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STUDY OF TRASH

COLLECTOR
Minor Project Report Submitted in partial fulfillment
for the degree of Mechanical and Automation
Engineering

SUBMITTED BY:
RAHUL AGARWAL (073)
PAWAN KUMAR (078)
ROHAN GUPTA (100)
ANIMESH DAGA (021)

UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF
MS. SONAL KHURANA
(Assistant Professor, MAE Dept.)
MECHANICAL & AUTOMATION ENGINEERING
MAHARAJA AGRASEN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, DELHI

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the project report entitled “Design of the Trash Collector” submitted
by Rahul Agarwal, Pawan Kumar, Rohan Gupta, Animesh Daga to the Maharaja Agrasen
Institute Of Technology, Delhi in partial fulfillment for the award of Degree of Bachelor of
Technology in Mechanical & Automation Engineering is a bonafide record of the project
work carried out by them under my supervision during the year 2014-2015.

Ms. Sonal Khurana
Assistant Professor
Department of Mechanical & Automation

MAHARAJA AGRASEN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
DELHI, INDIA

_____________________________________
SIGNATURE OF PROJECT INCHARGE

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I would like to acknowledge those who pitched in to push this Project report over the finish
line. I am deeply indebted to Ms. SONAL KHURANA, for her kind supervision and
guidance. She has been very supportive of our actions and has coordinated with us from time
to time to keep a tab on the progress of our project. She has helped us a lot by giving her
precious time in upbringing the Project report. I also extend my gratitude to all my
colleagues. We worked on this project to the best of our capabilities and we learned as much
as we could about innovative ways to collect trash by collecting a lot of information via
videos, journals, newspaper reports and various websites.

Rahul Agarwal (07396403611)

Pawan Kumar (07896403611)

Rohan Gupta (10096403611)

Animesh Daga (02196403611)

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CONTENTS
Title Page
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT.............................................................................................
ABSTRACT..................................................................................................................
LIST OF TABLES ........................................................................................................6
LIST OF FIGURES ......................................................................................................7
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS.......................................................................................8
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION..................................................................................9
1.1BACKGROUND…………………………………………………….9
1.2PROJECT INSPIRATION………………………………………….10
1.3 ORGANISATION OF REPORT…………………………………...12
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE SURVEY…………………………………………….13
2.1 “GREEN THE DIRTY DRAINS”………………………………….13
2.2 DRAINAGE SYSTEM……………………………………………...15
2.3 EXISTING SYSTEM…………………………………………….….18
2.4 A STEP TOWARDS CLEANING………………………………….19
2.5 PROBLEM STATEMENT……………………………………….….19
2.6 PROJECT OBJECTIVE……………………………………………..19

CHAPTER-3 CONCEPTUAL DESIGN…………………………………….……….21

CHAPTER-4 FRAMEWORK OF TRASH COLLECTOR SYSTEM…….…………26
4.1 DIMENSION AND CONSTRUCTION OF PROJECT.……………26

CHAPTER-5 STUDY OF TRASH COLLECTOR SYSTEM COMPONENTS…..…31
5.1 AC GEAR MOTOR……………………………………………...…..31
5.2 ROLLER CHAIN………………………………………………..…..32
5.3SPROCKET……………………………………………………..……32

5.4 BEARINGS…………………………………………………………..33
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2 FUTURE SCOPE………………………………………………………37 6.4.2 BEARINGS LOADS………………………………………………34 5...3 COST OF SET-UP AND MAINTENANCE…………………………..4.……………………………………….5.37 6.36 5.5 LOCK NUT……………………………………………………….3TYPES OF BEARINGS……………………………………………34 5.4.1 WASTE COLLECTION……………………………………………….6 SHAFT…………………………………………………………….1 THE BASICS………………………………………………………33 5...8 COLLECTOR TANK……………………………………………….9 BODY FRAME…………………………………………….36 CHAPTER-6 CONCLUSION…………………………………………………………...…………………….………...……36 5.36 5.……….…35 5.7 WATER PUMP…………………………..38 5 .37 6...10 POWER SUPPLY.…36 5.

3 DRAINS OF DELHI SEEKING URGENT ATTENTION FOR MAINTAINANCE……………………………………………………………… 17 6.39 6 . ……………………………….3.2 CATEGORIES FOR DESIGN OF DRAINS….1 MAJOR DRAINS IN DELHI & FACTORS LEADING TO THEIR RESPECTIVE STAGNATION………………………………………………… 16 2. WORKING COST……………………………………………………………….LIST OF TABLES Table Title Page 2. INSTALLATION COST SPECIFICATIONS………………………………….17 2.4.38 6.

