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Theories of Perception

On a straightforward view, we directly perceive the world as it is. The way that things look, feel, smell, taste, and sound is
the way that they are. We see colours, for example, because the world is coloured. This view of perception is called,
somewhat dismissively, naive realism.
Plausibly, perception is a lot more complicated than this. Though things may appear to be coloured to us, our experiences of
colour are merely representative of the surface properties of objects; the physical property of reflecting certain wavelengths
of light and the colour red as we experience it are two quite different things.
This has led to representative realism, which suggests that perception is not the passive process that the naive realist
suggests, that we do not simply receive information about the world through our senses. Rather, we are actively involved in
perception, supplying much of the content of our experiences, and must bear this in mind if we are to know what the world is
really like in itself.
More extreme than either naive or representative realism is idealism. Idealists, persuaded by the thought that we have direct
access only to our experiences of the world, and not to the world itself, have questioned whether there is anything beyond
our experiences. A more recent theory that bears some similarities to idealism has also been proposed: phenomenalism.

THE PERCEPTIVE APPARATUS
Perception is a process of the consciousness of an object. It is one of the means of valid knowledge in the world and consists
in an inseparable relation of the perceptive consciousness with its content. The objects that are seen in the world are
considered by the common man to be existing outside his body and the senses, and he feels that the objects are reflected, as it
were, in his mind in perception. The object itself does not enter the eye, for example, in the act of seeing, but there is a
transmission of vibration from the object, with which his consciousness comes in contact, which becomes a content of his
consciousness, and on account of which he is said to know the existence of the external object. This perception is caused by
the operations of a mind whose existence as a mediator between the Atman within and the object outside is evident from the
fact of the synthesis of sensations and of the possibility of the absence of perception at certain times. ―Sense-knowledge is
the product of the connection between the mind and the sensory organs. That is why there is no simultaneity of the
knowledge of the impressions received through the various sensory organs. People say: ‗My mind was elsewhere, I did not
see that.‘ The impossibility of this simultaneity of knowledge through various sensory organs is an indication of the
existence of the mind.‖ ―Between the Atman and the organs of sense a connecting link is necessary. If we do not admit the
internal organ, there would result either perpetual perception or perpetual non-perception, the former when there is a
conjunction of the Atman, the senses and the object, the three constituting the causes of perception, and the latter when, even
on the conjunction of these three causes, the effect did not follow. But neither is the truth. We have, therefore, to
acknowledge the existence of an internal organ on whose attention and non-attention perception and non-perception take
place‖ (Mind and Its Mysteries: p. 188). ―The mind is with parts and can move in space. It is a changing and differentiating
thing. It is capable of moving from place to place and assuming the forms of the objects of perception. This going out to an
object and taking its shape is actual. There is nothing static in Nature. Every modification of the root Natural Principle is
active and moving. The mind, in particular, is always undergoing conscious and unconscious modifications. The mind is a
radiant, transparent and light substance and can travel like a ray of light outside through a sense-organ. The mind is thus an
active force, a form of the general active Power or Sakti. As the brain, the organ of the mind, is enclosed in an organic
envelope, solid and in appearance closed, the imagination has a tendency to picture it as being isolated from the exterior
world, though in truth it is in constant contact with it through a subtle and constant exchange of secret activities. The mind is
not something static, passive and merely receptive. It takes an active part in perception both by reason of its activity and the
nature of that activity as caused by its latent tendencies (Samskaras). The following well-known illustration from
the Vedanta-paribhasha gives an account of the nature of perception: ‗As water from a tank may flow through a channel into
a plot of land and assume its shape (square, triangular or any other form), so the radiant mind (Taijasa-Antahkarana) goes
out through the eye or any other sense-organ to the place where an object is, and gets transformed into the shape of that
object. This modification of the mind-stuff is called a Vritti‘‖ (Practice of Yoga: Vol. I, pp. 107-108).
