'. Yien^. [of a dollar I wish to make you each a present We here.. This business requires that you should go yourself. . to close : - To go apart.. ' ercise. of course. 18 ^ responds to every plea. to -. to hasten to be busy with. a demeaning term -'fic'WC . to Chiu^ pin^.1 19 o i § g 20 21 j^ol *: A Liu^ ^ 22 skein of silk. Given to marvel at. nnusnal. . sixth and ninth day. 16 The generals did not dismount. to re* -proach for a fnnlt. huaiau nature is necessarily ilie same. fly. ^ reception room. and cough. to To abstain from eating meats.. to fast. Wans. to store np. . to cherish. In my unworthy village the markets are set for every 5th and lUth. to y/7?^2. - to follow. To find fault with.. dox. 171. To cough. '"- - ' anf peiK To prize. Pett^'^. • CkieUwoA Ample. certainly. FiA To rub. To go round and inspect.. for Les. to become Buddha. y . ^-" '-1>- look orer. . hold markets on every 4th and 9th. Chie^ k^ouK^^f. lie 4 * g 165 - • • official stopping place. to inspect. keep aloof from. To get drunk. to dread. to toxicated. to to harry. ' - . 15 I have a coiii^h every winter. the end. hetero- -. Jf^ I\ - to stop. Sou '• Fd2. drill. . rare. > 15 o O > the audience room waiting on f hia master's] call. to play.Lrsson . 13 Mr. The governor of a province. tsweiK --. To cough. From that time the two separated. The same. to slander. to go. ex- in- to avoid. . a Bad. - to regard as strange. Different. necessary^ ppoutaaeous. diverse. 66. Kung - An kwan^.is very compassionate ^ & si O^H 3 4 17 . K : F .. TicngY K'lK Take these few skeins of thread. intemperate. . MANDAIUN LESSONS. to be jealous. An encampment. wine. u jjub- . Hsiin^. to practise. to take leave of. To examine. Chi k'Q}^. 12 The teacher explains first principles: to practise them rests with the person himself. j. • prepare for to be on guard against. riie*."K)u^ft>cvv . itself. to separate.. 111 the encampment they drill every third. To make a tonr of inspection.J^ar. unworthy. Also haiK hack. III all coautries. to be beforehaud with. Chinese and foreii^n. to dislike. to hack To run.. to Skang\ To give a reward.^.^ perform To Ts'ad^ yien^ to drill.'. read over --' wi. to quiet to soothe. - To shun. . PiK .my mine. C7" to expectorate. to manage. How is it ia your honorable village? An$. and assort them accordiug to theircolors. natural. to publish the shortcomings of others. To cough. That which exists or acts of Ts'i^joiA .' w ' parade. ' ^ but each pursued his owu road. extended. a reward.

and even of manual flUill. All expression of respect. wliii-h would make fifty. Buddhirsts aud Tuo- 26 The two require to abstain [from meat] every first aud fifteeutlio ftho luoiitli. being settled by the As- The month tronoinicul Board in Peking. Note tho (litlcrent form of expression \v hcii tho niai ket occurs on the fifth ami tenth. military. 23rJ Tit is is the cblabliyluHi cu>ttom in find 2-Stli o! every inoiith. "S/ fit'tv • - -. iiitercalateil varies. a matrou. To remain a "'klo^v.^ #-0.iin from nieats. a lady. to etl My 31 make presents. woman. Tho monniiig our goods arc not stolen by him. 20 TIlis Bentenec. sects. . a be in trouble. mostly Lit. the governor goes round ou :i 20 It behoves that Whcu 30 lie touv of iijspectiou. If fully ex- is 26 nienns a school or sect. Tl'. . 12 but tht. ists.^0^ of^ ^ o & m each to be on liis guard dues nut steal from ns. Iii order to make up tlic loss. This i'orni is prnliahly used to avoidtli<. ^ctitcnco ia often used. intercalated as often as necessary. 1 wifl help to tlic extent of lie hall the heiul-fj tei's '. ami in nut always wc arc not stolen hy him. in China. the priusts. and officers of all gnuU-s are oxpect- .. a • )r€SCid) a largess. so that every time he drinks it he is cer- I tain to get clruulc.' (" Any Kiaan^ yiien\ ^y^^^ i^^^c^i^ Ch\n^^ iK V) • -: • • ofa company or society.— "bout two in five years.. that The h''M we can flo. to be in straits. 2S Whou one who is generally healthy gets sickjhissickness is always severe. 27 Let eueli mau state his owu case. to be embarrussed. not sister-in-hiw. by accommodation. and not each find fault witli the otiier. do about food aud tronlilt'd If yon really desire widow.166 > regularly wish to settle accounts Saturday. utiflorMton. cultivation of virtue. l)e clothini^. being taken cUy liorc wlieii usetl it il)l(3 und ]r>Ui in 29 iti ^ withmen people. elder brother's wife. When spoken of as ns to nhst. An in'Uclment vxay be presentoa at other times Ijy that 2i 6 paying a special 8 prewBcrl A it 13 to Ite tiie hu\ e • ing nionlli. Notes. 24 tliis fee. are thrco gru. 18lh.ftcr OH'-li ^f-. iiiodn. third to to be true a deceased husband. nmrUcf« aro heUl in tho cilioB aiul in "ml tlioso in tUe eaine »U luTi'e villa^cA oucc iu five itH piit a book exprcpaion but. 111 monih has only twenty-nine days the market that come on the 30th com 03 on tbu first of tlie follow- Wiien W(mM is. hit yaiiiciis. 23 I ever}' 24 On the declivity is the flower garden of tlieWaug familyiu which is every kiud of rare plant ixud curiuus flower. a month 1 the iH The month. a reli^^ions oKservaticc. from a Htaiidiirfl novel. it is necessiii-y for every prefect uud magistrate to prepare reception rooms for liiiu. that however. 13th. . 25 He has a weakness for wiue. of ordinary learning'. 21 In Jorth Cliina..o Ati<1 vicinity are arrangecl so as not to come on the same days. is determined by the changes of thus giving onW iihnut tlirec linndred hiuI fifty-four (lays to twelve inoitths. soriuu. iB. . i Loi oil 8. is noimrrt ion. 3 cltiiT.l r. 2 etc.lpR of cit ioa in a deia cxi)octcd to nuiUe a tour of Kuch guvcnior . To Tsod^ nan\ graudecs. as used iu won hi be understood by most cine. … remain a to taels. tl" ailiiiinistintion of medi- coiiiusutiuii nii'ans U> alistivin from niiylhiii^ tliat may 1"' in<M)"iwith the nu'diciiH*. officer civil or - ranks. Al'Stinonce fnmi nicuts on tlio ] at obticrvefl nflcn quoted mt tnphfirica! sanHC. Officers - - - all of An Sao\ iSc-vrr." 7. the 3r'l 8th. Imt would bo nriginnl reforeiice in to llu. applii fl to the ftffaira of ordinary life. you each yeur. juxtaposition oi five and ten. 30 Tho scending cuiilincil to hy ihcm.

complete. and all officers are expected to make him a present. day by day. clear. flonritfhiug. to praise. leuiaius unmarto. ried for life.• maxda niN lessons. iiy e i. IjoaK To entire. distinct. Plain. 109.ge.) Chen} chH Round. In point of fact. willows lio marry again. 19.< 0" inspection to Yon pass by here every day where are you always goin^ 4 There is scarcely any of [his. idiom is it is affirmed: as every day.n We etc. . Whohy Chwang^. almost every sheet 3 ns 1. 1 2 Everybody says so. A kind of writing -- paper. 167 Translation. Vocabulary. and repeating a noun makes it it. wholeX^. orderly sigli. ami it is but a rare (liiiig that a girl whose betrotlied dies before marriage. If any should omit it./ w lien pa[)er whole. have thug seeu that repeat- adjective emphasizes it. to disclose. the case of a girl whoso bctroUicil dies befot e nian i. tliey 1 " m all the principal places his jurisdiction at during his incumbency of three years. or give too little. bat tlie unforttuiate thing is that while 0. to drip. Fiuisbed. etc. a scroll. .hest exeiiiplificiUidU in. analoofous to the English. Lt-s^os G7. however. to incite. to go debt to groan. to let out. but 1 do uot whether J A ^ is ^ has some defect. Every family has some disgraceful secret: tlie\' wlio do not let it oat are clem'. tlie majority of yoiinfj. Loa speaks very clearly. repeating the word of which every man. To T'an^ healthy.^ know true or false. a screen. Officials resident on his route liave to provide entertainment for hi in ami his retinue.. in the middle and low^r classes. 5 Mr. Lien\ A curtain. Stout. and yet you ran iuto debt year by year 1 7 He is always looking out for small 1^ {tf & . Les. Les. distributive. To run np an accoaut. he vvoukl soon find that theie was some reason justifying his reinovaL least once. rohasty mnuly.-.1 i until all ciMi })re. leak. man This by man.«21^:'?- '. it is by Rkpktition.ich. hardy. <kU3-v'^x'to fori^^et. //"2 Luu Chhi'gi chwari^. -' [Les. repeating a verb specializes the idea and intensifies 33. it 8 Wliat you say is every word true. and this idea is fX tended Xi^ESs Distribution cau uot practise. . to smuggle. there is not a sentence uor a word that is not distinctly heard. & La} chan. G You earu eight thousand cash every mouth. to omit. ing o. ^ He will not oblige ia anything. sad. whole. - XiX^v^ often expressed is kuowu 31 The highest Attainment of female virtue is for a ynung wi'low to remain a wiUow for lift*. are jinv better tlian he is ami finds its hit. Who would venture to assert that they whose shame is not > 1 The idea of each or has become a habit. Jrmtrt^ "'^. Regnlar. iiito entire.

I

I

1>

1

-

m m m

168

IS
10

.

K

11

18

6

1^

'

m

ii

I

m

Hi

m.
5

:
to assnre,

^ *^

cK'oa^.

'J

/"

to

it.

rise,
prevailing,
to Jlourish
fashionable; to hoax. Also hstng*.

expose oneself to con
tempt, to disgrace oneself.

Chi\

The utmost point, the extronii*"y; extremely to reach the eud, to exhaust.

Ordinary, common, usna!,
customary.

Ch'i^.

luteutiou, purpose; scope, sense; imperial will, a decree, an order.

-.…

-<V>

-

.

The same,

/V

(s.)

Straight,
direct

clu\

The

c,tiao*.

-..

Moliammedau

ligioii

Note

re-

~"

12.

"

A command., a precept; a waraiuj^.
A fault, an error; a failure.
J^T Ch'i
A transgression, a sht, h
ife 7W"'4 chtien^*
.

,

K

{

.

"

--

.

CH rM

.

A

Twan\

-

-

.

short-coming.

The top

2

T ai* p'ing^
81"

Peaceful

quiet.

Asjmrt
oiUline, contour;
shape; coiijiguration.

akwoA-

rumor: a traditioa.

of the head.

To report^ to |>asa from
mouth to mouth h

^

Les.

im-

lt)2.

village, a liamlet.
Used ouiy in
Ceutral and Western Maudurin.

A fork in

CA'a\

Ihu'

"V*

direct; fortiiwith,

mediately;

-

.UL\A

gft Cli*wan^

Straight,

as a

straight
Les.

:

Chie

I still

To

1.

o

_P7/?y2 ck^ang''

Fan- cA'a",

of

is j:n^k

is

The general scope of the book

warrant, to wager.

SI 7VV

g;one

master of none " tlmt
is to say, lie who would excel iu
anything mstgive Lis whole atteutioa to

To guarantee,

have

where prevails.
The sayiui^ runs, " He that

18

12

all trades

pao\

sins

(

19
Ko.n^

My

over the top of my head,
[square.
12 Every Moiuuiimetlau cats his beard
13 Liu Ching Ch'ing is very good at
paiutiag pictures. The portraits lie
paints are almost equal to photographs.
14 If all iu the world were good sons
and good brothers, the wo rid would,
of course, be always peacef iil.
15 A map is a distinct drawing of tlie
several features of the earth.
16 His affairs are reported am g all
our people; there is uot a faiuily or
household that does not kuuw them.
When any tiling has flourished to tlie
utmost, it must decline; and when
it lias declined
to ibe utmost, it
nnist begin t ( fluurisb. Throwa^hont
the world, the same principle every-

1

4

a cotntnou phrase vrith us

is

merits of God.

m

o

ti

Nanking; every one uses it.
hiive brokeij all the teu comniantU
iu

,

'

2'' Si

the

gence

road

u brand" a diver-

to mistake, to

go wrong.

To criticize^ to revise; to give juJgmeut on a comniuuicatiou from an

P'i\

inferior.

§^

Hao*.

A

mcu'k, a .sign

a
to

liiltol.

IB

A

C/"*

sit^nal,

a

classitier:

W,

A
-.

ciiil,

u style or appellat ion

a summons; to mark

Les. 147,

Also had"K

mark, a sign; a token, a
motto.

1
Lesson

MANDARIN LESSONS.

68.

169

§

remember, but to repeat every
chapter and expound every verse,
is really more than I can do.

.
rs

^

^

>

1

20 Wliich way do you go from this to
Dsiu Tieti
Ans. When you get
out of the town, go ou directly
northwest; there is no fork in the
road, just go on straight as a line

@

*

^

"^

21 I notice dots and circles on Chinese
books; what is the meaning of them
A??s,
They are the marks of the
critic.
Where the style is very
good he makes circles, where it ia
not quite so good he makes dots.

o

%
Notes.

3
means

hrre refers to the

number

of times,

and hence,

is

j>Liper in

Q

who had been mentioned

here refers to some one

is cominonly used for "I'etter" in Central and
before.
Northern Mandarin, but is not often so used in the South.

by the

non-mandarin
d alecta south of the Yang tse for
It is sometimes
used ia the North, but its constant use marks any dialect as,
by 80 much, an impure Mandarin. The use of
for fjfc
is

is

noun,
is

generally

used

^.

also characteristiCriUy Southern.

12 The
Almost any

classifier

is

repeated

substituted for the specific classifier.

commonly designated

but this term

is

is a repeated word, but does not illustrate the
It is introduced here to put the learuer on his guard.

13
lessen.

is a verb, and the second, a noun.
The Chinese
language, especially the
is very partial to this form of
expression.
See also 2L

— Ohs by

15

onCj that is, each one in order,
the
of expressing tliis idea.
sentence
Bets forth a stock idea of Chinese
17 This
philosophy.
This
proverb
is
the
exact equivalent of our "Jack of
IS
all trades und master of none," and is more briefly and elegantly expressed.

common form

is

quite

Vung

® By

which

hsing, but a

way

number

As here used, ^J*
of other forms are id use in

,

and
I have heard
and
also, ia properly used in
and man and lea.
though not often so used colloquially.

various places.

classifier,

Mohanimedaus are

but they, generally, speak

as

&t-"

20

instead of the noun.
instead of the

may be thus repeated
many cases, the general

classifier

though, ia

for the phraseology

Tliey are alsu called
not considered respectful,

Tiie first

general, is faulty.

10

which accounts

used.

hei'e

dropped out in the translation. If you should
translate, as would seem natural, thU hind of jican lien papdr,
etc., you woiikl miss tiie meaning, which is nut that this pnrtioular kind of jwan lien paper is faulty, but l]\Q,t j wan lien

4

,

of themselves as

a( ways.

also

ma

this sense,

.

JLESSOIST Xj:5CV
Classifiers.

An

Classifier of trees.

A class or order,
and shrubs.

There

is

much

of these two classifiers.

writing,

confusion in the use

is

Double,

classifier of

things in pairs.

Mouth,

classifier of

members

kettles, hogs, etc.

of bnttons

and

Ia
medicine.
not iufreqaently used instead of

.

4 Root, classifier of strings, sticks,
geuerally, of things long and narrow.

comraoaly observed.

A spaa or team,—classifier of sedan chairs
and vehicles other than those on wheels.

is

classifier

sets, also of doses of

A dose, classifier of doses of medicine (S).
A partition, classifier of rooms. Note 28.

I have given the dis-

tinction which seems most natural, and which

assistant,

of things in

oJassifier of herbs, grains

A

'

pile,

classifier of things in

and,

heaps.

Classifier of pieces of cloth.

A

of a family,

For

chariot,

lists see

classifier of

Supplement,

wheeled vehicles.

^
.=

7

j
1
oi

oa;

J

\

I

25.;-

1- oi

5

*

Teanslatiok.
have teu pairs of woollen stock-

I

1

Fa has a

2 Li JuQ

family of eight
short two pairs

We

are still
chopsticks.

3

of

will guanintee that one dose of
medicine will cure him.
5 I leased a house of three rooms.
Draw out a thread and t(ive me.
apple trees and
7 There are twelve
eight pear trees in the back yard,
exceedingly
honeysuckle is
8 This

4 I

>|-0

^0

to^m

H^of

fragraut.

mM.-o,#s%

The two heads of the

y

i
1^0^

are

[cash.
dew to nourish it.
13 I bought a set of buttons for eight
14 I intend to nse this kettle to-day to
boil the clothes.
15 He hasn't a stalk of grain, but depends entirely on his trade fur a

A

W

family

going to separate.
10 Pluck out that hair.
11 Two thousaud eight hundred catties
of stone make oue cord.
12 Every blade of grass has its own

ii
to L0

living.

Vocabulary.

A

Sku'arif:

An

Fii*.

a couple; both

double;

evea:— 3ee Sub. Also

shivaiig^,

pair,

assistant, a deputy,

Date; a duplicate:

K'6^x. Used

A

¥tf^.
.

JOc^'':'

.

-

...

P'P.

.

.

ouly as a classifier

pile,

Used only

jjy

see

Liamf

Siil).

A
l')

A

s]M'cii's

aud

insipid.

uit,

(if

Lu^iar^.

'
g

^
.

h9

.

A

.s/.a^

k'ous tsiK

Dew,

largo,

chmV

Husband and

mist; to bless

wife.

To thatch; a coarse grass used
for thatch; a mat.
litter

covered with matting.

A

chiao

male litter.
^uri»-rt^

Silk gauze; crape.

Couuteiiauce, visage; co!o)

Kwanf/^ ptrt^.

'

line.

Color, hue.

Yien^ s^K

but

See louK

:

Dew.

rude mnle

Yfen^

liorriea, mits, etc.

~quite

iihui',

^ Torr

water plant.

apple

to

separately.

Lh* shioe?

Same
The same as

fUicn*

To divide the iuheritance;

ckia^.

Fe-iO-

The honeysuckle.

yin- hwa}

see Sub.

to portion out
trim, to cut even
see Sub.
... a dim, a prescriptioa:

K"o'A

'

:

To

/W kwan^

to nip to hold with
tongs or uippers; to twist.

To pinch,

live

chariot

kiads

fingers, to pluck; to
.knead; to fabricate, to trnmp np.

.

Chin

Also

Chopsticks.

P'fn^, p'"i'.

li

see Sub.

-—. .nap^dowu; punk.

Ch^,

J iUtj..

]Sk\4kn\

see Sal).

many

To take with the

Ni').
.

Floss; velvet; woollen cloth; worsted;

^ ktmi
j|

as a classifier:

A

Juwf.

9^

t

a heap, a mouud; to heap np,
see Sub.

Lian^

<^

an alter-

Pears of which there are
iu China.

to store

spau, a team
ck
n

.

vice,

see Sub.

-…A

CA'S/is>k

a

UK

SmooUi, —Ulieil;

/V^w.

.

brilliant.

sliiuiug,

-

:

"

MANDARIN LESSONS.

Lesson 68.

|i

Hf^

171

You
ani goin*^ home.
ninle litter for ine.
17 Look at that piece of red silk gauze
is uot tlie color brilliant
18 Twenty or thirty stalks of rny millet
on the south liill were eateu up by
16 In three days
ni a}' hire

^

sof

% ^
0%

your cow.

saw that he kept two

19 1

gA

I

;i

big, fat liogs

iu the sty.

1

;^
0^1^^

^

^^

^*<10^

Wear

this pair of old shoes at home,
and keep that [)air of new ones to
go ont with.
21 At weddings in Shanf.nng, some use
two sedau chairs and some, four.
22 When you go out to-day, you may buy

20

for me three pieces of white cotton
cloth, audoue piece of ash colored silk.

23 There are

five flowering bashes in
the front yard,
two monthly roses,
two red roses and one sbrnb peouy.
24 With upwards of ten persons to eat

05

>
!^

and

1^

new;

Fresh,

Esieii^.

bright,

one kettle to cook iu,
very incouvenieut.
25 I bought two heads of cabbage for
sixty cash and eight onions far
twelve cash.

>^
clean.

TV

Also

hsien^.

New,

Usien} min^.

bright, brilliant^ re-

Grain; cereals; millet.

e/"3 chHn^CA^
Coarse

Ck^ou^.
'-

-'^

'

Chi^,
j^jr^^?^

.

-

A
.

-

hog, a pig.
.

To take a

The monthly
Same,

yue^ hung^

rose.
(s.)

A bright red gem, a garnet,
A red gem rare, admirable,

-

.

.

.

-

i

..

.

Carnation color; *:iuuabar; a medicinal
concoction, a pill; sincere, loyal.

Onious,

wheelbarrow.

to betroth;

earth.
to espouse,

Betrothal presents.
.

.

A

.

finger-ring.

sink, to descend; to fall, to

cram-

an ear-ring,

ble; a pendaut,

Pincers, nippers, tongs; a clasp
.see Note 29.

Er^
Tsan}.

A

Betrothal presents.

To
.

freight cart.

passenger cart.

Clay
To ask;

7.

A
A

ni^

GUe4^" C. •

1.

A

>
P'eis.

The shrub peony.
Ts'ung^

ILwangS

Gh'ien\

Th^ red rose.
Mu\ The male of quadrnpecls, of a few birds,
VlC^tC: and of some plauts; a bolt, a pistou.

Tm,

ck'^^

C/iwei\
a

younger brother.

'^W^-

Hsiao^

'

Ting^ IP. --,

to investigate, to follow up.

.

ch'i}.

P'iii^ Ifl

wife.

pongee; a clue, a thread

V.'.

is

ch'e^

Chiao^

l)'in\

season of the year, a period;

Yiie^

Meis.

i--

silk,

Vue^ e/"V-t"

'

A

Chu\QSAf!f.

or

/)

'

splendent.

oinly this

the cooking

.

.

An

ear-pick or scoop,

skewer

to fasten the haii%

.

piu or

a hair-pin.

To

assist; to

accompany;

to

match;

to act as second or mate.

Pei^

ke^,

A low cabinet on wliich the bed-

^".aA'^Q'C. -ding
It stands across the

Ten^^ Vai\

is

laid

dnriug the day.

head of the k'ang or bed.

A

lamp stand; a lamp-post;
a light-house.
-

Bedding.

W

*

172

15

"

Si 8

,5

^

26 Mrs. Wang took some hairstringa
and gave the large pnpils each a
black oue and the small pupils each

>

a red oue.

m^^

lai

A

>

27 There arrived this evening

at the
cart iun to the west, eight freight
carts, five passenger carts aud thirteen wheelbarrows.

2S Outside his front gate are nine piles
of st.one, a heap of clay aud one of
fine sand.
I hear he is going to
build two side rooms.

iiii

.

>

1

1

J

01!

.
1

29

What

30

What outfit wos

all did they bring for betrothal presents
Arts, Two pieces of
strong blue foreign cloth, one piece
of fine red foreiofn cloth, one paii* of
bracelets, two pairs of fiuger-riags,
two pairs of eai'-riugs, oue ear-pick
aad three hair-pins.

_

given with the bride?
lar^e clothes press, oue
sidel)oard, two leather trunks, two
chairs, oue cabinet and oue largo
mirror, besides wash-basin, a!np
stand, beddiug aud pillows, all com-

Oue

Ans.

>

1^

>g

plete.

Notes.
The
1 Woollen stockings are of foreign manufacture.
do not hiit tiieir stockings, but make them of cotton

C hinese
cloth.

-

Lccwe is not quite an accurate translation of
an indefinite lease in consideration of a round sum
paid down at tlie tirst, hut the property U su bjcct to redemption l>y the owner at any tirao, or after the lapse of some
If not redoemed within
ipecifiod timo, usually three years.
forty years, it is not reileemablo except in the case of land

6

whicli

is

is not properly (as sometimes trans*
which ia expressed by
although in
r1 rawing n mortgage the term
is used, for the reason tint
U illcgiil. Tlicrc is in this cuse, howevor, no possession
Thus a morlf/age in China
given aa in the case of a real

with graves on

it.

to mortgafft,

.

a lease given, but held in ulieyance I»y tlic losaec, with
p (WtT to tako poaacBaion ia case of failure to pay us promiscil.
muy licro bo regarded cither ns a clusaiMur of
9
in

noun atandiiig for member of a famihj.
pioporly means to divide the inlioritunco hi^twtjen
brothcta, hut in Bomotimus uaud, att here, of the separation of
buiibaiiil und wife.
22 Th«) "I'ft ifl that in the economy of n tit lire, man
uiiil'r"oo'l, or ua u

inclii<l(!<),

14

tifant to

fir"

provided

me, this kettlf, rjr.

Vl"(:li

for.

meaning wan

would l>u iiuUcatoil in Hpouking by the strctui put on
Boiling dothc , in wanhiog tb«ni, is a foreign custom.

iiitendu'l

.

the waiitfl of overythinj;

Or, /

X6 The "Jf

13 used only in North China, and tticre
uonntiy where carts cannot be used.
21 In tiie case of two chairs, oue ia for the britle, the
other for tlic groom.
In the case of four, tiic two extra cliaira

only

ill

are,

one for the

iiilly

The former, who

the other for
riiles in

the front chair,

of the groom's friends, tlio latter,
is

ail

elderly

woman

classifier sec Les.

of the

is

who rides in

bride's

.

tlie

an elderly

family.

woman

the rear

dii'ir,

For

as

i\

It "'as not intended to iutruii uoc it

125.

here, but the Pekingese called for

it.

26 Tlio Chinese say head stringi^ for hair strings.
27 Wheelbarrows are extensively usetl in North and
West C'liina for
Iransporliition of goods.
2G A pile, or cord, of building stono is in some places
unilui-.-^louil to mean a defiiiitt* quantity of from 2,400 to *J,bOU
catties, in oUit"'

pUc's

imlcfinitc.

IS]

ilooa

it is

like a pile of earth or sand, (jiiitn

a

-'""^/e

huUdimj of two room x,

not necessarily nor properly

the apace encIoRod between
oui»port

till)

girilors of

tlio

ooiiioido wiLli tlioso girclors.
by tlio iiuinboi* of tlioac c/tien,

29

if:

is,

in

ntutitt

any
roof.

Tho

some

a room,

iwtj, of

l>iit.

culluU Stf

cloLli

of

jilj
lii-r,

the posta which

Th« piutitioiin imiiuUy
sizu of houaea ia indicuted

places, a purticiilar quality of

fortfigu cotloii clotli, fino an<l strong, in ollu'r pincrti it

means foreign cotton

rat

any

i|Uiiliiy.

eimply

Kar-ringa

in Fokiug, because Ihcy clasp into the car.

ma

i

-

MANDARIN LESSONS.

Lesson 69.

173

M
.^ .

TRANSLATIO?f.

^

oil

oia

t3^0TH

was fiomidly berated Ly Chiang
Ping W6n a few days \\%\\
2 Why did you not suit your actions
to the circiiinstaiices
Yon have

H<f

1

I

3

He

not the least discernment.
has iu his drawing-room two
square tables, four nrm-cliuirs and
one long sideboard, all very ueatly

K,,,.ESrr?

<Hsoi

i:

arranged.
4 This climi)ing rosebush lias on it a
great many roses.
I am sorry they
are about to drop off.
5 P*;iiig Loa Clriiu lias a very fitte
lookiug (langhter, except that her
feet are a little large.
6 Warif^ 8au Yie speaks in a very

>

>

^

pompous

-

3^;&,^-3.^,

say yoa are a good man.
As I
see it, you are a good rascal.
8 Be off; it is time to go to school.

i^olm:

^
^

>

^

style.

You

7

9 Thai Li P'eug Chin is mighty bold
that he should venture to control

#

my
10 In

&-

Miscellaneous
In addition to its ordinary normal use,
has
a great variety of peculiar uses most of which are
brought toget iier iti this lesson. They cauuot be
aualysed or classified.
is a little like tlie Ens:-

Uses
lish

days he has not learned
one lesson, and to-day the teacher
gave him a good flogging.

of
well, " only

word

however,
be

affairs.

three

made

has

it

to

more so" Like other

vrorda,

proper place and should not

its

do service on

all occasions.

Vocabulary.

^

l^in§^.

BR

An

Chiang^

§

Gvvv-

-

aqnatic plant; a surname.

Bright, himiuou3.

eiirht

Ylcn^ mtv^.
.

.

-

TliG eyos

the evos

the aspect of tilings.

of the eyes
as iudicative of the thoughts
(.he

feelings.

Yien^ se*.

Discrimination,

Reception

Hsien^,

A human

3.

ball, parlor,

draw-

soul with divine powers, a

liberal.

The most noted sacred monu-

T'ai^ skavK

->
taiu iu Ohiua, situated sixty
miles south of Cbinanfu, iu Shautung.
-

-

-

-

-

sha-n> i\

A

high backed
chair:

Chi^y^'.

.

tHao^

Parlor, drawing-room,

genius, u fairy.

square dining
table seating

Exalted; honorable;

hiut.

ing-roo7n.

Id wu},

Note

persons

T'ai^

discernment,

jadgmeut, sense; a wink, a
AT'e* t'uhiy

A

cho)},

the expression of

expression

f>i-

Pa} hsien^
.

A

A

c/".i
-

Sk,\,,

To

Note

3.

bench; a low table; a side

-

table,

on,s narrow table, a side'
board.

institute; to arrange^ to set ont ia

jU'v-'Ux^. order; to

suppose;

if;

Les. 132,

>

IS

174

"

^
"

.

^

^

m:

He

even grml'g;es to spend these few
Really, he is ui,2:gardly.
The paiu is a little lighter now,
but this luoruiiig it was awfully
severe for a while.
Let mo take it for yon. Ans, Thanks,
I could not think of troubling yon,
It seems to me yon are wliolly wanting iu a seuse of the fitnesa of
things.
Why tio you [/Uudj tUere
ami laugh when otiiersare weeping?
Diiiuer will be ready before lonic.
Wait and eat a little before you go.
Is it so easy to make a friend that
you should lightly otfeud him

11

cash.

12

13

>

^

I

14

R

1> P

15

10,

, y

^
PaP

I^ow

;^

To spread oat

shdK

TanQe
p/j'i'Sc/'S/?

A

ChHan^
•J^

^

A

......

A

A
.

,

ICou^

red rose.

ciunamou

rose.

See Jhig^.

to do or act in a
heedless or reckless manner, to shift,
See /tun-,
to ek»^ ont, to slnr over.

Mixed, disnrdcrly;

Ta?,.

or

-

-

P'huJ^l -^M-y-^y

.

^

Chiad^

.

cfi'i*.

A

Li\

.

.

.

^

Lit

li^i

cil,

^

A

Ts'ai^

"

M

narrow miml-

Cida^

ch*"?

A

The

moruin^if.

dmriot; to drive or sit in a diariot;
to mom", to usceud; to avail oj,

Lao- Jda}.

To trouble

one,

a

ptiruae of apology.

polite

bauds

of,

to

of rain.

Same.

sod^

loit^

small feudal state: asurnarnet

A

noble, a lord.

an ahyss; vast*

Fo^^'K Ample, spacions; int.eliigeut, learned;

*

.

Tsac?

in the

Yuen\ >^^.^V<\^K whirlpool

\^

Same,

hand over;

to.

Kindness, grace, liheraUtyj; clmrity,
favor to be kiud to, to bestow.

Hwei^^

stingy, 7uggardly.

TlHiac^ch'iK

to insist ou.

lod^soa\ Proloiicred ami coiii'ascd, complicated.

fabulous bird.
spirited,

push;

Water dropping, the patteriug

Loa^ "3

gall; courage, boldness,

Mean

to

To put

t'oa}.

bag, a wallet

del iver to, to

Ch'inSi^

//3/ao3

A

entrust to; to cousigu to.

Unreasona])]e: vicious, recreaut worthless.

The

light!": rarc-

Les. 161.

drive, to nrge; to dun,

.to entrust

.-y.--(v>vt.-<

Hun* ckan*

-

To

Chiao\ laiK

a compauy, a viuUitbe wliole.

tilde;

To

-'ii/*v^ .°u4uin-<-.

surname.

seidom:

… i"" "

tai

Ts'wei^ ts*u\

A flock, a herd;

Ck'un\

lur

P

kiuJ of fern, greens.

clirabiug rose, the

P'an^

For small canse.
ly,

regular.

P/vtJt-^

Wi-i^,

CkHng^

l)ri('-:!-bi'a(\

Uniform, even.neat, orderly,

3.

^

in order, to ar-

to display-

a bag, so that 1

can atteud market to-morrow.
Ans.
18 I beg pardon for pushing yon.
Not at all, I am sorry to have
incouvenieuced yon.
19 The other matters can be readily
arranged, but there is no one to
whom I can entrust these children.
20 First try to persuade him, and if he

^^10|-

1qq
11

Yon go and borrow

17

o|j

2
m

16

f

i^<c^

.

to barter; to

Profound

gamble.

in learuing.

Ti^ pa^
Ch^'ivg^ ch]v}.

To

raise up, to assist, to help.

Taste, uttvor,

rciisli, batis-

^^

Lesson

MANDARIN LESSONS.

69.

170

Iy

1

positively refuses, it will be time
enough to agree to pay damages.

m

21 Please do not worry.
That iiKin is
very reasonable.
I guarautee you
he will be willing.

>

man

22 That

11

4

i

f"

it

23

L

it

1

24

He

up.

did not spend more rhau ten or

fifteen

casli in this lawsuit.

eh? He spent over

didn't,

forty thousand,

25 Mr. Ts'ai Hwei Ch'ing

is a man of
scholarship
liis
haudwritiug, also, is quite good.
26 I spent money aud effort to help him
along and yet a great deal of fault
is foaud with
me. I feel vexed
whenever I think of it.

.

.

|?

thousand

He

Ans.

>

^i:0

strings

yon have finished writing the
read it to me before you seal

very

^

be

letter,

I.0,
115^

begins,

out without end.

When

o

i

5i

an inveterate talker;

is

when he once

flue

27 This lesson was very bard to make.
I don't kuow whether it will be

-

oany to learu, or not.

Not ES.
2 Although no interrogative form is expressed, the interrogation is implied in the first clause. In Chinese, reproof is
generally in the interrogative form.
The sentence miglit, of
course, be taken in the direct indicative form, but, in tliat case,
would hardly justify the emphatic expression that follows.
3

Eight fairy table

111]

^

a high sounding

name

for a square table that will seat eight persons.
Tax Shan chairs, high backed chairs with arms at the sides.
Tai Shan is used as a fancy name iu allusion to the high buck
of the chair.

i.e.,

7 There

is

one that

is

here a play on the word
a good rascal
fully up to the standard of ordinary rascality,

a 'jrand raacal.

9 The name

is

made emphatic by beiug put

in this

peculiar way.
OJie

mark

party

idea.

Teachers

differ

in

their

two forms.