ASSEMBLY WITH SPROKETS. SPROKETS…………………………………………………………………… CHAIN PASSING OVER A SPROKET WHEEL…………………………… SIMPLE BEARING………………………………………………………….2 1. COLLECTOR TAMK WITH A FIBRE NET…………………………… COLLECTOR TAMK (LEFT) AND MAIN FRAME (RIGHT)………. GEAR MOTOR……………………………………………………………… ROLLER CHAIN…………………………………………………………….7 4. A 3-D REPRESENTATION OF STRUCTURE FOR COLLECTOR AND IRON FRAME……………………………………………………………… ASSEMBLY AFTER METTALIC PLATE & TANK BOTH HAVE BEEN FIXED………………………………………………………………. CHAIN &SPROKETS AND NAIL TRAY HOLDER……………………………………………..3 4...2. COLLECTOR TANK FRAME…………………………………………. A METALLIC FRAME MOUNTED IN IRON FRAME………………. PM NARENDRA MODI “SWACH BHARAT ABHYAN”…………….1 3.1 5.3 5.8 5.4..4 3.5 Title Page GENERAL TRASH……………………………………………………… GANDHIJI SWACHH BHARAT ABHIYAN………………………….5 4. MAIN FRAME WITH SPROKETS ATTACHED……………………… MAIN FRAME ASSEMBLY WITH MOTOR.1 3. WORKING OF THE TRASH COLLECTOR WITH ALL COMPONENTS ATTACHED………………………………………………………………….4.. 1 1.3 3. MAIN FRAME AND COLLECTOR TANK ARRANGEMENT……….1 4..LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1..2 4.3 5. 7 .7 4.4 4.2 5...6 3.1 5.3. 2-D REPRESENTATION OF STRUCTURE FOR COLLECTOR & IRON FRAME…………………………………………………………. AN INSIDE VIEW OF A SIMPLE BEARING……………………………… CUTAWAY VIEW OF A BALL BEARING………………………………… LOCK NUT………………………………………………………………. WORKING MODEL OF TRASH COLLECTOR……………………….6 4.1 5.4 5.2 3.5 3. BEARINGS AND SHAFTS…………… CHAIN DRIVE PASSING OVER THE SPROKETS……………………… MOTOR AND NAIL TRAY HOLDER LINED TO THE CHAIN DRIVE……………………………………………………………………….

SOI.TMDL-Total Maximum Daily Load 2.PSS-Product Services System 6.BMP-Best Management Principles 3.ME-Ministry of Environment 5.MDE-Maryland Department of Environment 4.RBV-Resource Based View 7.LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS 1.Sustainability Oriented Innovation 8 .

or it is transported by the wind and / or storm water runoff into the drainage system. Nagpur. In India. its organic pollution load is significantly high. fast food outlets.CHAPTER-1 INTRODUCTION 1. nearly 70 per cent of river water in India is polluted. roads. car parks. the extent of water pollution. cigarette packets etc.1-BACKGROUND Water pollution is one of the gravest problems being faced by the developing countries. It accumulates in the vicinity of shopping centers. There it remains until either someone removes it. As assessed by the scientists of the National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI). landfill sites and recycling depots. plastic and paper wrappings. Almost every river system in India is now polluted to a great extent. schools. is quite high compared to other developing nations. public parks. According to a report of the Central Pollution Control Board. newspapers. garbage bins. 9 . However our project is aimed at collecting TRASH from smaller water bodies. Trash typically consists of manufactured materials such as bottles. despite river Ganga‟s considerable resilience as a self-purifying and fast-flowing river. railway and bus stations. shopping bags. cans. in the river systems. River pollution in India has now reached a critical point.

with all Government employees. trade associations and religious bodies.2: Gandhiji swachh bharat abhiyaan[4] 10 .2 PROJECT INSPIRATION Mahatma Gandhi once said. organizations. Fig 1.1: General Trash [1] 1. “Be the change you want to see in the world”. Today. along with the nation taking oath with our ever-inspiring PM for a clean India.Fig 1. whole of India is saying “Swachh Bharat”.

diversity of the river to augment its productivity. 1986 with the main objective of pollution abatement.GANGA ACTION PLAN The Ganga action plan was. It is a big effort but we have a lot of time. launched by Shri Rajeev Gandhi. PM NaMo flagged off a walkathon as part of the campaign and invited the people of the country to take the cleanliness pledge along with him. At the launch of the campaign. the people of India can do it. He also said. the then Prime Minister of India on 14 Jan. Prime Minister Narendra Modi launched the nationwide campaign.  Rehabilitation of soft-shelled turtles for pollution abatement of river have been demonstrated and found useful. human defecation.” 11 . after a cleanliness drive for almost 7 days in Central Government offices. With a broom in his hand. India can do it.  Research and Development to conserve the biotic.  New technology of sewage treatment like Up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) and sewage treatment through afforestation has been successfully developed.  Resource recovery options like production of methane for energy generation and use of aquaculture for revenue generation have been demonstrated. “Swachh Bharat Mission” has been formally launched amidst a number of ministers. The mindset of the people should be changed and each and every one should come forward to participate in this cleanliness drive.  Control of non-point pollution from agricultural runoff. The other objectives of the Ganga Action Plan are as under.“Swachh Bharat Abhiyan” that has the single clear objective of cleaning up the entire nation in the next 5 years. to improve the water quality by Interception. Led by Cabinet Ministers. the PM said that cleaning should not be the responsibility of the karamcharis or workers alone. cattle wallowing and throwing of unburnt and half burnt bodies into the river. Recently. Government employees and thousands of school children and college students in Rajpath. All citizens of the nation are equally responsible for keeping India clean. Diversion and treatment of domestic sewage and present toxic and industrial chemical wastes from identified grossly polluting units entering in to the river.  To act as trend setter for taking up similar action plans in other grossly polluted stretches in other rivers. “This work is not only about a pracharabhiyan.