In his Sure Ways of Success in Life (pp. 94-99) Swami Sivananda gives an analysis of the apparatus of perception in the
following manner:
The senses are the gatekeepers of the wonderful factory of the mind. They bring into the mental factory matter for
manufacture. Light vibrations, sound vibrations, and the like, are brought inside through these avenues. The sensations are
first converted into percepts by the mind, which then presents these percepts to the intellect. The intellect converts these
percepts into concepts or ideas. Just as raw sugarcane juice is treated with so many chemicals and passes through various
settling tanks, and is packed as pure crystals; just as ordinary clay mixed and treated with plaster of Paris, etc. passes through
settling tanks and is made into jugs, jars, plates, cups, etc.; just as crude sand is turned into beautiful glassware of various
sorts in a glass factory; so mere light vibrations, sound vibrations, etc. are turned into powerful ideas or concepts of various
descriptions in the factory of the mind.The external senses are only instruments in the process of perception. The real
auditory, tactile, visual, gustatory and olfactory centres are in the brain and in the astral body. These centres are the real

the ego. A table is a mental image plus an external something. The retina is limited in its structure. a president when he presides over a society or an association. Q3fi . which is the tendency for one‘s emotions to determine or affect one's focus. so does the mind plug. ix). People afflicted with anorexia nervosa holds a distorted self-image. Here Swami Sivananda brings out the significant truth that the limited sense-organs are able to cast the image of an extensive scene on the limited mind working in a body on account of the essentially omnipresent and all-comprehensive character of the consciousness that is reflected through the mind.In ordinary persons the mental images are distracted and undefined. there flashes out egoism (Ahamkara). else. Perceptual distortions can relate to either sensory or psychological perception and can occur as a result of cognitive bias. tasting and smelling. then he is said to have lack of insight. hearing. which skews interpretation of results to be in line with a theory one already believes. The intellect (Buddhi) receives material from the mind and presents them to the Purusha or the Atman which is behind the screen. Whatever one sees outside has its counterpart in one‘s mind. They see their bodies as overweight and unsightly. knowledge complete would be impossible. Common examples are the observer expectancy effect. Another example of perceptual distortion is commonly found in people with the mental illness schizophrenia. just as a person is called a judge when he dispenses justice in a law court. The intellect receives back the message from the Purusha. One whose knowledge is controlled by external phenomena can never have real knowledge of them. How is it that the image of a huge mountain seen through such a small aperture is cast in the mind? How does this colossal form enter the tiny hole in the eye? The fact is that the image of the mountain already exists in the mind. decides and determines. known also as the selective perception bias. and transmits it to the mind for the execution of orders. This is a function of individual differences. and later through the senses. or patterns of thought and deviations in judgment in particular situations.senses which make perception possible. in the light of the absoluteness of the knower‖ (Gita Meditations: p. and the central operator plugs. feeling. connect and disconnect sensory messages. As soon as facts are placed by the intellect before the Purusha. If one can clairvoyantly visualise the inner working of this mental factory one will be dumbfounded. whereas other people see the sufferer as malnourished and underweight. All perception suggests the marvellous working of this immanent consciousness through the instrumentality of the mind. When one wants to see an object the mind puts a plug into the other four centres. it is closer to the Purusha than the mind is. Perceptual distortions can result from cognitive biases.The Antahkarana (inner psychical instrument) is a broad term which includes the intellect. The pupil of the eye is a small round construction. The external organs of action carry out the orders of the master. medication or drugs. The mind works with a speed which is unimaginable. and a storekeeper when he is in charge of goods. the knower must be independent of the laws governing the world. a form or a shape. the subconscious and the conscious mind. The real seer and the senser of things is this consciousness which is at the background of the perceiving subject as its existence and essence. or physical damage to the brain or sensory organs. The ultimate knower of the world is an absolute being whose presence is established by the nature of knowledge itself. from hallucinations and optical illusions. This shows that the knower is superior to the known to such an extent that the known loses its value as being. The one Antahkarana assumes all these names due to its different functions. Every thought has an image. and attention bias. viz. ―In order to know the world fully. The impulse for absolute knowledge guarantees the possibility of such a knowledge. connects and disconnects the various switches. a chairman when he superintends over a meeting. the memory. An example of perceptual distortion is found in people suffering from an eating disorder. The intellect is like the prime minister. for example in perceptual style and is conceptually different A perceptual distortion occurs when a person's response to stimuli varies from how it is commonly perceived. Q2 second part Perceptual distortion is said to occur when the reported perception of a stimulus varies from a "normal response". When one wants to hear something the mind plugs similarly the remaining four centres. Just as in the telephone exchange of a big city various messages come from diverse houses and firms to the central station. psychological disorders. When a person is unable to recognize that he has an illness.