13 The term
thii'd

common

same "
17

response to a complinieut, or to expressions

h'—'Uier

the negative be used or not.

Tlie -Aor.l

~

is

'

elided colloquially before

.

This is the language of one
13
Pjll
who, having vigorously urged payment, now receives the
money' The force of
is,— I will omit the usual
apologetic forma for having jncoiiveuienced you by my
urgency.

mark

lessons

express the same
clioice of the

the

thank H or of solf-depreciation.
not venfnre.
to trouble, your carriage,
the word carriage beiug put by
metououiy for the person. People worthy of houor are
supposed to ride in carriages.
16 Tiie meaning, strange to say, is substantially the

The sentence may

also

be used of a

bonoweJ

urticle.

i.e., one lesson.
Chinese teachers
hy pasting a small strip of red paper at
the point to which the lesson extemls.
This paper is called a
hich is marked by it. A differ§l,^t and is put for the lesson
is used for
ent phraseology prevails in the South where
setting a essoii but there is no way of expressing the noun
" lesson." Hence the Southern teacher insisted on recasting
avoiding, as will be noticed,
tl\e whole sentence as given,
the use of the noun " lessou."
and

XO

usually

is

of

who

22
pHi'ctse iu this,

ent tone of

2S
used

t

in

-

aud

Notice the different meaning of this
preceding sentence also the differ-

in the

is omitted in the translation.
It is often
Chinese w hoa its equivalent is not needed in English.

serves to soften

what might

A

24

carried the other end of the pole,

very idiomatic expression not readily

analysed. It is, perhtips, put for
gives the exact force.

-

25 The Southern

here used, implies that there was a

otlierwise seem too "mcli like

a comniaiui.

which,

in

The

teachers reject

the North,

is

and

decidedly Weii.

the translatioii should be profound

instea,il

translation

substitiit«

If it

be used

of vtryjiii,^.

*

(;

fj^

!
g

i

?
5

>1^

ols

o%

4 The ancients all said that the snu revolved [ronud the earth]. After all,
does the snu not revolve
Ans. No.
5 "Would you be willing to lend iiie
your boots to wear oq my wetiding'
day? Ans, Certainly. They are at
your service.
6 Will the gentleman please examine
whether this mauuer [of doiu*^ it]
will auswer
Yes, it will
A?is.
answer very well.

We

^

"

li

Yes and
Yes.
The Cliinese use the aiibstautive
as their most connnou afifirmative.
It
verb
correspomls more uearl}* than any other word iu
the language to our word yes, though in rnauy
})lace9 it will not replace yes,

This form is generally nsed iu
and sometimes, iu the North.

Yes.
^foiith,

Yes, yes.
An emphatic assent. It is
generally nsed by inferiors assenliiig to the commaiuh of superiors Aye, aye, sir. It is also
usetl to indicate impatieuoe
yes,
know.

So be

it,

See Les. 44.

all right.

Yes, sir, or madam,
a Manchu
rarely heard away from Peking, save
in yaineus, wliere everybody apes it.

No.

The

to

No.
flit lire.

is

''

A

r

cordial assent,

very well,

It applies to

When

past time

nsed instead.

No.

the

is

light

, aud

present and

Won't work, cannot allow

Tiii^take, t bat's so,

Nt

i

to

lie

is

especially

referred to,
or
is often added to

VVoiTt do, cauuot allow
Shautiini; Imt is not Vung hsing

'

for
It

tlie

,

Generally less emphatic than

.

without

A

sometimes
emphasis.

it,
it.

" no go."

Used

in

of course.

the least mistake, precisely,

sure.

all

That's

certain,

that's

so,

of

course.
nr

murks a

It

1

(:uii(''.s"'m

mill

1

A

it

will

work.

Often

or less reluctant.

qualified aHscut, that

is,

consent, rou

riglit.

Tbat's

so,

1

The nse of

j

of thought or idea, in couseqnence

marks some change

It will do, so

fff is

This term lias ""ven rise to the
Eu<,Mi8h phrase, " can do."

all

j.i'lL'in

will do,

more

be it; that will do,
ponerally added to
but is spoken ligiitly.
sometimes to

or
that's enough,

pf
may.

for

.

It IS

riirht.

added

is

euphony, aud sometimes
added iu like mauncr to

or

woni.

to

Ans,

1-

*

the

aa

Oliaiig family have their funeral
to-day.
wonkl euqnire if yon,
madam, wish to go and see the
display.
Ans, I believe I will.

<1

>sos-

sir,

me

The

3

.jf

^

be so kiud,
address au envelope for

Certainly.
2 Put this liMt carefully away, ami do
not allow it to become Haturated
with smoke. A}is. All right.

44
0,1?

Translation.

Wonkl you

1

you're right.

An emphatic asseut.

of wliicii the assent is given.
AllinuutioTi ami neiration fire often expressed by
simply ropeiitiiif? tlio principal verb of the iiiterrou:iis the fuse
ativi! st'utence, wit li or williont

^t

D<>
mu.y b(' as in
\t
^ ti
55
Ans, I do. This
you vndcrstand Mamlfinn
priuoiple is iu fact illustrated in (1), (5) (6).

Lesson

mandarin

70.

i.

kssons.

i_

^

7

8

yon iuterrogate him too eageriy,
iie does uot
know what yoar
purpose is, k\o yon think he will
tell yoa
Ans. Of course not.
9 So the interest is two per cent [per
month] is it
I heard it was oue
and a half. Ana. No.
10 Don't hesitate to hnn^ it for him to
see.
If it pleases bira, let him keep
it; and if it does not please him, he
need not take it. Ans, All right.
If he were not concerned ia the
affair, why should he be alarmed
every time it is meutioned? Ans.
as

.
isi

#

±^

8

n

I

2

You

>

That's

12 It

1

J

*

1

oltwmr

ness.

^

^

t--

l^z^

^^r^^h^^
JTsi7i4

pHK

Vocabulary.

The outside

of a letter; the

paper in which a note
oil folded and which serves as au envelope,

Vapor, fumes; to fumigate, to smoke;
.>j^Af<v^. .to perfume to su flue ate.

ACm?.

To smoke,

to soil.

ChHng^ whi\ To enquire; a polite form of
questioa,
please tell me,
Ch'iaQ\
-

-

-C^U

:i,

at, to

take a

-V.v;?

corner.

A
T:/

go round

JJk.

^ Kwa}
^^'Vr^
K'u^ taiS
C

Ckiv^"

,

.

(

<

PP^ w^n\ To interrogate, to cross question
to demand au answer.

Ch, kwav?.
-

Only, simply; without hesitaHon, freely, just
Les. 83.

-^^^^RMr«'it24*-

I

in,

implicated
connected with.

Qoncerned, entangled
^/y: volved, implicated.

.

To

-.

in,

id-

treat
with severity,
maltreat, to abase.

to

Frightened,

.

terrified,

alarmed.

Startled, alarmed.

i

.

QhAie^chingK To f'eei aiariueii; fn n antfest
,—"Vv_ • .alarm: Note 11.

See chwan^,

fhae^. -yW-'.':" boot

To be concerned or

Ch'ten?- lien\

c/iingK

revolution; to turn ronud, to revolve, to circulate; to

to pnll,
as a boat,
to lead, to induce; to implicate,

-

-C/w'^.^-S\"peep at.

ChwanK
-

To^ look at, to glance

To drag along;

Ctien}.,

is

llsun\

Ch'iadK

sufficient

is

14 Stay here and recreate a few days
before you go.
Ans. No, I must
go borne to-daj. To-morrow is the
third anniversary of my cousin's
death.

..

i

so.

if the mother-in-law
does not abuse her daughter-in-law
can she be expected to let her
daughter-in-law rale over her? Aiis.
Of course not. t
13 If you do not. have a written agreement with him, he will certainly go
back on yon. Ans, That's so. I
have heard that he has that weak-

^

oiKTI^i.

I^

1 said.

If

NTs

^

1^

comes, yoa may tell him
Ans, Yes, 1 will.
will have to pump him gradually.
he

what

^

OS-

W
>i

When

^

^

ijiof

177

"

8r4"

.

2'

r7~Tr. ."tf^

-

Agreement, contract, indea-

T'an^i hsiung
Ckou^ nien^,

Qw^

.^V-^^v^^

A
.

-

tare, covenaur.

A first

cousin of the same
family uarne.

full year, the whole year,
.anniversary.

.

i:s
15 If be will not jiay, suppose we get
up a coiiipiiiiy and go to liis rcstuurai->t and liave a feast on account.
A ns. To be sure that is a good

o%

:

3

itleM.

^

1(5

L

.

will

I

you

I

(rive

yon

days more. If
produce the luau,
you severely. Ans. Aye,
tliree

lieu fail to

t

I'll [nuiisli

aye, your liuiior

4^^#.

room

Tlie best

1

very gracious.
already occn jiievl.

is

is

Please, sir, look at this room iiud
see if it will answer.
Ans. It is all
right.

18 It

>i

^

y
3 3S^

^>^i

{ce

1^«

nf

A'/m/i^^Krvt^^am e
v'.

-'< •

.

invite

to

ward

^

.

-

-'

iu

.

That he has uo

vot%

^TrV'W

-

In st'ttlcimnt of an account, to
charig^.
coinpouad a tlebt by prop,0>
given instead of niouey.

.

T^2, To reprove, to reprimand; to p)()iinh, to
.H^i'- fine; a charge, duty, respousibility.

^

chi*.

.

--.

.

.

To pums/i,

f@, P,n\
//1» tiefi\

Bir.

See

Sul).

The rooms

to chastise.

fif]

mercy.

.

^

to trespass upon, to arrogate;
V. to take possessiou of, to occupy.

Spare time,

Usien^ k'ungK\

The

P'ti^

A

7'vm?i-.

.^^^^3^v
luiitfMl,

.

-

leisure,

cat- tail rush, calamus.

lump, a mass; roiou/, <rl()bnlar;
to group; to suruouud;

to collect,

agreeing' together.

A

rush mat, n [rouiiil] mat, of a ny kind
mat ou which priests sit wheu they
prayers.

sp.'fially the

Also cha>

(jrace,

wliioh in au iuu

'U^: v\ Travelling expenses.
k't*gv^ Jti^. Studies, lessou, task.

A

P'"2

Favor, grace, mercy; kindness.
Favor, bounty,

emphatic-

F'aii^ feiK

r^'citc

Cha>. /J^^^^t^^r^es,

-

jj)^

-

Tsr-

is

Chan\ To usurp,

.

IM
<Tf,y

leisure

face the eiitrauce.

to

Against a deht in lieu of
tlie money, iu settlemeut.

-

cusli,

ally true.

bear; to substitute for, to atone.

Ting^ ckang^.

T

hnudred

hear that his studies keep liiiu
very busy, so that lie has uo leisure
I
from moi'uiug till night.
correct?
Ans, You are indeed.

S/ianp^/an^.

off; to sustain,

tluit six

Am

.

To oppose,

Ti\

borrow two

hundred cash.

as

To

to

at the most, should hire two uuimals for sixty li.
It can't be
done.
This is a very busy time.
No one is willing to go for six

21 I

company, to make
C^v.a party, to have a feast,

Ch'ing^ k'i\

20 It seems to me

>

QI|1

*

>1^

P

wants

Yiiii

thoiisaud cash for truvelliug expenses, and asks me to speak with
you aud ask whether, or not, you
Ans.
are willing to leud it to him.
Well, yes.
Go aud call him in.

f

>

M

^

>
^

K

1

Wen

19 Li

^.

,s

*

^

is enonu h if we do not make anything off him we can not sell to hiiu
at a loss.
A ns. Of course we can't.

^^-

nisli

luut,

Ji

straw

tioD.

Ijus-

tjock,

Wis(hm^ knowledge, pnidouco,

^

Ch'i\
-

uMi^J>»

.

.

discre-

"

Lesson

M A X D A n I N LESSONS.

71.

17d

22 If yon can not take

^

^

had yon

better leave thia mat and I
wiil send (take) it to you bv and by

"

M ^

>

all,

not

Ans.
Well, all I'iglit.
23 Will yon take fifteeu himdred cash?
No, that money will not buy it.
2-i Of the teu thousand cash I owe yon,
I will pay six thousand this month,

W

^

f.^sf

iiiid

theu,

eighth

o1

t'oiu-

may

month

wait till the
the other
Ans.
Yes, that
I

pay

to

thonsaa J

will do.

25 It has always beeu said, ''The steelyjinls can not be sepiirared i'nnn the
weight, iior the mercliaufc from his
gouds." Is it proper for you to leave

>^:1.^

1$

„^

.

^
>

>

^-

f

the goods, to look after other
things?
This time, fortunately,
not much was talceD, bat if you
do so a second time, you will have

3

to

7

o

m

make

it .""ood

yourself,

Ans. All

"

Without experience (mistakes) no wisdom is gained."
I
right.

will not

25

do so a second time.

Notes.
Tlu3 phrase

11

how it can apply
Home would write

widely

useci ,

but

and others (where

'

P»-evail)

ie

hard to

it is

to external appeai'Hnce, as it does here.

eee

sounds

soft

14 Oil the first three anniversaries of any one's death
paper money is burnt at the grave and also at home in front
of the tablet.
The fii'st and third anniversaries are regarded
most important.

as the

±m

is the most desirable room in an inn.
17 The
The term must be carefully distinguished from
22 As used in the North,
would here necessarily
mean that the party was going himself and wouid take the
mat along, whereas
means to send by another.

Here, the mercliaiit or agent who has goods in
25
charge and who travels with them.
In Peking
and
are read nearly or quite alike, and which suv^uld here be used
is

16 Thia
urging

is

the language of an officer to his underlings

theiti to catcli

some transgressor.

more or

or
il

inac.li

^

,

ill

addition to

its

is

also

This cansative sense

used as a causative.

is

often modified so as to iuclude the idea of instruction
tlie

or direction

to

do or

In the North

act.

idea of causing often passes over to that of

permitting or allowing as (2)

(3).

iu addition to its use as

verb (Les. 54),

is

often

an instrnmeutal

used causatively.

is

Shi^,

good sense.
and the

latter

In
is

AND

primary meaning,

use to form the passive (Les. 53),

less doubtful, as either will give a

eastern Shantung
is Si* and
unequivocally the correct word.

The Causatives

and

.

Its

causative force is a little stronger than that of
and it is a little more bookish.

To commauci,
only, for

.and

It is

is used iu certain connections
always followed by A, or by
only nsed in connection with

a prououn,
is
the expression of some emotion.

(read ke) is largely used ia Southern
Mandarin in a cansative seuse, taking the place
and
to some extent of both
It is never so
used in Central or Northern Mandarin.

.

ISO

4^
.

fi-

i
.r

4
„^
01:

>

Translation.

>

^

4

t

1$

i^of^

mortification.

meal a

the

8 Ts'wei Yiug talks in such a way that
oue cauuot uuderstaiid ber,
(J
Iu my opinion, it would be better to

0%1

let hioi have his way.
10 His arts of deception are such that

-

0

linn

one cannot guard

I

iI.

.0

them.

ai^aiiist

11 According to your idea,
you have tue do?

what would

12 Your not controlling him is the very
cause of his falling into bad hahits.
13 You mast not allow any one to kuow
what we nave just been saving,
'
Ans, No, I will not.
14 Do you do jnst whatever he wants

^ofH

t.

go

little earlier.

-

n

morrow morning.
You bavecaused me deep

6

Let the cook prepare

..

{nlJ

to

street.

3 I caiuiot allow yon to suffer loss.
Do not grieve your father and mother.
5 Have him go to work early to-

10.,

!^

directed you to act so

The teacher does not allow you
ou the

,

^

Who

1

2

i.

you

do

to

VOCABULAUY.

Tan\

To carry with a

pole; to bea?\ to sustain; to undertake; to be respou-

;-^

See tan\

fiible for.

Tan^ yiu\

-

---

-

to stoop; to contract; to sabject; to 7vro7}g, to oppress.

To

S^ou* ck'v}.

To be heavy-hearted,
to

Moa*fei^ ya}

Early

iu the

Morphia.

morning.

To begin work,

kungK

suffer tcrong
to be subjected to injustice.

to grieve^

monru,

Ji tsac^

Shayig^

To bend,

C/^'a\

-c

to

Nan-

go

Distressed,

pained, grieved;
uncomfortable^ miserable.

s/iou*.

to

work,

y^—i

^

"" 3

To

Tiao*
-

-

An^

The feathers of the kingfisher.
The lustre of pearls.

Ts'^ei^

-

-

To cozen,

ntf?2ff\

/t".'}

Lungi 8ung%

excite, to stir np, to

-

to

egg

to

Quiet,

peaceful,
steady, stable.

bamboozle, to

^

Severe^ austere, harsh, imperious, comiuaudiiijr.
"

Shd^

A

-'

ch'i^.

K'i^ hhiK

dvpe^ to prac-

T*an^

"

-

-

Hateful, detestable,
able
Le3, ISO.

Ilwei^ hsin\

Shou* y"nff

"

.

A

liars li

letter

Kwa*

nieu*.

To

at

eiise.

Comfortable^ at ease.

C/i'u*y ch'od*.

To

hntt, to

-.run
()|i|)oso;

be solicit-

a nxious, to

1)0

ons.

-

level place; tranquil, quiet.

Comfortable^ pleasant, at
i

abomin-

unroll, to open out; tranquil,
ease; lax, easy comfortable.

A

ii

a rcspoiise.

To

SkuK

severe expression,

appearauce; murderous,

tise njion,

pffS

truuquil;

Ska} wei}.
on.

.befool, to deceive.

To cozen,

whi^.

ft

j^oi'e;

(gainst;

to

to

pnsh; to

offend

to

to ex rite, to quicken,

7A'()""«>^*.

'^W^

To
.

stir
np, to excite,
quicken; to provoko.

to

Q

.

MANDARIN LESSONS,

Lesion 71.

I1 I
OS

g

5

>

Wang

Shi Kwau has no le^i:itimate
busiaess at all.
He is truly a
detestable fellow.
1 7
You must tell her minutely so as to
relieve her initid.
18 Only by making' your father and mother comfortable for a seasou will you
be discharging your duties as a son.
19 I certainly caiuiot allow myself to be

16

I>
(a!

wronged by you iu tins fashion.
20 Give bim a little morphia to mak (
him deep, and he will be all ri^^lit.
21 He made nie feel badly, aud I'll take
care that bedoesn'tget much com fort.
a severe (raui'derons) expres"
ion on his face so that whoevei*
looked at him felt afraid.

22

He had

23

Up

up

n

k1

os-ul#

The

spiritual part, spirit; ethereal, in-

Z^—,

The

eyi!'i.

**

iutelligeut

Nien\

"

Tien4 cki\

B

"V

K'an^\
.

.

Chiu}.

-

A

jkan^K
--.

'-

-

Sa-o*.

-

-

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

A

Dying commands, a

mil

willy a testa-

meut.
The' eldest grandson in the
male Hue.

sim^.

HsiaoK To imitate, to copy; to verify
efficacy; result.

rest, to

go

Kungi ksiao
Chi^..

.

little;

To change,

Auspicious,

lucky,

To

propitious,

lose; to be bereft of; forgotten,

lost; to die; to rnin;
fill.

divide

to trausforra.

hopeful.

San^.

to

-

Fortunate, auspicious; prosperous.

jCAi:'2 li

all, alto-

-gether; to adjust,

Eqnai, even; a
YiLn^.
-(•'"""..off, to allot.

.

effect

Efficacy, effect^ result; merit.

him\

Pien'^

to rest, to sleep

In eqnal parts, just, even;

lot,

will, to bequeath; to leave behind, to
forget, to neglect; surplus.

ashamed,

peacefully.

Chun\

12

.

mortified.

mattress, a cushion, a rag.

To

risk, to

fortune,

luck,

Ashamed^

Orchideons plants; scented, elegant;

Ar^ ksie

-

Cha

joyous, delightful; adopted.

Ju,

To run the

fate.

sad^,

mortified.

Lm^>

ticket.

to the blnsh,

Hai^ sao^

Put

^

tail; trusty, reliable.

Also

it

VK— To

discourse npoa;

Bashful, ashamed.

cut,

Same.

Chance,

chH\

'

Carefully, minntely, in de-

Hsiang^ ksi\

er^.

a

cuts.

Mhifj; h'" Vart^

... miuLiLely, in detail,

-

lot,

draw

cast lots, to

Viin^

pole, a cross-bar, a lever.
to

A

take cue's chauce.

the shoulder; to with-

To exaraiue;

llsia"g\

...

fx-i5r-:

pick up, to

as a lot.

(4 ming^

stand, to sustain, to bear.

-

.

To

To tbiuk of, to remember,
To tbiuk of, to call to mind,
to bear in remembrance.

To carry on

T

ia the fiugers, to

drww,

tlionght; the faculties.

TienK A.:

To take

machine/'

mind, the springs of

the

time

letter] so that I

Alike, equal, uniform, eveu\ seasonable.

efficacious; powerful.

telliyent;

*

my

Ieeliu2;

LijigK

have hud uo answer
cauuut lie"?
anxious about him.

to this

[to

^

f

liave come that I have no
of providing for them.

way

..

bp.

many

15 So

oil

I

181

unlucky bane-

Also sang^.

Sancf min-. Unlncky, ilhomcmd:—^o{^
_

.

,

.

,

,

.35.

J

152

,

1=^

,

3

is
Heaven that has quickened
your faculties so that jou have this
wisdom.
25 My father and mother, also, send
their kind regards.
An$. Thank
i.*4

'

fr

yon.

m
>^

^

4
W\
tiSt'lv

rtil

KF?

1

ft!i

m

will nnderstaud.
-3 I whip you, not to make yon suffer
paiu, but that yon may be ashamed.
20 Stealing is the tuking of people's
tliiugs behind their backs aud without their knowledge.

«^

k

\j

'(
ill

-

,

fuA

30 This

'

-4;-f-

4

embarrassing

affair.

what

to do.

Wliea the two were done

o'Z

aud bade tbein [lie down to] rest.
positively ciiunot divide it
It' you
evenly, you may draw cats aud let

Hn La

II

talkiue:,

s]>read inattressos for

them

each one take his chauce.
33 Just before his death, my futlior
made a will directing that Miirty
mow of laud be sot apart for lits

:; 3 ^ 32

eldest o^nindson,

34 The chief
31

ollect

of

riiristianity

is

that it is able to cliaime the heart,
causing men to turn i'roni evil aud

35

£1

a very

31
27

3

is

I luiveu't the least idea

1^

.

They are very thoughtful.

26 1 sent you to get a pien-tari^ how is it
that you come currying a kayin-tsi?
27 Please explain it in detail, aud let
him hear it step by step, aud ho

ffi

in

It

become virtuous.
35

>

He

talk which

»4

-k

(lid
not speak one anspi(Mous
word, but just a lot of ill-omeued

we were

loth to hear.

Notes.
is entirely Vunfj hsing nnd in
2 Tho Southern form
very common use. It ia a little stronger than the nther form,
differing from it much tiR permit does from allow. See Lea. 130.
3 This sentence miglit also moan, / will not cause you
The mcaiting intended will depend on the
to ftujfcr losa.

~

A

is

a polo for one person to carry over the

is

the

a pole for iwo persona to curry a burden sttsponuetl bt;tween

them.
is the book form, vhile in tho North
form cuimnonlj used. Tliey dillc'r in inrunin^', "iiu'li as
" cast lots " liiiicra from " ilraw cnls." Tlio laitci part (
tlie sentence expresses a very cnniDicm idea, yet I found
impossible to get two teaohtTS from tiifTeivnt places to jign-fl

32

is tlic

connection.

5

26

shovildcr with Imrilcns suspended from tho ends

<

on«

finrly,

ifl

ompliatlc.

It

means very

early, or

i

tho circiunstanoert will (-ermit.
Kitchen is put by mctniu>iny for cook.

a8 ojirly

fia

7
com n oil
5j|

thua heaven

iiliom

I

for

for

Emperor, learning court

fM

$

This

is

a

audience hall
for txamincr,

as to
\f*

how

thu

to any

may
Lit.,

ttrtain/ij

22

alRo

hv.

Ymir camintj

ust'd in tho
nic to iujftr

North.
wrong in

ifl

Mid "• inetkuing

mu'h

^

t.lu; iVkiiig form,
the Nank:..g leiichor

51
ctini

a

is

book

oxprestMi on.

There

is

no lo^al

making or executing a will.
here was piooubiy nulliing more than

this

way,

will

The case

rufcrrcd to

virbftl directions.

"I'Te or loss lochl.

in

hiU.

provision in China for either

down.

not. f/o

form, w

Koth ami ncu^t the whole clause.

53 JS
13
19

SI

it.

Slijintiiiig

utroiiger.

ia

more general,

35 According
read

i.S'a?/j*, it is,

to

tho meaning here u-^od

however, genenilly road SauQ^,

fOiould b«

o

Lesson

!

M AND A 111 N LESSONS.

72,

+

C

^

OS ^^

Ihanslation.

i

^

1
What are yoa all the time doing P
2 Everybody looks coldly u ton you.
3 They two are sworn relatives.
4 When yon go, do not forget to lock
the door.
5 You ou<;ht to minister diligently to
the old folks.
6 Her second maternal aunt is wealthy.
7 Is yonr oldest daughter l)etrotiied
8 Wheu yon are in debt to a mau, your
i

^^^^

0>

olg

182

tongue

is

short.

They two were schoolmates when they

9

were young.

2

^

Jig

to

i

certaiu

all this

talk yoa turn out to be

an expert, eh
12 I have been waiting tins long tinii?
to go into business, but cannot fiud
a mouied partner.

.

The Enclitic
added

After

11

XjIessoh^st lixiik:

is

can pnt up with this

[of us]

fellow.

{1

I
The character

None

10

words

purpose of mergiug the iudividiial iu the
family or class, thus geaeralizingthem. It is added
to man, woman, aud to all terms deuotiug family

for the

.

relatiousbips, to various offices, to time, etc.

may
ia
is

It

compared to "kind" used as a suffix
such words as mankind, womaukiud, eta; but
by no means equivalent to it. See Supplement
be

Vocabulary.
Continnally, all the
Les. 108.
time:

Ck-eng^tHen^ cida}.

M

Ckhif

cZ"a\

t'ieu}

Same

—Note

1.

To receive respectfully;
---

deliver

to

to; to revereuce to sei^ve; obedieuti y.

Ski^/hig\ To wait upon, to serve,

to

min-

ister to,

A

CTi/— *•

relative by

marriage

Note

:

3.

See ch'm\

A relative by marriage.
A relative by adop-

Ch'ip^^ chia}

£

Kan} chHng^

ckia},

tioQ

tlie

Note

g

.

.

.

A

time, the time
period of time.

askance.

W
.

.

Abimdant,
c/,2'n,

P'oar

law's

Ta^

full; particular; diligent.

DUigent

attentive.

amaf.ernal aunt.

Mother-in-law, 7nother-in

chifj}.

cilia}

hwod\

One

family *

The whole corapauy,
all

Hangi chia\

concerned,

skilled in

any

art,

(l.)

ao

expert
f^J Nei^

harig'^.

Versed

ChHang^ tsweP*
4.

sister,

Same.

which, a

Same:—Note
.

A mother's

s

To look on with displeasure,
to look coldly at)

Shi^ ekte^,

22

3.

Jen^ ckia}. Others ia contrast with oneself,
emryhody
people
other
person referred to.
IAng"jieriK

-". -.

Forward

to tallc,

impertN

nent, unmannerhj.

-,.

CkHanf

in the secrets of a bas*
iaess or art, expert.

t'ou\

ChHang^ hsien\

Same.

Same

(a.)

"

W

1S4

K-

»

.
-.^

13 At the present time official business
has also come to be half legitimate

aud half
is

o:^

an unrnauuerly way?

i

^

S

7

,

get.

1

M

)

that a mere child puts in

15 Everybody detests him, bat be does
not, in the least, realize it.
16 1 tell you it tries one's patience,
wheu a full-grown man can't get a
sentence out iu a whole half day.
1 7
\Y Vfs si) on Id not eini ply be the recipients of food and dothes, they
sliunltl also help Iheiv linsbauds to

0^

o

it

his talk in sncb

1

s

How

14

illicit.

t


0#1

iu life,

yon speak for others, 3'on
should speak the truth, and not

talk recklessly.
is not my custom to be in debt,
nor to be in arrears to auy rnau.
20 Yon should not find fault witli people, uor ppoiige upon tliem.
21 Oa the third of the first mouth
every uew son-iu-law goes to visit his

>

19 It

8

s:

aloug

Wheu

18

.^

C-

wife's relatives to pay his respects.

A man

Y"7i3 Ui^ hatiK

To

Chien^.

as distinguished

from a woman, a

^^
man

witli deciiled

niascuiiae qualities,

F"* tao^ chio}

To

Ch'^/iy-,

Kwan^

Women,

wives.

What

How?

I

head-mau, a steward.

To look over
connt over;

lu

Greeu, the color of leaves.

M

lit

carefully, to
to oversee*

To discuss

SliWOa} pai^ tao* lu\

people's

defame.

cliarnnter:^, to gossip, to

To talk wildly

//^r slavod'- pa4 tao\

El

used

confiisedy nunltlled.

for
j tfi:

The Mongols

A

chia\ ...

Ckiens tien\

receive; to undertake; to assist;
to contest, to com pete; to sup-

port, to uphold; to opeu up; to succeed, second to.
llti'.

sort, to collate; to examine; to
revise; to compose to pick up.

Skwod} pai^

Same

tao^ hei\

or recklessly.

^^

shworO-

hvan^

Same.

tao*

arily.

H,vn^ nv}

A
A

/isii*,

ffsin ku} yie^

"""bj4 j "

A

2

To pny

Pai^ nien\

New
^i*.

bridet^room.

man's father-in-law.

^
^

one's respects at the

Year.

Oppression

Viien^ chia}»

clda}»

Note

injustice,

a marriage alliance.

A

married woman's mothers family.

.

flit,

Milk

.

the breasts; to snck; to suckle.

A pet

mifty^

W

Ohiao*' tsoil}

Koti^.

22,

wrong.

household-moving, to
to mii^nitc.

./"3.

lj"'n .

Oiu; from whom wrtnig has
boeii received, an enemy.

A

Niang^ chia.

14

Sons and yonnirer brothers; ronn^'

-

^ ^ Pav}

ckW* To make

bridegroom.

people of the family:
Viier^,

Chie^

Heretofore; commonly, cusiom-

<Su* lai!K

y^i'

Note 25.

.

.

.

The

lotus,

To mark

~

to Binklha,

and reject
to entice, to
hook on, to connect, by a

the short side of a right-angled triangle.
71 pi^ kou}

*

'-

|i(Mi,

:

—cousecrated

off

inveigle; to
liook

name
Note 27.
Named, called.

ImadK

To

s

to strike out; to ignore,
T'i*

To shave the head.

erase by a
stroke of the

^
,

appetite. Sons and younger brothers 22 y including also their sons ——a t. that one. is a respectful way of referring to any one's 5 parer-1. also. and. and implying h promise or vow of m utual failhfuliiess. The laity. iis[)iriiLed form is chiefly used.l ratified by a feast. frefjuGntly used without the See Les. viz. but primarily supposed to be used by the eldest brother. 24 When 25 He is over there criticising: this one and wealthy families move.some places the used plirase are regardei. an expert. 23 They two are enemies. Jg 1 MANDARIN LESSONS. art. a la -4 in.. in -law is used emphatically. but is not t'ung hsing. wiiich the H'Jf its does not. that the p ii ty ail'lrt'Ssed was m expert. A chia} To Jii^ chia\ The learned class. become though not often useil in the South. Not ES. To take CVr"i chia}. the literati. hood. When a member of one family enU'rs into sucli a relationship with a member of another lainily. cltang^ in some places. Chiang^ skang\ Read hopes. Init ma le TheCliinese practise a species of adoption Buch liy adoption. lust. and my little name was Li Ts'wei Lien. country. and in some places the.. State. hera. Lesson 72. The vou* is sometinifs formally expreasud. &4 not forget to have locked the door. means properly 23 tlie to yield or give place fo. ono^es uro used at large for . Kwoo? a vow of celibacy. . Covfucianists. 27 My mother's name was Li. literati. ChHng'^ furtlKU'more. 1 S o ^ J be iuvite*! to # * > 22 The ^prosperity of a family depends on the risin*^ generation. in the cas-. Scholars. aii. and perceptible change of meaning. being vo-y co^mun ^ musb be supplied. a lama. Ju?- Buddhist priest- prize. Reward. acquaiutiiuce. defaming people's characters. iu the North especially. hence as host with reference to guests. Has your eldest daughter a mother.l as correct. Do takes used. the world..enei al term including all of the family yount^er than oneself. accompanied by the giving of presents. place. yor. . 108.. me to contract a marriage alliance with him. still. aUo paronts and chiMren.. it. Where not but requires a before Cunstruction of is. suits my wishes exactly. f or pi t»tes3i(jn. is often substituted for aspirated. with"" be given Lit. I \\ 25 aud n"y with a large doorway. - houor to control to Fav07\ kindness. whu iisf'd by is regarded as the head of the family. ship. and expresses a 10 i5 ([3 shade of coutem pt. proper or ^iyfriend- is rule. aud has now become my enemy. government^ laws. The 6 This sentence might with . the two . giving my dunghter to his son. It may be applied to any verb or noun families indiuatmg time. thnt CMitliy ti-mily. It is simp'y a mutual choice. etc.of brothers and sisters. 26 For o:i * {1 To esteL"n Shanii . the learned.8 It is also used as a terra of respect whea adiresan»g ftn/ dldwrly doibod (30). Receive food and receive rfress. that is 17 receiving all and doing nothing. 28 He wholly ignores all my former kindness. and must not i 01 0% 185 sit at the same table. ckia} That which To wish YvJ^. i. it iiieana to seat or place af tnh/p. In the North it is more used in some placua thun in o*. long for.e. The conversation had disclosed what the speaker had not previously suspected. uiiis In some places. to enter the priesthood. Sub. both North and South. 16^ Cheng^ Buddhist priest. tiZZ the persons coiicerntd. Both forms of tliis much or 1 In . right. aspiration. the decadence cf a family proceeds from them. One thoroughly versed in any business. is much ue(l in some places. they always appoint several old stewards to oversee.ng^ ckia}. * is read ch'iug* only when followed by • Dry rdatires. Priests. and. is readily 4 flij' undeistooil. to for. relatives not really su jh. A Buddhist priest. passion. 3 . the Sf. only thinking of food and 7 A ^ n drcsg. is equal propriety.