Chapter 2 consisting literature review findings i. Finally the report is concluded.1: PM NARENDRA MODI “SWACH BHARAT ABHYAN”[4]  "Let us fulfill Mahatma Gandhi`s vision of Clean India – Swachh Bharat"  "PM: "Swachh Bharat Abhiyaan" should be approached with a bipartisan spirit of patriotism"  "PM invites nine public figures to contribute to Swachh Bharat and share their experience on social media" "Film Actor Aamir Khan joins Prime Minister on stage as PM administers pledge to people at Rajpath". 12 .3 ORGANISATION OF REPORT The report is organized in such a way that it gives a basic idea about the current problem related to the disposal of wastes.2. major drains etc. The design is discussed in steps and self explanatory figures. 1. Chapter 3 contains the conceptual design. Chapter 4 talks about the dimensioning and framework of the same.e. Chapter 5 is the study of the individual components that will be used in the construction and manufacturing of the system. present drainage system of delhi.Fig 1.

13 . A Research journal. authorities and residents should try protecting and greening them There is hardly any town in the country that does not have its ganda (dirty) nala(drain). Delhi today boasts of 22 such major drains and both Meerut and Saharanpur have at least one each. some ideas about literature has been introduced in the chapter 1. It will give the direction in order to get the information about trash collection system and will tell us how the trash collection system implementation. to give information and guide base on journal and other source in the media. installation and future scope can be processed. Literature review section work as reference. books.introduction. printed or online conference article were the main source in the project guides. 2. In many places the gandanala has become a part of the city‟s psyche and even the city‟s directional landmark.CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE SURVEY Literature review is one of the scope studies Literature review guides us to produce ideas about the mechanical drainage system.1‘’GREEN THE DIRTY DRAINS!!’’ Fig 2. From the starting of the project report.1:The Hindu KushakNullah in Sewa Nagar near Nehru Stadium in New Delhi[2] Rather than turning their faces away from gandanalas that happen to be essential to Delhi‟s drainage system.

their origin and if they were always ganda? The fact is that most. a dissertation by researcher PallaviKalia at the TVB School of Habitat Studies. can be transformed from being corridors of filth and squalor. into means of reinforcing the imagibility of the city. It is also a fact that many of these gandanalas exhale nauseating stench and become a source of vector borne diseases. And since the tentacles of its natural drainage system spreads to every nook and corner of the city. preservation and improvement of its natural drains. It was much later and mostly during the last and the present century that we as part of our „development‟ process converted them into gandanalas. most of them acted as the town‟s greenways and sites of recreation. housing complex or the locality. Ever given a thought to these nalas. if developed through capitalising on their inherent characteristics. it is the river Yamuna that has acted as the end destination of the city‟s high flows. New Delhi looked at the drainage system in the city of Delhi and then tested successfully the following hypothesis: “ The natural drainage channels. In case of Delhi. especially when water in them tends to stagnate. How it protects and suitably develops its natural drainage channels and reclaim those that it has already lost shall be the litmus test of its claim to a world class city. apart from making it functionally more efficient and ecologically more sustainable.” Now as Delhi bids for a heritage city and a world class city status. it shall as much be the responsibility of the State authorities as of every resident of this city to work towards protection. Not many might recall that in the year 1996. 14 . are the creation of the natural topography of the place in question and originated as storm water drains that carried the high flows during monsoon rains to either yet another drain or to a nearby water body or a river. Thus these nalas were essential features of the natural drainage system of a town or city. Anything that is ganda abhors us and we have a tendency to wish or shoo it out of sight. Also in olden times. existing as a part of a city’s fabric. some of which might even be originating from your own house. it would be best advised to not limit its „green city‟ claim to just the tree cover that it has justifiably achieved. if not all.Look closely and you will find that each one of them is the combined output of a network of many such smaller nalas. No wonder there is a frequent clamour from affected people to seek their covering and concretisation.

It has been noticed that. J. value and work together to clean and green our drains now. Karol Bagh Zone. As regards the Shahdara drainage system since the Shahdara basin in a composite one.C. which are either constructed or remodelled according to the Reddy Committee recommendation of half inch per acre runoff. For where does the „filth‟ that clogs the drains actually emanate from? Secondly.D.5 and 80 millimetres respectively. The drains of South Delhi which falls into the Barapulla basin are described in detail under the South zone heading. Subsequent to Reddy Committee also two committees were formed i. there are no serious water stagnation in those M.D.P.The role of the city‟s residents and their associations (RWAs) in transforming every filthy drain in the city into a welcome greenway is immense. The problem of drainage in these different zones is described in detail under their respective headings. (iii) Drains directly discharging into river Yamuna. The M. drains which fall into Najafgarh drain are again sub-divided into three zones viz. The drains directly falling into the river Yamuna are described mostly under city zone and a few under Civil Line Zone. The problems were then examined during the 1975 monsoon which was a heavy rainfall year. does it not make much better sense to appreciate. in certain automatic rain gauge stations were recorded as high as that of 10 years frequency. during the monsoon 1975. rather than spend a fortune at a later date to “daylight” them. the rainfall recorded at Gurmandi and Badli on 19th June. (iv) Drains falling into Shahdara drain. drains. To give an example.2 DRAINAGE SYSTEM The drainage systems under the Municipal Corporation areas in Delhi can be generally divided in to four parts: (i) Drainage System falling into Najafgarh Drain. all the drainage systems in this basin are fully dealt with in a separate volume called Master Plan for Shahdara basin.Jain Committee 15 . 1975 were 90. 2. surveys were carried out jointly by MCD & FCD of practically all the drains. West Zone and Civil Line Zone. although the rainfall in 1975 monsoon.e. a la many cities in the West.C. consisting of both rural and urban drains. While designing the drains in the MCD areas. (ii) Drainage systems falling into Kushak Nalla Barapulla Nalla System.