He maintained there were two main categories and that managers adopted one or the other.These are needs associated with personal growth and fullfilment of personal potential. Maslow put forward the idea that there existed a hierarchy of needs consisting of five levels in the hierarchy. People will exercise self-direction and self-control towards the achievement of objectives they are committed to. creates a self-fulfilling outcome because it forces people to become like this—they have no alternative. can never be fully met. External control and threat of punishment are not the only means of bringing about effort towards organisational objectives. McGregor maintains that the application of this approach. which he termed Theory X. "Management Assumptions" (Theory X and Theory Y) Douglas McGregor further developed the needs concept of Maslow and specifically applied it to the workplace. The assumptions here are virtually the opposite to Theory X. The five different levels were further sub-categorised into two main groups. has very little ambition and wants security above all else. The basic premise of the theory is that we all have these five levels of needs and that starting at the lowest level we are motivated to satisfy each level in ascending order. The first category. which relates to the achievement of our full potential. Affiliation and Power Herzbergs' Two Factor Theory Maslows Hierarchy of Needs This is the most widely known theory of motivation and was hypothesised by American psychologist Abraham Maslow in the 1940s and 1950s. directed and threatened with punishment to get them to put adequate effort into the achievement of organisational objectives. The average person learns under proper conditions to not only accept responsibility but also seek it. because they are generally associated with a view that concentrates on the importance of determining 'what' motivates us. These needs include:  physiological needs  safety needs  social needs Growth needs . They are :     Work is as natural as play or rest.The Content Theories of Motivation Content theories are also called needs theories. and the average person prefers to be directed. In other words they try to identify what our 'needs' are and relate motivation to the fulfilling of these needs. Maslows theory has been widely embraced and taught within the business world and few people who have attended a company supervision or basic management training course are unlikely not to be familiar with this theory.      Maslows Hierarchy of Needs "Management Assumptions" (Theory X and Theory Y) ERG Theory McClellands Need for Achievement. as well as misunderstanding the real needs of employees. As each level is sufficiently satisfied we are then motivated to satisfy the next level in the hierarchy. McGregor maintained that every manager made assumptions about their employees and adopted a management approach based upon these assumptions. wishes to avoid responsibility. McGregor proposed an alternative set of assumptions which he called Theory Y. these being: Deficiency needs . Commitment to objectives is a function of the rewards associated with their achievement. .Maslow considered these the very basic needs required for survival and security. controlled. he maintained was the dominant management approach and assumed:    the average human being has an inherent dislike of work and will avoid it if possible.  esteem needs  self-actualisation needs In Maslow's theory we can never run out of motivation because the very top level. self-actualisation. because of this most people needed to be coerced. These needs progressed from lower order needs through to higher level needs.

or at least minimized. Process theories explain how workers select behavioral actions to meet their needs and determine their choices.But employees just don't look at their potential rewards. Reinforcement theory The reinforcement theory. these managers carefully communicate the intended values of rewards being given. Positive reinforcement. based on E. He believed that Theory X at best only met Maslows Deficiency needs. to motivate workers. simply looks at the relationship between behavior and its consequences. McGregor advocated that the application of Theory Y. Employees who feel they are being treated inequitably may exhibit the following behaviors:     Put less effort into their jobs Ask for better treatment and/or rewards Find ways to make their work seem better by comparison Transfer or quit their jobs The equity theory makes a good point: People behave according to their perceptions. clarify the performance appraisals upon which these rewards are based. clarify expectations of performances. are allocated. This theory focuses on modifying an employee's on‐the‐job behavior through the appropriate use of one of the following four techniques:  Positive reinforcement rewards desirable behavior. such as a pay raise or promotion. Equity theory According to the equity theory. they look at the rewards of others as well. and make sure that rewards are desirable. 3. 2. the expectancy theory says that an employee will be motivated to exert a high level of effort when he or she believes that: 1. based on the work of J. and finally. and the possible work outcomes. motivation is usually high. A good appraisal will lead to organizational rewards. Therefore. In most work organisations the abilities of most employees is only partially utilised. between the rewards and individual goal satisfaction. L. would not only meet the needs of the organisation but also those of the employee. such as pay increases or promotions. When an employee has a high level of expectancy and the reward is attractive. whilst Theory Y also met the Growth Needs. those rewards perceived as inequitable may create job dissatisfaction and cause performance problems. The organizational rewards will satisfy his or her personal goals.  