To be or become yellow."rm.r 186 ti IS O i^l 3 29 To shave the head and becoiue a Bnddhist priest is called. to become unruly. ami in this reepect dilfer from Taoist priests. at the same time. to grow chimsy. ami wear it in a knot oil tlio top of the head. BiuMliist priests "' e nut allowcil we ir - to marry. yet used in the sense of * used iu m:vny ^ 29 the hair as other Chinese tlo. Li> or To f^i distress to he in a state of to SI (irni. iiutliorit}' t to ue and aiii^er.icct to iita. as the pass- a ready-made buok are to be taken as verba. s|i(jil. Buililhist priests shave the entire hcail. To held to uervi'iis. mauy and To appear To he )^ Tu " 111- lourish aii'l Tlie Tauist by association it. to grow red.rt of Taoism 2 is > 32 The oil. to cc Note to get or and is atli is Development. > > " any one. become obstinate. purif't/ port to immortality. (of to betrav • tlic cyc6). o . is the coUoquiiil. some of whom (those who 27 to refiue the vital i"'im'iaim at purilyuig' the heart and diniiuisluu!^ the appetit. to grow . aud call others the world. tack of convnUious. and seeks as the path to virtue and longevity. xjv to IVrineut. to grow stiff.To become hard. and are. it is especially joined to such words as express It may often qualities perceived by the senses. hence the pht ase is vehicle. To become or to get in a grow weak. case:^ Eiit^lish utfords To enrich one's family: to as evil. to tiinorouH. as we say Jones ami Brown. to shiue. an expres- an :iir i«t' & stiff. to *i''Vflnj. To become stiff. developing. To make money. to ^^ivo way To grow severe. To become confused. especially as being corrnpteil with the body. to rage. why houM not always be used.es. suffer an grow at T'> Ijo or become feel gloomy. to HRSiinid reckless. > To seud is - marry) sioQ of imperial favour effort of Confiiciauisiii is to nonrisli the vital principle. is a favor I am wholly uuable to requite.r It is not easy to see is both ple. "leaving the family/' They call themselves the tr- 1 priesthood. to swear. To become or grow dim or iudistitict l)**como addicted to vicious practices. To' become violent. . make an ado. To take an oath. grow refine . to fuur. others (those who rlo not marry) allow aU the hair to gro \v. to have a sense of uiieasiuess. regards joined with Iu be rendered by become^ or qrow or get. refers here to the divine essence which 32 constitute the soul. . tlie oil' . weakness. 31 Rewards conferred promote the gooil governrnent of the country. and ot whicli the physical emblem ami is the book form. rich. become or red. 1* 30 That you. the principle'. to grow T become excited or confused.' pas. 2. plac'js. uo exact equivalent. To 1)3 or clumsy. or vital the Confucianist regarcls as good. etc. To become J is To become or grow angry. should be worried on accoaut of my aft airs. a vicious character. Instrons. or violent. and seeks to many words to express the idea of becoming. Expressing fortli. good sir. it it iu't This divine essence. preserve phrase. siil.

fig. an oath.. attacked by couviilsious. a vow."~i/. Leesok M MAND AlUN 73. (of conscience). to be or grow iutractable. to be asthmatic. 2. Fa} UoaK come acute : To —Note get in a passion. ^ Tp HM suffi^r nnmb.''vllelatives of a different surname. feel languid or exhausted. to feel cold. money ac- Fa} chiao\ quired by a stroke of good fort: - - - To . foolisli or silly to be become bewildered. frightened unsteadily. Jllegitimate gain. foi* a stroke of good 9 "Without 10 My 11 Yon to nephew died of to be moved a wit. or hot or feverish. rne or feel 'To become fulness. The same:— Note 24. +• Your tongue 1 r& man's 3 It > 4^ o i- ^ ' " or To awakened ness. Sh'i^ -C^rui^ Timorous. LESSCJ^S. 187 Translation. Wai^ &k€ng\ -. Su^^ia\^i-k^ AJy Bicarbonate of soda. I am free from vicions 5 To. or ful- to feel or feel lack. . shows a QS f> is 2 Illegitimate gains do uot advance a or feel stiff. be aronsed To be or became TiTtecome to should brace up your courage. impossible to get is When yon speak of it. no epilepsy. leaveu. 2(5. flataleuce. To have or suffer an attack indigestion. (kie To take an oath. To be coiu passionate. - .. to do at ones ease or couvemeuce. ^"1^^ 3r feel sour. mi e. of (] &f 7 His mind is practices. W ilie CO estate. to storm to iu flame 20. and not yield to fear. to feel a sense of . and swell. move nervous. baking powder. The children of one's own sisters and wife's sisters. yellow. nervous. H'a/* ts'ai^. 6 8 It > have a sonr faste rich at this titnde of his affairs. To be distended. To or be or become or feel For further of words joined with list see SnppIemeuL dry. pitv. or his face confused with the mnl- very easy is become ol: have a feeling of distention or ysjiejjsia [red. kind of l)nsiiioss. lustre.tiifi('fii"i. ChiaQ\ ^>A'^^iii^y Yeast. Vocabulary. wheeze. show grow prond. to be- .h / irorn weary [said of mnscles]. ci^"f^ To cold:— Note be or become or to s. m' yonng the one gets rich. Suiyy^.:W'l:?cg f§ cold. ". bicarbonate of soda. to wabble. To be feel diz^y. to ferment.of comj)a:ssiou. Harried. 4 Writiug done with good ink. Ilsiad^ t'iT? To do leisurely. to - Ch'ou}feng\ CJl^\jnAr £<n^. me manifest. to to feeling. raise. P . ^"^seeui grows reckless. " ague. To fall in an epileptic fit Ilwan^.

26 Yesterday the hride liad a pain in her stomach. dizzy. - swell • . and you reach the feet 18 Wheti ^ i get augry. Sickness. dropsical. kindness. up. saviour. I am feelincr giooiny these few clays. irritating. do not get nervous. and 4 . Endless. To take cold. to enlarge. lucroy. to do with the inieht. . (a ^ % r. 7'"3 c/ri\ obscure. 16 Do not believe hira sir. . • ykn\ in anger to do iu spite of all Perpetual. a IlotO-. stiffened. special ia- 148. "^s'iiSjyc/^ IsjiJ feel Do yon have 25 Prostrate. his luiuds aud 16 ^ lid* ^ "O ii?H! 3 JJ. tiiu&iijiean.-C. there would have beeu none of these things. Bl« ^ ^ Some 12 Note 35. ague. grieved. examiuatiou hall. did not rise well. ecerlastivg. . 2'3 a sour taste iu your I constantly have i\ sour taste in luy luout. j'ulhiess. . tlie Saviour Christiau term). - A To zv). everlading.^'. Asthma: pin(j\ 1^1 S/m7i^fei>g^ admnccmmt. uUo to liuid iiioiiiciuos. so tliat both her haiuls month ^ • A halo. ailment. 0<r. -- 4 • Ts*i^. mercy. - . C7"V cht\ ^ Ans» distended Sweat. are 1 ti Ui* when they rneo like wild beasts. ffi: Sour. III ^ d tonic. resolve or vow a thing to do hiu'lrances. but write [your essay] at your ease. To perspire. t*ien\ the winter one's hands gi'ow stiff. 9 ^'0 { > become stiff. disorder. Chian^^. - yiie - '. 14 You may add a little more soda. 1^ . advaiicp. & . uU % i f 23 At that time aroused. To HI difficult. ' f - Hard. acid. foggy Intermittent or remittent fever. ii m ng. . 22 In this exhausted conditiou. . .a/'. 7^ Ytmg^J.^- Y Maternal affection. a crock. . this time. to sweat. so that writing becomes difficult. be ill not be 5 > afraid. > M my San^ i>/"awi. . a crnse. final. Ilwod^k'ran^. J^K^-i'^i^ . perspiratiou. U . . Ans. dim. forbearauce. nt'W. llofi^ - tensive: Leis. 24 Does yonr belly "Winter. and feet became cold. asthma. yod*. . 15 If you had betrayed no weakness. /'m.li. 20 If you do Dot storm. the oath he IT When a man is old. [takes is false. it would be well for you to take a little 25 Tung^ Lis eyes. my sins. nuinbuess or weakness of the muscles. Chi*. proniotiou. Compassion. Ch'ien^ chir^. Y(io*. eterual. the winter season."^[^y:*"^«i\«/l. (enderness. Intermittent fever. Asinall cup nscil for cii})piug. 21 . a<j ae. conscience was the weight of felt I It feels so every uiglit. To .o 1S8 > n 3 Q 3 The bread. — To breathe hard.

for several days he lias been constantly iu a > ^ stupor. no one gets rich. I have no astbnia. > I is iiuiis>tiiic. and ^ means person himself. 0""^- When 31 me a oue has ague. he sometimes and sometimes fee is cold. In the South ed sickness. 21 In than . This is especially the case m Central and Northern Mandarin.liable belongs has a great variety of which this character readings. No. nnd constantly feel nnmb. 30 When a mau becomes proud. f rce dwdoppil a ydlow 2 color. connection. this 24 is very (g is much more widely used . which used as a lefuling verb.o ^ 3| y f * o J1 ^ E II iviug been. 35 Is your shortness of breath on account of asthma Ans. 33 His illuess is uofc slight. but I have a fnlluess in ray head. as also in the South. he would HT never ^ o • retui'u. please water to drink. This use of for Southern Mandarin. The explanation of 9 flj* is to be understood after the seeming inconsistency between this and the second sentence seems to lie that this is the sentiment of the average man who believes tlmt dishonesty is the beat policy. withoiU a stroke of extra tjood fortune. that is I am free The more usual from all participation iu any kind of vice. his s[)eecli. Iq eastern Shantung this chia'ac'tei aiicl others of its class have but one reading. 0^of eldest brother went off to Munch nri a ill a fit of au^er. and will my body feels stiff. I shall be all It yon right. while the first is the sentiment of the virtuous man who believes in a righteous providence. by taking this sentence to mean. Q Lit. become full. WL 10 11 is 13 not X is more widely used than here made to ' do service as a verb. yoa.ii: tlint unless he made a foruuie. hot. sayiu. also. of throwing emphasis on the . and |^ is in the used as a euphemism for prolong- North. he is very a|it to hiuJer his own advance- * > feels dry. is not quite aniilogous to its use iu this lesson. 32 Both ray legs are destitute of pcrsiiinition. is asthma in Shantung. or the inconsistency may be explained. Becomi/nj bad place has not me.. The inver sion is for the purpose ' c:a"se . and emphasis is tb rown on the negative. 26 In Southern general. and does The same is true of ate the principle of the lesson. you canuot but feel dizzy when you lirst get up. and not as in other places in this lesson. cup me. here used of the raising of bread. word or words that would follow a negative aie nut infiequently dropped in this way. the tratisbition fails to convey the of It might be paraphrased. I have caught a cold. is illusti in it § is In this phrase takes the accent. Notes.s Mandarin distinction which two words cold to show's moat a strong teanliers in in this connection. 35 to Iu Peking asthma is .. My 34 " give 29 Onr Heaveuly Fatlier in His great compassion gave uiitomeu a Saviour.t. your tongue has . 31 It is a singular fact th. is othtrs. 1 In tins sentence. ' predilection for The the North would give to the means that fteU cold 27 to the /ee/.i t in Pekingese the sj. 18 Although not distinctly so stated. little m Huv 27 30 I have no illuess of auy coiiseqneuce. . 28 My month coufinod to your bod all these days. and the thing to be doue is the writing of a literary essay. aro held by the interesfs of the family : riches This use of families rather than by individuals. To advance 'f - 20 shows thdt the next sentence. and natural order would be. the "arena" here referred to is evidently the examination hall. liiit is nwur heard in is put for The 1\ common in g the North. viz.

To smooth out by heat. a I. j[W ij- U" hollow smooth A great dipper. aud yet not clear up the sky 14 The dollar that is left. 10 Briug a smootbiug iron aud iron ont these wrinkles.-r.. to rip.J C ^ si *i o<& i divide between the two. 17 I have a sore on the corner of my nioatli.I eo Tbanslation. IP. 1. a wrinkle. 4 Yon can cnt it apart with scissors. ran*. ill!. auother form ctA^ A WeK To break open . is iuhled as an auxiliary to such verbs as will take the qnalityiu.i^JL. > vuryiu^^ in difA measure of ten Toit\ fereut ])laccs iVoiii about a giiUmi to ?\ }H>r S/i'i* f. o 11^ 1 ms- - >si >^ Cut this sheet of paper in two. rh To bubble. H vessel.^Ci-^ . a mat bin. yon may ] iu . For list of words taking this auxiliary see Sapplement. 13 So strong a wiud. down. - to boil. The Auxiliary to open. ^ il ols! OIT ^^ . Cli^i^. a a r'"«l"" disiuitch. to tumble. SMfi^ charcniil lire inside. shears. a oaskoL To cut open. and I cannot cl-jl ^ 1 o| ii W i 5 . an inceptive force..f^ I over a bushel. to shear. Vocabulary. 8 If you vronld return to the right path. To cut with Chi(fd\ 11» see pa^e I ^unS. 5 Bi'iug.i^ "lea of opeuiug tly carries with it It freq or spreading out letter it. 3 The clouds have all scattered. tablecloth. to iron. 2 That road is not wide enough for a cart. 7Wj>^"4. to divide. A small What /1 a is left. . u . to take apart. Ibid. 7 Call the carpenter to open this box. 18 wonder who opened tny I read > and .' iron lioatijd Ij To (loiihle nn. oil Lot- . 15 The two are fighting._ ]>art si 0S5 » them.) b^ tako to pioces. Same - suV^^J^ Common or worldly customs. ChOiX^ tan^ hy a crease. and set out the divshes. of' to split. to roll over orer. a muiuoi-iul. "r I)ook. 11 I waut that boy to make himself scarce. 6 Tliis child never leaves its mother. 16 Spread the table clotli. lo destroy. to pull . 9 This key will not open it. so that I cauuot opeu my lips. (s. 30. a kuife and cut the watermelon. yon should give np the world. Same. and box with a cover. 12 Open the lid of this box. loD" strip of multiiig.

2 ^ oil To liath to get scissors. rrui*.. I caimot eyes open. you can teur I'. wind blew it open. Cheng^UA^^^y^' . silks generally. . ~4 Did you get the business ai'nu]I which yuu uudertook to settle for 1 "oi! k it not mail put asiuuier. Divine u'eiiii.-. dough. 30 Everythint^ that can possibly be evaded. illl > sow of: intercept. God it cannot airree on a settlement. liei^iu to Enmity. to -.. Long white Cking^j khigK - .ip rouud. a deadly euemy. h-t\ very CX!-\y^ To i •"4 ' people. necessary them 25 Tlieir acconub are uot S iu tluit door opcm? Am. vermicelli. level To ShwodS tap-. satiu. '- .niish the four tones Ans. to make -wv To • or strauge things. I . A Ch'au^. - . L/^n^. th^ Tliiu silk diuua^k. speak. SI Hi: - - TW*?!^ Note iW K'un*. Piirallel . C' ' -V- Sh^n^ ksienK m To . spacions.. levantioe. soiueliow. • ^ i . sleep. thin fine to sUk. Thev clear. . . Tmml^rq^. to riu. S. . immortals —— Yiien^ ch'ou^. To match. ^ the written on scrolls. to combine. Silk gauze. A teng^. to Pai. Twei^ lien\ in clieck. Llnf and -^^^T^v/ix-^ g^ C kingi ^ Mien\ ^ . TT. sleeps/. I can distiuguish all si J-s:?!! two at 'I'lie is 0&1 Chic". to to open. Who -3 ?^**0 not is 22 Wlium ^ and saw place. space. sleepy to-day. 27 Arc you able to (list'm. 26. - mauy 20 saw. koiA To bench. il I 191 10 1 iear three rooms will be iusuffi- cieiit to uocornni(Kiat(i us. . or visit to the cap- ital. a feud. left the four tones. 28 Th L'se few benches will not seat so ^.^: ^ . Connected^ associated. To open the eyes. keep my bat.. am I water to or staples. To SIi. high di?. 31 The teacher is impatient for his tea. to stare. flash caimut get fir. to caf-. wr. the world. to eu large on to arrange any business by exhortation or argmneJit.rtr .iy Chang^ I boil.% I * . 2G Evon the divine geuii could uot break up this fend.pl. un glutinous rice. to uoti. to M( A saw. to evade. to opeu ont on. jy^y^y^: . off. 0& 20 Take 5^>^> > A SJ 21 It > 0|-^. • - lucml with clamps :r^^I-^k^ '.. New mierd. . Sillc 15). lesson's.' -… W beaten flour .an\ mate. . . bind. joined together. suitable. he is sure to fiiui a way to evade. Ic -- i''.. to rend.joiu in order. to keep to si -P to obstruct. to dodge.'t 0^ ^ this buartl tiiis - - - rice. Same. mi? Flour of wheat or other grain.mien\ -. Satin. locr- Accounts. cM Chi "4 tear. liuing' satiu. room f<yr* f'f'iy^* ifli mottoes or distiches sights. a stool. with your hand. animosity. .E Lesson mandarin 74.

To im pedc. why do 35 If you have anything. Open and look at them: what do you tliiuk of them 34 Why did you put that book ou top si ." but the more 27 Nanking says is The modesty of the speaker accounts term . and feast on white rice ami wheateu flonr. . to paint.- for "tone. to bear .Ci^>"v. When those who wear coarse . has superceded §f . is ill a rhetorical rcdupUcatiou. Jl^ 1 1 1 . to need.E 1? I i'ov > • yon are very fond of wine. ic^ it. to obstruct. used.iuusL. and liglitly so. to pound. as a dnpliciited verb may be takeu : 1 10 Most Chinese teachers will insist that to iron ought Tlie fact is. . to grasp. to enclave. Ch*i\ •CM^Jy. ward See chiang^. You cauuot do without it at all. To to screen.sttunl. goitii.l peculiar to Pekingese. lia?j^-.^30<v^ fifiavf/*. use of 23 is properly pan^ fruquenlly spoken pan^ 36 abouuds t'^nfj* and fen/j*. . to • off. is or the two to be ^ is am According to Taoist mythology there are ipi^ classes five invei ts the English order. Better tell plaiuiy. . Same. . Chinese such forma. yet it comes after 2 The yentence shows how completely Chinese sometimes 26 ! 7 The [!}] fin auxiliitry. to resist. I T E S. Tnmj^..iikI dingy clotiies iii eet one of tlieni in the street. words as is and can get make a visit to added as au anxiliury will take the qualifying idea of f viz. to say. to hold. to cudgel. as here. 31 The Auxiliary To time. Cha\ (IV . and not not spoken yii but yiin. that the word §f yii. . or sustaining contianously. j IS liere have 1 to the capital aud see the sights. ^ To seize. than the Cliinese. to smear. Thu translation is not u wliit nor more wanting in dignity. beat. see Supplement VOCABULVUY. withstand. ]»2 I I see ii ^ i g| 33 luo. paste. 3S Tlio rich dress iu silks and satius. .to maintain to mauage. It will not go into the bookcase. aii<l on this account. 37 Les. vigor.'^44!^. 11 I^as here used he an. C/tiang^ " . r/aV. first the principal verb.. For eudnring. 1 . tliey uatarally give way to him. IJO e that with snch a wide road is it away. up . forcible' to aicli live. ability.^ wiLli. To seize hold of. the second. is him as this. ChV- To ch''i\ vv . liowever. to hold on. I yon keep it to yourself ? go directly to him. Starch. often means. is more hij^hly conteinptuons. To rub on.S3. to direct. in ot lint genera! for the Poking in her places pan* is ts'vinj*. list of words takiug this auxiliary. you yet insist on going here? Give place at once. to stop to v.a. no doubt.. is Why it shouM not readily explained. Strength. r//'"w/2. . to piucli and pnll. to want immecfiate/^. so. aud ^ Why 36 When > ii In is the real subject of the verb. o-Qt a lima to w rite a pair of scrolls of the bookcase Ans. .

'|/ . 21 That uiau is too comm auicative. hazardous. and important To take a wife. . 17 Never fear I can remember it all. to submerge. 4 Put the mangle on it to press it down. K'ou^ ts'ai\ The gift of speech. To a dangerous hut im- Also sldny^. s^eop. ^ 9 This horse is hard iu the moath. 3 The liutnau heart is uureliable.5 Lesson mandarin lessons. - make To Timg^i Han^. ability.. to set . k. o > abilities are 15 That umbrella is too small it will not shelter oue. -_2 Ai^^ to defeud. 6 This little affair is not sufficient to trouble liim. . . The 2 > SB cannot I 1 01 Whose mouth 10 111 my own feir can you shut up strength will not bear the strain. The harvest. C/i'Sn^^ c/da\ to remain. portant juncture To 20 This f . f C . to Also a/i.1 . only . he . 193 Teanslatiox. A yai\ . large-hearted. 16 It is iiucertaia whether the year will l)e a plentiful one or not. - ^8 skou^^j^ fill ^^ra^i^^ -fi/iw^ Ts'ai^. 7 It will require thick paste ia order to hold it. leuieut. To guard. . to select. position. idle a i 31 4 ollls! 9 t ^ -V *: . conduct. capacious. Hsisn^ yao Perilous. . to desist but.vt*. genius. - " CAcui. ensnare. ^> t 1 "> S - > My 14 Ch'an Brilliant. . to wait iuto a vessel Cli^den^ lung\ a dangerous is cauuot keep a season. but it did not stop the paiu. endowment. a bad. . eloquence. To np for oneself.7. To Li* y/e*. the 01^ no mafch for place. Cli'ht^. to deprive of. suffer. . one's fortune. as frnit. cease. . A precipice.. pick. 13 diligeut mau cannot endure to be V ilEEi-wli^ JJ^ A moment. I cauuot liold him. murderer. s Ya?. a surname. A prosperous. to choose. I am notable to guard it aloue. Hsiung^ shou^. ^ ^ f # oii i rebels were stopped by the imperial soldiers. 19 This piece of wood is too slender it is quite insnfficieut to bear the strain. 5 It can be snppoi'ted by putting a M 1 - iils 1 ^ . a tusk. Stand.J>sG/i. ^^ ^. to hold. to - tooth. attain a competency./ lioid liitn alone. siu. 75. board tiuderueath. C/i?. to To surround. you cannot keep auytliiug to yourself. . 18 I took a dose of paiu-killer. the Niev? ching?. to bear. To ^. to eudare. store np. his. - con- ^£ to e?itrap to Talent. .^ ^ ^ \^ - r A' To V - . tain.. eegant ^•:<Vv. to pull. "ii 9*>^J< w w -. 8 Yon are too communicative.i^le tliiug. an agent. I^Tsien\ w yea?. 12 Every time tlie medicine is applied the pain is intolerable.

there is auythiug really joyful. how 0^^|^^0%^. very badly. obstruct [thebnsiuess of] To dispute. . 29 The murderer who killed Tuug Han Ch'aug." How can I. liglithearted.'J Chii chwa? fb)g^. Rejoicing joyful. > ^ ^ What 28 0. . for whicli it is uaod. to to endure. for th« reason that there clothes are not treated in iliiti way. Niu^. chinf-. Same. ou which kturcbcd clothca aro pouuded with wooden clubs to 4 all of palsy or paralysis iu which stilF. lie can hold uotliing My 34 1 FctO- great pain can there be iu having a tooth pulled I do uot believe that 1 caunot staud it. . henoe often meaDB rebelfi. and yet cannot govern your own child 23 He proposes to eutrap me. '" *^ ^ - Fai^ji\~ - • - . Not 2 Rebola A species •. " Oue caiiuot says. Nuitlu-r term is krK>wn in the South. has been arrested. Claws. aiicb a strong wind how cau you expect to keep a lautera lighted 26 A man is accounted really eloquent when he can so speak as to captivate people. . . sister's • - '• husband.) night. daylight. to obstruct. to To break — forbid. A Mei^/u^ .to off. A smooth equated btuue. ut ami a board untitmeath and U will »\ipport . . cheery. to impede. HstS lod\ Chin To ^ps^y.tlonicIivided agaiust itselfcanuot 31 His disposition i. to hold in the claws. in the night. chin^.s so bad that he cauuot retain a siugle friend. he will uot fail to a'lvauce ^ 1 not sncceed in doing' 24 I consider that you have treated me U' amooth and atififcD thcni.^ gf it. perverse. to Also restrain. J 4 ^ fi: 1<#^0?>0| oil 30 AkiDt.S 104 22 You are the father. the fingers beconie contracted and (9. is used with reference to tha with "fcmK'i' to the purpua*. but ho I ofJjin o|5? Tvill I ^ 1 25 With > bis fortunes. Bliapc of the atones. uight is the time that I cannot endure it. no one cau help lanjrluD^ when there is anything really sorrowful. to scratch. 33 Tbia sufferiug which never ends. talons. 27 If a mau can preserve what lie inherits. . obstinate. prohibit. a siugle I 0|^« ol perauu. '' To stand . younger i ' Daytime. ao A China are practically bands of robbers. no one cau help crying. . [staiitl. 32 In the daytime it is uot so bad. 30 The proverb biuder all. Soldiers are culled when in oppoRinc rohhern or rohelii. T'ieni Yie^ li -* to contest* *v H When 35 0. impose upou.-^«>2 lUi n can I endure it brother-in-law has the chii:kenfoot palsy. At j[^Chwa\ ckao* ^' quarrel. 6 Or.|^ ^ t either large or small. to twist. .

I have but jnst arrived." The sentence. etc. 13 From the time that Yiiu Tao 1 began to associate with tliat worthless fcllow. to one's fathers. is is ct musician.. The C* . The composition of this phrase shows how closely family and fortune are united in the Chinese mind. the name given to Perry 18 Davis' i'ain Killer. 195 e TnANf^LATION. We 1 % . Murderous hand 29 a murderer.^. a. 1 1 In the matter you refer to. more literally. which has been extensively sold in China. 14 A literal translation would require "him" at the end instead of "his. Sacred Edict . of words taking this auxiliary . preserve intact The form in the j. and iu some it The Southern term is more colloquial form. . For list see Supplement. hence a full translation requires two words. I caunot help you. were busy morning from till night. deapite the fact The Auxiliary To arrive at. Stop pain medicine. / should think you would have no fact at all to see me. after it in some places. is although is iu some places always more widely used than evidently more appropriate. I have ouly ^3 7 You oln y - 6 SO conduct. and very widely used. a ad leaves much uuhmrued. he has in- In this phrase the two words are different in meaning and both significant. may hire auimals ami for- leariis still 0. is which is a forni^ rarely. means to uow to live. 12 The robbers did not ransack the place where bis jewels were. ought to end with a The Chinese are not takes 'does not..1 |« * • ward the goods The dust rose ou & r thought of it. L ESSONS. 2 After the bitter naturally comes the sweet. thus used for formed with is nected with the following 32 34 that cL. did yoa come? An$. Wsixx^ Yiien Hsitig. or of extension to some point of time or place. L >^ 27 7 8 After all this time. sensibly fallen into vicious habits. heard amongst the people. 24 Or. if ever.^6^# as here used. in order to give a logical structure.I Lesson I " MANDARIN TG.1^0 rain to-day. is added as an auxiliary to such words as will take the qnalifying idea of coutiauance. aud puffed to all sides in their faces. @ close iinioQ or by his trade. K . is often joined with verbs or adjectives to cliatacterize an individual by his Jl 20 the inhei'itauce received from some other place Wheu 10 Q^. " . excluded by the is said logically con- . generally sonsible of such incongruities. Tuagchow. of One 5 as lont^ as he lives. 9 Lot them move 1. 3 It did not occur to us tliat it might ^. 4 I fear he caunot push through in a day.

^ 18 ^^ ^„|~^|>^ 9 1 20 > 21 0. traces. Pearls. Spring. to rash suddenly. See ael postpone. ch'i^ to dawdle. fan*. v!/^. a scamp. .^^^ : . depend npou upon. to strike agaiust to flap. aud trust liim. When will your indolence come to au eud If I believe on him. To sting . the age. 17 I 0{. sad. in order. his merit will accrue to my account. quick. ckiJbeK trust to. vulgar. Having ncconipauied nie so far. To rise ou kao .^ 1(5 ine roil please return.-^rr Dust. • consciously. raean. agreeable. do. To agree to meetiag. . sent two letters to Mr Li. A bad ej^g. ' CkHu\ IHen^ Lu.. Ij^-'^j kingdom of CA-iuK . HI T'ung^ cZw"i. to raaunge.. swift. to push. to call a Ihie^ GJt^. lou7uje. Iu h n in. to loiter. Also . We all agreed to be ou baud by nine o'clock how is it that yow are so late as this It had not occurred to me tliat there would be these difficulties. to ransack. Antumn. treasares. . to loaf. To Ifl. yoii that you are rnu- it niug aroiiad here You honor :i foot. . to transact. . fhia} liu ^ ' 'di hmi -Vicious. To " CA'u'i} iu the aucient city a surname. to ---'. T'ie7i^ HweV- - ch'tn^ BuH. Chen^ pac^ iudoleut. ts'^ IS Tao^fan\ a hamlet. A scorpion. to finish up. a stiu poisoaoa3. to be a beggar.5:1|!^. to come to an 'fo rely on. the world vice aud pleasure. - /s all sides. :. Sou}.1^<0 ^ 22 23 Wlieu you went out 03<3|^ owt . .shou^. I went to the twenty U statiou. to go to school. FJaoq^ien^ To lean agaiust Si was sick I idle aioay time. Ch'^n\ was eighteeu I To Yin. . to rely on. . 15 yon a ^. You are idly lonugiuc: arouutl in tliU way every day. to clap. Side by side. 3t IIwail . to To Voii\ Sfioti} dirt. to trust to. luauy things occur which no one ever auticipatcnl. to lean A guard station.'". bnt neither of them reachetl him. Insensibly. to puff. 24 The year ^^ Sweet. Tun^i^chow.iu affairs. meet. hovv fur did yoa go A as. to end. and V\\ Iiouor yon honor me a rod. 196 f oi? o Yon were 14 3 reporter! How not? is were side. meet your to guest. To study. jewels. To search. particles.ur TV season. to trust to. . a fu city forty li south-east of Peking. to eid a falcram. "eni. iinCi*^R-. to rest. . tliorongb and dili^iuf> iCl geat search. a A To shu\ Pan' beg beggar. a worthlessfellow. to put Lazy. 1 Aatamn. make Au Kwrt*. to crowd. off. a mendicant for bread. an I I'll exalt yon to lieaveii. ckii pu* // j* a good-for-notliin*^. savory. to lean ou.

--. SuUicieiit uuto the don't anticipate trouble before duy is ibe evil thereof. to detain sew moruirig before perforiuiug. Cli'u7iK The recite . play-thices. . In some places boat a ship's boat. robbers. of politeness by a guest to the parson escort- liiin. 18 21 even. 28 The sayin^i. uniform i. 76.^ the great. 1 . Not ES. legerdemaiu. he began to revile. W<yrk till old age learn till old ft^e. Hoii". - Wan^ m(mkeij. and much stronger than ih^ corresponding expression in English. mei^ v>P the imaginary exploits of stories A . \ . Toys. heroes. nioukey shows.. $1 Also ch'ii}. is Su'ingivg the Three things at it. but usually rcfera to the former.1 Lessox • MANDARIN LESSONS. to a c. a Sft§ Skwod} Hwang were story telliug.The quail. tricky. is 4 6 there who only Said of one accomplishing a journey. expressing the idea that when misery has its limit. to to terapt. The qnail. - Ch'u\ city The tutelar god of a city:—Note 30. iu jtlay. The sentence does not properly illustrate tha principle of the lesson. . wait till the thiug is actually at li:"id before you plau what yoii 3^0 i oi &^ > ^ 197 y ^ ir Grf will do. 'Songs. ami whea uot. 26 Yesterday a beggar came to tlie door wanting' something to eat. to entice ^ Ilwan^. the Lit. emiill 15 Nut used As usual with proverbs. : 23 The '* idea is. songsiu^aug. but so for the purpose of illustration or exhortation. hands and delighting an expressive book ph rase in common use. ing includes both packmules and carts.e. the mind and the mouth. 25 Did he speak to you of my affairs? Ans. wall. the mind and the tongue. 27 There are three requisites to study the eyes. AW depends on the circumttaaoea and on the emphgisis giveu by the speaker." ifc comofl. ia the South.hius: was giveu bim. chisp a in a liuiug. . burl). in id!"i€ss. ballads. When you have readied the river it is time enough to take off your shoes. tricks. of hand. @ a contraction for style is terse and bookish. quail fighting ami every kiud of auiusetueut. etc.iug. hook a -st. and it paiued me coutiuuously > 1 f vt^. which means. He did not nientioa thera.—a figure for a wortlilesa 13 renegade. 20 Yesterdii}' evening a scorpion stnnn: uie.l:iw.— ih&t 27 ia the eye. C/. thrush venders. until 30 A . An^. the Oii'eag sting to liook. . moans coolies carry burdens. nsnally To ceased. also means in direct address to the other party. aV jn-esenf.. jugglery. iu fuu. Hwa^ hwang\ it we came to temple. I will not help you. ivill 6 . runs. and yet be three parts [in ten] unlearned. more expressive than elegant. smerifs. ditties. must all be brought into service and kept to it. rebels. 1 2 % A reached is more widely used in this connection than proverb. "The dust be^iaii so abundantly to fly about that they had almost been choked. The grey thrush. a 7 Bunyan'a original is.2 fcliis Crossiii. a i\ noted characters.-. nureliable. i'liC 16 Said out .g ^|> - ^ coatiunonsly from spriu^ to antnran. A spoiled e^?. street > In KoitK is qnail. where sleight of hand SleigJit \ The moat or ditch around a shu^." 11 This sentence might also mean Having spokfn in this way. happiness follows in natural order.

Oil acconut of my friend's feelings. to become. 13 The strife between the two families ^^0^>^ > To legion. 6 ^ IE . There is no one individiiiil god known as Ch'Oiig Hwang at large. for. why. In some casus tho courts of this teniplo are tlic coiisLunt scone of a sort of Vdnity Fair. Particles. ^ ^ a ^ 0?-J5 0% {4- To smash a dumpling took if ^1^> ^ Lit. 15 Because n they fouglit till their heads were cut and bleeding. on account of misnnderstaudinf]:. on me patron god of the city.^ account are raauy. inasmuch as. becanse. in others. 10 The devices of the heart are hard to know. since.e" why. I am ashamed not to go.ity moat. ^ lose _ . Each Availed city in These siicli a god and a teinplo in his honor. since.. i. Why is it that he cannot pay that 7 My name 8 Meu 3 ^ 4 5555 5 0. but each city 1ms its own — a tleitieil man acting aa Causal on. temples are generally the finest templua in the city and kept in the best repair. for they are hidden within. always fiudiug fault rise in for. 16 This child's eyes were destroyed by exposure to the wind when lie had measles. and birds of a fly. there mast be some occasion. used For the purpose of. not to get these few taels of silver. A matter of a few words it is uot worth keepine. ^ aloue. 14 ^0 4 To we money. They are supposed to be appointed and rota led from time to timn. . 11 That he does not enter your door.^1^ ^^0|^^:^| I #. for their lives for food. or Same as alooe. must be because you have offended him. Kacli oity god has the game rank in the unseen world that the chief olficer of t'ho city over wliiuh lie presides Ims in this world. because. do. China has Soiitlierii of. 3 the is die for iKiS as as Maudiirin. only on the oocasiua of the regular feafcivais id honor of the god. r.L f 198 Translation. where* For. and are the most resorted to by worshippera. gambling. XiESSOisr x^xxAT rely its are you ^ 20 to Why with title ot proceed. Same Same because. aloue.^ rent of his > ^ > &^. 1 Why are yon so late as this in coming? 2 Do 6 not get angry on account of a small matter. What we waut is to gel reveuge. I. only Because of what. 12 Would the thief accuse him without any cause If he accuses him. iu mind. but popularly used as the tutelar god of the city.