both in the NDMC and MCD areas suffered any water stagnation. 3. 2. Kaithwara drain (Shahdara) Inadequate out falling arrangements. 7. Chirag Delhi Drain Very narrow and inadequate section. During 1975 monsoon. The major problems faced in 1975 are listed below: S. however. Lalita Park &Shakarpur area Total absence of drainage arrangements.1: Major drains in delhi& factors leading to their respective stagnation[A] It may be noticed that in spite of heavy rains in the urban area of Delhi in 1975. However to be on the safe side. the stagnation and erosion problems in the different reaches of MCD drains were noticed in the following cases. 16 . Total silting up in upper reaches. NavinShahdara area Temporary failure of pumping. Wazirpur drain (Behind Model Inadequate out falling arrangement. 8. There was no recommendation to increase the unit design discharge in urban area in these two reports as well. Town) 5. 6. MadanpurKhadar Inadequate outfall and poor maintenance of channels. The reasons of stagnation were also analysed and they were found mainly due to (a) Inadequate capacity (less than half cusecs per acre) (b) Poor maintenance of banks and bed (c) Failure of pumps (d) Chocking of nallas due to dumping of malba etc. none of the drains constructed and maintained properly according to Reddy Committee recommendations. RadheyPuri drain (Shahdara) Bad maintenance of embankments and inadequate of section. Name of drain Causes stagnation 1. Table 2.and Moti Ram Committee. Greater Kailash drain Poor maintenance of drain and inadequate section.No. 4. designs of the MCD drains for the purpose of the Master Plan are done in two categories. Malviya Nagar drain Very narrow and inadequate outfall drain. (Shahdara) 9.

2.14 City Zone 10. Chirag Delhi drain South 2. one by one.12-A City Zone 9. DaryaiNalla (tributaries) Karol Bagh 12.2:Categories for design of drains [B] The areas in Karol Bagh and surrounding regions were considered moderate to densely paved. Greater Kailash drain South 11. Moderate to densely paved 0. S. since they are mixed type catchments consisting of partly densely populated and partly open areas around Red Fort etc. RedheyPuri drain Shahdara 6.No.6 cusecs per acre. Drain No. Malviya Nagar Drain South 3. As regards the priority of scheme. As regards Red Fort area the catchments are assumed as moderate to densely paved. Drain No. Disused Channel Shahdara 13. taking into consideration proper time of concentration. the following are considered as of relatively urgent nature.7 cusecs per acre. Table 2.1. indicating therein all the necessary modifications. Gita Colony Shahdara 17 . Shahdara arterial drain Shahdara 7. Wazirpur drainage scheme West/Civil Line 4. The problems of the different drain in the different zones are described hereafter in details. Chirag Delhi drainBarapulla drain etc. Light to moderately paved 0. whereas the other areas were taken as light to moderately paved according to actual condition. The longitudinal sections of all the major drains are also enclosed. Shakurbasti drain Karol Bagh 8. In case of the major arterial drain like Najafgarh drain. the discharge in the different reaches were computed not by direct run off factors but by rational method. Najafgarh (Upper urban reach) Karol Bagh/ West 5. run off factors and areal distribution factors. Name of drain Zone 1.5 to 0.

"One can see that most parts of the city.3 EXISTING SYSTEM In India river pollution is at its peak. either from natural or other sources. there are only manual (by hands) techniques to clean our drain and waste outlet. but did not explain where the silt was disposed. If the sweeper doesn‟t clean drainage properly choking of drainage system occurs. This cleaning is not done on a regular basis. NavinShahdara drain Shahdara Table2. a resident of Yashoda Nagar. Shiva. He said that the corporates never show their faces again after elections and residents face serious troubles during monsoons due to waterlogged roads and chocked drains. Their jobs go unmonitored.3:Drains of delhi seeking urgent attention for maintainance[C] 2.14. However. But. Foreign materials. are waterlogged even during the short spell of rain on Tuesday. contaminate water supplies or may be harmful to life because of their toxicity and the reduction of the normal oxygen level of water. 18 . covered under Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM). They also have aesthetically unpalatable effects and are responsible for the spread of epidemic diseases. The municipal record showed that the silt was removed from the drains and sewers. The workers of the municipal corporation in charge of the cleaning process. Water bodies are considered as a major dumping ground for the domestic as well as industrial waste. a resident of Shastri Nagar alleged that the officials of KNN never dispose the silt taken out of Lower Ganga Canal located near his locality." said Nitin. The exercise of cleaning the drains is supposed to be done daily to keep the city free from waterlogging during monsoon. The silt went back into the drains and sewers when it rained. the ground reality is that majority of drains were cleaned only on papers. often do not show at places of work.