The ability to seek and develop innovative problem solving approaches is widely. and suggest appropriate comparison points. Very simply. Rewards perceived as equitable should have positive results on job satisfaction and performance. The key to the expectancy theory is an understanding of an individual's goals and the relationships between effort and performance. when rewards are allocated. You would thus have more motivated employees if you adopted Theory Y. Stacy Adams. Thorndike's law of effect. Inequities occur when people feel that their rewards are inferior to the rewards offered to other persons sharing the same workloads. The following theories each offer advice and insight on how people actually make choices to work hard or not work hard based on their individual preferences. workers compare the reward potential to the effort they must expend. Every manager needs to ensure that any negative consequences from equity comparisons are avoided. not narrowly distributed across the whole population. tie rewards to performances. What a manager thinks is irrelevant to an employee because the real issue is the way an employee perceives his or her situation. . the available rewards. Instead of letting equity concerns get out of hand. between performance and rewards. Expectancy theory Victor Vroom introduced one of the most widely accepted explanations of motivation. managers must strengthen workers' perceptions of their efforts as both possible and worthwhile. Informed managers anticipate perceived negative inequities when especially visible rewards. is provided as a reward for positive behavior with the intention of increasing the probability that the desired behavior will be repeated. Equity exists when workers perceive that rewards equal efforts (see Figure 1). Effort will lead to a good performance appraisal.

Managers can set the goals for their employees. No matter who sets the goal. and not serious. tell employees what needs to be done and how much effort should be expanded.  Change management is the processes. corrective action and recognition) Defining change management It is important to note what change management is and what change management is not.  Managers must tell individuals what they can do to receive positive reinforcement. If the goal‐setting theory is followed.Preparing for change (Preparation. Punishment (threats. the higher the level of performance expected. The reinforcement theory has the following implications for management:   Learning what is acceptable to the organization influences motivated behavior. or employees and managers can develop goals together. as defined by the majority of research participants. In addition.Reinforcing change™ (Data gathering. not typical. The goal‐setting theory is culture bound and is popular in North American cultures. he or she will not experience the consequence. and independent. Extinction is basically ignoring the behavior of a subordinate and not providing either positive or negative reinforcement. . Based on Prosci's research of the most effective and commonly applied change. In general. and managers must provide feedback on performance.  Managers must be sure to administer the reinforcement as closely as possible to the occurrence of the behavior. they have created a change management process that contains the following three phases: Phase 1 . Goal-setting theory The goal‐setting theory. Tasks involved in achieving the goal should be simple. Employees who believe that they deserve a reward and do not receive it will often become disenchanted with both their manager and company. tools and techniques for managing the people-side of change. Goals.  Change management is not a stand-alone process for designing a business solution. however. managers need to work with their employees in determining goal objectives in order to provide targets for motivation. suspension) is an attempt to decrease the likelihood of a behavior recurring by applying negative consequences. assessment and strategy development) Phase 2 . proposed that intentions to work toward a goal are a major source of work motivation. familiar. the goals that are established should be specific rather than general in nature. Managers who are trying to motivate their employees should be sure to tell individuals what they are doing wrong and be careful not to reward all individuals at the same time. In addition to feedback. in essence.Managing change (Detailed planning and change management implementation) Phase 3 .  Managers must recognize that failure to reward can also modify behavior. Classroom teachers often use this technique when they ignore students who are ―acting out‖ to get attention. four other factors influence the goals‐performance relationship:     The employee must be committed to the goal. One advantage of employees participating in goal setting is that they may be more likely to work toward a goal they helped develop.   Avoidance is an attempt to show an employee what the consequences of improper behavior will be. docking pay. Change management process The change management process is the sequence of steps or activities that a change management team or project leader would follow to apply change management to a project or change. the more difficult the goal. introduced in the late 1960s by Edwin Locke. This technique should only be used when the supervisor perceives the behavior as temporary. If an employee does not engage in improper behavior. The employee must believe that he is capable of performing the task. employees do better when they get feedback on their progress.