.^^J^i^- tod. call. uecessary to destroy the harmouy of the two families because the childreu have had a quarrel. to overaeam. to perish. ch^. . on a single occasion. to ford. to scold. To quarrel^ to wrangle. - Chin^. /I the hoase-fly. T'ov?- reason • ffl /su^c!lur^' ffl to rely cm..& MANDARIN LKSS0N3. living. a because of. ch'ienK A - on. things do not go right. limit. j^ ^^a£?3 tstoei\ money. -- -. rash. house-fly. lost. W of. . ^fl^ Without cause or evidence. a V mystery.?^2 -' -". does not get rich at bis business his expenses are simply because ^ too great. Ts^ ch'-knWan^ --- die. art. y/. ' rental. Chefoo jiu(l. came to kuow liim. TVari^i. - fly. sh'i^. to beckon. 25 did yon not take the money ^^^^Q JW Why when he offered what are you it yon to For striving every day YOCABULARY. to plan. so. . hst7i\ acquiescent. on accoaut in consequence of. P'vig^k'ung^. I kept a washiutrsliop at. flies in geaeral. to see the point. to sednce. r^^*. to spend or O^ao'^ hit}. a pass time. Liao"-.l>y wash* lug for him. an artifice. Food and clothes. Hj get to cine. 23 The youuger brother should showrespect to the elder. visit [socially]. then. azure of the sky. fell A stratagem. . The green of plaots. To P3 Skang^ mhi^. - • by means of. Yhi}. - To quarrel. character. for. i To hihigi ch'a^^ -. to hoary. a livelihooii. a cause. to arrauge. measure. a device. To proceed. m of. to lease. to rent. to deliberate. Rent. A The Shu^. wrangle.^ - - Expenses. I have forgotten all the sorrows of the whole year.)S>. etc. ffWwi the To take bold Mou^. Y^ngi tu^. To To understand. Because I am your uncle I cannot belp charging you again and aj^ain. Lesson 77 8 > e 4^ Kr?^l 199 17 When 18 He yon are working for another you should not be ready to throw lip your place because.. a rule. tg . To one's mind^ agreeable. to call to bet. disposition. - $hu Device^ design. scarlet fever. for nothing. An - Pnstnles or pimples. to hia seam. to play with to incite. . Also liao Shun^ a craft. - Ile7(t. 20 It 1 W 5 ^ 5r!• f do ^ 0^ > come yuii to Le iicqnaiiited Chaug Er Yie witli I > How 22 > C 21 I not is Ans. Jlamc. to manage. because be is older in years and snperior in rauk. he says I am too proud to notice [common] people. measles. to scheme. old. • to bicker. . - to play for Also . -. ' ^jl. a degree. To gamble. 24 Because of this day's joy. 19 Because I did uot invite him to eat. to plot. a trick. capacity. to invite.

^ -i TW^si* ] To A7/y2 ny To charge. From this ^ Again and agaiu. Some leaclicrs Same. prooiiro'l »»y torture.ad hroktn and tki blood is usi'd gonei ioivUy for any rash atteiideil by incluiies soarlel fever. 3 Q \ widely U nown provci b. or when any on' tipproarlics w horo you nre outing.> . to '"•" not infrefiiicntly false. is 17 tho leas In this connection waniiiifj. m? ^. Leave of absence^ furlough. Me)i(j\ fifth montli.vtntfMce^ that is.e. to hasfcnj to rush. politeno«8 requircH tliat y"" invite liiin to share with you. 15 Name - 16 ami . it Ixiing uiuleratuoii thul it will Ijt il'u'B 19 cat l)ut. not lueiin. to slander. u\\\i\ tliougli write with not the right ^ 5 Xoto how as being more suitable to tliu difTurent is tlic meaning of lOi- a Kiti. the dntics Ming-fin*. y. from is uaerl 6gn lativoly of tho accusation of Such uccnRatione arc often n priHoni!! agaiiiRt itn uccomplice. jf|^ ran. a dreara. slander. loiic' vc Ftng^ a few words is licrc used in the sense of u-orth while. ho thought it would be iuconveuieut to ask you. . in to slander. To vilify. iu a dream. presence. but soinewhiit aiioiTiulous. Ufl Jlowin'j. ^ /ailed to transmit s IJt. traditiou. 200 26 Why 27 How came did yon uot scud it by some oue Aws. vogne.y way of apolofjy. here refers to tlic I) lil aet to catch the l)ird.. To accme falseli/. ••. because time will uot wait for you. " fjij > a more situation. to enjoin (\v. To . tlitl not aUow him tc him xvUhout oj'criwj a . Because there are important mutters in the letter which * could not wait. and wrapped • .) to bite. to sting. This invitation is u more civil ity. to raiioHolc or idea.) ^ . to traduce. i ^ —"0* chia} See chia^.. aoinc canne or occcmiuh. office. declined. umvell." ami used. 12 meat s ffvci in Lcs. To traduce. are 1 . /'( I /(ill fo ' at htjorc A ia a boul. Also ki\ of a river. RL"- - . Ttva"i wuS. Glntinons rice dnmplings with frnit =^ P"}^* ido ' rice. Th" use ia guncral. Noa^ 1^ pertaining to auy statiou. i^^^i^ .share to him Wlieii you begin to cat in uuuthui'ti l.. >^ 29 The reason balls of glatiuous rice the dragon-boat eaten on festival. incttiiing to incur serious luHi TE meaning.Kl^^w Tsu?fg\ ludiaposed. Tho day of the K pj* II1x1/ 4 of a . a ready made iihra. > > he to go without asking abseuce Ans. To dream. wheu accused by men. Lit" IS inside. To ask leave of absence. rice. inciislea and chicken-pox. or Bontencfs. Phi*. . . The two churaotera here stand the phrant itpnratcly. uiul nre that which UcuMe: i. i)hrusc. to make some rice bulls aud throw them into the river. . the custom of eating rice balls on the dragon-boat festival. Because you were uot feeling well. i?a7?/' station. Glutinous 7ni\ IVan^ dru^oii-bojit festival on the fifth Glntinons or loMves for cooking. deep rapid river. leave i|i I of 28 You onght to improve the time. is that Ch'ii Yiieu.se.ill cause. «"i C/t'ien* Cli m"*. 5-). each wiili its own imaiiing. To throw exprcsHiou. arose Chiang^ Noii\ direct. A Chiang (s. falsely bad threw himself into the Miloii afterwanls river and was drowned he directed some one. Custom.'* is cjniLo l^nwj pcuiaiitio "to tjivt hsin<j.To enjoin Tln(/.

know that he killed him accidentally. but the other reading iit^ is proper often con- it.^0^>^0 some one meddling with it. and in into the 'iQ Miloa reading of fused with is but t'ung h-itng. a to 29 the Fortunate Union. As the name of a river the mi. to be sleepy to be drowsy.. A conversation 5 ' and hence. - MANDARIN LESSONS. yet. Dull. contrariwise. That (supposed) divine essence which gives life and Ching^ sJien^ C vigor to the soul. from which the sentence is taken. B. heavy. And therefore. M reason or cause. therefore. and disgraced. o oi ^ is not commonly used. reveaae. the majority of meu are deoeitfiil. 10 At the present time. this For this reason. he gave the promise. because he could find no excuse. but am all the time iioddiiii^. hence I have no auiination to-day. vivacity. the nse of which. - Hun 25 hither aiid Lo thither with east work or and rush business. the commou exprusaioii being 8 Afrerwanis. is because there is j% 1 . ^ Pinj^ ksiang\ Solckers' money pay or wages for this purpose. nod. Vocabulary. f emi . conseqnently. 314. . and on this so. therefore we are bold We 7 has fen common and expressive phrase. pay of soldiers taxes. - - To - animation. On this 1 acconut. is colloquial. west. on account. 5 The reason this a Fair is hard to consummate.^. my head ached and > ^1_^ 6 In the forenoon ^ to testify for him. duties. 9 I knew that you were there and therefore I paid uo attention. 2 I came by the south road arid therefore did uot meet him. =5= l:x::k:"v Illative S The Particles. The book a statesman of the kingdom of was falsely accused by a jealous rival his grief committed suicide by jumping river. 5^ • 21 therefore I could not recite. PJ* 1^ also is ""t often used coUocjuially. 3 You have already deceived me their several times therefore I shall not listen to you again. iii is somewhat pedantic. there- acconut. save iu certain combinations. 7W. hence.7viA^: To? tun^. but is the form in . therefore it is not well to be too credulous. C. still. spirits. £rK And. For this cause. also. and Hnan^. is He Ch*u. Much used in WSn-^zhnt rarely iu Mandarin. moreover. 0 Ii % A 1 fesv (lays a^^o tlie soldiers received pay aud heiicii silver is cheap. book term. life. 4 I ivtired very late last night. 201 Translation. Rations. to doze. as if. sleepy a nod.

Wu^ sha\ - . to reject. miscrnpulong. names. . C/niK'x . to reflect. A conjecture. Used only a}. people are not inclined to help yon. Tao^ hsiKVi'tuT fiTii ^ Chi even. -. To propose a a riddle: Ho II A riddle. lauds. - charges. ami therefore am compelled to draw M my * LO 2 § 1^ 8 o Si 9 3 . 18 Ordinarily you are not neighbourly. Proof cfiiL* . . if. m ise. to calumniate. utility. to course. Li he is tliei'elbre undoubtedly accQSing him I'alsely. evidence. . I shall therefore liave il^ nothing more to do with his affairs. To To run T^a7ig\ ^ ^ Yu^ li field: fields. riddle. To accuse falsely. to . Via-. - To P'i^ congratulate. a puzzle. thereforo I can solve this riddle.… - A (Ik To kill (s ) (s). kaoy To accuse fahely to trump uj> ^ . A RJ r. empress or The Emperor's mother.t/.^qaeeu. . to flow. . thus. ruler. to criticize. /. To suspect. to solve. A5'aw/ Resembling. Yurtg* hsianff*. - Ck'ung' tun^. testimony. therefore a great many are presenting cou- jP!'" - fall. SAi* ch'ang\ Constantly. • ijij /. to solve Note sovereign ^^Ui^. Ying^ ch'kvg^K to nod. therefore he He 12 is ill. to coudescend. a feudal priuce. the two families got into a quarrel. still. down. . ami. to examine..SlU/^^l* accordiug in so. 14 Fomiei'Iy they two were of one mind in everytbiug. . an enigma. think of cousidcr. 7''ti\ ^JO-^y. . through^ to experience. need. coutiuually. Ts'ai^. to give an opinion. discuss. . to 2 iun\ of." .\ \ through this experience. requirement. 19 Chia Yia replied. To nod. when yon are iu trouble. hang to suspend to lot To Ch'wei^. 'A. by accident. eats improper food. A violent disease. Bald^ bare ^ao* ^/ij/*. ou this accoiiDt. same as. as water. 17 There is not the least proof of the things he charges ag^aiust Mr. blunt. as To pass _?(0(!4 7rt/2. To occnpy.-n« ^ -. to drip. the 19. to review. - .. like. " Because I have 0% > mouey. evito. to pro- To agree. T(ai4 hoy} Piii^. to criticize. afterwards their business failed and tlieir accounts became involved. dence -.. J< '. 16 I have wept ray eyes dry thinkin. To (liscnsa." passed t\t Use. tomarily. gratiilatious. -. functiou. to to lean ou. 15 Because Chao Yieu T'ien has had a sou boru to him at fifty./^p^. constantly of you ou this account both eyes have become biiud. . 202 Siuce he does not Icnow when he 1 is well treated. to guess. To judge reach to.t. therefore. to look over. 3 3 to assent. > 1 > ^ I+: Ck'mg S - -To come abruptly. to . cus"-. from. 0^ • 13 I have a little pressing ueeJ.

distant as a 71 offended friend. i. on which account people have uickuaraed him Old Womaa Lia. it tne. e. aud on this acconut the two families became graclaally estrangeJ. a teacher. to .udden demand for cash." 22 Wheu we were just half-way. …- Ch'ad^ haoK C^^^ (sS-l^ickname. and that family were still later in offering their condolences.. 24 This family gave notice of the fnneral too late. . coarse distant. were the language of a 16 would however be equally appropriate in the mouth 19 I have translated as papil. separated. The mouth sweet and the heart hitter: » using fair words to conceal an evil purpose. to mean.^^-d-C cry. ^. deceit guile 10 that itsetl. j Lit. watery. . > hence reins Em > ' Em- the peror CiiDDot assume the es- lusipid. To mourn time of mourning. His voice is very sharp and he is constantly with the women talking to them. 4 Notice as here force of an English tian&lation. especially in small places. 21 The opinioD of the ancients is that tliese liiiddliist priests are very ^^overnmeiit. out. 1 Chinese soMlerB are usually paid at considerable baterviils. jf Sars^i. makes 8 The ate in the does not moming. '-" tranyed careless. sandered. so on tliis account he > > is it tlierefure " lie l^"oa says. Why Bao* Same. Fmp^ san)^. so that they ha. M1 1 1 outrageous 3 \fi • y> i! §5 > . It . fancy name. To present condolences at or Su\ nickname.ve now ceased to euter each other's doors. to propound or make a occasionally used (as here) but generally See Les. - ^ mandarin lessons. toe7U to bed Sleeping late in the morning fi is mean too lale in the slept too would be omitted. Estranged) cool. light as a color. A sudden and violent disease.ins. to bring into 14. man had no son It is implied that the previously.. voice. class t but is is gue&s a riddle riddle. e. Not £ S. is difficult See also 9 In many places the silver cheap. Sound. ^Q i. oico used to if this means properly to examine a mean being examined or reciting. m 203 20 On account of youth his of that the press. Open. Sheng^ yin\ I* - Tuug Sii is retnnieJ a^^aiii. To report a death and give notice of bnrial Note 24. a inau overtook us with a message. & 14 expressed by saying ft two rvere all the — same as if one jitrson. remiss.6 I 12 * > * tE Ts'u^ ptrig^. imposture. is he called Old Woman Liu when he is a mau Jns. sayiug bis mother had taken a violent disease. evening.mot her receives reports Irom l)ehind the curtain. Thty they agreed in everything. to be used in paying debts. he who is not venomous is uot bare-pated. flat. 200. See Tai(\ mng\ before a fnneral. and when they are paid each one wants to sell his This rilver for copper cash. Lesson 78. . 23 ^ who not barepated is not venomous. a funeral for parents sanff^. weak." - A hao Wai^ .

to be un* grateful. To accept as the god a do sacrifices. generally To meet with. afflicted with. there auy who wish to suffer 3 He who strikes the first blow get3 the advantage he who strikes Are 03^ > OS- . a messenger is sent to inform the relatives and kindred of the fact. a man receives a favor and does not return it. disease. 24 Upon the death of any one. to iiuCfcr. ' ^ and and alliterative play on the words custom of Buddhist priests uf shaving tlieir sarcasm of the saying is that no treacliery or worthy of the nuinc as uout pared with that of .' The Empress is not supposed in etiquette to give her ministers face to face.. . dialioneaty ia a priest. happiprosperity. 0. retribution. ignorant ohlijred — ceal see Sub. "fcJvf is it 6 If yon stir np a difficulty. men wish 2 All to enjoy liappines:^. To bear suffering. Misfortune. evil or abuse. Note red by the gods. To be limited by uo special circumstances.^ to cover to receive over. inflicted by auolher. . cfilatnify. or kiudness.". to con- thiinkfully. IS 204 Translation. but to hear their reports and 20 The expression is her onlers. judgment. To bear.— ruisfortnue. suffer. aud -^--^^v^ '-- that no man who is not treacherous aud dishonest will he a priest. affliction see Snb. called In the case of rich or official families a written or priiiteti paper is senf. or loss To To disease.— loss or trouble. pain or favor. Lolil * I it.— very widely used and receive.^ ^ 0^1^^1^ second gets the worst of is peculiarly good not the least troublesome. fgg /'V. to be Also m^ng^.e. to enjoy. ^ > o There 1 no telling how much scold- is ing she has had to bear for eatiug things on the sly. Thi8 is * called - r. To bear. To make a beginning hold the initiative ^ yarjf^i . worship before the coffin. kindred and friends pi esont their condolences. I shall not he able to endure it. eujoy. To forget a favor. decidedly Wen li in style.. ^ . m"f"rt<mie. 4- Receptive Veiibs. to be afflicted — Ilsia^ shou?. a sub-foremun. Usiang^.e. : - to suffer 2.. ^n-iice happiness. peace or prosperity* To receive from. Shou^ tswei^. sitting behind a curtain.— paiu. t refers to the The heads. Evil. make a stnall contribution of cash and pa i take of tho feast provided. receive. to take to take a second place. shame. a benefactor or superior. Blessings cfjiifei nes3. i. - ^ -' In liis. When 4 . pain To eat i... — to set to. Upon the day of the funeral. raising such a good baby as how much toil if Rave^ m"' t 5 This child * S'wpeml a curtain and hear governmeet ment affairs. . ""1. Uwan*. 7 When one awav from home gets ill. felicity Minf/. -—21 A celebrated statesman and literary This sayiug of his is an genius of the Sung dynasty. to To be injured by. Vocabulary. Dull.. receive. to receive gratefully. and to uunounce This the date of the funeraL is . he is said to be uogratefal.

am 1(3 l^'l'initv. a difficulty. jting^ To make a - close. and the third time. in general. grain. free^ charitable.) K'an^ go abroad." daughter-in-law of is too much abused. tricky. Shou^ ck'i\ (s. ksi/i^. To abuse kindness. risiad^ want. circuit. remote. 79. easy. T'anhjmgs Ill-treated. crafty. A Lou^ ts^ Ck'u} wai To learn home. good.possessed^ composed. are the merciful for they shall surely receive mercy. m % 2or> he Hwaug . the second time. Skhig^ Tronble-saviug. excellent. uiidefiled. stand in the sa. . a stranger. who 10 . She is beateu aud scolded every dav and has no comfort of her life. receive to argue. to P Li^ hsiang^. bad-tempered. 14 By nsiug soap to wash clothes. now that he bas come to grief. > K « will pity T§ >li> to render evil A T'ung\ Perverse. dieiit. \% - Clion Yii beats Kai. Natural. Rai^ ping^ iTuaw* Ckou}. to witness Away from home. a yoaug stnJent. . . U . 12 The general was pleased with the parade yesterday. he took his ease and indulged his indolence. me 1 1 That Pung-yang the if* ' 1. sulky. youth!' iil. abused.2:litoousuess. KwuiK to him greatly Cki^ chiaoK ri. Chen^. have soldiers 16 - Chaug family rewards. upviiilitness. relieve Lustrons.—Note H. diers. It is not necessary to discuss who loses or who gains. there is cue willing to and cue willing to stand it. at one's ease. comfortable* . self. aud to-day the 12 . to pleuty extend every- honest entirely …. The first time I received cooked rice. Distant. mistuke. odd. 10 > oil more the 9 Blessed 4 5 all is 8 The sayiug in a strange 1 To review troops.I Lessok 93 I MAND AlUN LESSONS.wliere taken sick. Sick. to sfipcr- intend the drilling of sol- a parade. rather. ill Tsi^ tsai\ carelessly. excellent. to bargain.2 ^ . [a funnel. To compare To ramble. iK gone all these years 1 have 13 Within ten received famine relief three times. . To those in bounty. to discuss. you for notes. indebted To compare T'ungi yanf. Y''. sai)eru)r. 15 "Whea lie was well-to-do. a lad. adopted. fine. fur good. To support a betrothed a girl Same . Ijoraesick. Wheu does to m " is. contrary. relief. . to before her marriage.ue relatiou as others. Soldiers. Chiao\ . to saunter at eaee. tingi place. obe- to travel. virgin. ts'ao^. gg Same. 'ao2 To sauuter a suruame. boy. jt?tJCM^iar. 15 lay He not. the person washing saves labor. and the clothes receive less injary. money. charity.

much used connection in botweea this sonae. and also to . . Han^ chiaoK iu rauk. a sigu. LingS estate. a re- . to dilly-dally. he is uot beaten. will uot make him rich. .Hcd in the Si'Uth. dif- Tieni hsien^. .. driiilt. it is * ^^ 0&> ?1 |> ^ ^ > * > S if I did. but his virtue has not had a due reward. patrimony. to thauk.. The It this nounectioQ. . property. favor. productious. to call out. used np {r/itie*. difficulty' inis- MoCi^ To ChariK Calamities./ sill 1 Uw 2 " or ht'mij XxkcH I" nillitt(i. Note The pregiiunt .bolt a door. to be ob- divine or foretell hj a tion. completely. a splendid inheritance. it will simply put you to some temporary 17 There * ^ eiubarrasstnent. detrnct calumny. U 1^ the same as an old saying.e. fortune: divinn- lot. in iIum case. Whea a man is beateu lie is not fined whea fined.. birtli. p'inf UngS wonil). is inipro»pi'<l liiiinfin iniiul.. . thr woritt Imu is tiiat \». 20 Lawsuits are not profitable. - Trial. ceptacle. to divine. P'oa^/f'i\ to spend To receive a ch''i7i<j\ liged. sonao of "isAi'n. Read chan when used for A diviuiug mark or diagram. Born 5^ ^ Chiu^ Fire hivoifl.. plu. to .. tnnihle. f i Hao^ To delight laiiK Family inheritance. fire! to put ont a fire. Evil report scandal. of it. 18.5? : i ance? Presently he got iuvolved in a lawsuit and used up his patrimony completelv.. From his youth he has met with a great many niisl'ortnnes." Must I take a beating and be fiued besides 18 Li Jaug Cli*nn is a good man. viz. to Tieii^ iicul To cast to. congenital. slil'^. to put to expense. (o in H''ni''vli"t lu lilllotl l>y its cIiobcu tor the dm rhyme. Kvjfferin^. to ehout. P'o&^ overturn. bolt or bar across a door. estate. win-re ^ alno usrd in the Noitli. Ktoa^.2$.'- To lose moncji or property.. K'oi? tii^s. and siu show ing how strongly tho on the Bufftrinj. 19 These few thoiisaud cash out of which he has defrauded yon. parturition. . nor will your paying them make you poor. occupatiou. i» appHod to chiMren or youiv? fft dog* or cuts wlio take things to eat on the sly.I * 206 fS If havlug taken so mm'h trouble od my Tbongh I do not eat or T " accouut. Notes. P^»4 ^^5^ Ta? I? huuf. to meet witli financial disaster. is to receive the coneet^aencrs of sin. cuniioct'"rK g'jiii l-nt SR ifl i» rally not ho v. Chia} ck^anK iu idleness. ^. . To produce. hut in auch takua 'jj: after it. lots. in idleness. to foretell. 3 JH ffff ill 7*0 meet with retribution.. ts'ai^. to loiter. to in- Shivd^ To spend time ar. much uflcd in tlio North in tli». misfortwies. entirely. is . also to wliicli hIc-iI food. L . (l. to bear. (hlge indolent habits. … To waste. to ruin. Look at who would not say Chin Kon that he had by birth a rich inherit- |^&. lavisl(hj\ under obligation Euded. . The Shwa/n}. Equal To cry aloud. to receive i.e.. 'Jo upset.i"ghler«-in.. iu fiffluence.

I / " Tlins. and limit taCLJ t-acii is i. 21 The eight those whicli birth twu for e. other than to say that he is a "good " child. 11 Parents who are poor. The proveil) in used of those u ho resort to similar tricks. there- . he nnnsentthen went over to aiul gciiL'i als on account of tliif. iG Thus. but con- is widely in colloquial. He said my fortune was not i>rf)pitions. iu that case.m. always reversed. Ceatral and Sonthern Maudariu. In Eastern Sbautang it is used exclusively. unmei cifully. if you get good from au equal. iii is uofc or ~ that fore. colloquial form a as . of u dream. colloqmal.<ed iu ami not for )g Tims. the CliincRu oyjliciil mt'thwl of iiulicaiing <Ute^. a d hter. *. aatl mutually other. The most general term for such a girl is. Thns.h u. 80. these circumstances. is The term in vit-gin. or who willingly eudiirt. of ofteu foiiud in books. Nanking is simply -supporfed daughter-in-law.iuli. or . heard some one outside calling out. months or even years. save tliat sugi^ests the idea of " relative. 17 It is not regarded as Icgitiiiifiie for a Chinese official botli to fine a man and to beat him. 21 I got ^^ 3 ST f 2 22 There is au iinjKjrtant diffmmce between rccoivitjg ^race aud receiving a favor. in-faiu . in this case. in this case. then. that 1 would either lose my luouey or suffer from evil reports. the their future mother-in-law. The story is tliut with he was at war. Note ol. ft " 18 — aiid apposition.lnig to St-e Les. . pretended that he ha«i deserted shameful and unmerited beating. The lot of such girls is proverbially hani. is Q Horns. more " daughteiTlie lerni used in a noted general in the time of tlie three kingan adherent of tiie house of Wii. If you "ret good from a superior. and also introduced to a considerable extent in the following ami South. This form infrequently used or A still laiic.ece the classifier of \%. l'rv»giiostioations "I'e made 17.^oi-. "fire! fire!" aud was so frightened that in his alarm he could not even fiud the bolt of the door. then. are in grammatical book term not often heard in uuilocjuial. The final the aucient ami original form. ill order to deceive hom one of his cnvn iDg to be so beaten. as a child or . are rholoiically cunelated. nioiuli. especially in the case of the death of the girl's motiier. or case. tli^ L-h:iiactei's niai'k the year. deceived by him. or wlio are tired of keeping their betrothed dau^htez'3. elegant book form. having this arrangement definitely in view. o that fortune-teller to tell my Ibrtnue by the eight characters. pain fov some coveted end. which the others do not necessarily do.Lesson MANDARIN LESSONS. grace. of ac. sometimes send thei" to the liome of 9 in-laio siijqyorted Shantung supported hefordiand. it should be spoken of as receivin (. but us used in the North is is a viz. it should be spoken A g| > W 0%" 1 of as receiving' a favor. is Wu ^3 W:iug > 7 207 was get revenge. 10 llie threL! forms have substantially the same meaning. modei'Li i'om. beat the more in tiie miclsfc .. b • ' 5 here is iise'l for parents. 1 hasia of these chi\racters. the is the more form with uot being heard at all. used io Pekingese and the North. A one who does not cry nor fret nor get into mischief for which we have no special word in English. ami wanted an oppoii unity to when C\\ktng. rcforrecl (Uy ami to are li'. before they are to be married albeit such a course is considered very ungenteel. intimate that he w ho is behindhand gets the legitimate desert of liis failure to be first. Betrothals are also sometimes made. and in Cunsequence of his treachery siifTered defi-at. The same is true of Is tnuUiou used P Thus.

then. To own a gjjr • Fan^. to make inquiry.^ * m m m t 208 A Ikanslation. but uow it is of no use to think of it. and sayiiii^ thus.iriona and servn as a giiitk' and prompter in their uao. - most case. is common auil himaud a small so he disguised unjust (. i I you 2 If his KT ^ 1^ >^ 0% ^^ _ own brother declines to interthat case neither will I ia go aud buy more. iw u The examinations at the provincial city. bub will come gradually by practice tinil itlHtTVftLion.. TV". equivalent to that case. Ans.i-v ch'^ang^.) •/""s'oci*. nearly Vocabulary. aud to "Toiiij. The cnt rope (paper stiffening) used up again.. An . /^/. wluit then are you going to do fault.1. have interfere. fiud are much confnsetl. but t day I hear he is iu raouruiug. • fuult. especially iu dialects lu wliicb they are read alike. iu . This is the the form liiid then. so that MOW 1 shall have to go by myself. (w.ial examination. ari«l no doulit tlie I'mrm'r will be porplnxcd to know exactly when iind huw to uwe c»ch one. come to you and confessed my and yet you are dissatisfied. pulp used for the same G/i'tn^'^ 2. tlien. In that 1 so. nor l)y will IcBion arc v< (•:i]>itul. Thus. . clotlies with him to the i)roviuo. to spy. Iu use. !^ m. 5 I have Js f i^. tao\ Old rope tar fV"3 chtn^.. Dark clothinir.t case.. confess. To go to or enter a man's Ta< liunse. iu thr. To search h" Be^»n. 1. thereupon. form of raost frequently nsed so. . tho mcro force of mflmnry.. The same roinarka apply to u largo nuinbur of other leaaona I)Iirascs. so that. > ^ Ami g> 7 ^ L Thus. 8 <^ is all will fere. ii^o - would violate his conscience. the vftrinufl pliraBcs constituting this ry similar in moaning. C > ^ 3 I tliiuk that to give him five hundred cash wouM he a little short. Tlui Irsson will call . t. . well went out alrejidy aiiTeed to got out of the in books. so he way beforehaud. This cannot bu acriutrtid from doliiiilion**. to oiit» to inquire into^ . 01. to ndrait. the defeiulaiit was 6 To hilt".ittoriti'>ii t'> Uiff v.'qiiully 0"% ele^jiut it wrong the plaintiff won Id not do. mm . A"s. aud if he told a lie he I . to about self iu o . Papt for r To inquire strengthening mor- Note : secretly^ to detect. lie would certainly have had liim study several years yet. so. How much tlieu should I give liiiii 4 If his father liad not died. S Unless he told a lie he would ofteiul his friend. min^. the bine clothes worn by the ccmmou people. or at the To monrn ft Note for a parent : 7.

grateful. See man .^ MANDARIN LESSONS. - . to hesitate. To ' to cut the acquaintance of.^ > > I... . to bestow. an emergency.— To expand. ChUe^ chiad^.^ ^ by one repeti- 10 His Excellency. great gun. has set apart lifty thousand [taels of] silver to distribute food and charity among the poor. timely. is five to oversee..Thunder to beat a drnra. when ray family are ia difEcalty. In this case. accomplished. ShV-. charity.- . we may go at once. . To ascend. . • - - - /<kc^ A …-- * Wei^ ku^. to overJloWy to overwhelra. to cover over. Same. Virtuous. aud not to is 7* to distribute. leader. . then repeat it three times. to find time.Generalship of the two Kwaug. . a general chess. . 13 In your intercourse with your sisters. in^ IS Fart^fanK - jll^ - who has a hiirh literary degree. to have times eight. 11 They are every one so. . so that if lie is not going. he does not - 8ti^ fiualiy learu iu ^ i 1? ^ t ISl ijT > 1 . has been advanced to the Goveruor. to postpone. The father of an Lad^ Vai^ yie\ Kan^ so much as show his face. a blast. See chiang\ ChHa^ ckHadK . Mr. Shi} sh^. to conceal. To have no more to do with. - To protect.. The banks or bed of a tad^. T(Pbe Qf"2 nan*. king ia Opportnue. Ti^ mine. a caunon.^ yoa cannot learn tion. (w. I will.j • 7\1^!^'''-.•^r^. Hwang.— To transfer. governor-general. in the • nick of tints. Lesson 80.river. A That him to rise in office. iJi Yesterday eveuiiig he was still hesitating. •(^ - . To govern.. bury. - Z/e/2. 209 9 If ^ f> 0^ way ^ 1 . "2 Yu^.. '' ' .) A Chictn^K . can yon beat aud revile them as you please By acting thns. to wet. / ''^'^ 'f^ - To bestow ill doubt. I spent time ^ oi If ^ it theu repeat it twice and if you cannot learn it I'y repeating twice. every in Wtn-li a final particle of doubt or iute:rogatiou at. P .4^2^. a gaily. - ^vwi-4v- - out. to arrange for. admonish. v^mv ^MT^. to defend. . and bis father. as an expression of his gratification.. cut bis acquaintance. A . Mai\ ' style of friend.J':' -'. a pressing difficulty. Is there auythiug you CHnuot iu this > ^^. in a suruaine. Ans. to Tsung^ 3k defending him now. ia what position do yon place me 14 When lie was iu straits. IW the To drown Yie7i^ moa^. A '2 A P'ao^ or ravine.' . . - - -V '. four times ten. to hoard. W - A . "- - . not knowing whether it was better to go or not. Wei* kuK - - to diffuse. - . therefore. to give. To he thankful. or of one officer To distribute food to the poor. strait. '^-'-uJ-^" . him have All. . do yon go again aud ask him. wodS. lacty.

to entreat. wt'iglity. of course. in*?. put iuto the sleeve. - Yangi cAi^. the 12th the shoulders.|1^@> 17 |1 * the bed of the river is narrow and the water raus very swiftly. " Well. slovenly. Where > 1M • ( the water Is .lnry or inferior wife.ij^ rnu slowly gr. e:euerals when . at the places where the bed of the river is thus filled up. speech. to importuue. to depart. to have Pao Eu <ro rather than T'len Fa because Pao Eu can find the time he also knows the road. - ^ ^ ^ all. Si Ma I came to dit place. . paste plasters. TiK t to be siak. - ." well. at the heel. vV-^jy^^. Well. A = --. days after the winter month. '' Same. to . 15 gonrds.. wear tliein so. wide spread- dyke. heavy. . La\ A ^ Chi 2W. (s. Ch'mngs. when a flood comes. I saw him today ou the street siilveriug with the The bottom Et'^ hsin\ …To Mdn\ To over/low. Ans. nsia<^ p'od^ ts'i^ A secon. a business. The sleeve to Grease. ead of bis teflier. • do whatever seems best.. - - creiitts to 7\3 p'mI. To transfurra. To throw over — To beg earnestly. it is true that man proposes bnt Heaven disfioses. to refuse. disliuveled. /Jn gods un offeriu^jf. to decline.. / " "a*.to found.. channel of the river. solstice. . Words. > 41^ 14 just as you like K 0%±5. Hence. down To shudder with cold ' to first principles. Where the bed of the river is wide. a levee. to Also p 18. fM\ diffused. vaj^ue.ou. Cureless. it will necessarily take up much ninti."lii. Ckhi\ lost. ointment. after ^r^gMF 16 It woiikl be better.. to j||J or channel of a river. to fall to the bottom. a buud. la} To Tu tread slices KcLO^. To sacrifice to the put i^. llesources all exluinstod. a bunk. Note j^A^'^Opiiim (as smoked). I think.^ 210 si CuQ Ke Liaug. - yien\ to esaui/. jnsc iu the uick of time it rained ft great rain aud overtluwed his minea ami gnus upon wliich Chu K6 Liaug said with a sigh. the water will overflow the bauks. 5^ ."ly fall uj) the dlliui. to entreat.) . : Ta> S"i'*. To beg hard. ra" to well up. Kwangs kao\ dowu shuffle with the feet. thns slowly § . Note Foreign opium sacrifice three 18. to ioliow ' - &. miues and blow up Si aud in concealed fire Ma tb« vtxIlG}' af snbterrn neons gnns to iiitetidinij I with his soldiers but subsequently. perish.. rich food. - . to take leave of' . auu the mud will dowu. a concubine. . 18 Cheuo: TMeu Ts'nn has come to the * 1. to crave.^ will. phraseolo'^y..

historian of the three he 7p'^' of him. auxiliary. how ou the rweuty-thinl of the 1 twelfth month. J [J the sense being practically the same. and the clause be rendered parent. that handled an army 3 :M 16 ci'itiaicm phrase for "Do as is best you think beat. and candidates do not attend the examinations. and A. to mourn for the death of Three years is the allotted time for mourning for a a parent. disguise themselves sustain grief . often used Lin Pei. remonstrating against her t:rn>. is. might with perhaps equal propriety be 9 The final Is there referred to the person. mean subsLautially the same tiling.MANDARIN Lesson 80. more than he H. j|§ confused. haviog on liia It'^^s a pair of tattered pants. iind l.D. 220. L KSSONS 211 p. and have so many holes in them. one of the greatest otherwise called 15 geneiaU known in Chinese history. CMlled because foreign opium was first introdiioed at Canton. so spoken iu two couplets. that the light ami ail. by educated people. to act in a senseless and Shoes with the heels turned down Trousers that are so thin. l." Northern.keus.e. is the form used in .. He entreated me without ceasing. old paper is soaked into pulp and used for the same purpose. in sacrificing to the kitchen lie bon hi three clacks 1 11(1 four chic. to Chinese magistratca not infrequently for several days and go out at uight. family on the tweiity-tliir-l of the twelfth month. IS iMj the end of 5i '" throwiJi to the ! his tethur. or see what they can 6nd out.y present- ing to liim olferiiigs ami prayers. Other Bombers are sometimes used in the same way. ffi he used.1^ * 13> > some pocket why m > a (jf Ans. man / truly a divine It is chat acter of the explosives kingdoms says like a god. during which time officers are : any one who cannot in that 10 Kwau'j. verb is by the A. Central autl Southern. are his present sufferings * 1. and I gave him all I had in l^l g along shuffliu^^ his feet ('old. the Southern by addition. In some places. it." Ij' md— ome '( come to the A often is substitut-ed for to bottom " —" down to the bed rock the sea/sprmd _f The three phrases. and worn as 'I'B is.si.rtaiiily KUivf/ Ming is kuown what was the this way finally learn Krvantung.meiit of her sisters-in-law. to imitate The phrase is the to be Cantoii paste or cake. jp$ 0/j not c<. i. 5 is if not better. heedless manner. 1'S 'f heel-less slippers. a ready-made book plira^e. > > in worii-our slices. it to him? Have yon fbr- If f(ive Rotteu when ho was in bnsiness. This is done in every to take leave oj the kitchen god. adherent of to disentangle the fibre." so he it. 6 In difficult cases.^ (leservea N0TB3. fifty you have money to give. excused from duty. 14 The last clause of tliis sentence is the Chinese version of " Six of one and half-a-dozen of the other. togetlier. certainly not such as" are used in modern warfare. 1 Peking teachers would change to etc. 'I'S 6? The word is repeated bhudi'ering sou ml expressive of cold. and od liis shoulders a sljortcoat without sleeves. that it refuses to be displaced the In in sxK-h cases it often and the object of the In the phruse so closely uoited to it is omitted.ecauae it comes in the form of thick paste or cake. him secured in said of him.l'O through them as they do through a paper lantern. Commander of the armies of the kingdom of To 7 finally of the throne. rubbed up so as and used in mortar as we use hair. Wei. # or sixty cash. folding fallen down " played out. He was the faithful . as The man or of bis mother to his wife. chopped into bits. but teachers in Central and Southern Maudariu regard is 1 old ropes the form in the text as equally good." The Northern 13 The language of a form goes by multiplication. aud yet his concn biue fomid fault with them as unfit to eat? lu view of all these things. here a verb.ur my ^ . how he ate the best rice and finest flour aud wore and satia and wonld silk smoke only foreign opimii? Also. especially in the South.