They still rely on manual ways to pick garbage but we are trying to make it through machine. our report aims at mechanizing the traditional method of 19 . Our project is aimed at mechanizing this process of collecting trash from water bodies. pools of water in streets. The manual cleaning of water bodies is the conventional process being used in India for the cleaning of water bodies. or a given weight is reached in the tank. and will drop it in a collector tank. Proper cleaning of drains and waste outlets. 2. Devolop a public outreach plan to reduce trash and litter and increase the existing enforcement of litter and trash regulations. Install Green Infrastructure reduces the volume of trash entering the streams by capturing it. Currently the drainage system in India is very poor.4 A STEP TOWARDS CLEANING To protect blocked drainage system causing artificial floods.5 PROBLEM STATEMENT: Study based design analysis of trash collector system.6 PROJECT OBJECTIVE: Now we are proposing a new fresh idea to the concerned authorities. However. Needs to reduce the dependency of use plastic bags. A tray holder connected to the chains will pick up the trash from its vicinity. When the collector tank is full. This idea reduces man power and seeks 80% drain blockage problem and reduces levels of trash to a considerable value. this system has proved to be a failure.2. and the workers only have to transfer the trash away from the assembly. a part of our assembly. Thus. Conduct a trash survey to identify high trash generating areas for targeted management action. To avoid throwing litter and other forms of rubbish/plastic waste in drainage systems. exposing residents to waterborne diseases and to reduce the levels of flowing trash and garbage in a flowing stream. The objective of this project report is to propose an idea for the effective collection and disposal of trash from water bodies. Government is not able to clean the garbage from drains and rivers properly as they don‟t have adequate facilities to clean. Heavy amount of garbage is accommodated in drains near urban areas which can cause severe diseases. This increases the efficiency of the process. 2. A motor will be running two shafts connected through chain & sprocket system. Our plan is to have this assembly installed on various major drains throughout the city. the trash is transferred to the municipal trucks. A system will be installed at drain and sewer sites.

iii. Nuisance potential from mosquitoes/ fly/ odour. 9. ii. Details will be discussed later on. Not only does our idea reduces the manual labour. Ease of access to components of the system for repairs and maintenance. Availability of spare parts for trouble free Operation& Management.handpicking or other manual method currently adopted for clearing the trash. 2. 20 . 7. but also is an efficient way of collecting all the trash that the age old system adopted in india. Simplicity of system requiring less equipment. Need of skilled/ unskilled staff. Safety of operating/ maintenance personnel. 8. 4. well established design criteria. amenable to control. 3. v. Proven process parameters. PROPOSED DESIGN BENEFITS: 1. Established kinetics. ability to absorb shock loads. Ease of construction. Ease of operation and maintenance. Reliability of process: i. 5. iv. 6.

The collector tank is used to collect the trash during the operation of the trash collector. are all collected and dumped in the collector tank. 21 . plastics etc. Thus giving shape to our design and explaining the way it functions. different part design will be shown which would be assembled at a later point of time. paper. First of all. so that we have a dry trash. Fig-3. A stepwise process will be followed. this net would be removable so that the trash can be emptied into a truck which can then be transported to a dumping site. it lets the excess of water seep through the pores. This net serves two purposes. The bottles. STEP-1: We construct an iron frame as per our required dimensions.1: Collector tank frame STEP-2: Now we fix one fiber net in our iron frame. Secondly.CHAPTER-3 CONCEPTUAL DESIGN This chapter will explain the construction of our design.

bearings. and chains are to be attached.2: Collector tank with a fiber net STEP-3 One more iron frame is constructed. 22 . external steps will be attached to it. sprockets. This frame will act as a ladder. and trash will be pushed on to the steps which will be put in motion by the help of driving motors. Fig-3. This iron frame is the main frame of the assembly. This iron frame is fitted at an inclination to the collector tank.3: Collector tank(left) and main frame(right) STEP-4 On both the ends of the main frame we add a pair of sprockets as shown in the figure.Fig-3. on which the motor.

We attach nail tray holders with the chains. Fig-3. 23 . Finally.Fig-3. trash can be picked up by the nail tray holder. it is then raised up by the help of driving motor and chain assembly. The motor. chain. sprockets and chain assembly constitutes a drive.5: Main frame assembly with motor. Now. STEP-6 We join the collector tank and main frame at a certain angle as displayed in the figure. STEP-5 Now we fix 2 chains on both rollers. sprockets and nail tray holder. The trash can be collected on this nail tray holder. A motor is connected to one side of the sprockets. the trash is dumped in the collector tank.4: Main frame with sprockets attached.

6: Main frame & collector tank arrangement STEP-7 This entre setup will be fixed on drain and this mechanism can be operated by simple timer circuit. Fig-3.7: Working model of Trash Collector 24 .Fig-3.

25 . The flowing trash is taken up by the moving conveyor belt and is disposed to a collecting bin while the water flows beneath the nail tray thus in this process we collect trash. Only floating trash can be collected.The Container used to collect trash can be replaced or the garbage removed from the container. The collected garbage can then be further treated.The entire system consists of a conveyor belt that is partially dipped into the flowing water. The coefficient of friction of the belt is kept high and it is recommended that the angle of inclination of the conveyor belt system must not exceed 45 degree. the conveyor belt is run with the help of a motor.