Change management is how we drive the adoption and usage we need to realize business results. including programs like: Six Sigma. 6. Restructuring and continuous process improvement. Be specific where you can. and coaching. Design flexibility into change by phasing it in wherever possible. don't announce the strategy. teambuilding. If you and your organization are not ready to commit yourselves to the change. Disrupt only what needs to be changed. Change management is not a stand-alone technique for improving organizational performance. Resistance is actually healthy.   Change management is not a process improvement method. 5. comfortable settings and group norms wherever possible. 3.    . 4. Organizational Development. it comes down to personal fear. Help people retain friendships.It is normal to experience resistance whenever there is change. Business Process Reengineering. Clearly define the need for the change by communicating the strategic decision personally and in written form. It is good for you because it makes you check your assumptions and it forces you to clarify what you are doing. self-esteem. You must understand what your employees are feeling. Ways to reduce resistance to change: 1. and modify your efforts to manage the issues of change to ensure the success of your change efforts. You must always probe the objections to find the real reason for resistance. communication. 7. This will allow people to complete current efforts and assimilate new behaviours along the way. Many times. Change management is a method for reducing and managing resistance to change when implementing process. technology or organizational change. Try not to react against it defensively. identify its sources and reasons. Address the "people needs" of those involved. Understanding that there will be resistance to change will help you anticipate resistance. 8. Do not leave openings for people to return to the status quo. you must take the time to understand resistance and you may have to come at it from several different angles before it is conquered. Deliver training programs that develop basic skills as opposed to processes such as: conducting meetings. as well as thinking. 2. Be open and honest. Total Quality Management. Change management is a necessary component for any organizational performance improvement process to succeed. Focus continually on the positive aspects of the change. Involve interested parties in the planning of change by asking them for suggestions and incorporating their ideas. As the leader. Allow employees to redefine their roles during the course of implementing change.

.[4] 1. all formal groups and informal groups have established certain norms of behaviour and operational standards which all members are expected to adhere to. An individual member may want to remain within the group for social needs but may disagree with the group goals and the methods to achieve such goals. For example. These interpersonal conflicts are often the results of personality clashes.. In addition to conflicts over the nature and substance of goals and objectives.e. from 1820 to 1945. Similarly. gangs). or hostilities between different groups. some members of a board of directors of a school may want to offer courses in sex education while others may find this proposal morally offensive thus causing interpersonal conflict among the members of the board. a telephone operator may be advised and required to be polite to the customers by her supervisor. it has been noted that conflict present at the group level (i. the conflicts can also arise over the means for achieving these goals and objectives. For example. where role playing expected of the individual does not conform with the values and beliefs held by the individual. nations. This may cause a conflict within the mind of the secretary who may have developed an ethic of telling the truth. sports teams. Although both forms of conflict have the ability to spiral upward in severity. then this could result in interpersonal conflict between the two professors. the history of the human race evidences a series of group-level conflicts that have gained notoriety over the years. These conflicts become highlighted when they are based upon opinions rather than facts. Such a situation can cause conflicts among the members of the governing board. many Indians who are vegetarians and come to America and find it very hard to remain vegetarians may question the necessity of the vegetarian philosophy thus causing a conflict in their minds. ethnic groups. Another type of interpersonal conflict can relate to disagreements over goals and objectives of the organization. but only one of them can be promoted because of budget and positional constraints. Facts are generally indisputable.Group conflict. . Conflict between the individual and the group: As has been discussed before. For example.[1] Although group conflict is one of the most complex phenomena studied by social scientists.[2] Literature suggests that the number of fatalities nearly doubled between the years 1914 to 1964 as a result of further group conflict. Similarly. resulting in agreements. religions. 2. For example.g. For example. it has been estimated that at least 59 million persons were killed during conflicts between groups of one type or another. a secretary may have to lie on instructions that her boss is not in the office to avoid an unwanted visitor or an unwanted telephone call. This may involve conflict between two managers who are competing for limited capital and manpower resources. and intra-group conflict (in which select individuals a part of the same group clash with one another). if there are two equally deserving professors and they are both up for promotion. is a feature common to all forms of social organization (e. Similarly a college or a university may have a policy of quality education so that only top quality students are admitted while some members of the organizational board may propose ―open admission‖ policy where all high school graduates are to be considered for admission. This would cause a role conflict in her mind. who may also complain that she is spending too much time with her customers. In addition to these value conflicts. a person may be faced with a role conflict. Opinions are highly personal and subjective and may provide for disagreements and criticism. inter-group rivalries) is generally considered to be more powerful than conflict present at an individual level – a phenomenon known as the discontinuity effect. This conflict can become further acute when the scarce resources cannot be shared and must be obtained. Similarly a police officer may be invited to his brother‘s wedding where he may find that some guests are using drugs which are against the law. People with widely different characteristics and attitudes are bound to have views and aims that are inconsistent with the views and aims of others. Conflict within an individual can also arise when a person has to choose between two equally desirable alternatives or between two equally undesirable goals.[3] Group conflict can be separated into two sub-categories of conflict: inter-group conflict (in which distinct groups of individuals are at odds with one another). 3. Conflict within the individual: The conflict within the individual is usually value related. two marketing managers may argue as to which promotional methods would result in higher sales. Interpersonal Conflict: Interpersonal conflict involves conflict between two or more individuals and is probably the most common and most recognized conflict. It may cause conflict in his mind as to which role he should play – as of a brother or as of a police officer.