^ Uou* fei. ori^^inal ff*' . ceptive or adversative clause hoxever. Tkanslatiok + 1^ . is one thing. . The same. 6 If yon meet with a year of famine. it is only that he OS ^oi? i 0~ 1^: is 1 0.WW". to appropriate. year of famine.f 13 If he did not embezzle this money. then. to go to to spomi extra ejrpense* . and yet. bat he has not yet plainly said so. Cbnrch member CUumg loves very 12 I The Exceptive Can.^ > ^ {1:£0|3 o ^ ^. a colloquiul siibstitnte for Southern Maudarla won Is are often used when they araomit to little more than a mere expletive or catcliword.nl|> to seize. 10 He is Dot young. knowing clearly that Chi a Yiu Lien is a thief. small cup To swallow whole. .hnt then. 3 That man is severe. 1 mach _^ ^ is 7 There 0^ enbstantially the same it clianges its tone to There a breeze to-day. 1 simply or ~*.See ChiaS A' A sarname. shu^Ao^ . bnt it is not cool. 2 You do not know. bnt he sin^s poorly. 8 Jiidgiug from the expression of hid face he is very williug. are yet tuiwilling to inform the magistrate. Hwang^ nien^ To stir np 1^ Chij/Lc^.212 J& E. To he bonntif'nl.^c'>vV Chung\Ul^^^>fyii[ to excite. f . 5 They. . yet. bnt I cannot pay yon at present. - -^-. but he is not in it. A (of a person). A Also ku^. But there or Thus used . or Ch'ue\ ck'iod\ To decline. nf iTV^ But. bnt then. properly a verb.. (o raise a disturb' ance. to mako a rumpus. a surname.^ 5SI^0S1 1^ if then how will you live are. lavishly. ®JO >> To reject. but then. t^encnilly adheres to B(»th ~" ~". to sinij. but used as a conjuDctiou to introduce au exbat. Age : . to disorder to annoy T'un}. not mauy as good men as this in the world.. to embezzle. however. however. • trvl/ J\Jt^^ Swei* '• To embroil. to p. 9 Delighting in quiet himself. however —— see Sub. VOCABULAUY. to reject . who do you suppose did way and with ^ meaning as aud appears small of statnre. Ckiao^jao^. he is yet coiistautly(capable of )going toother peoples' houses to raisea disturbance. owe yon. it is true but very amenable to reason.Jj. 4 The cart is Lis. but do Conjunction. or chit'fly — is used in the game s^o 14 to be I will accept your hospitalitv.-. bnt I know. The form was bnt is now extensively used.

- . Strange ! I ^ Kwod^fei^. to jerk. notice. to A (Jhwang. . To cajole. to Imrabng. a stake fier of aftairs. chien^. virtue. OUcH^. you yet have a cjipacit. Without caj)acity. hoodwink. a ball. K'lin^. indistinct. iE its clems. influence Cli'lng^ 7nieii\ sphere. feelings.) atli- regard as guilty. to K'wei^ To sk'i\ to rise Face. class. To hsian^K Features. but he will uot succeed. you are without any capacity to get out. bnt I do not know whether it will succeed or not. chwumj ' Ching^ (lij ^ T elegiiut. Ancestors. to . eiier^ry. but not so niuch as it did here. k'^'/yv^X". it is trne. utijletic. I am engai^ed. best of L L". to heed.s. Have you a wife Ans. a ^^lobe.:--. Ch'ou* lan\ Rutteu. worth. hut not yet married. to regard.To embroider A Ch'ii^ or SMigi it certainly i. to ])ay atteutiou. visaf^e. Robust. figured. U^^f^. from the dead. hwod?-. It is clear that be killed him. but it is somtithiug that will surely come to pass. -To pay atteutiou. I cannot but accede to Fu^ (s..j convict^ to coiulemu. stalwart. to swing about. ^ "^- - Same. to heed. trouble > to annoy. .. . To pay attention. . size. Tsi/nfj^. power. EviJeuce. a pile class" 125.Fir^ue^ gooduess. 24 Since you gentlemen liave come to mv house.. decayed* post. ExtraonliQary. to . physiognomy. kind.. ^0 23 But this is strange After a raau has decayed aud returued to dust. st'du. A hsia\ C/iia} .(vt To (s.y tor getting into difficulties. the gerauimn. have a plan. Also skwai\ Ktood}-&yi^J^. notice. He is plan niiig to liooJwiuk [us]. A peak. LARSON 81. To make trouble. to disturbance. Fiiie-look— Wei^ to Skwa^. morals. Ictic. f^'SUk^. Han^ changK Robust. to fioari^^li. - beiiutifiil but uot very fraj^raat. 1 > 213 not oil p ^ any ^0 to The hyd riuigca 15 extra a is expense fLwer. Stature. ^ it K'un^ . — Les. yet without testimou}' he canuot be 16 I 17 ' g i 11 ^ . ' Tir. testimony/. quality. f OS! \^0§^ 18 19 ^^ i 3^ 20 - 21 ^ 22 1^ convicted. a clan. well-doiug. . raise a make wife. Chief. how can lie live :ig. Win-^ tsU^eiK Ts\ai^. to get into //s/2 sltiK MhuJ^. highest. powerful. ham bag Mtng^ lungK . JIsh&. I hoar tliat it also rained east of the city. to IajlM^' . to give attention. : 24. but he is very stalwart..) Note The bydraagea. looks. sort a matter to honor.To see dimly. Virtue. to notice. to Meiuf kun\ To mislead.uu ? Ans. obscure. strong. . To throw.Dim. variegated. cajole.toss. His stature is uot great. aud wliL'U you have gotten iuto a difficult)'.4 MANDARIN LESSONS. family. difficulty* P To come to life again. hoodwink. to fling. : . MaG^ (s. .4.

m nch used colloami Northern Mandarin. 21 coul'i til-.. 19 A wife is known by a variety of epithets.s. her'^ 3 a concession to something previously might translate. and used. tloes not give the force of precedes the conjunction. gives an antlH)''it:iiive j»rohil)ilioii. m than any ^ Neod ot" not. Don't. wliere it takes the plm^e of lu the Nortli. o a book certaiu pli rases places. f4 24 -4// you gentlemen. yon qiiiullyiu 0*. The term used for wife only in the South. li (m'rfl()v do imt yon iu'ea not joiucd with a word meuiiio:. it "' makes We said \>y another. but It is in reality I'justeru Slinni imir it is read pai*. U8C<1 iti Niui kinj^. Yes^ he is severe. especially in the South. however. to reject. true^ etc.2- £14 . or from known from gavt. rise to it. ninch nsed everywhere. ill sterling worth he lias (if . uo eqnul. or or . Iu some parts ol* tlu* Soulh. vL > Do 27 26 not be deceived l)y the inferiority his looks. should not. m I 25 If you really want to go. Its exact force the preceding senteoce. and also It is used not. The Peking teacher olijects to Mifloly called wliich ref< rs to is in in as in Kinkianp*. tliou not. or in or fef calleu When . not wort wliile. demanding ot Iiiiii a confession. charging the crime on the supposed criminal. quite takes tin. yonr wishes must remember. the family idea by the rauk is promi. h owever. which distinguishes hur as wi/e^ is extent in colloquial. yon slionid not. and quite t — Do uot want. 22 is Fm) Strange 23 it is.^ f!|»okeii Do not allow to forhiM.. 2 m 7 one thing you comes again will hold you if lie to V 1:1^ . place of ii A- or lierliood. onglit not. Need not. 26 Mandarin Ims no t'mig hstng word meaning to throir. I will not binder you but there is one thing. A. counecUon. it is collo<ini!iliy In s"me nd cuiiuectioiH. liowover.'if noun. ie . tliere is no need mostly cttiifi tifl to o<'r(uin phrases nnd liijit. is here usod as an enclitic. (o say. but this does not at 20 inteifofe with its application to the person speaking. Two boys just now a stone ran towards the east. The three terms given in the text are uLl more The face of the /eeling. and enforcing it by torture. --. tlie fuce i^f-^ " "'jp cLt^xC" ' Forbidding. bill: nent is When railed fihc is or • clashed with.A- When tiigiiilictl to a husband. 4 itting gives before the it is very it and which. The proper but oi' term. Notes. or less local. it is true. stravgCf it's a coiniuou idiomatic form. it is in constant nse tukt»3 he place of glj. The classifier is put for its as t ho exponent or representative of the feelings or seutimeuts of the mind. you m ust not refleci ou me. responsible. 12 Notice how though it belongs to tlie coMjunctivc clause.utral or iiioi all emphasis. 26 Who was it that just now threw in A^is.r VjXJ^lj relation of her husband. in some the South. beiu*. do not. do not. us here us^-d. bat I did not notice that they tiirew uiiy stoues. . if alter yon get there you are homesick. Bubstitutc3 ' al- and is a 17 This sentence is a play on the word smart or pithy sayintr. ho. shak not. I'o always . a coutractiun of |iliices iu . much nsrd C(»lli'qnially thus t'liiu' it. }^ J but make trouble. The structure of the sentence does not make it certain whether tlie reference was to the speaker or to some one else. A milder form the pi'ectKiiug. is very expressive. term only usod do not by any mean a. true or.iijfreqnently iu books. she " mnst not. \V hen the it is not used to any he is caUed simply idea of sex is prominent Wlien apoken of in a careless or depreciating way she is calleil . hut uot in others thus it is In not in Kinkiaiig". not. Uf Must Must not. \^*^A>^^J>olct-«>>«^^ tliat is. is only be i(W which here rendered. put for tlie process for the This use probably grows out of the custom of ro stilt. Nortlicrn Sli:u glj.

excellent. to K'^^ ckHK Mei^ f ma(A Hsiao* conventional. pie\ given 5^ To wabble. 6 If oue has a homely wife. Not to speak of others. hwcL To laugh make - i\\ The name Bunyaii's . . raillery. in ^ 4 Electricity. Vast.l iu three days t. *0. to cease. 10 Do not stop. criticize. to have an interview with. OST 01W Dorf t you take hold of me. headmen do not allow 1 2 The oiVsl 1. ^^ei^ Formal. To To gild.JjMir: room. n. Lesson 82. Kwang^.hiri bookoueleciroplatia^ will be copied. Delicious. random guess that. iu an}' case. . you cannot peremptorily q)poiiit. to slop over.. C7"i ta^ Vti\ €/iVi}Jjr^'J: Chu^ shou\ i^/deii^ mien^.ming^. . Translation. Do . £/v~Ka*_ at. vagrant. to shake. to wabble. ^ S§ ^ t 0% gjunblm. ^ ^ liiru face to face. he should ^ ^ . allow ft. . 14 Yon can only consnlt together. 13 Out with yon all to your pla v. to id. Hwei* The chairman of a committee or society headmen. and dou't fret. au. stop. modest. Beantifnl. to canvass. to exaggerate. 7* See tant. to ridicule.| i 2 of g ^^>5^0^ OS.. see Sub. to To talk '"dash out. 11 It is better not to raeet the man of whose reputation vou have heard. possessions.. unsteady. I ex- any comes uppermost. simpering". even I know iL. is a gooil mail. to desist. 5 Be quick and eat. …. Pie^. Tien^ c/ri\ open a gambling lun\ To discuss.^ 215 over. onijht plained give to it jn^t as cannot. do not let it leak out. .# MANDARIN LESSONS. clfs" - . yoii him decidedly comiiion- will find place. ^ women. K'ai^ . T"" V • - To To see face to face. patriruouy. FonudatioD. he 9 M f Do 7 is " ##^ not keep c_ 1 any [ijuckfl. 12 As 16 Yon I set! it. yon luul better not spetul that mouev. to fno of.!^. Tsou} Jest. skou^. at raudom. Vocabulary. to Cliristiau. to to disparage. leaders. oscillate. 8 Dou't be HO formal. 15 Carry it carefully and dou't splash o in: it ^ - you meet for if > iolJ- of pretty tliiiikiiiir not iauL^h at Cliristiuu. dissipnted: — ^ to squan- der. To gamble. To Lear of by repntation. beautiful. bashful. 3 Do not disparui^e men behind their 4 1 beg of yon. " Win. to agitate. _ handsome. you mnst not not. uml dou't stay hero making :i uoise. Stvei'^ kon?. to electroplate.

19 Yon need uot nieutiou two hundred and eighty..L 216 ^ * fi .0. lies. evi" wit'lcL'il. . Acciinite.ht): having right but uot luoaey. Miu-ns from the nose. uccui'iite: certain. 22 When yon put coal in tlie stove again. I thiuk he is uot to be trusted. do not enter. traitorous. adjust. efflorescence. Ch^ao^ c/ri2. kun\ " A bare pole. to i reliable. 23 Don't let the fact that she is constantly ailing influence yon." a buchelor. 21 Let euclj mie take his owu seat. Mao^ fatA To half-witted.. but don't come iu. a rule. tiuiricl in a hurry. ofTend. at ciinglit 27 If you want to blow your nose or to spit. . to treat 1 . unass!iilablo. to honor. snivel. ask for it outside. 24 If yon want something to eat. • . 1 " o| oil > ^ II oi. to Tu . vilhi inous.si)rnoe. CV/"4 JSilly. I t'ai^ 31. Usiting^ . llaMihf. comely. to provoke. See lao* and Note : chkrt' I "sie"4 a raise (l. A Ixiiinl mucus Crafty. Tu blow or wipe the nose with the lls'uifjK y/"^ ) ao3 ckkn} 1 -. .rowdy. to leave beliind. don't meddle with the frost on your neij^hbor's roof.^H^r r"ci2 . floor. the floor. . 26 I cliar^i^ed you not to strip off your clotiu'S l)Mt you (lid uot luiiid. Ch"'" 3 Mill iciourt. To talk barefaced Skwanf tlie floor. to up to mako rake up. To diu/A coM. .. a to circuinstaucL's certaiu. :i . to spill. Sweit to measure. a vwov. wicked. late.a<. . tnishj. sure. Tao^ sure. i'roiu the hiugs. . comwelL exalt. - . If you said three hundred. To \:JmA fy^^ ' if^ get of. wicked. do not spill it ou the floor. t To chu\ T'ai^ to tell Frost. watifj^. Layta\ . . "*• down ay —A To adapt ouesell C7"3 • I (iliiueut. to affront. 18 Don't let that man come a2:ain. Teiirs. you should go out and uot soil 1 To backstitch. . and g Ef 1! M. 25 Tlie door of the yaiueu fuoes the south (opens like tlie rliaracter ei'. to (lra<<gle.«.1 06 o is I. sitit'iil . ij^ o% 17 Simply sweep the snow from before your owu door. • -. yk\ His honor the mag- istrute: Note 32. She does not [on this account] do any the less work. come on. mticus from the nose. riilt'gm. to sit at random is not allowed. 5»} 7' y/ illl ^ The PiK i*. to lou^.) forget. r(mi^li a daredevil^ sharper exemplary.. To scatter. . be Kwang drop . 20 Do Uot forget those few glass bottles I asked yon to get tor me. I& nf > m uow yon have > «. To ruu (a seam).-I > > i^> |g lIuUsou}. to aager. to wecj).aut^e. liatid. hsie' Vicions. ilouH random. you still might keep your money. '' V"''3- 2» a/t'. (liie-iiS nose. 28 Come on.

and has his reward in thebriugiug up of this silly sou. anrl 9 The Gilding by electricity. 31 The customs are different iu the North and the South.i^ht to say and has provoked yon." Hi > either of devil ^ t it. mail's reputation. ike reality very little. Please doiit let the door-keeper know. 25 All . 36 Euter not into the path of the wicked. The former is the more widely used. "Let ns call the door-keeper to come and see. aud go not in the way of evil men. and then calls on the pupil . or have flaring walls in front. 26 form of affirmation This indirect interr cannot bo proaerved frequently ia . they said. A 19 In even The • is here used as a classifier of 12 Tnoney. 1^ A S * Not ES. 217 29 yonr chopsticks. don't trouble 17 yourself to correct other people's faults. sir.— ihQ title of 10 S the bock." Jessica came out hastily and said excitedly. fellow like this wlio does not know ' lie ^ when he is well treated Yon need not pay any atteutiou to him aud f we will see what lie can do. you * iv ill 'find The sort .Lesson 82. do not take offence at him. or of an 20 the candidates in the examination hall. W Both these phrases are here used somewhat out of their usual sense. in which he comes to the front. Q A saying commonly attributed to the Emperor Yao. man cau stand. nor you with him. 37 When the two yonug ladies saw Jessica hidden behind the door.it the next recitation to reproduce tlie substance of his explanation this repetition or reproduction is expressed by proverb. When you hear of a the imprea-iion by meeting him. or that sitm of money. don't. Yonmnst make the best of it and eat your fill. the also left to be inferred is often omitted. but very expressive. k: As ^ 01 ^ ^ oik 015^ oi oi S you is as much of this place. over a hundred. is sure to go through. the meaning of which is. "Don't. 2 The market or reference is to the directors or managers of a festival. great or small. 30 Eiiouo^h. They are applied to any one whose conduct or character is suspicious. MANDARIN LESSONS. yamena in China face the south. enough he need not fiud fen It with yon. Any affair. Please. 33 Mother said to backstitch it. from the connection is more or less local. and an official should adapt himself to the circumstances aud not insist on having' his own way. they also af* have two flaring walls in front approximating the form of th« officer to of 16 III Chinese schools the teacher explains the classics in common language. not to 34 Dou't you look npou him with contempt He is the most noted dare- ^ n I see as a . 35 His father was a beef-butcher all his life. 32 What if he is a constable I Even if be were a magistrate^ what could he do to me? [rnn it. join together to give the force of even. so surely is money more potent than right. 11 Or. character This rhyme or proverb is intended to express tlie idea that so surely as y aniens face the south. 21 The language of a teacher to his pupils. who does not kuow what he ou. is tens. but rather give fttteutioa to your own. I love this place. don't spoil If you meet him.

. to give way to. 2 If yoQ waut to go. No or whet to suffer. her. iu jiiiv case. I am still 0^|^^ . irrespective of.. 8 No matter how yon put it. like. >r any. by no . tVeqiieutly matters not men MS. i 1 He pays uo attention to anything at all. as [you] like. No matter. 5 This statement will pass anywhere. as re. To allow. 31 rf ft pond Follow the. Not to appreciate an honor or complini«-nt. a nail flriv. here expresses the idea in a form which no 27 English translation will leproHuce. Has raised this present -I i/C' 35 rero/upeiisc half-wilted soil. As [yon] thus used it is. J list. plans are good. other forms. Much As [yon] like. &D \ permit to According S [vou] to siiy. that is Hxed once for all. - lxikix CONCESSIVES. Same. whether great or small. strange difTereuce ia the meauiug.. 10 Iu everything. him talk and said nothing. be conciliatory aud not self-opin9 >}g i 0^ 0J1 ionated. as [yon] please. tl^ 01 oiil 1:|11 . tliis respectful designation The phrase of the is Hsien Formerly magistrates were addressed as magistrate.+ 218 A M Translation. When Maudariii. It anyone. Both 3 Go and arrange it as you like. it rests with. To allow. The recompense in this case was a liaif-wittetl son. ( without hesitation.ni freely. 23 Said by a host to his ^'nests at the beginning of a TLe fresh conrsc. bnt it will us of. bnt local. matter. Snch forms are much more frequently used in Chinese than in English. etc. to be equal to the to (he thttt is. . thini^. e 3^ plfias(». used in the South. any- miiktis very as 1 i be as The addition of r t U. * 01- No matter who exhorts bim. and is perhaps also a pun or play on the a boanl in There is let difference several years older thau yon. at [yonr] conveuienca. be will not listen. .'i. matter.n uuchangeable To drive a vail in a hoard. S'l . aiiii so jtrcsnine upon it. means him come in. written . . to take it as a want of courage or spirit. as N'o Same ISft as to. on tlie contrary. now title is generally superseded by that of etc. 6 No matter how often he comes. is a cordial invitation to each one to take up liis chopsticks and begin to is used apologetically. irrespective ^ It local. but. Lit. ^ no matter. simply. wliicii if the Peking form. just go. to ff o-raftion. to let. turn of affairs ami change [by a corresponding change of plan] adapt onesilf to circnmsfaiice. ^ > No 7 ZLiDSSonsr which often means. 4 I let. . yon must give me the money. by no iu Central [you] please. uo matter. to. what you say. to let. Avortl - just the opposite of A 32 . Ah No (liffereace. with refereuco to. is. but ohstinatt. To allow. Buddliism hus disseininutcd evi ryu here in China tlie Brahmanical notion that hutcherini^ cattle for beef is a great sin. a correct translation. no difference. 37 In some places which was probably the ordinal Nanking ^-ejects hoiU forms and uses a triple is also widely use bat not to the exclusion of I lie 13 as is s:ii(l form. flH 29 eat.

. let hiin talk as he pleases. ^c/V*^ (iu response to a price asked. cUn^K Chmi^ Fully. . lUi authority. color A large A large full fuce. lias botli ill uskiiii^ and in ofreriu*^ a price.>-- to. symmetrical. dark. to cnrse. hsi\ Yao^ ckia cou- accmtomed Practiced.) 3^ To bold the tongne. an idyl. cnrse. To ask a chia 52 Ller? Man^ !]an Expression. os ^ 13 may see me or not as he lilccs. Experienced.. litauy. thoroughly. to control keep quiet. bravery. and leave the rest to Heaven aud late. minutely. to swear. Tan^ lianY. to abuse. >A any ill tliL' Wu 19 If bocoiaos easy. a ballad. l-'uK Sluggish. Tien^ ku\ braztMi-faced. modest - Commonplace. familiar with. well-proportioned^ shapely. >. humble. versaiit. only get accaa- 14 Sinc( he 15 0|> lop 9 - 0% ifk > w respect. 5^*. To crate. whether great or small. conciliatory. price.v/~goi7hj. practiced. passive. : a hind A precedeut. i MANDARIN LESSONS. ea. fl^iy*^. shen^. face. 17 As to looks. business. the price To make an become one's temper. Hsi-'^ &iu Yielding. hence I was de- 18 I . apathetic . to exe- The crow. '-. ckHK . a . to varnish. sjm- iis patliies are not even touched. bnt she IS well-proportioued iu every I5L i5 III [ 0||^>7 0* goiui^ to call on him. casli f(ir case. To levy a tax SuWi^. to. 21 If you see him reviling' auy one or " oil . T'lOi} get excited. f . - S? and it lie 16 Uncle Li is emphatically apathetic (easy-going). an allusioa. . % Ch'i\ ^ - - - to revile. To Sliamji kiooc? obligiug. qnK Respectful. Lesson 83.a quotation.1 . No iniitttrr what it is. to augry. asked. dilatory. No matter how you hnrry uim he never gets excited. a ]>h. pn offer.jisaiit ex|»ressioii of conatenauce should always be preserved. . — - dull* Courage. kuew b'? forehand that we slionldbe in want at this time. to imprecate. yielding ChHen^ ^jang^. she is not very pretty. to spread out of verse. to keep a few present emertreacy. it not said it in onr [>reseQce. keeping in mind his brother's words. the Elder restraine'd his anger and kept silent ami let herabnsehim. . black. termined. 20 I simply act accunling to the best of my ability. submissive. 7o"2 mkn (jijy:^^ To Chou^. Varnish^ lacquer. fr"i -^' Compliant. Complete. to be sileut. nnassnmiug. hackneyed. 219 i Entreat him as yon 11 will. Chott^ ma'^. - complaisaut. \ - To restrain anger. a charm. pat. black. accustomed *S/"i2 . T still toiped to aln^i- ^ am 12 1 Vocabulary. shameless. .

' to sluuder. to i>ly. _^ 25 Mother. large capacity. to culiunuiate. for nothing vilify him.) wonder.^ I my gowu? for pani. to vitiate.' -.) . 1 . must make quotations in order not to be com- > > V" Hi > 7 sa ^^01>^1|1- 9 Grt^ mon . tranfjuilly.) Libpral-mituled. > ils^ St O > 1^ One oatside of a /ian^\ IFiz?-* • - • . To (lefiime. sordid.) (s. to pnt. loug-sufiferino^. • 26 o M bny a green print collar Ans. iHg'^ a?}^. - . to eacnraber. K'ai^ Vast.k W ^ ^ luster. • . . 7a* liany^. cims. pride and stinginess. To opcrnte on.-. it showing any vexatiou. parsimonious.. wide.place. to . an encumbrance. what Hue it is. and uo matter how mauy excellences he lias tliey go for nothing (are all vitiated). first whip him. au iu- matter ia experieuced hand will not succeed. best. Just as you like. to vitiate. The e. whether writing au essay or composing poetry. Peaceful. to ohstm't. Clear-headed. . Lin^ St^. frngal. an appeudage. uever all ya??y^ K'woa* to embarrass.. to Kliiiuler. (c.To lu^ - Pai^ chi\ '. ample. .. to vili/t/. to clog.: I . Pf i^ iKxii jju\ . ol' To pity Broad. t-. Vo apiciid out. neutralize. inexperienced. gifted. ( K'nii Shan is truly a 'ireiier aud maguauimous num. fo torture. he is able with eqaauimity. Chivei^ Yang 2 profession. generous^ large-hearted. K'wa?i^ !iung\ Ilwei^. to ruin to regret. Tai* tiao*. 24 We scholars. jan-. sting}/.'it. : Thrown Tu in. it is not iu the least uuder his own control. stop.15. To break down. (Jhwang* to destroy. River travel.S 5 f& 220 fighting with other children. Chini^. lavish. '"1 k^ivodK Hsie^ shoii\ llwei^ parig^. ^ Pai' lei*. Clnn^ li\ -. rear. to render null. to arrange maltreat. clever. - snperflnons. safe^ secure.poor no matter how mauy coats yon put on.. chwei^. Stingy meau. how people to bear Han^ To encumber.eAilly. may > . ^ To hamper. Wa. to torture. to the utmost.. Chwei^. to publish. to abolish. . ^ ' UP Vh ' P- me3 No jud" (s.'2 with -- /')*. to qnit. opcu-huiuled. No ' & Stingy. 23 The amonnt of a man's conrasje is Mie bestowmeut of natnre. no matter whether he is in the right or ill the wrong. <J Harvest avaricious. ^t^'t-jp.kwai^ ^ liberal. to spoil. . thningli. ample. to tiUfy. 22 This varnish is exceeding!}'. patience. to oxteiul. IJung^ Self-control maguauimity. it is still dull aud without the least li 1« ^c=tr. niggardly. to useless. /To spread out. With the might. to arrange. ing Vunf. to nijiltro. The same.y Official guard Note 35. equanimity. TCai^ Vod} flS: Miujnanimoas. vanutpassionate^ impatieut - (s. 28 untrai0fi'l. No mat- ter throw in. boastful. to desist. 27 Let a man have these two faults.

N- 01 2<1# sionate > ^ % -. lived in the Sung Dynasty. however. but it' h« assents." from w liich this He is frequently introduced in theatrical Boiitence is taken. is the end of it. eldest son. is. pay a fine to the less. not frtifuU a book phrase. und quc^atious. as here used 1 Bubject of the lesson 5^ should sliouia be this is is rather be simply or . th(iir lie maltreatment aud tor- refased to disgorge. we will each go at his own cooveuieuce. of these rapacious underlings. 31 Time fffi aiul effort spent in schooling that the temper and acquiring the art of self-control.. Wang" the Sixth is judicious both in spedciug aud actiug. Not }->a". In this case.^ he has accomplished it. If he refuses to pay. who. simply called the elder ]Vu. however. changed is 24 Klegance of style iu Chinese depends largely on tlie constant use of classical figures. and Tliis noted fur his imbecility and dt-formity of person. 5 ture. he will do his best and will that not cease %^ ig. no matter what bappt?ns. the South : Les. Not E S. mercy Ml Will not from the extracting . He had. pkra-^p. hence his name is familiar to the people. all sorts of cruel devices He is at tlie are resorted to in order to extract it from Mm. here spoken of as reviling him was his wife. Just as they like factory. arresting him.a Lesson MANDARIN LESSONS. 33 ^^^2? 1 . it in a magisJSE a class or section of tlie 35 trate's office. *- however. a significant figure taken give out the oil. proceed in whatever way is thuaglit 01^ I and self-possessed manner. floes not here mean to praise him. to go by the regular sta^-es will be the more satisA^is. not intended to illuftrate the done by 6 This sentence might perhaps be taken as referring This laiiQiiage or to langiiiige simply. to stress on the Q 18 wliicli. put iiulefinitely for ike present^ is not a colloquial but a book usage. who are his special guard. is m an abbreviation for wo matter whether it is hia £2 might seem to <lo. shows lliat tho 29 The use of convenience referred to was that of going or stalling away. with the aid of one of her paramours. The order is in order to throw To-day.^hly schooled in self-control. of oil from beans by pressure. and 12 As here used. 30 Please bear it carefnlly in mind. but here used simply as 19 a name. right or his wrong. He h I'i nn given name was not considered worth one. 111 is tich used in the Nanking form. as but to boast of him to others. is ao auxiliary in the first clause. 32 Without question. 92. a brother of distinguished ability called W an upproved maxim of Chinese Note the three qualifying adjectives 25 verb not quite equivalent.ohffy irill pews current anywhere. No wonder his I'atlier is ooustautly boasting of Iiim. is This in succession. parental policy. He is one of the characters in the *' History of Robbers. which is more or according to the ability of the prisoner. "i^t 20 bouk phrase 21 vvliioh . and are entrusted willi the business of arresting and confining prisoners in civil a man is arrested. or to pay as much as is rt-qwired. When - or class. allusions. and do not by any means forget it 31 When a man is thoron. > . The person plays. it cannot disturb his tlispa. properly. best. being He had a virago of a wife.onaf3. l^ to the point of a thorough acquirement. 27 ^. hence go is supplied in the translation. pan demanded the usual Sim T'uug Tsi. 83. lie is required by custom to cases. 0^ Yield to keavtn and submit to fate combines the ideas of 2^^ovidence and Jate. bat in spite 35 The chwang fees of of all O till 34 The captain says that jnst uow river travel is very unsafe. 29 ^1 L if 0„i ^ 221 Yon need not wait. and be translated. 71 ^> • No difference who applies to him for assistance. finally murdered him. . IS "'ho afterwards avenged his death. if he does not promise.