Now. every step has been briefly described below. After the frame has been designed. metallic plate is attached and the collector tank is also fixed. STEP-1 : A metallic plate is selected and cut to the desired dimensions( 800 X 600 )mm^2. sprockets and chains are fixed. components. The use of the parts will also be discussed at every step. Bolted frame should be preferred as if there is any damage to any part. We will also focus on the dimensions. First a frame is constructed. and materials that are used to develop the system. This frame can either be welded or bolted to the main frame. These slots allow the free movement of water while simultaneously trash is collected. the same part can be easily replaced. There are slots available here. A motor is provided to drive the whole assembly. lifted and dumped into the collector tank.1: A Metallic plate to be mounted on the iron frame.CHAPTER-4 FRAMEWORK OF TRASH COLLECTOR SYSTEM This chapter talks in details about how the model is developed. Fig-4. 4. This plate is fitted on the iron frame. shafts. 26 .1 DIMENSION AND CONSTRUCTION OF THE SYSTEM The trash collector system is made in several steps.

This will be our frame. Fig-4. The collector tank can be of flexible dimensions. Welding is done properly to ensure that all parts are properly joined so that our system is long lasting. This will be the skeleton of collector tank. It is made of the same materials i.the slant height is about 1200mm. Mild steel has strength and also.The material used is mild steel. STEP 3 : A cuboidal structure is separately made and welded to our frame. depending upon the area that is put to use and the amount of trash present in the system. by using suitable methods like painting & galvanizing. we can prevent its rusting. The material is so chosen to impart rigidity and strength to our system. 27 . The size is 100mm X 600mm X 150mm. However for the balance of the system.e mild steel.STEP 2 : An iron structure is made.2: 2-D representation of structure for collector and main frame. The frame has a base of 1040mm & a height of 600mm. support has to be provided.

Bolted assembly is more suitable as in case of part damage. The plate can be either welded or bolted to the frame. Fibers can be used to cut in cost and also to facilitate the removal of trash from here. STEP 4: The metallic plate is mounted on the structure as shown in the figure. A small collector frame is also depicted.Simiarly.Fig-4. Fig-4.4: Assembly after metallic plate and collector tank both have been fixed 28 . the collector tank is covered by a suitable and cheap material. the damage part can be easily and suitably replaced.3: A 3-D representation of the structure for collector & main frame.

passing over a sprocket gear. known as the drive chain or transmission chain. Fig-4.STEP 5 : Shafts are attached to the frame at both the ends as shown.6: Chain drive passing over the sprockets 29 . The same method is applied in our model. thus to increase the efficiency of the motor. the power is conveyed by a roller chain. Fig 4. Most often. Sprockets are attached to transfer rotary motion between two shafts and also to impart a linear motion to the tray holder that will be installed at a later time. The purpose of the bearing is to reduce the friction when the shaft will be in motion. with the teeth of the gear meshing with the holes in the links of the chain. Bearings and sprockets of the required dimensions is attached to the shaft. A roller chain is attached to the sprockets.5 assembly with sprockets and bearing and shafts STEP 6 : Chain drive is a way of transmitting mechanical power from one place to another.

it will start moving with the chains. power is transferred from one shaft to another. Fig 4. if an object is placed on the tray holder. We tend to exploit this idea. Fig-4. STEP 8: To show the working model.STEP 7 : The chain drive is run by a motor. and transferred to the collector tank. Now if we attach a tray holder system to the chain. it will be moved up.7: Motor and nail tray holder lined to the chain drive. hence a motor is attached to the driving shaft. we put our designed assembly in a box of 1500mm X 500mm X 750mm. and dumps it into the collector tank. A nail tray is also mounted on the chain. As the motor is turned on. it picks it up. The chain is engaged from this sprocket to driven shaft. it imparts motion to the driving shaft. A water pump is fitted which imparts a flow velocity to this water. We fill the box with water and also add bottles and other trash. the sprockets rotates.8: Working of the Trash Collector with all components assembled 30 . This shaft starts rotating. As the nail tray holder comes in contact with the trash.

5. The following components are used in the construction.1: Gear Motor[5] 31 . Bearing stand 6. each of these parts is briefly described below. This chapter deals with the study of components used in the construction of trash collector system. It also tells us the specification of the component used in the system. Bearing 5. a gearmotor (or "geared motor") is a motor having an attached gear assembly. 2 pair of sprocket 4. The gear assembly (or gear train) enable the gearmotor to provide greater torque at a lower RPMthan the motor alone would be capable of providing.CHAPTER-5 STUDY OF TRASH COLLECTOR SYSTEM COMPONENTS.1 AC GEAR MOTOR As the name implies. Waste holding container 9. Water pump 8. Fig 5. Body frame 10. Power supply Now. AC Gear motor 2. Iron shaft 7. One pair of chain 3. 1.