based upon the treatment that the crew received at the hands of their leader. A manager may take a disciplinary action against a member of the group causing conflict with the group and this may result in reduced productivity. An individual firmly pursues his or her own concerns despite the resistance of the other person. 5. Intergroup conflict: An organization is an interlocking network of groups. There are some fundamental differences among different units of the organization both in the structure as well as operations and processes and thus each unit develops its own organizational sub-structure. The conflict among the armed forces is taken so seriously that the army must obey their commander even if the command is wrong and in conflict with what others believe in.For example. This conflict may be between buyer organizations and supplier organizations about quantity. all tips are shared equally by all waiters and waitresses. if a group is going on strike for some reasons. Inter-organizational conflict: Conflict also occurs between organizations which are dependent upon each other in some way. A classic example of inter-unit conflict is between sales and production as described earlier. Such conflict could also be between unions and organizations employing their members. don‘t work or are ineffective When you need to stand up for your own rights. between government agencies that regulate certain organizations and the organizations that are affected by them. This conflict may also be between the manager and a group of subordinates or between the leader and the followers. intergroup conflict may arise between day shift workers and night shift workers who might blame each other for anything that goes wrong from missing tools to maintenance problems. thus causing conflict with the group. sections or work teams. 4.g. Examples of when forcing may be appropriate     In certain situations when all other. (b) time orientation which is short run for sales and long run for research. (c) formality of structure which is highly informal for research and highly formal in production and (d) supervisory style which may be more democratic in one area as compared to another area. This interdependence causes intergroup conflict. Different functional groups within the organization may come into conflict with each other because of their different specific objectives. in some restaurants. departments. The intergroup conflicts are not so much personal in nature as they are due to factors inherent in the organizational structure. Some particular waitress who may be overly polite and efficient may feel that she deserves more. The staff may resent their inability to implement directly their own decisions and recommendations. These inter-unit conflicts can also be caused by inconsistent rewards and differing performance criteria for different units and groups. there is active and continuous conflict between the union and the management. One of the most common conflict is between the line and the staff members of the organization. ―Mutiny on the Bounty‖ is a classic example of rebellion of the crew of the ship against their leader. some members of the group may not agree with these reasons or simply may not be economically able to afford to go on strike. less forceful methods. differ in terms of (a) goal orientation which can be highly specific for production but highly fluid for research and development. The sales department is typically customer-oriented and wants to maintain high inventories for filling orders as they are received which is a costly option as against the production department which is strongly concerned about cost effectiveness requiring as little inventory of finished product at hand as possible. to stop an aggression) As a last resort to resolve a long-lasting conflict Possible advantages of forcing:   May provide a quick resolution to a conflict Increases self-esteem and draws respect when firm resistance or actions were a response to an aggression or hostility . thus causing conflict between her and the group. Similarly. resist aggression and pressure When a quick resolution is required and using force is justified (e. in a life-threatening situation. For example. These sub-structures according to Lawrence and Lorsch. The line managers may resent their dependence on staff for information and recommendations. quality and delivery times of raw materials and other policy issues. For example. sales people who depend upon their commission as a reward for their efforts may promise their customers certain quantity of the product and delivery times which the production department may find impossible to meet thus causing conflict between the two units. This may involve pushing one viewpoint at the expense of another or maintaining firm resistance to another person‘s actions. Forcing Also known as competing. Similarly.