>. 2 Well. Ya vtj-ts > as a but it lifloiigs to the SouLheru coast dialects. madam. It never takes after it. flM 5 rest. onr. frequently includes those adtlressed. 31. It wag probably Same meaniuL-. In Ceiilral with fpj. 14 Have you all forgotten our old home 13 Q PS- We 12 ^ custom Colloquial Pronouns. |J§ is sometimes incorrectly written for it. or with others of like Tiie character is station.W M 1 222 m i Translation. sir. as the w"rtls are essentially nor [IQ is used to any Neither and Ill termination. we folks. " ' iu otliers.these years of illaess who took charge of his family 8 Are we not in every respect as 7 good as * >^ o§ I *>^ lie ? Our teacher is a well-known graduate.j<»ine(l SouLheru Mandarin. especially in Central and Northern Miuidarin. or. is excliiaivel y Pokiii^^ose. not to Maudaria. m soiuctimes added to A'v / the same way. shall will yon have sit Dariag. 10 All that we saw was naexceptiouable. geutlemeo.^ Dynasty.h um'e used iu some places tbau s[>(»ken ways iuclndes a plural 18 used al()n«j. snbs^titute for tlie . Its use seems euenilly omitted. U3. The speaker classes himself with those preseac. We. We. a uuuiber of coLloqiiial pi'ououtis iu tlieie coinraon use. an old oolloqiual A>rm nsod Min.. MaiKlariu it to add ])Inral. You. It. 11 Whea others insult us. \u. while always excludes them. wait a We two are too widely separated to be frequently together. This lor in is yon [my senior].^^ we go will be our elder brother's birthday. ns. is notliini^. furm of [iroiiouuciug Uan. we si have some self-restraint.0# To-morrow 3 3^ i-o 4 Is yoar business all finished 5 Is not your sou employed 1 Board isi of 1" me W in the Revenue where 6 If yon sit thus. yon folks. In addition to the regular Mandarin prouonii:^ are. It is nseJ in Ceutral Mandariu and iu certain localities both North and South.(^s it is read ?} \ in (»thers nin-. Lot ns take a 1 ^ 1^ . hut obsolete. and fomul iu books. ed as a contraction for A . Ife We. viz. aud iu otliers m3' and iu Soutlioru Mauilariu a nasal n It is muv. . octiupatiou or oj>iiiion. Ir is not infrL-qiieiitly found in Mandarin books. wishes to particnlarlze himself. ro1io<|niul naed especially wheu the speaker very In Siiuntmig it aland expresses no special respect. / ou. 7)w s"'. rxtcn r iu tti now in P . idea. not authorized by the dictionaries.as f allotted to write the thorteued. always have the t)1 tlumi. p% 1. is also often read as if wrirteii the va — hm^^ lii^litly. and is explain- 'r Yon. tsa. 9 have drunk too mnch. Let ns little before drinking again. In Peking tliis word is used ns a term of respect. but is iu general use. In sotue ])la('.

volatile fleeting. as plain. To match. to accommodate. Flourishiug. cultivated. . bad)efn' of arts. the best mau for onr all. " dough Venuicc^lli. to Public affairs. ts'ai\ Pao . The face familiar.OWm-^. disceruuient. A ^" / "-^. 20 We have made vermicelli at our house come in and have a bowl 19 7 =}l^rly% ^ or two. chiu -ds^Vt^ The same. elegant ffsiit^ )|{L . You. com mission. fa\ \j^o\^_ a bridge. lis — by ^ ^ Kung^ see Sub. 25 His mother hasn't a drop of milk can yoa hire a wet nurse for us Lo VOCABULARY.. Snddeu wealth. ifi noodles. Discretion. K % ^ is very familiar we had together in Tientsin. bridge of boats. P'"3'2 P'u^ adapt to adjust. sinipli^-niintu'<]. . Our father also came. 22 Auotlier's money iu our hands is not at onr disposal. g iS :^f ^ 1 we not only yon two brotliers come Ans. is a plain man of souQcl jiid'jcmeut. sight.to - Chie^ ckiuK --. to buy..) . ugasfement. Sincere. to be affected a pronomiual enclitic see Sub. had 17 Did sl. Also fu^.'W- . we Tsaii- An Tsa^ I Nitr we. juJgmem. -. (n. shrewdness. graduate of the first degree. see Sub. Kan\^^u^^. to come to terms. Tj4)ei'^ : . 23 In 21 !! fj 51 ^ We #oi- ^^8^ » my opinion. To Four. sh'i\ float. known by "—- - Yu€?i- to bargaia. A CIriao" see Sab. The Board -. you folks Na\ To receive. business weddiiig or fuuera]. snbstantial. [\\ A unsubstantial. 10^5^1^? can very well afford to disregard the pride of newly gotten wealth iu this class of petty natures. :--see Sub. We cannot come to an agreement about this piece of business of oars. nn<jfJortu-J honest. distinguished. 1 223 5 We have not seon five or six other eacli your years beard for is quite gray. . Ilj^ To rollout. to agree emplo//me?it. rolled. a. . a cross-piece. -- Plain. sh'P. '3 li^ chicH^ er\ --- cleverness. Ch'u} celebrated.i MANDAKIN LESSONS. _ moveable bridge. Well-known.u. To adapt. min^. Mien^ tHad^ Cha^fu^. Patience. after use. light. of -. Revenue.e a talk 51 > Your 16 We 24 deliberated a loug time to-day before we decided hereafter we will never reverse it. self-restraint. 2 Mien'^ slu^.^ S f. to agree. We. Lkssok 84. pay over to.. 18 This little stream of oura is very narrow you can cross it on a & 15 S moveable bridge. folks elided form of - .

inner "f Hpenking. Ling the in To sew The mkMlo room faeiug tlie front Note 30. to the point of deatlj. Is it proper for you. malign. this one studied up the overlap. Ti"g\ cuff. 13 . \f\'\ roiHcd hy a Iiost to liifi gucBtH who hn<1 nlrouHy tiik'. A pet phrase. they put ill the waddiug aud as soon as it was turned. no matter whom you are addressing. five sisters-in-law. . a den. patch to Not EB.very. The binding around the t'iao\ collar. The Used only 3 g a pocu- liarity of speech. to end. P ^ The toristband. While I was iu the kitchen washiug oat the two kei ties.it. or wero ii'orxi I to tako I lie lowest Hcula. K'en^. (w. J. hi iM ffo. phrase To memorialize the throne. 2 TliU Bcntcnce migbl also be apokcn bo as to mean. auother closed the seams under the arma.a garment. what has bcou practiced before aud so is nut new . • To consult. Tlie U8C of 3<ic(l liy th'i 14 f yoM nnri ray is speaker might implies intimacy. Tiie armpit. It wouKl aixtccnth sentence also be reiulorod quite forgoUen etc.K 22^ The weather is unsettled we are going to have a high wiud let us go quickly before it begins to blow. to bring forward to play or make music. . yik^Jl^. or. clear-headed. Ki^ ion. All would ilopciul on thn X 0» Shatl we take a rent m. TIio not be in ihu quite. chiei}}. . c/i'lK K'ou^ always styling yourself "your to be ^ is will uot it garment. altogether tSoulItorn teachers objoct to two words arc hero iipproximiito t quivulontn. Yo P compiire to notes. ^ 28 Eveu a favorite expression of do for yon to use it recklessly. 29 There 3<51^% 30 There is uo lack of folks to sew iu Day before yesterday oar family. Xai^ mai Tsou\ \^ - . A wet nurse. cf/'i- or stitch to. rhnUuam. Music. a hole. old lather ^ #1£^^^:^:* is not iu Chie Yang ChSa a single efficient man to uphold ns. a lair. Musical instrnnionts.) The gnsset under the arm. cient Chrng^ See A WoiX^. aud therefore make this music. to (leiiberate. 2(3 ols?^ : 27 I presume it is that the people here are pleased with our corning. > > 41^ 0% ir. Able. they.-l * ^ h'aiiQ-. to close up toi^ether the strands of a Lhreiul or rope. r'. to close up to shut up. -' • Yo(\^. bul the hxjitue ib that much wino has buun drunk. a uook chl^ woci\£^'^ a depress- a shriue. musical t'ou? yu^. that one laid the chalk lines.i^ether tho parts ot to twist . Ch'i\ The upper arm. Sha Baleful. %#f^% 1. aud in less than half a day it was finisheiL . if it yonrs. To sew on as a button or loop to meud shoes. — lapel of a nest.Vv. a llshi^ k'ou^. juade mo i\ wadded gowu. and auother put ou the collar-biinliui^ one bound the cuffs and aaothor sewed on the biittou-loops. Ilsiad^ s/ii*. Tu* chin} lou^. 12 Tlio Cliiiiew) Atenu* to Ray thub llio winu ia af^uudanl.

A large market village in Honan. See how obedient that child ot his is. after interrogatively is in English. the nse of alone beins: a contraction. See Sap.le. aud the cotton watlding spread un. . is to measure and strike the chalk lines bj Vfhich the quilting ia to be done. however. ao<l is. and joined with the is to many adas how ofteu inserted it. As An Interrogative.h planks laid endwise on wooden benches. applied how how as great. A basket. 85. How heavy is this basket ot pomeloes How ranch more convenient it was 5i > have come this way far is it from your residence to this place? A?is. or the address of one of the same age ask for always is 30 fi Plenty / form of expressing this idea. is aPekinRexpressionandsomewhatsIaugy. As in English so in Chinese. disallow the use of with which. aud are taken away during the prevalence of high water. is the language of an elder or 23 is properly a floating bridge of boats.^ |S > „^ > o?< over sixty feet deep. a little quicl-er. U cftu" 8o used in the South. daughter.Lesson MANDARIN LESSONS. long^ etc. (alls her husband's sisters they call their eliler " hfs o/" a very idiomatic The daughter-in-law " sisters-in and law . All altar. smooth. yon yet find fault with them for beiug too few How many do you propose to He 10 is what has hean 17 practice"! for a long The 5i stands * So also in the similar that is. Lou\ . etc. and the gnniient is then turned right Bide out. this interrogation often passes into an exclamation. /aZAer 52* or station a superior. Peking teachers reject both the Central aud Southern forms. or davghter. It is to 011 I How " to.chin}. 225 f Translation. but is applied to any temporary or moveable bridge. The aemus are first sewed up. . a market basket. Its . in fact. time ami so phrases and is is not recent. It can travel two How How How falo thousand li 4 ^ 05< i oil Even when I give yon all these. This was probably the original form. would perhaps give about the flavor of it. tlie History of Robbers. r'"4 Skun* pien\ hamper. for tlie correlative word. is jectives. Such liridges are often made of ronf. rarely in the North. mother and *on. 22 A Chinanifin'a un trustworthiness is nowhere more conspicuous than in the liberty he takes with other people's money entrusted to him to keep. 19 is the clnssi6er of business. old is your second danghter high is the altar of heaven far can a railway train travel in a flay Ans. a coraplimentary term for another man's daughter* T'an^. which. How deep is this well Ans. use probably the or abacus. priceless. " [^ 29 mentioned in taken. but used here 26 simply as an intensive implying no comparison. would be quite appropriate in most localities. an arena. the kitchen. the middle room. A tbonsand taels of gold. Vocabulary. The pomelo or shaddock. Thirty li. Convenient. inestimable. lias a cooking range ou either si. and son. from which the sentence " YoH?' daddy is oftAt) getting Properly. IS oomes from the use into trouble. direct compliant. They also of . . an<l The terms hy vhich each designates the other are joined together as th» coin mon designation of all. GhHen}. in the homes of the common people. or to carry.

trouble. of. C/rii'. f i A 16 aud how mauy make (saw) be tree to Ichou #^ ^ How 15 o Ti£H^ Vung lengths will A .a7''i a surname. and for musical instniiiieDts becanne it is dense an' I resonant. Note 21. nnsupplied. abnudaut. or agaiust dash forward Ck'toangS fium. (w. tortuous. To rush 7. The same as Qh'ioang\ Wife Fu^ jin^ ^^ ff^ A an ' ' F"2. a first-class liouor To swim. . This A mound A is a ad See how how small that of earth. S/iing^ . To swim. chia} han*.9/ .. See ch'ip* An Ran- to save Allied to the above.Ao o 226 5 V t " o Juli ^ > . Ig > He liasa t the least common sense* See how fast this horse of his cau ran. ou the prefectnral city fFf river. to A city in sontheru Sliautnug noted as the site of Confucius' grave. lady K'lvei^ skou\ Fu\i :• . The to Crooked. but did Qot say how long or how wide.*. how much it would have saved to get him to take it 14 How hi^h do yon estimate this wii 1 man. false wrong. K'ung'^ from Ch'iifa Hsion it Fa? oue is.) (w. 13 If we had kuowu that Lin Fang Ling was going. TAng'^. Is your eyesight not good like tliini^' it How destitute years. 22 Are you not afraid yon will be drowned.) national tree of China it has large irH ve8 and a graceful top. To bring on calamity. goiug into the water ia this way when you do uot know how Jj^ /2. The wood is valued for fiotfiiiH hecaiise it rcsiHls decay. facile priuceps. i-iiny^ 8 one is vastly iuferior. leader. 19 He simply toU 01 of is it large this euJ Q r^o far this. shi To economize labor P lady. -- what weight cau 17 suddeuly. Fragrant. to oppress. 21 That wife of Hau Ch'iug Shan's. she takes the palm among women. liow she cau talk Verily. well-behaved. have me to make a bed. 20 You are just uow eujoyiug the smiles of fortaiie. C7/M. 1 > ^5? R I li 01 # 11> > . Sce/oi^s. excellent. 3 21. a . lady-like. bit of a trifling little Foii^ to get into trouble. —Note — Wife. or in.) Shautnug. out.. bent. man. rustic. river in south-eastern A J2 chou}. P'ai^ ck'angS. A farmer. like his first wife was. (w. 12 Having corae a lon^^ distance it will not do to send hitn home emptyhauded. How excelleut are your food aud 3'oui* clothing. ancient state Nei^jiu^ Stercidia Platani/oHa. A person's age.i laf heaven at Note to shoti\ EmptyJianded. Neat. Fnng^ ^^ . orderly.^ Ig The altar Peking ^ ni'wangs.

but more freely used in some places than iu Its use evinces want of respect. a Inrnp or swella wheal a knot on a string. fear. It is rarely used in of any genteel in some places. All together:— Les. . all respond together. and has cut stoue steps on each 7 ill the of the four Bides. that the purpose for which logs are supposed to be primarily iiueiideil. being . To - to.A / in tr. is a large round stone altar.. nor the rain wet yon. is used in the region of HanUow. tinirf ksing. is properly applied expresses any special disrespect. ic/'".. woman. a hoil. When he reaches the gate. A raised sore or boil. stately. It is directly south and in front of the round temple commonly called the "Temple of Heaven It is about thirty feet high. ffo'". only to the wife of & person of rauk. … . sheng^ To get the victory. 105. to treat. To Leal. and is best rendered into English in the indicative. which stands grounds of tiie temple of heaveu at Peking. for No such conil>'iiation is known in Central or Northern Mandarin. often used in the same wayphrase "fi distance of thirty It/* ie 4 is persons referred The usage In the North is similar to the here used pronominally for the person or to. the whole array kueel together to receive him. 12 The interrogative is used for emphasis. It is as mnch as I can stand. It continues to enlarge every day. How much more convenient it is to go this way. How mnch more comfortable you are than we farmers.. A T f 1 Wei^ wip\ general. majestic. 85. 13 The structure of this sentence is such a3 to imply ike an \f 14 A Wing is nnderstood to be the length for a coffin. receive on the knees.gesting a contrast with the speaker's own wife or family a slm'le of thought which no English translation will convey. level and paved on the top. B ia hardly ever used. 227 deep *w i ^ <|#^§ I 1f 1 1^ * spectacle si A Skwai\ a lender. Not K s. - Ke^.Lesson MANDARIN LESSONS. It is hard to say how large it is goiug to be.. 3 S is joined to as an expletive. ck'i^ Kwei^ To kneel. 23 You literary men. has no sense of the fitness of things. is blow on you. though known as a book term. 23 In Nanking almost always used instead. a boil. the wind cannot pimple. 10 M Does not l-now how high heaven nor how deep is the earthy that is. to trinraph. but its common use by the husband when speaking Tt is not used iu of his wife. Tliey aver that it expresses nothing either of respect or of disrespect. the kiug in chess. P I I Kwei^ ckie commander-in-chief. sore. A TaK . Southern Mandarin but not in the North. 1 hoxo many. is prefixed to this sentence for the purpose of 2j It is so used in Central antl snn. and perhaps westward. and when the command is givea. shows that it is depreciatory. rather than others. to cure.. is quite Shimtnng. 2 Or. Imposing.. he is utterly lacking in judgment. yUen^ shwai^. 24 See the general iu command when he returns to his encampment after a victory. 16 }^ is here used as opposed to bulky or cumbersome. to bow dowu . is preferred in fchis connection by Peking teachers. 25 This boil oa my leg is not improving' nnder treatment. .. the aim scorch you. How imposing is the * 1^ it know how to swim. . but lias come iulo use. " hp-t * Never nor j > Ans. to conqner. The sentence is the language of one who is skeptical about the great weight of a small box or parcel. Shantung.

The whole. it is har^l With to move an iuch.> 228 ^ Translation.i>.>. the . look You have gotten your You whole face coveml with dirt. Tsu"^ 7V"7i* to roam. ami all. all of All. 0^ to place picking up a living* 4 Jesus is the Saviour of the whole worKl.clm see Sub. everywhere. the mass see Sab. How have yon come to fill the whole room with all this smoke 2 To bathe is to wash the whole body. fiiniily. Great. P'/rtoi liu^ — A clan. 3. To bathe the whole body. ny whole body is covered with wheals. universal. entire. it looks as if we were about to have a general [heavy] rain. P'li^ — UK /. staffed. the whole. A a family. 35. Family or nurestral tcmpie Note 5. Turbid. 9 This boy is not at all prepossessing:. A . Ilsi* (sao*. an inch. A-^^^ Vocabulary. /'. Man^. everywhere. 1 XjXixixv Totality This lesson word whole is distingnished from Les.entire I Mau- S it CVu'ai ?n!'ao*. universal. 5 Seeing he has sold the trees in the family temple. without right. 10 Just of oji 0^ > H: ijESS02sr 1 have canght to-day. and it is a boon to the whole district. do you suppose the clan will allow it to pass 6 The sky is already clouded all over. The same practically as The whole. To wauder. complete. class. when he takes a fit of cryiug he just lies dowa and rolls cm the oronud. all. a family. T ^ all. C^. the whole. joi^*. 12 On aoconnt of this mnrJer case. yon can go anywhere. dirty. some the body or entire is rarely. polIiUetl. look just like a little imp. Fall. gruce- fnl. long. kindred. picking :—No[Q yie^ sh'i\ the To bathe or wash the body. 8 I wonder what malarial affection o| ^ * 0%^^ #~0 Si " oi. of i)iace.T/rP. airy. used with any other words thau ^'^'^ Everywhere. entire. two-leaved door. ±^ ^ ^oik > . Prey. — j$ Um^. if . prefer- otlier. iu The ever. ~everywhere. 3 He is a tramp wandering from place 1 5i > 7 right oq yonr side. ^vtT -vv^ In some connections one character i'((} 111(1 when used a nnmber of persons. the whole village of Wau^i^chia Oinvaug has been frightened into flight. entire. whole: see Sub. -^. step an iuch least distauce. Pu'ao\ Swayed or rocked by the wind. Also kunK r/M^< . complete. 11 Only let a good parental magistrate fall to your lot. as the distinguished from the word alL is The whole.

tumble. cU\ 1^^. a boon. but . a case of A fillip. "^^^(^rx^^- to shiver. " Raw LungLjI^: Si^ places. ^ eldest or clan. the whole court. to plant. to press 7W beggar:— Note CW.9:hth\s guileless exterior. t'uS. V?V^<trr^to scrape.used in the souther u coast dialects. want third personal prononn. To 21 There was a make. To walk unsteadily. A D. fire. to follow at the heels. aa iron rake. he trem- bled all over. to scratch. to climb. A headlong fall. 1 it will be qnite snfficuciit. To take - f'nll To wake np. create. to aronse. Lhig\ 1^ tremble. LESS ON > Lid the straw mat liore T ha ve bceu Hunting it everywliciH*. Skang* ch'ao\ r/"" Kai^. 17 It will not do to be misled by Li the Ei. silk. yon should sprinkle some water on it. 14 A preseut made on tlui marriage of a daughter is very different from one made on the marriai^e of a son. Heels over head. Also tau 3. 16 At this time there was famine in the whole laud ami Joseph opened the store houses and sold graiu to the people of Egypt. of a family elder* Ltand. life / down. :' . - Dnsfc. . 21. Tsai\ ^^yt^. - a pitch of the body. :. man an a cord.n 86. to ask alms. a silly fool.) 1 -#-dr:r(?2^2 ("3 Fao^ --- of sores. To shake. to To beg. crawl. are required to pre- H sent themselves. to Also ts'epg.f^ 1 - * OS- o|: § Who 13 1^ 229 S. to snap. his heart is brimful of duplicity. Egypt. to scale. . 18 Is it worth while for the whole of you to take offence ou accouut of this J _1 I o " ^ little jiffair Wheu 19 C/Iu'isriati saw them. a line. and death. a meudicant. to creep. to excite. to burn. Dust. To ask alms. to stir up. \Vtr)'li ifi'd^n cU^ to adverse. . to A human Jhi: 7ning4. Hshing^ hwarigY. Chung^ Tov?. y> $ you give four himdred cash. 20 At every andieuce on the tliird. to go to meet the Emperor. . to shoot. ^The . life. calaynitouSy maliguaut. be. wire. to alarm. heel. Ihiung The TsuP. - Tap- tsi^^U-y^A To simpleton. and thas avoid filling tlie room with dnst.MANDARIN LksoO.change. > hvM\ Tsao^ . ^ • £S * „ sweeping the floor. Dust.i^gar whose whole body was a blessiug. . (8. to stagger. Cking^ iung\ to th rum. A slip.t^^jj^v^. . f^l When 15 first ^ J. Read pu^ Vv? in many Uufortnuate. arouse. Inck. To T'aii^ named Lazarus. floss. civil aud military. To miss oue's Tslng^.. area of laud. - . fooring. ' To have an audience. Famine. sixth and ninth. a somersault. to throw. y To set ont.. If Slisi S . nn lucky.

iiightor. 21 heard 24 Such whok body )d*^aii 6 tliut of viciouRness. lie 18 here presented 1" in circutiia'Jinoi's s-nnowliat Hiniilar to those of Christian wIkmi passing through the ValU-y of tlio Shnduw of Death. It is tommon for large families to have a special family temple in wliich tlm ancestial tablets are kept uiid M'li-re the w liole family or clan go to worship their ancestors. etc. stirring up all ^^0 ^ laid at the rich night before fire. pari of a village are often arrcBted on a murJcr. compels miirriag'! of uioucy acoumpaniud by aomo arliclo of for the repair ami public opinion T'ang S^ng.v- 1 (lishoiioruhle in that tliiiiiT Arts. is common and Tlie That handful of fire. implying lowftrrlH the people the feelings of parents. " parents poMMitiU: 12 do Irom A ^onuiib H iihout tlioir chiltlron. tiirued a somersault. t'ttng assessments are frequently of temples. referred to hs i is Chii^ Prt* Chie* who wwa T'an<j S^titfs diHciple or uttenduiit. To for theatrical pi ay a. That was treating iiiiii very honorably. >4n onion plant d head down." iu order to meet some sudden the only callod its " hoad " down. The use of 22 as a classifier. written fl('mn lose. In tho phraso equal to (IS that or the.I 230 who was i^o 22 That 0 & > 23 1 gave him liis fnll wages. Notes. In the North means "to ruise the wind.." 17 The belly.->iong 8 [in] called 15 Mandarin colloquial seems to have no really t'un^ word fo** '* dust. the people in the city. Qnt on fell went. prububly implies a refei once to the start of large (if 14 for beggar. but commonly known as went to tho West in the seventh coiitury I'Untetl IB a somersau/f. he he 1 If fell. but is here used facetiously of one who lives by w'liiit lie manages to ^et by ho< k or hy crook from diiy to day. last. 3. 21 Let as oousnlt the elders and have the whole village contribute according* to their land. Then: uru no idols in such torn pi o9. I gave him a present of two dol Uirs. is used in the same Wiiy. whicli ia in collu(|uial. and wheu he was about to go." and vl'" net out it is of course i air. and few who ure arrested get off of a d Wen-li. ie used tigiiratively for craft ami cnmiiiuj. ia niaUu a present on the occasion of the It UNUully if ever hsiug term 10 which records 26 This sentence is from the the fabulous adventures of a Buddhist priest.t 1 > man buri>ed for over two hoars. 3 is here used in the sense of hunger. coiiHibta of made . JK the . a sum of twenty thoasaud cash to bay a set of mu- > ^ sical iustrainerits. lie iiis fice. if to tlif right. being rarely tlie fire. to the left. which is is now cunformity with iU modern pronunciation. called Usiien the. in- his eyes somuch that he was not able ^ to crawl to his feet again. which " is use it has in the usually spoken of beasts den and fur money. Tlie average CliiDaman niakea also large prof* ? The vhf fih. ) M 7V** t'ano* and 5 Yinf] fang. the siinpletou's o was nnmb ntul head dizzy ami weak feet liis dim. who in search of sucred Tho person hooka. and birih. 7 A very common 8:ving. . onion money. everyone to pay. or female adornment. that is. that certain used. hut they have a strong belief |joibons lire conveyed by the air. of acting according to reason. but incjludca less of the idea of cimuing and more of hsing South. 25 The g roil ad was covered with snares so tliat with every step he stumbled Bl^ and ^ ^ 55? s gate. Is there un. 11 Magistrates aro often culled (and like to be called) parental officers. to express the contiaaance or iiircssant repetition of an action. as here. as well as the heart. h until his tiunbliiig. Clnvaug. the heels in In Cliinesn the root or \nilli of an "lu:"l. is frequently spoken of as the seat of intellectual and mora! qualities. {|| Jjf in an obsolete form. - that they have and govern them generally aa fur as llic fact. £ "A^y Cliiiiese lit is much has raised do not understand modern of malaria.

231 Translation. . but more used in some places than in others. to Chi} hwei\ Opportunity occasion. widely used term. Another Southeru form of later or A contracted form of the South. when. 7^^^1. -. whenever. In the North it nearly always takes after it an enclitic which in the South is replaced by It is quite t'ung hsirig. : - • - -- i - T'wan^ . f i + 1 li 0% 2 Kiusman. > ^ H 1 OBSg oi! t! 7 when 15 M S for me. to take an oath. How much sooner a Peking expression. I fear I may offend him. him. when do yon bog in work on your house Ans. as Vocabulary. Lesson 87. a period of time. ground. whenever. How much time i . opportunity. Northern. Along the Yangtze it takes a When. when will yon be able to finish 6 Lin Jen Hsiu has already taken an oath that he will never speak to ine. A Delight. 10 If I ask liim for it. The fifth day of the third month has been selected. if I do uot ask him for it. complete nionsly . and When. an loiter. ^ 9 not remember distinctly wheu only know it was iu the sixth o - OS" When month.. Shantung. To miss an To? To % chouK … waste time. uick of time. - . did this happen Ans. i. . which when. H$iv} to circle harmo- united the whole. i8e\ To select. openiug. please exhort. to break .MANDARIN LESSONS. x. in used it.. in . >io% isf come wheuever yon send I can shall enjoy I family the circle 8 ^I Yon are going to tlie capital are yoa yon go. a strongly col- ioqiiial. Same . Tsaii^ Tung^ kuvg^. I do When may oi 4^! . 7 Separated from home so far as this. let rne kuow that I give you a send-off. family^ altogether. When did I promise you 4 Whenever yon get an oijportuuity. merry. Chai^. Same. he will never try to pay me. 51? .e. elated. It is never heard in Eastern after it. A time. entirely A Southern form of 8()me ])laces quite snpersetles pg. . 3 You are making an entirely false demaud. to bet or promise wifch oath.:ESS03sr When. to choose. yiien^. Ckien^. 5 Wasting time ia this way. - A present of food on parting. bat not timg hsiug. . [pick ont. To begin work.

to recall Pa}. embroidery patterns. dispositions of my two dan^^hters-iu-law are exactly opposite : the elder is almost uever at home the younger almost never goes I feel -S M The 15 U > home. antl su. A . G Pa^ estimate to law. to look back.. receive credeutiaU or a commission. to loii. Good-nature.\\*r an a|)poiiitiuent. . wonld (See To look forward lor. If oue did not purchase his advancement. Qiies. chill. Jhi A guest. - -. a pit. that. fill To Swaii^ chi\ --. When do you return Ans. depressed. S/ieng^ To Kou} VimyK chie^. 5^ from Pekiug Ans. poor. . how long do yon suppose he would have to wait for a position 14 How ranch trouble I took on hia account. plain. to rule. llan^ ' li The r/i'eng^.h?.. to strive iind labor for. nhen did you come. to Rnpply a place. " Ts apeyit to secure to heartened. . ffou* - L"g3 p'ing^. To an a vacancy. situation. 1 will go Id four or five day a.' Ilsin^ ^ch^" Thon. Cold. and how many enemies I made yet he afterwards leagued with others to bring snit againsl rue. trouble. when will yoii return from your hia : *^ c| To Chien hdng . A defect. 17 Sir. sfiunK Port Arthur on the Gnlf of /. . Li P Ans. dis- Hati!^ ksiv}.^ to.i. . starting on a journey. I Ques. capital city of - --. friendship.. a mcayicy . oh that. Hwa^ yang. wiuToiore. study 4j auxiety.. to curry favor with. a maltitnde. one waitiiiL. An pu\ plot ^withy in collusiou with. so that whenever I think of it OS1>^|^^0^ oim I 0^ * there capital fnlly eit^ht or niue disliearteaod. Benevolence. give a feast or a present of food to oue . to get a position. shivering. a sojourner. tiiere. Money office Ch He} . a expectant official.u^ Lu^ . proviucc. to reflect.^bt. reckon.tufa\vu upou* . to act the iluukey. Mr.. against. hindne$$ a keruel. . He left Peking ou the eleventh.L1 232 SI . charity humanity. a deficit'ucy. He arrived at Port Arthur ou the fifteenth. . araiability. in that casa To recollect. a Hwei^ hdav(/. to lon^ for. Pechiii. froru 16 His letter states when be receiveil commission aud when he left the capital I estimate that by this time he ought to be at his post. i 13 111 the provincial S 4 ^ are hundred expect- ant officials. brotherly \o\e. To expect. a office.count np. a patt. .eru a standard.<*-M>U-rv.When did he reach Port Arthnr Ans. Pu» ch'iU\ To aa . . 12 When did the Seventh Prince start 11 came yesterday. consideration. league Cast down.i.

. a book i At most 17 ' ' form often used colloquially. important undertaking. and literary gradaates who are approved as suitable for appointment. 18 The sole ambition before a student io Cbioa is to get a degree. I then thought tliat wheu should l)e elected a hanlin I shonld Ix. -1-. In case I should hereafter be appointed literary chancellor. to ch'ai\ . iu three months. a proviace. the meaning iu question. thus all makinij a false demand. I was always tliiuking' that when I shonld get my first degree. used as an auxiliary 11 that is. it should be noted that the word \^ t^ung hsiruj. A Peking teachers would write however. aud now that I am elected a hanlin. no matter token. satisfied. crackers all be p'ao To snap. . and then get an office. (tjJ^ Also read p'ao^ fire-cracker. which is the idea iutended. and the sound of is everywhere correct. see next lesson. Tiiey all reside iu the provincial cnpiial. jen. serves to combine the three or five days into one •pace or period. to startle. Pa(f. of purely. rat lie r refers to the offire It is the most lucrative office in . to sputter. g >s .e - 233 MANDARIN LESSONS. wheu 19 Chia Hsii. while the sound of soft sounds prevail. 2 is technical term the for selecting a for almost every Such a selection is made lucky day. It expresses that peculiar feeling of pain or depression experienced when a friend proves false or faithless. to offend an enemy i. aud followed by a negative. but to the wives of older aud younger sous.e. Hsae yonr have been stunning my few days beyond endurance. i. but means much more than to feel cool towards the person offending. to tremble to shockj to stun. have practically the force of vwancy icaiters.. 13 Officials OTit of office. to crackle. is more naturally derived from the primary meaning of than from that of 3 instead of . such as commencing work on a new building. - moreover. to threateu. and it is not recognized as having so used will be misunderstood would be taken to mean. I sffll want to be appoiuted literary chancellor. The eleventh hour. 15 Elder and younger here refer not to actual age. a flash. are after joined with any of the time particles in the lesson. The two and the four so many"jr« id this sentence. 7 to 9 p. Every school-boy has this bet before him as the The proper term for literary pinnacle of his ambition. The term than to the person. Ti ^2^.m. chaiig^. 14 Lit. means. The idea. explosion of flarae. appointment can be secured. 18 I recollect that when I was in school studying. opening a new business. Cold hearted. 10 thm is the goodwill or friendship. present tonr? Ans. chancellor is . See Les. each striving by the use of money and wire-pulling to advance Without the liberal use of money no 1)13 own interests. to give offence. To shake. Satisfied. to quiver. Lesson 87. getting married. at the least.e to offend anyone so as to make an enemy of him.xgl -^ M Chung^ ii ^ >§ To attain the d egree of ckCi?. I do not know whether should be satisfied. An Ckangi Literary of office Chancellor - Yon off? ears these fire- pop. Not E S. chii- will fired Chhi^. is only correct where Where hard souu<i& prevail. J ai/easi. etc. content. in the next. The selection is made by a professional prog Dostioator. Money spent bribing is faoetioualy said to be "contributed" that it is () m the theory being contributed to the necessities of the government.:Tsit^ •*• The - - - Hsu\ - ^ - - Note : A 18. 170. It is ancertain when at the most. and so get money and power. Q ^ Yoti. I thought when I shonld reach the degree of l»ur clfiijhi 1 should he satisfied ail^rwards when I became a chB jin. entirely. t ^yoiind the peace. to ^«r3^.^^" > ^ . never. I shonld be satisfied afterward when I obtained it. are called to Reached his duty^ that is the post of duty X6 which he was appointed. in two months and a > ti half. simply.

pass iuto cacli other. 4 This afi'air canuot be settled. is a tense ending. its nse as a teuse ending (Les. To to finish. he suffered no wrong. . # ^ p'^n^. bountiful kindness. to settle up. very much. quit. but my mind is too dull. Interested. appreciative.^0 ^ 1. dull. J\LLi.. attentive. 14 It is sufficient if it does not iuterfere with my nsiag it I I! C affair be to face canuot fiuish 11 ci^ ^/^^^-^-^^^ an every-day necessity. 17 What yon do not need you may bring to me. dull. elder brother. is beyond expresaioii. In Mandarin Soiithera is often nsed as ao Some of the uses of auxiliary instead of as a priucipal verb arc also introdaced iuto the *^eiierally . 7lJ?|i. enliHt-ed. Liao^ cldc^. * ^otl*. 3 You canuot get the better of me. 7 10^>1|>^ if %. bitnraiaous coal. 13 Everybody sajs he is wrou^ed but as I see it. 5 This oaunot be considered auy great il 4 A" affair. ardeut. These two uses. Iai^ Chic^! M LU - .AHS". /ii* JvWi "s. to a large number. A great luany. 16 It is not that I am not an interested hearer. - - Charcoal. earnest./"* urn" ck'til. 12 I'll never give it up nutil I learn it. . to put au end to $et(lc. I cannot remember so mauy things. . to.. Interested. . To conclude. Stupid. to close uu. o is m 1 This charcoal is already use'l up. comes ont most clearly wlien joined with a negative. and are ofteatimea not easily tlis- When is an auxiliary it canuot spoken la as it always can (and tiugnished./ VOCABUI. a Ljao^ 8hoii\ i^reat To • '-' . attentive.• 234 K§ Translation.• quit. euthn. 10 It is of uo consequence even if yoii 8 iDxixixv As AN Auxiliary Verb. lesson. also nsed as a regular auxiliary verb. 7).< -.^#0. . is Whether au meet face of •A Eating great or small. To Tiu} shou^ . to give off.siastic. thou*^h dififerent. up to leave abaudou. being Besides is joined to snch verbs as will take the qualifying Its force idea of completion or of possibility. rl^ 6 I indge there will not be very much left. See ckie\ finish. . the eud. soou settled. embers. to give up. 2 I guarantee there will be no mistake.1I!^ Loil ii > i it is || 110 0%_ K-L LiESSonsr Your 15 That good men should suffer abuse is nnavoidable. " 7''aw*. prn\ Stupid. oi- + | > and it to-day. read be or is) whea it. 9 He cannot retract it if be would.