The name 'sprocket' applies generally to any wheel upon which are radial projections that engage a chain passing over it.2 ROLLER CHAIN Chains are used in power transmission. or even sprockets that mesh with a chain. Chains generally have good flexibility in all directions.3 SPROCKET A sprocket or sprocket-wheel is a profiled wheel with teeth.2 roller chain 5. inner and outer plate. Fig-5. and roller. and differs from a pulley in that sprockets have teeth and pulleys are smooth.5. chains are simple to design and manufacture. and chains produce no noise and are almost noiseless in operation. bushings. track or other perforated or indented material. they can be defined as a series of links connected by pin joints. cogs. Fig-5. A roller chain consists of a pin. It is distinguished from a gear in that sprockets are never meshed together directly.3 Sprocket[7] 32 .

such as by minimizing friction.1THE BASICS The concept behind a bearing is very simple: Things roll better than they slide. 33 . The design of the bearing may.Fig-5. or. The wheels on your car are like big bearings. it may prevent a motion by controlling the vectors of normal forces that bear on the moving parts.1: Chain passing over a sprocket wheel[8] 5. for example. your car would be a lot more difficult to push down the road. provide for free linear movement of the moving part or for free rotation around a fixed axis.4. Fig5.4: a simple bearing[9] 5. Many bearings also facilitate the desired motion as much as possible.4 BEARINGS A bearing is a machine element that constrains relative motion and reduces friction between moving parts to only the desired motion. If you had something like skis instead of wheels.3.

That is because when things slide.4. These include ball bearings. and roller thrust bearings and tapered roller thrust bearings. the friction between them causes a force that tends to slow them down. roller bearings.1: An inside view of a simple bearing Bearings reduce friction by providing smooth metal balls or rollers. all thrust loading or a combination of both.4. radial and thrust. They are found in everything from inline skates to hard drives. The bearings that support the shafts of motors and pulleys are subject to a radial load. Fig5.2BEARINGS LOADS Bearings typically have to deal with two kinds of loading. 5. Ball bearings. and a smooth inner and outer metal surface for the balls to roll against. These bearings can handle both radial and thrust loads. 34 . These balls or rollers "bear" the load.4. But if the two surfaces can roll over each other.3 TYPES OF BEARINGS There are many types of bearings. Depending on where the bearing is being used. each used for different purposes. ball thrust bearings. The bearings in the electric motor and the pulleypictured above face only a radial load. In this case. 5. allowing the device to spin smoothly. as shown below. the friction is greatly reduced. it may see all radial loading. are probably the most common type of bearing. most of the load comes from the tension in the belt connecting the two pulleys. and is usually found in applications where the load is relatively small.

and from the ball to the inner race. the balls can deform or squish. Fig-5. ruining the bearing. so if the bearing is overloaded.3: Cutaway view of a ball bearing[11] In a ball bearing. 5. either by a locking device that engages a keyway in the shaft or key slot in the adapter sleeve.4. But it also means that there is not very much contact area holding that load.5: locknut[12] 35 .Fig-5. the load is transmitted from the outer race to the ball. it only contacts the inner and outer race at a very small point. Lock nuts have to be secured to prevent unintentional loosening. This is done. They are also used for mounting bearings on tapered shaft seats and dismounting bearings from withdrawal sleeves.5 LOCK NUT Lock nuts are used to locate bearings and other components onto a shaft or adapter sleeve. which helps it spin very smoothly. or by a locking mechanism integrated in the nut. Since the ball is a sphere.

shaft used is of iron. i. 5. 5. It is used to hold the trash collected from the tray holder. causing fluid to be drawn from the center continuously. The water pump used in this design is Submersible Air Cooler Pump.7 WATER PUMP The water pump is a simple centrifugal pump driven by a belt. The water pump uses centrifugal force to send fluid to the outside while it spins. The body frame should be robust in design since it will carry the maximum load on it.8 COLLECTOR TANK The skeleton of collector tank is made of mild steel.10 POWER SUPPLY The power supply used in trash collector system will be alternating in nature.e. We can use a cheap and economic material for the body of this collector tank. 5.6 SHAFT A shaft is a generic rotating rod / pipe along itsaxis that is used to transfer power. 5.9 BODY FRAME The body frame is made of mild steel. A.5.C.In the proposed design. 220v 36 .

Industrial application in segregation of solid wastes. Toxic waste: old medicines. and plants.CHAPTER-6 CONCLUSION 6. fertilizer and pesticide containers. With rising urbanization and change in lifestyle and food habits. construction and demolition debris. The project will not be useful in treating chemical or biological wastes. plastics. glass. and medicine bottles. spray cans. Industrial and hospital waste is considered hazardous as they may contain toxic substances. fruits. and react when exposed to certain things e. Bihar. This garbage is generated mainly from residential and commercial complexes. 4. leaves. paints. 3. Household wastes that can be categorized as hazardous waste include old batteries. chemicals. most of which is concentrated in four states: Andhra Pradesh.2 FUTURE SCOPE 1. shoe polish. vegetables. Hazardous wastes could be highly toxic to humans. bulbs. shoe polish. India generates around 7 million tons of hazardous wastes every year. paint tins. Recyclable: paper. Uttar Pradesh. 6. Certain types of household waste are also hazardous. the amount of solid waste has been increasing rapidly and its composition changing. Solid waste consists of household waste. flowers. old medicines. Prevention of choking of sewer lines. animals. and Tamil Nadu. gases. Soiled: hospital waste such as cloth soiled with blood and other body fluids.. or explosive. 37 .1 WASTE COLLECTION The Project can be mainly applied in the collection and disposal of solid wastes only. and waste from streets. Cleansing of flowing water bodies such as rivers and canals. Cleansing of drains 2. highly inflammable. Garbage: the four broad categories Organic waste: kitchen waste. batteries. metals. are corrosive.g.