^ To advance. 25 I fear one bottle will not hold this ^0^^1>^^ nitric acid. - ^cC exclamation of snrprise. brief.Hi q beggar. A Liao^ liangK fortia. TJr --'-. aud yet my mind was not very silk to 011 _ - 11 9 clear. fl"an* - ': To -^. same. Chien^.\. . 235 tliioirs I saw in Siara. to abridge. to evade. - Ghuem. clear eye. A?. cTA ASto treat radel}*. C/(i. Liad^ pu^ - I Hsiad^ ^ Ckwan^. acid. entirely. Hsien^ Hsien^ lod^ i. makeshift. -. just. 6- > I. 7>i^ ' An 5$ Saltpetre. 23 I have long been wanting to come to see you. 29 The two men rowed their sampan pnffitig and blowing for half a day. to pretend. or call l l^-VvQ . 24 It is a thousand pities that this man is on the verge of becoming a . Note 13. J. 22 It will be a aorry business if outsiders get to hear these things. 27 I heard him explaining for half a day. i .. eecoud-rate used by workmen Note 29. A note or (w. 147. 19 He sayfl he is going to break off opium.. Hsing^ hw0e^. The same. Direct. handker- Note a scarf 26. W\ Irreparable. to pnt into.T. - - - Older? eKi\ Direct. Hsiao^ chHang'^ swan\ sound of wailing or distress a responsive call. Careless. lessly.. goods. in short. nitre. Liao\. A . Also chum^. ^KM^t^ perspicaons. . terse. or regret. - Liao3 lianpK The same. ~f point-blank. Inferior ^r?!r. To condense. sIoveu:y. Intelligible. book a scroll. oneself. dress. IVaoS ts'ao^ liao& ishi*" To do heed- na. 28 This style of inferior goods is not worth that miicih money.To grasp. 20 Why call up again busmeiis which is already settled P 21 I cannot ia all my life forget the i -1 Eir' 1 LO 8 « ^ . to pack. Summer. a bad business exclamatioD of apprehension or sorrow. to hold. clear Lan^. 20 It will not require all of this piece of make a scarf. but he cannot break it off. bnt were unable to reach the place. . a surname. to refuse. 43. plain. To take npon Also working oneself. my stars alas what shall I del Les. . Ao^. to as- to take the responsibility. but somehow I could not get away. aqua ornamental chief. far-sighted. together The . point-blank. V Yile^. to secnre. to monopolize. roll. An ckin\ . straightforward.'\KKn exclamation of snrprise or pain. . To excnse Twei^ts't^.chue^. -- Ilsia^. a book section of a Les.ssbS 88. or distress. to choose.1|1 % •^ o 18 Thirty tael« of silver will not bny that piece of ground. no help for an it.) Siam. MANDARIN LBS60NS. to load.\ Pao^ lanK Nitric - .

In sentence reetricted Beoue. but much used in frequently. unable to Jinish. tixcd. . it can never be concluded. ia 2B ^somo would write ia retipuueivo hciyh ho nio^lo oarrying. eayins^. %Y7m ^^ $ 35 The viuegar fellow We I his are in is spoiled.^ he sees any one in a difficulty. 1^ > ^ r. 1*383 the Shantung. If were changed to would mean. The first is roduplicated iu order to strengthen tho force of the exprossion making the expreshoa eqwivolont to . . he icajtCs to retract but cannot. ac^. here both principal verb and auxiliary. or agrosa hiwli. might mean 33 off in . of Tlie dictionary gives ai^ as the correct reading of but Bays that in this particular phrase it is to be read phrase which cara that the procoss of formcntfttion does not go too in and so destroy tbe vinegar. It matlu of silk.- See Lea. for it. it was uothiog more than a makeshift. the meaning of which is. 27 For constantly confounded with of It serves as a sort of superlative. Ans. instead of an essay. aiul often elegaiitly either curried in tho band. ^ write South.^ 30 i^r . theme. but carried hy womt-n purely &n an oruamftiit. highly idiomatic form. aa best representing the sounds in the 30 ijidiJferetiC The is (king. is tbe arm. Notes. borrowed from tho process of making vinegar. How could it be concluded? Unless Borae one is found on whom to fix the charge. It ia etnbroidtirod. when they can get no clue at all to tho treatment of the is omitted in the South. This IB Aoinetimos done by careless and intiiiTercnt scholars." 8 a common colloquial pbrase. The use at tho end is not an auxiliary but a requires the 6rst clause to be taken of Bubjunclively. sure enongh. I wonder if it is true? A?is. to rfnsA manner. W ^ 1. he until some one else is found. that for the settlenicDt of a difficulty there is nothing like meeting 4 JT is A common 5 face to face. long liko a it ia To hand after auggeat use more correctly written. uot try to evade it at all.2Z6 > ^ 0q> 1^ L I! - 31 Do 33 I be spoiled. it can hardly g Mi" When > . or. 1^ iu jtj?? or l^! . phrast. 36 @ R is very likely to lio in prison whom the crime csxn be upon Spoiled the r«({uir6d far. an approximato writing of tho by the Chioeee w hoii rowiug or »« * book form for tho samo thiog. Coarsely Jh"sh the a cardtss or use. tlie idea. as The Nanking teacher wouM liable to do. It ia also used and in a Boinewhat more sometimes takes the place 22 The 24 which the ' . seems like an encumbrance. |g dout believe his essay will get him a degree. for voa cauuot evade it if you would 32 I'll warrant that rice that was left over is spoiled. 34 I hear that Hsia "Wen T^'s lawsnit is concluded. as the a different connection. A book expression in used p«rliaps with a reference to or grass character. thus . gotten np to avoid handing iu a blank. not however practically used 26 f-p thu purpose. the hasty writing of the a blank paper. 14 ill is Pf'liin"'. he takes the responsfbility of managing the business for him. It is QSG'l to common common 21 lu Southero Mandarin . in adds greatly ad^lition of siveness of to the expres- for ^ sweat napkin. not. 92. The weather is not yet very warm. of the secret getting "out. The principal verb. A vinegar. my good worship has come home. 34 When any ono is charged with a crime and the proof in hU guilt is iuauflioient.

2 It must >^o^ 3 ^: OS 3^ > 4 1 ^ „^ 1 5 ^ 6 {4> ^ 7 I ^ be nearly twelve o'clock by u. bat somehow I canuot recall it. treated. That brother of mine is the same age as Uncle Pao. Why. taking the place of the full interrogall show some . but if they should stand together. If anything should happen to her. Not by a great deal. loa^ while. 5 It concludes an emphatic reply. or perplexity (6 to 12). 17 as indirect qnestion. of snrh a form and sncli a disposition. What's the reason I did not invite him He would uot stay when I did invite him. which contains a query expressed or implied (22 to 25). Not • ^ 8 1^ 1-0!^ 9 I 2 d >. and yoa should want to marry another such wife. which is its primary and most important nse. >1 0^ 1^ % 11 ^0 MlSCELLANEOUS Uses of has already been defined in Les. it is iu others. is much more used in some places than Where its nse is most prevalent. it propounds a qnestiou. Yon mast not allow it to be treated If it should be wrongly at raudoin. I suspect yon could not fiud her even with a lantern in yoar baud. however. it's on the bed asleep I would like very much to visit the West ami see the sights. Jucl^iug from what I hear of the lady's sickuess. I suspect that he is somewhat taller. 10 1^ 01? o^c 2 ^ > . the sign of an a variety of other uses which are difficult to classify. It has. ative form (26.it is uot unlikely that it is au occasion of congratnlatiou. with an implied query as to why the thought did not occur sooner . Hem They keep a mnle. often heard when it seems to serve no other pnrpose than simply to round out the sentence* In bly marking a snd- dealy occurring thought. or a comparison (18 to 21). All your outstanding acconnts are collected. A us. 3 It concludes expressions (13 to 17). aud which differ somewhat in different places. but I just cannot go. ^ 1 The a(ly sends for yoa to go OTer qaickly. I know there is such a character. 1 It concludes expressions of surprise. I suppose Ans. 237 Translation. 27). 4 It gives preponderance to one side of a statement involving an alteruative. 6 Staudiug aloue with a norm. or reproof (1 to 5). these cases a careful scrutiny will probasort of a query expressed or implied. 2 It concludes expressions of uncertainty. it would be a sad affair.> MANDARIN Lesson 89. L K8SON9. Why think of giving alma to them Where has the child gone Aps. indignation.

i)imple a boil. T3. a long narrow table* . - - ^-T. - .. rt will be better for yon to go than for any one else. . lucky. eldest brother's wife. If there is u fntieral.. Esiang'^ ' -' . ruminate .*. . summer ado* To chew. to bite. Wai^ sh^ng^ be feared. sleepeth. incense stand or table. sure. all should come to help. expenditure. dhiao^ . ado and weep this ye The damsel is nut dead. j}M* s/"4 bustle. . fashion. Les. see the world. nei^libor. Tiiat's a fact. S(ir'[p: ski^. ''-4 to be deceived.^ . K'an^ ts'on\ That's 80 sure enough.L^. fooil camel. * It's to '^\r} . . wail. Vocabulary WesterJi nations.2 . - - - \ Vine shop. ltvan\ a wedding.^E Led^ VoCi- 14. 131. 19 You having been there these two years at school.yien\ -•• H . your family must ^>_ „^ liad not buy supplies. bless. uot yet paid for the two Ans. 15 Sure euoui^h I quite forgot to a sic. Au H. A . to lie mistaken. a bnrial. - 1 . it will be more couvenieut if I go and take my niece. That's so. stearacfd cake cake or :— Note Sure K't^ funeral. tolearu by experience. ^'f^^^Liviug. 17 Duriug the dog-days it will be much cooler to rest here on the hill tliaii ID the city. A us.. peradveuture p'a\ The 'Ta^ sad^. Mrs. Ker really. That's rolls yuii ate yesterday. a screen a divisiou.kS^- Man^ ft occasion of rejoicing. all should offer congratulations. - e : Mu. To mistake. appearance. to to .P5. To congratnlate with a present. .. surname. a general terra for foreigu countries.238 W g 9 12 If there is a wedding. Ch'tng. but it will be very iucouveaient going down cwry day i"o 1^ > If so. rospect by friendb aud acqnaiutauces. . to felicitate. to bit of a bridle. Hsi} kivoa^. Are your wife aud children all well 16 After all. pattern. to see the sights. roll..in Chiu& kwarfi^y.. to eat. to W by 18 ^ yon should have quite for^rot ten it. 1 suspect. Fonyi. but.yangK A nii^. 5^ ClnJ^ . Loa* / niece of a differetit Convenieh" opportnne. but. fo:To Next door . k'u\ ^cnr^ c/dao^**. To offer congratulations. A CMt.-^-e^. /'?'V:':tvA partition wall be - a . happv. Hurry. have saved considerable expendi- ^ ture. K . enough.^J m ."i^ vu v-. 13 Sure enough After all. to weep. Tmg^ congratulate . you're ri. A 1% . style. cauiel. joy. A . To K'aV. a saloon.— largely nsod as a term of . . I was - niistakea.H? ski\ IS S Pt€7i^ tang\.^ht:— Les. . You have 14 ^ > ^^^^^ „1# i I 0^^> > 1> mentioned it I make Aiis. a baked sweet ^ ^ to yungyc\ pi^. confnsiou. vacation. To wish >>.-A An cki^. adjoining the next room. a dromedary.

-' - K'ing^ hai^.si\ oneself. 20 Again . Notes. by the inflecIn the reply would in many suggested in the is given in speaking.man. as to why the question should h. 26 The matches are ou the incense staud.^V2. as here. Kivan} yiev?. having boeu h the common term for th'-' reduced above. officers. in t sickness. to bring on death* salt d^pot. Ans. but he would not come. - Government -. tuition. 28.- MANDAKIN LESSONS. is the title by which the lady in question in the family. a quota. . why have you not alresaiy implies that the party addressed 2 is is badly mistaken. but not the same age. save that ia some places ia ia would he omi tted. places be omitted.^^^^-» Stolen or '- illicit goods. tion seem repetitions as written. Why cT - ' - The dowu Ans.tSi\ - not when I ised to find his clothes. . 21 You are on tlie point of losing your p^ace iu thn school by yoiu' misconduct. or replaced wuh some places applied specifically Lo women of ill fame. 3 A query first clause. Tsanjg^. . 24 Tell them all to come here.^ To Teachers' fees. But they have not yet fiaislietl > ii camel heaven. 6 Tiie question is understood to be pat in a tone of doubtful anxiety. paper and books. plunder. 1 The underlying query gone over is.1^ o % W L 15^ • 25 li? * eating. . 3*011 The matches A/iS. - sit ink. Lfbson 89. 23 Did you not ask him to come and invite(l take some wine? Afis. say I fur a 3 "s 23« . but would be 4 The two Aq ohjection to thu sentence as spoken. Note salt . his pens. W it go thron. a contraction for riie use of at the close gives to the reply the force of a lurprisefl query. fr which latter form or is that in which it woul'i almost certainly be spoken. nierA Ch'aJ^ Last year. as liere used is an affectation of sickness of pregnancy. e?i2 tie A - . have a buil ou I Constables. Ans. entrap. . him. workmanship Tsod}. * Ttii^. Bat I toll yon if yon try to ^ud another place like this. do How can my thigh * TV chiu^}^C easier is to 22 There is a wiac-shop adjoiuiujr. goods necessaries. 7 ^ is • not used in the North of persons' ages. to ill-nse.ive been asked. is put . revenue police. to incur. harass. a fee . it will be harder than ascending to > * unto yon. Esae'. book style. to wrong. aud his two yonnger paternal uncles have prom Property. but It there means the 10 was known same year. a workSee tsod^^ and tsu^. That suits me exactly [do you know]. it is a euplieniism for death. . not that she bore this relationship the isjiut for to the speaker. 6t*. is . unfrequently used to express the is not 11 In case of disastrous termination of an uncertain event. • "- . : To destroy Tsod}. Rsiini i\ eldest maternal uncle. to To bring to pass. to avail of. 27 His maternal uncle has already prom- j o| .tr'" tbe eye of a needle than for a rich man to enter into the kingdom o!' God.

(30). (34). or ia added by way of but 28 In the 1st toue in In other distinotion. (25). in the presence at (e) (7). (3o). praclice — In emphasis. and bulh forms are pnutically I'lin. (24). to iiirifler turns up. which we have had in previous lessons. the same. 28 Speaking of using government salt.'' is iii is place : i a Les. tuition Ans. (9). to regard as (3). to include females as well. the fl^f omitteii. I want to ask yon a certain tliiti'^. (12) (16). in the 4th toue it means to pawn. Of com':^e it is.^ o ^ ^ harass people. I hear that Inst year at your place yon burned the salt depot and killed over twen ty revenue officers. Ruperiiuous and wi>uUi better 2S 27 Teachers in thrown is is fi-J own This (8) (listril)uti(ni (33). la this true Ans. own death. or at that time (28) to bear (2*J). in Chiiin and tlie occasion of enornioua oppression and Various Uses of has two tones. to serve iu any capacity (1). There is very little difference of meaning between the former is the direct affirmative. (tiU). the meaning is n. J list coasider that for the least thing they would fabricate a false charge of smuggling. the and 21 tlie hsing. as the usage differs of. ami * >1'«' 1 ^^$ ^*>. I will be responsible J > for that. is native in for destruction. But how about Ques. (22). aoiiiewhat iu diflfercnt places. tones of. )>e ^ The query suggested by serves to soften the abruptness of the affirmation. by . often is cases or made only to males.- 240 IS now ised to board the teacher just decide to send him to school awhile. To brivg about 07ie*e almse. coQiluot which cau b&vc bo oihor result. (19) 23). Piant salt plundtr. .. (10. and then acuuso him of surnepSalt is a government monopoly liiiousl y iWalin<^ in salt. form of referring to any oiie3 is a contriiction for whicli full fuini is also often used. and has different applies 16 Properly. often used for a short but intleliuite time. it has a variety of uses not readily appreheiified and classified by the learner. addition to these seuses. 1^ is meanings always doubled in in different localities. use. to suppose or cousider. of meanings between the two only approximate. (32)./ Peking teachers prefer but do not exclude Shantung unci the South the reverse is generally trno. it means In ought. is . (5). If they only mmle such false charges ap^ainst uieu. polite 171. but the outrageous part of it is that they were con tinnally making such false charge against womeu. (27) at the time equivalent to count y Villages us ti ally " board roumi.t or 13 Whether perceptibly different. latter the interrogative affirmative. to whom time III it it seems to change its face nearly every 1st toue it means. In the 4th tone it means. (2). to pawn. (26). (17) (18). native (4). to hide or scatter Siilt on the pi uniises of another person. (11) 13) 14) (15). it might be borue. They brought g ft 00^ ^ > iibont their be used. (31). (21).

14 On that day the snow fell coiitiuaonslv until the first watch. 1 One p ersoD cannot serve 1 in two capaci- ties. to treat ns as guests canuot go and return the same day.hsi\ To ramble. HsiiK Kwang'^ HsiiK Tang kwan}. The same day . fill Tavg full. authorization or permission. 'k'-oi?. to satiate. Lesson 90.. -. .J. at the same time. • - Tan .. 13 It is uot a pro|)er thing to go into auy cue's house just at meal-time. he discards seutimeut. A CM^g^. q_ ^ that time. -. a guide. . 241 Translation.^ o i oil H ^ > He supposed yon were 3 Are you going ^ We we have auythiug 7 If say to say. gnilt.. bountiful. extreme. to act in the capacity of. we should uot have had all this inconvenience. to of. When a man raises his hand to strike. >J ^ o?s o& OR- Vocabulary.. 4 . . space or point of an opening. to trouble. Kan^ tan The reigning [emperor] Tanffi chin:. Pw* kan^ tang\ the present. to have to play. magistrate. Tang^ Vi€9i\ The same. [ A thread. to laugh. imwo7. 15 If at the time we bad not been so auxions to save labor.. Tarhg^ ir\ by . existing. a rule. the said day or time. it Young 8 oil 9 la open competition a man does uot give place even to his father. assume. A to play. the said time. we shonlJ face to face. people will have their fan. Tangi Tarn/ time At sJi? shi^^ At .. a clue. misbehavior. To dare. once upon a time.MANDARIN LESSONS. a beginning. to disturb. to sncceed to.tky of [a compliment]. is it that you are working on the ^0?. copiousj Fhig\ it See keng^ watch of the night. a gap. 6 He sold his wife by permissiou of tlie magistrate. Hsii. The reigning Emperor Kwang to Unwilling • fertile prolific. official Before the face. face j"ace in the presence rnienK that day. Repnfed -. to giggle. - . was suffering from not worthy that you gentle- at that time 12 I really am I men ^ should have taken the trouble to coiue to see me. fun. ^ 2 10 How 1 1 Eveu Sabbath day * [illuess. to iaconveuience. and khig4. Abundant. To Ch'ung^. 5 Tlie j)resent em[ieror is Kwang Hsii. oi- . Tang^ji^ In the presence of the : 1 Tang^ ji^. Tsife^ mingK . to bear responsibility ]. To laugh. • \ '^ > '. On The same day. . _ • llsi^ HsV. To put Lao^ tung\ [of which something else is predicated]. the tmi€. L.^>^:>0^ os- not going. immediately. . misdeeds.

. fionw.isli. . the start. a moouciilf. to to biotas.J. to . tronhlesume. to out. dull-witted. . to Uiauuge. Tang^ At ch. - first. That is my father's. . prolon. the then. - . annoying. in it the proper thing to cometoblows? yet having 27 ^ On Ilari^ tan*.. . . complicated. f. nierfi. to . who would have reoom- meucled him iu tbe first place 24 Arrange it with him distinctly at the time and avoid subsequent eutmiglement (al'ter-ciaj).u} - ^ Fragmeuts Sod^. tan*. First year [of a reign]. fo dribble. miuiue • Chf • shi^. Numerous. lackbrHined. to string To point out. To drop. auuoyiu^. fifi • some. f/"' frst place. llan}. V ') to dribble. A Work head. - -. dolf. use of. • Every man 21 25 That nnmskull of a Wang the Less was nhed as a cat's paw bv' Li the Elder.^. come • TangX chung *S7"3. in btirrassiug. The .) ^ wsl^-:^ No place of another. 19 To travel so far as this in oi: just all is I midsammer. to order to strike or beat.liot. can stand. 7lV: . soft. To descend and be to be born born. TV To begin ta?(} • • trouble- petty This year.^\. (1 make . A fool.. 3^ SoiX^ . but as a host yoa mnst be bountiful. . -i^ |^. after-dap. iuto the world from a previous state of existence.T"A drop. jiu i. before. im't. 0. m Tani tfuiq\ Pao^ i/in)^* To 26 account of this year\s ^ Tonf^ --- is that middle likeness on the north wall P A?i3. /an". a simpleton. s/ii/ijf}.Ohlnse. em- . 20 Have yon forgotten to-day the oath yon took vesterdav in the presence of all? II {«H . . to ooze. Entangled. Tcaif/ liecompevsey reti*ibalion. avtt^ -.g . Jewish. come to the last month. eiubarrasHed tronblesorae. numskull. . to drop. Half-witted.) ^ <lel)t. tronhlesome. a simpleton. . . 3wei\ In fragments. 2i2 S!S 25 of 0 16 As 17 You caunot bear the burden of even your own misdeeds: why then do you the head of th*? house yon shonM be economical. (s. to eudnre.. ta^. 7"* VaiK a iang^ Jndea. * waut 01- ^ * meddle to iu other people's af- fairs 18 Bear ye one another's bnrdeus. J/ft2y*ayj».„|. * > . IP i %*>^:^ & CI1 22 At your wedding do yoa propose to have the feast ou the same day or the next day 23 If it had boon knowu before that he would steal.s:. Yilen^ nien^. . entangling. bear. la the middle^ benfinnin'^. - - and not Whose saccc8sive duvf. first. .0 have to bear his owq one can take the will recompeiisft.

to In believe. To act as watchman.. No matter how yoa exhort him. even a father not being exempt. ^ consider as if. Elder Shu} sister's husband. Also chienK . of Han PMng Ti. Weight Ch'uev?. or could might. to feign. aut (to hear). If. it takes the additional meaning of. Lesson 90. regardless of who may be worsted. A pawnbroker's shop. Sometimes when a wife has been guilty of some gr ave niisconduct.A Becoming seemly. office. to weigh. he pays io I (lou't attention at 1_5! S2 Wlieu anyone > 18^. he says anything unbecoraiug. afraid of makini^ enemien. the said day or time. but 1 have no time. .^ 1. M en be Mubatituted for I^OiX^fy}Tail's^ the more general form. How could I trouble yon? Ana. I mnst go to the pawnshop any way to redeem a pawn. to enperiutend. but iu the North. I 1 ^ .mavdauin lessons.'fiMid i '. exhort. A Jireman an aader-cook. the other is second fireman in the kitchen. Not KS. the meaning being that when competing for a degree each man does his beet. la of . that day. • p'u\ taiigK . 35 I onght to go to the city to-morrow to pawn a pawn. but afterJt'Riis wards r suffered a <(reat deal. is always irritable. 2 Q Tas ckxng\:. .. '^ ix … To redeem a pawn.^ V > 33 I tliis {SI ^ Ckilen^ :' trtro . frequently sell their wives in China. 29 Two years ago I fell off a (lonlcey and sprained my arm. The same. you rmist not get angry at him. have certaiuly been deceived by you HIS 10 i thinks we are a set of simpletons. 14 In the South is used only in the sense of upon a time. Ques. f is this sentence or A. bnt pass it by as if yon had not heard. to caution. though a prison. in the first year of YUeu Shi. are uot we also afraid of inakiDg' > 30 If he m * is He enemies > 111 31 believe that man WaUiO^ Lien K*e will ever reform. Never mind. cV\^ is time. iutinence authority. j. make watchman. A prison. though it is not regarded as a proper or lawful thing to do. she Ib sold to another man with the approval of the magistrate. Let me take it along and pawn it for yoa. * ^ 1 28 243 was l)orn in Jndca. probably to the examination hall. all. o p'k??g^yi?ip\ Hearsay. very sick his mind 34 His two brothers-in-law both have positions in the yamfia one is watchman in the jail. Ch'iien^ fa7i^\ A oversee. therefore. . A . to fill the position of a servitor. to act under the authority of another. rnmor. idle an inferior Ching^ (or Mng^)fu\. Jkng piet}} Juiny^ To tales. to admonish- . Ans. ^ li i> To chie^.^ To Chie^/uKU^y. exigency to balance. i fill ^ To C/nen\ -- pleas- - - . once . At tiie time I did not feel rmich pain. not re f era 9 A provtrbial saying in book style.

aud yet one mao cannot carry them of? 0. with reference to his being required to rua this or that at the bidding of his superiors. but it gives a pliase of meaaiug which DO other word will express. 3 That man is so fat that he cannot 15 > I is H: R >^^^0^> TllANSLATIOX. sometimes on the day following. I might down aud walk a few steps. the name or 23 designation of his reign. the sccoiiii a noun. so that one reign was by this means divided into several piirts or terms. seems to be the proper character for sprain^ does not give quite the proper sound in all places.^0 Is am 2 If an awl will not penetrate it. '* T'Aai 35 couHt The application ten. is added as an anxiliary to such words as will tako the qnalifjin^^ idea of enduriince. bat the fact waddle along. The first is a verb. is usefl 35 $ 7" pawn a pawn. 29 of course The Southern though vouched for by two Nanking touchers. 12 You think there are not many things. > all. of ittf/ettious/y. & ! T 26 Custom does not allow a creditor to use forcible a del't until in the last month. to tool of. Trb Auxiliary Verbs invert. that is. Snch a large mule as this. means foast on the second day. in added as an anxiliary to anch wonia as will take the qualifying idea of motion. There prxKticaUy do legal method of cuUociiug a debt iu Cluua. 4 The animal is tired ont. to endnre. Do is means a two . . Urging doea not move him. Takes the second foot und to do which is done by Chinene wooden drum. you may use an auger and bore it. or light-fingered. To strike the watch . me. and the fciist continues two days. 7 If you are not able to carry W s}5> go I uin not able. 34 XiESSOlSr To move. of in seems to give a somewhat di fife rent sense. thcr to bruise than to sprain. 22 The day of the Bonictiiiics principal wedding ft-asL is sometimeg held on the wedding. . SM.„ 244 I 1 1 0. aud yet be canuot throw me down. reaching io extreme cases to the use of violence. to turn. (o shoot to make a to a person form sounda flat' cat's paw of make a (hat cannot is a (jun. and vet cannot carry two hand red catties get f. iuversioD. 9 I will give 1 fast. • Z- indicates the second plaoo. It lias to XC and To oppose. the translation should be. measures U The use mean in Huclk is added as an auxiliary to words as will take the qualifyiog idea of Sec LiBt in Supplement. it wiilchnien by beating on a kind of in collecting To <lisu*<p. 10 Is snch a little man as you able to carry snch a heavy load as this it will not even 11 What a dull saw cut a piece of board.^ ^ ^^ 1 oii OJnLJ^ fluxions to >sm^ . la motltrn tiinee this custom has fortunately fallen hand not trusty. 5 This is a necessary truth who can overthrow it 6 That small mill one man is able 1. which in former times was changed from time to time according to tiie emperor's fancy. but Burjccasive days. The use of is local ia Eastern Shantung." 23 be done by the sheer force of irrepressible dunning. was the emperor's title. one off as into though commodity depreciatory in thu highest tlegreo. you propose to have a one day' ^ feast or a tiro days' feaM If Hand nol tteofly.: 8 0% I him a back hold. i "Iso used with the fuast for same sense as both days be included.

prevail. . Chinese dictiuuary. Yunff^'K 1^ skewer. a loop. to transship. make paper images. . . obtnse. to To lead on to m7 to entice. . AV. Yiu\ about . . self-righting doll Note 20. to dig a grave. stumble. tiK walk A To dig a hole in the gronud. A t'ie^ to dig. To make a Shi^ ckiac^^ To grub. Same. '21 When the rebels came. to - To ouooarage. Read . to evade. to lead Jx^O: - fiend J . # Pan\ Fans crowd. Vocabulary. stupid.^^^v^. rf/A^^. to waddle. A burial . to eyitice. CJia\ To — C:- p ierce. to tempt. to stall to to paitit a wall. Blunt. See cha\ - to stab. . . to stir. linger . dull. TT'a/i to draw on. The middle of the jtm* tao^. K'wan^^. to . to throng .. £rJA^u iliri^r 10 sqnirra. robbers. Why do you say thafr. Tswan^. to glide. to shuffle. repel. a drill. to transfer. ^ ^ is uot willing to come. " -u: To hag -. vault. a tomb. a gimlet. 'r' to controvert. . To pierce. a vessel C eurname^ Cast iron. Also tswan\ a7i auger. To dispute. k'waug^ P adK allure. I will buy you a doll. Rebels. a grate. A grave. to hinder. a desert. pan. to allure. - . to twist.- MANDARIN 91. lu^ ky} in to PooKf. - . Yin^ to throw down to stnmbie. off. case. ^ Tan .(X^^hf - to penetratt'. to & To dig a grave. trip up. to — -. T&wan [ ^ A . to fetter.". to bore.. a cemetery. - To to back. To ward iVan^. Ying- A . . gronnd. and I uot able to drag him. yitc^. t-sei\. „^ov oik My cate anythiug hard. 22 T saw yoa pnsh him dowu. road. . . lie will not am wonder who threw a stone in the middle of the road It tripped me and threw me down. Ta^ tin^.^ 4 If cannot masti- 15 A man 16 When 17 He 18 I you wish to ask him to do anything for you. to . to kou\ i~'"2 leisurely. 19 Please help I me to move am not able this to book- move it myself. c ' To mix. . a great many who '''ere not able to nm were killed by thern. > y> teeth are poor. misstep. 50^ 0 245 0. To IX .push or press forward. tempt. 20 If you are a good child this weeic. to slip. Liu^'^. eveu though he makes a iniHsten. puppet A tomb. you will never who really has a mind of his owu caunot be enticed by others. to pierce. . he stumbled aud fell down of himself §1^1^ ^ 1 fall. .. to wriggle.. 13 * ^ > KT isLO > i I j . a mau is young. a solitude. an awl. TV See tswan^. Fhi^. drill. . Lessois LESSONS.

ll\ul ull . to wriggle. See Lea 26. God:— Note 27. N with To tung^. evpt-cially i» tlicugony. tiiut aomo . to pat ch'iK • Note np. The wiuJ would almost R > to it 24 Ln W . S/n^ to. yet it fi6 cxprfBWjs a shade of rncming not given by §6 Wl. tho hitter ia the is burying place. The oldHtavenly Orandfathrr (>r tht Tiiu former prevuiU iu Jicavcniy old (or great) Grand/athtr. to protect. unublo to move with thu biirtlcn. I'iiia The term in In many eometimea omitted Vftrioua forma probably is its expreas** llio nearest upproxiniHtioii the Chinese people liiivo Whenever n. nmn is di iven by to the uUiA of the tnio (iml. wliilo Iht form*-T mt'ans unablo to bear the fatigue of continuoubly cATryini: th* l»iird»rn.To arrange. Kiukiang would T K Hunkow. ^if" to Lao^ throngli in order. to pnt in orrler.M m m m w t 246 R EH 23 That burying fjronod of onrs is nothing but St cues. vessels. arrange(l all to present to. It is used in the North when the niillatonea are regardod as a pair. to inspire. coouectiou. it ia tlie iiioro widely used term. ©0^11 cSs -S C/iu\^^l'. take exception to is ' Nuvi-rtlielcBa it ia iimloi particular g'ula arc sornelinu's civllud this truu of Hi V&. Bnpposed to bo ooay to saw. . ail at once. all castings made by the Chiuoso urc nitido of old iron. I > . "gooil and dull. to defend. ia rojoctcd in many places." to th« ptrnon. fir Yie has smoked ojutira till there is not hi u^. though applies to other things than digging a grave. ia Eao" Tien^ to gather op. articles. very dnll. - tools. 26 Almost 27 and arc here used in a Bcmi-perRonftI nenao.o . means properly hut uoilhor la »y (DO character) and hxoai* S'J is ''V and to glide. bo. they are very easy to work. if m 12 I is O'oo'i the toaist. tho thin'in. and Women used. 6 Two hmi'lrt. Prepared. t*wig haing in this To Pao^ ts*od^* 2 None of the terms here used for pitrcing with an awl correct in Kiiflt^rn Shantung. A doU or puppet without feot. but having 20 a rouini biise and loadtiii in such u way thi\t when pUBhed A puck R mot>e . an iynplement^ a ntensil.^ as being impossible to di^. tho Utter in the Coiitre ami South. inruiting J refers to th< V »r« tmj miiny for ono peraon to carry. yiuKttkr^C!:^ ami ^ tho fomit-r .The I'ltt' r nuain properly. tolly true tlmo . JJJ. C tZ*. Every time u ^riive g * ^0" >U 1^ ->3 that tea-pot or not. To operate on. reforfi it ia i.\ lie blow him over. 23 id caso3 /tf Weaturn Shantung A around P 7*0 claap to 18 Neither of the forma given ia usual in Shantung where hero uiennt fK §1 would bo used. (lifTur mitch hs our grftveyard an<1 the place of gnivefl. ch'l Kan^ Tod\ . houcu tho force of io boar. the North. Liac^ 84.. to pnt to manage. buiug uaed instoikd. tho most general dull. quicken." Seeing von have acted with such a benevolent purpose as this. mid are couscrjucntly voiy hard. Sit rofers rather to the mill as a wliule. Same. To protect. ticcorda with thu f^ruuail idea of Chiucao godti wero oiioe luuu. whereas Jt^ is specific for digging a gruve. 26 I do not know whether three hnndred oasli will be sufficient to purchase • o%. ' Chi [^- God To t\ivy div 27 It has ever been said that " a beoevolent heart moves heaven and earth. but in never uacd. I' 3 excite. 25 Articles cast of old iron are hard they can neither be turned uor drilled but if cast of new irou.i^ cast.left of him but a skeleton.S . to dress up. in' aiiing thut Iig is it cenieicry to cnrry no many. aid. over 11 term for to saw. 1 •ccortlanco will certainly protect yon. and tlmt will bftve io bo loit. To gather to repair. catties ifi considered a moderate load for 1 inulti.' Implemeuts. atruHB of circuinHtunccs to call to Iloiiven for help ho citlU upon not ablo - will right itself. Southern but not oxcluaively toai^ to sidle. both time and maimer being inchuieil. to help. here taken simply ile ubo iu Southern Also as an intensive ii Mandarin. where the term ie nan (no settled characUr).