S. Allahabad and Haridwar where flowing Bio-Degradable wastes such as garlands. In India there is an urgent need to employ a regulated process of trash collection.No. USA but recently the Government of Rajasthan is studying this system for trash collection in the city of Jaipur.000 crore will be allocated by the Urban Development Ministry for cleaning towns across the country ₹ 1 lakh 34 thousand crore will be spent by the Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation for the programme. A 19-member expert committee has been formed under the chairmanship of scientist Raghunath Anant Mashelkar. former director general of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research. This system is presently employed only in the city of Baltimore. It can be implied in the water bodies in Special Economic Zones to collect Industrial solid waste. 6. Installation Costs 1 Creation of a Platform for waste collection over the water body 2 Conveyor Belt or Nail trays. Leaves and twigs along with the Non-Degradable wastes such as Plastic bottles are a huge source contributing to water pollution.3 COST OF SET-UP AND MAINTENANCE Big plans by the Government Around ₹ 2 lakh crore will be spent by the Central Government in the next five years. proper disposal and recycling of flowing materials. In the Indian context It can greatly be employed in the cleaning of river bodies in places related to pilgrimage such as the ghats of Varanasi. 3 Driving Motor 4 Collecting Container 5 Floating Pipe in case of separating the area of trash collection Specifications Price 100m 38 . to suggest best technologies on sanitation and water for the campaign.The collected trash can be then be further treated and segregated between Degradable and Non-Degradable objects. This system can be employed in big cities to collect flowing garbage from sewers . ₹ 62.

NO.3 39 . Working Costs 1 2 Maintenance of the system. Garbage Collection from container.Small Plans For Our Proposal S. 3 Electricity to run the conveyor belts Specifications Price the Table No: 6.

docx%3FMOD%3DAJPERES%26lmod%3D356333034%26CACHEID%3Dda23c7004e9e4e679655ff3e25b30a7e%26lmod%3D173695396%26CACHEID%3Dda23c7004e9e4e679655ff3e25b30a7e&ei=NythVLj1O4y0u AS5u4LwCA&usg=AFQjCNEwHbWnKwq4ppLBMjK_2LINfM_GJA&sig2=FhfeJhOISsY zMZ7FwT4HNw&bvm=bv.made-in-china.hardwaremarketplace.com/multimedia/dynamic/01221/DE29_PERISCOPE_KUS_122147 2g.jpg [10] http://www.com/images/02/02_01.thehindu.03.com%2F image%2Fdata%2Fomix%2Fimages%2FOmix_ADA%2F16710.com/gifs1/bearings.blogspot.thebigbearingstore.bp.com [6] http://image.jpg [7] http://www.jpg [11] http://www.com/images/InitialSet/IDLER.jpg [5] http://www.jpg [9] http://www.jpg [4] http://www.in%2Fwps%2Fwcm%2Fconnect%2Fda2 3c7004e9e4e679655ff3e25b30a7e%2FMCD.net/rpx/i/s/pi/mp/27954/3280536621?src=http%3A%2F%2Fcarkart.shld.spb-usa.79189006%2Cd.FIGURE REFERENCES [1]http://images.png [8] http://thumbs3.narendramodi.jpg&d=dee8644b900638 32215dc9dcfaf69bedf9233823&wid=400&hei=400 [A].com/d/l225/m/m1etkK_E5ICr7UPN3hnR_wg.[C] https://www.gov.[B].google.com/closeupinsidesmall.com/2012-08-23RS9599_trash_plastic_beach_NOAA_FPWC_commercial_use_ok.com/--h720x0gBuM/VC7VJAXRx5I/AAAAAAAAE_s/yEKAkq77uQ/s1600/Swach%2BBharat%2BLogo.gif [12]http://c.google.com/2f0j00AMSEZgJGksqz/Motorcycle-Chain-420-428428H-roller-chain-.edsbearings.huffingtonpost.ebaystatic.co.jpg [2]http://www.in/url?sa=t&rct=j&q&esrc=s&source=web&cd=2&cad=rja&uact=8& ved=0CCIQFjAB&url=http%3A%2F%2Fdelhi.jpg [3] http://1.in/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/banner1.c2E 40 .

org/uploads/file/healthy-harborplan/04_chapter_4_trash.indiatimes. Flywheel Machines http://www.com Journals on Cleaner productions for 1) Product development 2) Green Innovation 3) Environment Sustainability 4) Implementation for companies 41 .pdf Baltimore.baltimoresun.com/2014/05/water-wheel-cleans-baltimore-harbor.com/city/noida/scientific-trash-collectionsoon/articleshow/39825085. Maryland Trash solutions http://www.com http://timesofindia.timesofindia.html http://articles.howstuffworks.wikipedia.in www.cms mygov.healthyharborbaltimore.com www.com/2014-05-06/features/bs-md-harbor-trash-20140506_1_waterwheel-clearwater-mills-healthy-harbor www.psfk.GENERAL REFERENCES Baltimore.