When used affirmatively it generally as a sub-anxiliary. 8 CliiQ Hwa's hiiudredtli day \^ jnst at hand. 7Ve2. 2 If you hurry. and caught him. 0 ^^ .^ • 1 MANDARIN Lesson 92. . retreat is 1 1 ont of the question. IL is and . Having reached this pass. • . I 1^ ^ He 3 ^ gjj . to exchange. Vocabulary. 14 Any of you who has the ability may 0|!| 0> serve 5 I want to give hi in a surprise before he is aware of what I am doing. the tinkle of a Lin"^ tan'^ SkSKyx^p^ To pardon. A bell. the clang of a goog. A pedlar's goug. to for- 7 0=^ 4® my sins. tak s added as au alternate. tanf : ) instead of: -' ". to exchange. to rep:neve* . to lose. 12 You ought to i)e'i^ii eai'lv. small bell.iu actiou. or failing. added as aa auxiliary to such words as will take the qaalifying idea of falling. - 2!angh -^'h . * W. give * cautiot guests. 247 LESSOJTS. 1^ 2 }^^8| Oue 4 ^ C - 1-0 did not ran fast enough. ^ rarely used iu the South. sndden unawares —— Les. To au XI liar}' It is most freqaeutly used with a negative.age: Note 8. 9 I pray the heavenly Father. - See Sub. To R^. > svff * jys^ 1 I fear I cannot finish it to-morrow. to forgive. to fail. 10 Before we conld finish speaking. to get time. ¥ 10 > XiESSO-TSr The Auxiliary Verbs To reach. for the sake of the Savioar's merits. was knocked clown by the horse. To the region of Ho. 13 The child not e^^caping.iu time. See Lists iu Supplemeutjexcel. Unexpected. yon cannot do it up OQ the spar of the momeat. Tbanslatio?^. . extend to to. to denote that an actiou was not or conid not be accomplished within the limits of the time. I fear we will not be able to get ready the bells for his hat. losing. ami wash ont. being replaced by or Iu Peking is freqneatly added to it (17). G 1y muu so Rub on Lojij 7 many a little soap. . he rushed iu with a bound. added as an auxiliary to denote the bare or possible completiou of .nkow It is not used general Mandarin. It is much more frequently used in the South than in the North. to compass TVe} Pai^ swei\ The hnndrecUh day of a child's alternate.^V^-. 115.P: -rTo get time. To fall. broke over the hanks of the river. or with a negative tlie impossibility of completiou. is used iu as lu auxiliary in the place of ill . you can finish writing iu time. The water having no place to it will escape.

ferred ou . state. 130. to fulfil. To chia\ " To }tP^ Zw't*. Great to throw. ti - - Sin. . . sk^ng\ Tui* high A Ting^ ch^ . - */a8 -. 15 Jnst now in giving To him require to give them all up him to do at ouce.*1 16 ^ ^ ~ 1. and To acquire a fhi^ /£wan\ —- Tswei} nieK T'ien- what he is not able to do. Say uothing of him. uJL to cousumiiiate . Ilsim^ c/<il^v. g 23 .^ o^m ^oiss 1 Nie\ > The consequence of sin. To capture. /1 - .'.Mv<f-?^ Laity* chung\ of' h<a* --. 3 ^hwai^. . ground.-'. pass. perilous. f. 20. . the evil of sin. See ta\ official title con- various rauks ol' Note 20. aside. I have not time to attend to it now. 248 go and manage " ii^ away my I flung 0!. within. a statute. "2 To embroider. --. ^ : within three days. Dangerous^ hazardous.) a?. a fliug have I in time. uuy Ck'cnY cft'uen'^. Inside . '. A law. will be forciu. A -. to destroy useless. m . How conld we call a physician iu time One should not walk on the railroad track. The reason he could not bring the box was because it could not be gotten ready at once. A law. he was arrested bj the constables. point. degeuerate. To complete. (s.bituate . to seize.- officers. — Note . cannot venture to promise yon that I much money misfortune. perilous. a policemau. Let this business lie over till I come back. sideSy in every fence. a An honorary -. place. every . : . thimble. Note 20.. constable. Chi^ 7ieiK liabit. to Jling A tincf chen^ Tilt Pu^. set on all way. .… Tai^ Ju^. to annnl. void. . He died after an iliaess of only half an hour. for the cars come so rapidly that one cannot get out of the way > }^ it: canuot manage it. prob- Lea. Dangerous. to ward off. to ably. couditiou.. 22 These faults have been practiced nntit they have become a second nature. most likely Chao . A prophet. Land. Just thiuk of it. hsien&...rest.^ +^ I searched the whole room for it aud have not found it.^^^ -. corrupt. '\ . to guard. - To throw away . A . a physician: . retribution. Before be could get on his clothes.^^^ to 22.. . .'.Ci . a statute. even the genii conld not have gotten throngU with it. - The senior He<*retary of one of the six liuards a i^hyti ician.^ ^ ^ oil Is ^ ^ > woi > 17 18 > S ^01 19 20 o|j 21 i ^ know that 1 my hand thimble. pbysiciau.… > . thimble. ^s^ii^t P"3?. —Note doctor. . Fei\ direction.

Southern teachers prefer this character. in used in the North for physician. aud uucertaiu. The man Li guarded himself on all sides. to write is and sometimes is Why age. 01 cliild's Ukely explanation is.mcy hat and shoes. That point 24 beginning noio it might be inserted after This by K'anghi. expresses disgust. I fmr I cannot finish 6 and it in time. but was unable to ward them off. No word in Euglish is adequate to translate it.. I ? 2 Au emphatic form of IPf. 26 Think not that I am come to destroy the law aud the prophets. The not being able. 249 5 ^ > if I raise it.. wlio rank. expresses either expresses con- ! Fudge 1 ~ Hnmph expresses im- Plague on it I Confonud it ex- I presses strong disgust aud iudiguation. i.S Lesson S • MANDARIN LESSONS. It or P Tush Hnmpli expresses the strongest kind of impatience aud contempt. in tliis is connection but not as 12 Or. astoaisbmeut or exultation. the point of danger. and is also found in books. 3 The Chinese celebrate the one-hundredth day of a less sentence 20 The it is would prefer - called is ciation given niost here means regard. The Oh Pshaw proper characters to use are in a number of cases more or less uncertain. in the South. somewhat different sliouKl be. and thence passed into general use. was unable idea. or suffering. It to tlie court physicians. It is heard in Western. The same. How it came to supplant the more Some teachers not certain. I am not come to destroy but to fulfil. many of which it is difficult to render into English. sometimes with displeasure. Uimhh 13 ft plainer . or '\ 1 Bah contempt. but m't in the South." . The tones of these characters are especially variable Ah Bosh Whew expresses a snddenly ccourriug thonght. 1 Or. Oh Alas I steruation. You ought to where we perfectly proper and common have begun early . official common term the It probably came into use A as habit acquired becomes natural. Its use is an iusiilt. there for escape. that the term expresses a wish tliat each day may represent a year. bookish expression would be taken from a Chinese novel. danger . 93. sometimes with a whole suit. no doubt t*ung hsing in this connection. for to-morrow. ^ Notes. is at hand. I could not 24 Before yon reach the point of danger. It was probably the the only pronun- is is is nut certainly known. The it only read iginal pronunciation in all Oiises. coupled sometimes with pleaburo. . won 111 tittiiii to even by hurrying. but Eastern not in Shantung. or iudiguatioin.l 9 do to tai. ami that thus the child may ]i\^e to be hundred years old. XiESSOZsT :x: Initial Interjections. The hat is often oinamented with silver jewelry and little bells. or sorrow. or disgust. possible to escape. is 22 or as he possible to complete it? 16 The literal would be. and the meauiu^s attached to them vary much iu different localities. It is customary on this occasion for tht. without detriment to the sentence. A equivalent *^ is . Bosh tioD. and expresses a is to "bring in time. It is explained as u sort of catchiug of the breath iu . Chinese colloquial abonnds iu exclamatory words expressive of various emotioDS. Wheu it is I ^^ even is the no time 25 I saw upwards of ten men attacking a man named Li. but 25 is also quite proper and is widely used. used save in connection with the whoI« rarely is I vay the same in 'I expression. it the phrases * regular and proper term was probably at first applied . that box fas in that it could not be gotten ready will had It is thus used say " for the sake of. or indiguais used chiefly ia the South. maternal grandmother to present the child with a f.e. ' 1 Ah me I patience. Heigh ho 1 Hurrah. to be used the tranalation If withstand them. shonld promise.

Aye. P'ei\ -. . especially I have I wautnl I liiiu.) see — see Snk Sub . rae It follows each clause or speakttr. 7 Ah! It's this way. it me. tusli - • - .2 i% 4 Bosh I noderstand oi- Pshaw 8 1 * " Lg 01- 11 the rest are gone.^ a riglit. to wear. plague on it: . lit Vocabulary. I I oi ". Whea 10 . or amnsement. only he aud I are left. Its use brokon yonr Wluit Oh m v I ! Hem! ' • It n§ or Tut. expresses expresses fie. pleasure or reproof. U it. remember rae to her A/is. What right have yon to 5 Hnniph be calling me by my little name 6 Oh. An exclamation of snrprise. alas. in used is much and books. .. all right. "Why trouble yourself about such c| ' I woi^t.^ have just thought of it. or (-liscoiiteut. Ptihaw. A Ell ? ciflloqulal to send a reply My gone already lie I lai\2. fonnd in Mandarin I have heard cliildreu use it theatrical ])lays. and .e in their quarrels. .7 Boeb. or doubt. Same. Wei^ . is it? This time « I . (e. come I 13 ^ the How you go home uud see yonr do aaut. or iu contempt to young people or eveu to adults. apiM-oval or assent. . but sometimes used to children. Aa exclaiiiutiou of doubt.hings 10& . of the same family name don't iutermarry. dreadful It's Aye. He What's up 9 Q ^ for be will all it ^. I3i 1^ .To spatter. See see Sub. :' -'. varies in different places. my mother It will kill rae. '4 i^. g ^ S g ^ Oh 1 3 Take off me ^ > o^„i # . A-h in ^ word (or grunt) much used . charging anyone. . f that said would come latest he ^ I. Dj§ T'ci*. aa much as to say. when emphasizing au by Oh ui}' Bless my heart What a pity expresses surprise coupled with sorrow or pity. I Alas! confound expresses 6a less. pomt raade by the Do you oh -expresses hesitation. you hear Ah me Of us who were of about the same ago. Motbor It is order to give forcible utterance to the 1^. I will. mostly applied to driving away Shoo." ^. all fi^ at to-i^ay. ' expresses slight conti'inpt 80 that's tasb. ocb: Also a^. Do you understand hear Ah mirror! Ans. full dis- Well well.g i 850 IS Translation. fuJge. or diasatiafaction.. or wonder. or. Make-shift somehow I few day?. sure enoni^li. > Och Ana. v'l'*. I Peopld That's all nonsense. W^^^l^ Ill it The house U I ilnraph in idea. IIPH Ah Has 12 en fire! 14 Oh. or riJicule. fowls. what a monstrons snake. yonr large red coat and give I 2 Heigh ho Ah means. expresses gratification. well really. that after all he has uot is it .

.. and don't make a disturbance here.. you may set me clow a 17 . . h What did yorr say I am hard of hearing.KSSOK 03.. what reason is there in your continually iuteiTupting tbein iu this way 20 CtiQ you afFurd to spend over three 22 „^ ass. impotent. slatternly. - La^ VaK Filthy. senile. Mai\ see Snb. Qky. air. I'll demand it of yon. T'aiK X^^J3iS4n^ see ai^. f. MANDARIN LESSONS. so so. {Calls) Grandpa. want to ask yoa somethiug. to make much ado about nothing.j^- . tsai\ Dead. . An exclamation of ^Ksee Snb. Pu* adults). bah :— see . - . . see Sub.chickens: to (s. gait. 18 Pshawl If I go again into a gambling" house.) scold see Sub. - to act the fool. Riir nao^. surprise and regret grunt. deceased (uaed only of Shen^ . tut! Nonsense What an unconscionable slander 23 If 1 can't find it. . Is it Ma Ch'ing Yiiu has kidnapped another man's wife Ans.. alas Also — an^. (7A*B*. To advance.--- . Good for i . Hnmph Do yoa suppose I can't alitor (1 a matter of three thousand cash Shoo Begone with yon. sound expressive of surprise or admirasee Sub. miserable. hnmph. . see Snb. slovenly. a . iudulgiog I'll %1 01 ^1^> is Now 55 o% How did yoa come to break it? I Hmnph their thousand ciish for a broadcloth coat Ans.see Sub. Tut. Sab. . to i'rw^V. or of pain and sorrow iJ^A . trouble you. I . to shoo as Inefficient. To hoot - at. A father s yonnger brother's wife. to exceed.C • pyXq<^>>^ Eh HaiK yJrI. I You May I this is A— an I people want to other lessuus quickly. yes Also Sub. . --.G^. tush Same. circum- stances. hem La >~-Q^VUr .. Ans. > 6 * ^ 1- i . good-for-nothing. Ai^. Tut. Wheu 19 Tush get '•^1 4> are a nice boy. T^e\ fPx tl . old. distinguished from I. - Afir' A reply - - - Tei\ that's right. (s. Humph. goose.) pcidK A - - blockhead. configuration. Bf m7ig\ To groan.) a ninny. my a^i^ed friend the great road to Chonts'nu P Ans. do w dy J^-i^^jft^good-for-nothing. Tai\ Fignre. To make believe to sham.S H^o I #i"3 Exclamation of surprise or donbt. @ a you call me grandpa once and bny yon a piece of candy to eat. f 251 pity if 15 I Such a blockhead as he.h . practically me. yet thinks of getting a degree I :iuti • - 2 0% M ^§ my opiuiou he vaii expectation III ^. (l. Ah . Not . Hnmph Why will you I so that I i 0. Ans.. To exceed. filthy. tion.

t'li. incoherent. 0Hnf/gK7^^" A Min^ lu^. That's be sure that was learned in one day. . whom will they have to depend upon I fJwei* hopes.H{0 1g> me? am (1 * OC of it watch yonr things this big male yours to officer. I. St so YoQ may steal > f that rope? A7}s. is radical UiLm. .^^:£ CI > . vain T an - Sugar.. Opening. the 90th radical. Pa3 chu?. unluchi/.s coQiiug iu to beg is simply in order to spy out a way by which be cau Stupid. depressed in spirits. I SS Ifaji^* hsiav^^. it 25 Plagae on IS ^ C/ri' Is sorry to suy it's uot). Chieii^ ckwang^. idiotic. Ii I had a big male like that. waj/ of access method. C/ii«* -' - '• wtny . silly. rascal. Ta3 cMa(^.252 demand ^ 1 24 Is is . Ilsin^ si^. Strong. \Van>^. a means. to pester. it beg of you dou't think of snicide. the half. may I u?- betting could uot cA'/4 candy.. - . reckless.i..ht. tell 1 shi. Please - un- A / - - - ^ P3 to interrupt. a To commit suicide. \v:is Obscure.. scholar.OV. persevering^ inde- . what radical should chtvan<j chwang be 2/"." a To discompose. fiiul it. ml forth ou wonder .fatigable. --- -. Sanf cki\ Unluchj. strong. No Ill-luck. what attaiuable. . It chien should be Reply. A tan^. able- bodied. 5 ^ 1 No.A. crazy. to bother. IM be a rich man. my it! I was nu lucky. > 4i(7A':ii hain^. Disorderly. unpropitions. business 26 Well. from yon Wang^pa^ -. conch. 'anj^. coustaut. • SAi*. • V '. quire.^ ^ § > fK ^^>>^1. Robust. Look at your wife ami children Are they not dei)eisdeut on you for food ami clothiug If you die. to make away with oneself. . A7is. robust. C/iien^. Don't you know that lii. of To long for 29 oneself. . foolish absurd false. To recomynendy to give a good report of. sure eiion^b In going out to see tlie illumiuatious to-night some vile rascal cut off the half of niy queue. a reckless villain A Note 25. I nuder ch'iang or niider oy Infatuated^ beside uuder the 28 Tush y r not 27 Uuder foolish. ill-starred. a gentleman. larf?e piece. really Just look at those two little feet How (hi the world) can they walk buck a. an gambling house. misfortmie. ring. me.

" 24 No single English word will express the sigh of represent in the general. 11. It is uot ia Mie le-\at over^^oi'^. a very pat phrase. Humph Who knows The old niaa so sick as that and yet when he wauts a drink. is here 1st tone and denotes surprise joined with a 9 little anxiety. It is also lieani in the ifgioii of Hankow. I have it noio. and Suuthern custom. The first is given with a short. 4 5t is? contrary to custom for persons of the same name to marry. sure and remember and don't get. ill descriptive of "getting a lesson " in the is not used in native schools. eh and when yoii get to jour sister's. although it is sometimes done.. having aa extensive trade aud much wealth. get says she mnst that after a few days we wiil go for her. or " ami thus properly beyond Uiy pale of humnnity. The term is used to convey the iilea that the slander is 22 wlioUy witliout foundation. 29 It would seem more Datum I to s:iy - ' but the idea ia much more vivid without the S2 Thta is a fair specimen of a Chinese woman churning a sou cr a uophow. gentleman should never use even this term. nlovenhj.1 H Lesson mandarin lessons. dirty. The translation given is only an approximation to the meaning. in tlie ciicuni8tances here referred to. but not in the North. eh? don't fight with anybody on the street.) going out to see the lanterns on the eve of the 15lh of the The Chinese says to-day.^%>^: > for pects you of speaking evil of hitu > J do I care heretofore liow does • . When I went Q i > sl^ > Atis. 93. there is uo one to cook it for him. anrl. Though decidedly inelegant. imlicating that the speaker presumed that the road referred lo was the road to Chou Ts'un. . as here used is local in Poking and the North. it is a very expressive is . superior age or static". 2 In Northern and Central Mandarin snakes are comis a book term ami generally iiieims monly called It is used colloquially in the a venomous snake or serpent. mora by the writer I A of the sentence. strong of the eight virtues. destitute of. ending. One vho has forgotten. rendered to-night. but it has to be tirst month. Northern. used. 1 What I now sister that " not i mamma homesick. eh say to your il^ if him to-day he to see cried. should be emphasise rl. which is in fact a mild substitute for the stronger one used is used in good-for-nothing Sliantuiig. especially witli children. 32 Now you go briskly. **/ won't" is 3 is ailded for emphasis. acrobats sometiniea This sentence refers the female 26 to seen in China. 5 The use of the "little name " implies familiar acquaintance. Central. would not use a stronger term than this one. 6 When a Chiiiaiuaii gets into great straits he invariably calls his mother. 8i"Uth and also in many parts of the North. this term is refined ia comparison with the languii go often heard. is a large unwalled town in Central Shantung. | 253 Hem Ans. there is no I 31 mm i one to get it for him. and to make 13 striking the contrust between the man and the heasL standpoint of the party is used from the 19 a'Hres&ed. . although there are many local variations. when he wants something to eat. that 1^> 30 Yon recommeuded him come that he now sus- it Ans. very different from that of (II. Though local. is used as a term of reviling in allusion to its being the undeveloped and unrecognizable possibility of a being. There are few Chinese who. It is *' made out of whole cloth. and means other people^ including the speaker. The tlwee forms of calling uiotlier is sense. generally. go straight into licr room. 16 rendered 17 and Pekingese here used has very as ia this connection is little force.aker is heard. aO Pf9 fik Here is merely regret here expressed by means properly. eh P Be for- Not E S. eh don't go first into her motherin-law's room. 11 15 Tlie three terms here used are not quite synonymous. The the sense as here 26 below is a responsive recognition that the 8[>t. but is used a euphonic in a Southern term the strongest of the three. Ah rue 1 cried His and in- is deed a bitter lot. hi/eriory term Wtsteni refers to emphasis. after which the reply follows.

the rooms are famished like those of a wealthy family. he has done some silly thing?. Kwoa\yin^. * ±- is 2 Althongh you speak thus. he is theless a graduate. 10 Although the day is long aud there is plenty of time. iutrodiiced iu buok is sometimes used iusteatl of with a somewhat ditlofeiit moanin<^ via. r does meauiuj^. in spite of. Tims or cot cbau^^e tlie ea|)liouy. . yet of coarse yon will not do so. ^ /J as the source of the affections natural bent. is 5 AUhough 9 The opium smoker mast craving eveu when his satisfy his fathor aud mother are ou their deathbeds.. but VOCABULAUY. rash the craving of an appetite. lu the Soulh to 110 purpose. even if. + g" > 1 am somewhat to blame. yet you cannot be sure that he will not take [the disease] airaiu. In Whi-li is not joii>ed with but is used to introduce the iiusweriiig clause. Narrow. The heart viewed Vien\ *ll A . is used in in uot thus nsed. To pass over or cruviug stop r -—' satisfying b}' tha *' it. 7 Althongh he is a clever mau.yet. yonug. §w Translation^. bat the same way. yet not a few of the officials are Chinese. . beiiij^ udded merely for requires an answering clause. • • '• deathbed Note 0. • ! S . especially that. still. AUboagh. .yet also. Although. snpposiug T*ing : ch'wa7\^. - - nevertheless. yet it will be better to do it early.. Exhausted. yet inside. S{| Swei^. Wang the Fourth's 4 AltlionLrh > _i . if. - .^ o|s #0%11^-^01^ o ^ ^hj% ^ I i CORRKSPONDING ') The use of Altliongh. the relation implied in the structure of the sentence (18). This usage is occasionally Muurlariu (25). yet Althoiit^h. he can manage thiu£^s at home. . . 0^ J never- he cauuot go abroad. 8 Although his house is contracted. and with the surue meauiug. 6 Although the child has been vaccinated.… … Although. Cfiai hiiac^. 3 Although he is in the fault.— 254 . is bad. an I |'iir(»03(*3. . even if. . yet JSomtimes the ausweriag word eveu. empty. contracted. he still treats people very iiieauly. which is gf'm"ill' introduced by oue of the three words or j^. 12 Although the emperor of China is a Manchn. see 8nb. for opinin or drink. . his heart temper all right. A Yin^. ^ * Altnongh he omitted and CONJUNCTIONS. I also is . -. 1 1 It is all to DO par pose that Ting the Third is a rich man.

v. especially as distiu. . 255 Yonr appetite seems 19 1^: Is! > f\ I How long to the duties of friendship. Strange. to scold. above. - Pia6^}i^X0-i^. singnlar. martial. yet you should still heed your motber's instruction. special. > * t 4^ 15 Although my old father writes for me not to be auxious about hira. '. - Capacity for eating. . to detest. of old. yet when I see liioi imposing on well-meaniug people.>. to hug. dislike. respect.i^s. to fiud fault with. Lou^. 18. affectionate. ap- petite. j J Chinese. to caress. V\ . J Yiftg^ . --. kwoci^. ' admonish Odd. Indignant. 21 Although the mother scolds her little sou with her mouth. Manchus. . Fat To exhort . loving. Ch'iLen^ sha?i\ Kwei^ . they did not lose mouey. Same Cki?i fiA To composed - CIiH^ Note of & honor.vu: to be very fair. to hate. '.-v. a fault. To embrace . ii KT of 16 Altliough this Tne Chung Yii is only one mau. Han^jht^. Tlie Hsiung^. yet necessary to consider the character of the individual in question. to reprove. vet she em- H An C/i'iK. dislike. Worthy dear. nud a few Chinese. .. remarkable. to hiss. witty. 17 Although all of yon know some thiu. hA :rv:: virtue. - - elope lou}. i 1 CkHn^ jeK J^ww -. of note or imita- tiou.^-vvAuger ^ as > y. 14 Althon^^h their business was a losing one. To i^j^TseVigr* hsief. . Lou^ pao*. heroic. it was only time that was lost. yet you muRt have a virtuous mind ia order to command the respect of others. h8iung\ A hero. aad courageous miud. gj ^ 1 18 Although he has not imposed upon me. To \ Ckvy hsiang* indignation.f . to preach morality. 'VsVA-*^ Antiquity. to for .) . corpulence. thirty or forty meu cannot master Inm. . '^/i vt-^ to carry off. . (w. I really cannot restrain ray anger. a ghost. 4a J>""n To emperor. V- it 20 Although exhortation and reproof be- g^o e. a knight from insects of noble . }4 . Rsuii "4 ger a banner a standard. ancieut times. Moniiols. . ^^ ' Hwang ti it is A flag.'. yet [ cannot hut be anxious. Yad^ ch'iao^ CkHen}- obesity. • To " . MANDARIN i nK ^ oi LESSOiTS. yet if he once sets to. 13 Although you are snperior to others in intelligonce. a fiend.. '. <i V. Yao^. To embrace. uuable to restrain one's an- pu^ fen^^ i^aw* liari^K .. xxxomtvom \ unusual _ a phantom. that in spite of yonr eatiug you do not get fat is 6- male of birds aud brave. to to fold in the arms. Ch'i^ j 671^. ominons. esteem. * resentment i^e?i^. ic 'J i' . guished from the Tartars. Buunerraen. to Also with.

and paid. secontiary.. A - . a stranger. to protect. all this. hestill could not sleep. speaking of oue while he ridicules another. 26 That Ts'aochou-fn has long been a rebellious place which produces many ii! i Bli! I TV ¥a^^. ^ * rohbers.i^ travellers. In other conncctious it generally means to rtccivt a Utter.^)fii^ . 22 Althongh there is nothing remarkable braces kisses ill the persoual appearance of that mau. uiulei wliicli I hcsidos the Tiie term banners a'1 wlio asaiutud la tlir coixpicst of ('hina. The it reiittrtli in is variously the text. my 2 * i OSB . '•f the until u mjoromttiicLT is cniplnyotl to ajtsist it. - '- Ck^\ . and in spite of himself his heart kept palpitating.': . ami yet. botlt designated. a A station. - 2 C/tin^ tienK^. - third rank of uobilifcy. yet he has . liang^. 19 The Manchiis who <:i>m|"fTt)(i China were divided hey ure officered into cigliL biuintits or cliin». inferior. which ineiiua tlio mieusy craving to take a relieved. aud so hy. uotwitlistiindinj. Chang the Second. /Ci^s^.^ lii?. . therefore there arc? stationed on tlie rouii at short dist:iiu:es of 01! . an earl of respect. -. is smnke. Tilt. city. or a Utter han arrived from. 6 To vaccinate two terms used are uaerl. she has the ability of the great heroes of autiqnity. a a long time. 25 Notwithstaudiug what yoa say. market-town. movu him off the about tlU:. Chiu" Eudiiriug. way K .KJ K *^iuirds to plunder to carry .nt a hUer. for be was thiiikiug' of what was to be done on the morrow. they unyofiu is to or k'ang to some Uinporary bed on the gruuod or oa beuuUea in Iho on<3 to (lie it puraon on t)y amall-pox.^ > 1 son. The % aud every city nn<l market-towu also has a guard of soldiers to protffct it. o i: KHh 23 Althongh she is a little girl. Ho trtkoH a cock atid I'y ni'-aiiH nf m") v iiwanlitl icriN ronilurtH Htnoo an soon am it nppearfl tliat th'! hoiil out of the houBO. to accompany with a guard. ^ a great faculty for saying witty thiugs. Capacity.) A ya To keep guard-honse. -castoms . of old. to give safe couduct. ^ ei'jht IB (m hero means han se. allowing any on a k'ang or on a iio'l tlwy Huy that tho soul will have to carry the k'ang or lied (»n ita back and cannot got out hoiim. Tflso* la*. in order. C/tHangS small police or Also eh'iaK ^vSf . to resort. escort. ability calibre penetratiou. road.^ 24 Although at this time Abel was very weary iubody. ^ e. forthepnrpuseof escortin. \ A traveller. a station. Not ES. sung^. walled guard. ^^"4 a V A - -. Besitlos the might bo omitted with ixd vantage as u«ecl tho effect of vaccination as if it were u species of an>l liiy ' 9 ( special bed prepared for one tHc ifl liincao have a Htroiig prejudioo ngiiinst who * is dying. to restrain To rob toa^. a To : C/i'— jM a method. . - title .off violently. still it is better to remove enmity than to incur it. K\m pai\ fan Ck'iaS much Deformed. used in names as a phonetic. lii . jndgineut.(i^\^A T'an^ watch irnard-honse.> 256 him with her arms aud him with lier lips. - - . off ita liinges (a and passes means practically it. tliey cauuot be restrained from robbing. The most common way is to taVe a door thing very easily done with Chineac doors) icioas a couple of benches iind stretch the dying middle of the room.

which Chinese mothers are in the habit of doing. you lose your self-coutrol. 6 I am very loth to lend money. 1 ^ 5^ > I & L # was wrong. but to rubbing the face with the nose and lips. 9 If you regard only that man's exterior. of which tlie Cliiuese are generally ignorant. ia his heart he is very much distressed. clariu Bat. . what cau you Uo uutil I 7 Btunda for true. membered. yet ou the other Essentially WSn-li.* Thii De re- Disjunctives. „ Several tens of nun. ill his heart treacberous. is already mined. yet lie has bei^i^ed me agaia aud again f \ is them to cultivate 0^ it reproof is too severe. yet. 2 Clearly it was he who originated the affair. exceedingly is of coarse obey their JO Chiidrea should not mean any particular individuals. an sentence is also from the " Fortunate Union. '—~ R Bnt. but then. or still. Not often used alone in Mansave as the correlative of as noted iu the precrding lesson. ( 1T / it Bnt is seateuce Bnt there is one thing. bnt yet. but the fact then is. 3 My elder brother has a smile on big face. I 0^ o. he is certainly trusty nevertheless. is for some to be under- which it he seems is a ready-made book expression.^ 10„^ > BsiQi- ^ But the article 8 Iu ordiuary circumstauces. Bat. M"8 Icy-heart. liaud. yet it is uot well to be too sirQ|)le-minded. should be inserted aftwr 26 1" speaking. bnt must be borne iu mind. yet they require meti A more colloquial form - of speech would ue does not refer to kissing in the 21 propel sense. so that even though yon do begrudge it. MANDARIN 95. Bat. who does not know that it is best to be pacific bnt wheu you are ofi'einled l>y some one. g> * L T. ." the 52. . nevertheless. form of places alonu the Yang-tse. 'K 23 This is said of heioiue of the *' Fortunate Union. it must nevertheless. bat yonr 5 Although we shoiikl always be sincere iu word and deed. but well meftning people in general. yet. nevertheless. 4 Although tlie crops depend on seasonable rains. added or not as the rhythm of the The roqnires.I Lesson . 16 20 have uo alternative." . f)bs<ilete (loea X8 * ^ an It is still heard in ^ Btood as if written to be a contraction. but only. L 257 ESSONS Translation. but freqneutly used in MaadariD books very rarely in colloquial. yet nevertheless he refuses to liear the respuDsibility. makes a noun ami the use of " meaninc character.

he cannot avoid iuiviui^ some misgivings but as time progresses . to to imitate. ch'vjf. Ch'it} u^ttiVjA".. ' . he ^ 1^ * talents yet if he study with diligence. true.. to dress. projicient.-':-•( ^i^f^/V: Distressed. 17 Altl 1 your 16 If you will not give heed./<//* chkyi^. hereafter wheu yoa suffer the consequences. Shi^ % . To give Note tr^ nv? cultivate with a hoe^ to di^ ubont. . resenibliug. still ^ 1< coufidoiit. troubled.- a nmu's somewhat d . miserable. To follow a pattern. say. good men are fVw and mean men iiaauy. • ("t : . Yang^ - Childreu. • course. . Ji' chiii\ Mii^ repair. first-rate. jon must not come to me fur help. . • to follow a patteru or model model Superior. --' u"-.. he cau attain to mediocrity. reversed. \ Sincere. of - • 3 i'' - hoe. man a first be will still makes au acquaint- ance.. above the average. up 7. like. . : . by-audby. 14 AltLough it is hard to learn to write a ic^n-chang. 11 Although a lawsuit has been decided. parents should not provoke their childreu to anger.t : . to hoe. to rop^. . m r. to cultivate. yet if any one will carefully follow the pattern. ^^et it 12 Although gli still ^ What is the reason I did uot reprove her? But that mouth of hers like a sharp sword.) To nothing loth:— Iu the course of time. Power. yet. frauk. ^ * he becomes may become 0& -4- i What yon 15 3 equal to > Brother Chang. she had already rattled off ever so 18 > VOCABULARY. as time progresses. Before I is could speak a single sentence. beseoch. J(u} jan\ - Certainly. 5< >> > fairly proficient. H"g cki Experience. : • F(ni^. what yoa say is very true. cm the other hand. . to dress. To imitate. to importune. A To Usiu} c "2.. Ch'ou? k*u^. honest. the iutelligeut are few and the foolish many. beg. (s. To li\ . is by no means skill is his. To … . a copy. : 258 + IS parents. - influence. sorrowful. it is true. a -. ^ - 'hi Ch ' fi2* ^ . true. detective skill a lm)la'r a specialist* . to put iu order. naqnestion&bly. To imitate. but there is oue tliiug [you must bear iu aiiud]. yet cue who has influence may still W a ^ 1 When 13 may iuferior. I cannot compel you. li^ repair. to cultivate. faithful.

i. : ? .-^.. giviDg lue no tallc. a martin. . the foreign reliet was after all the better. who received foreii^n relief. devoted. flistribntion. To compare. rt'ceivt'd for eucli adult 20 Those ^^ ^t six hnadred cash. * Feng^. to medipeace. 21 To nf The ideal or superior man Note 17. A at nse foreigners. n'ceived one iimidred and forty casli for each porsou. Salary.. yet if broth meat. to the front.e. palatable. eat.- MANDARIN LKSSONS. and for each child three hmi'lml. it ill tliis way the translation. 7iest> ch'xKUh^ it Pi^ chiad^ swallow. pay pros- rVcr-^vr". io hear the 3 The NWth. edible bird's tooa}. be remenibeR'd that the foreign re- ^^ before the lief be. l^KSSON 95. Official salary^ emoluiueuts.iJ»le. and means simply 7'ain it is in generally rain. althoiigh rare delicncies of the not inixeJ with chicken thcjy are the soa. \ " Tten^ A -.A To mix. Faithful. requires natives. lionce some say the forvimi relief was inferior to the imperial bonntv. make ^ Chuiig^ hsin^. my mouth. wages*. perity. ate.- superior . that of means properly so used.tsi\ Eio.S. - — honse. The imperial hoimty bega n in the third month and stopped after only one comparing. wing. a fin* Sharks' the seems as Shou* cA'i\ . the reaponsibility.CJ^v^ Good to T'oii^ uie>. The emoluments of delicacy of the sea. ^-t. 5 adds is in fact superflnoua.. to use bub be better the i'uct is that tbreiguers have more ability aud are more honest. A swallow's neat. and cotitiitnod without interruption un- m ^ * ^ prince. 9 }nf - til after the wheat harvest.oran fi* New Ycrtr. so tliat. £W ^ * 259 mm'li plansihlf open 19 BirJs' nests uml cliaiice to fish fiiis. Not E. tariff.^ . to ports lii'^lier vsala- Before the >s^ew Year. office. ChiirO. Hai^ kwan^. honest. one distribution in seven days. honorable^ a sovereign a term of respect. •' . Duties on goods. after To as ntrerthdcss is added in come. Biit it mast 101- ^1 and specially i > . - salary. CW and ries. to would it it' Wheat • -' harvest. use foreigners collect duties. yet the colloquial very often . ^ ^ . emolaments.. to ^(jk Mai^ ck'iu} Shui\ Lu^» fins. 4 use of prevails in the South. hence it is that the Emperor prefers to give higher salaries aud … ^R^ YienK^^4^)tc. … . whether child or adult Those who received the imperial bounty. but in the present case water. blead. JiO^i^. reliable. -H^^Vft^k. are tliey not paliit. # % Bai^ wei\ r'iaos 7i(}2. the two. custom L .

most likely he is a good man. m for tlia all probability. im>t part. (n. most likely he will not come. gen' rally. 0i5 > Not having come by this time.ge as '* the superior 7Ha«. it means seasonable. though the phraso i I in the first clause is an adverb meftning only As as euch does uot illustrate the theme of tho les