the relationship falls back to other methods of conflict resolution. Examples of when compromise may be appropriate:      When the goals are moderately important and not worth the use of more assertive or more involving approaches. It includes identifying the underlying concerns of the opponents and finding an alternative which meets each party's concerns. animosity. etc When you don't want to have full responsibility Possible advantages of collaborating:        Leads to solving the actual problem Leads to a win-win outcome Reinforces mutual trust and respect Builds a foundation for effective collaboration in the future Shared responsibility of the outcome You earn the reputation of a good negotiator For parties involved.the one that most satisfies the concerns of both parties. the outcome of the conflict resolution is less stressful (however. the process of finding and establishing a win-win solution may be very involed – see the caveats below) Some caveats of collaborating:     Requires a commitment from all parties to look for a mutually acceptable solution May require more effort and more time than some other methods. A win-win solution may not be evident For the same reason. such as forcing or collaborating To reach temporary settlement on complex issues To reach expedient solutions on important issues As a first step when the involved parties do not know each other well or haven‘t yet developed a high level of mutual trust When collaboration or forcing do not work Possible advantages of compromise: .Some caveats of forcing:     May negatively affect your relationship with the opponent in the long run May cause the opponent to react in the same way. even if the opponent did not intend to be forceful originally Cannot take advantage of the strong sides of the other side‘s position Taking this approach may require a lot of energy and be exhausting to some individuals Win-Win (Collaborating) Also known as problem confronting or problem solving. The win-win approach sees conflict resolution as an opportunity to come to a mutually beneficial result. Therefore. all involved parties must continue collaborative efforts to maintain a collaborative relationship Compromising Compromising looks for an expedient and mutually acceptable solution which partially satisfies both parties. Collaboration involves an attempt to work with the other person to find a win-win solution to the problem in hand . collaborating may not be practical when timing is crucial and a quick solution or fast response is required Once one or more parties lose their trust in an opponent. Examples of when collaborating may be appropriate:        When consensus and commitment of other parties is important In a collaborative environment When it is required to address the interests of multiple stakeholders When a high level of trust is present When a long-term relationship is important When you need to work through hard feelings.

Compromising may be more practical when time is a factor Can provide a temporary solution while still looking for a win-win solution Lowers the levels of tension and stress resulting from the conflict Some caveats of using compromise:    May result in a situation when both parties are not satisfied with the outcome (a lose-lose situation) Does not contribute to building trust in the long run May require close monitoring and control to ensure the agreements are met Withdrawing Also known as avoiding. and you don't have time to deal with it In situations where postponing the response is beneficial to you.g. Examples of when smoothing may be appropriate:     When it is important to provide a temporary relief from the conflict or buy time until you are in a better position to respond/push back When the issue is not as important to you as it is to the other person When you accept that you are wrong When you have no choice or when continued competition would be detrimental Possible advantages of smoothing:   In some cases smoothing will help to protect more important interests while giving up on some less important ones Gives an opportunity to reassess the situation from a different angle . sidesteps. This is when a person does not pursue her/his own concerns or those of the opponent. Smoothing is accommodating the concerns of other people first of all. not acting may be interpreted as an agreement. if you are too emotionally involved or others can handle it better) Possible advantages of withdrawing:     When the opponent is forcing / attempts aggression. Using withdrawing strategies without negatively affecting your own position requires certain skill and experience When multiple parties are involved. if you are unprepared or taken by surprise) When you see no chance of getting your concerns met or you would have to put forth unreasonable efforts When you would have to deal with ostility When you are unable to handle the conflict (e. He/she does not address the conflict. withdrawing may negatively affect your relationship with a party that expects your action Smoothing Also known as accommodating. you may choose to withdraw and postpone your response until you are in a more favourable circumstance for you to push back Withdrawing is a low stress approach when the conflict is short Gives the ability/time to focus on more important or more urgent issues instead Gives you time to better prepare and collect information before you act Some caveats of withdrawing:   May lead to weakening or losing your position. for example  When it is not the right time or place to confront the issue  When you need time to think and collect information before you act (e.   Faster issue resolution. Examples of when withdrawing may be appropriate:       When the issue is trivial and not worth the effort When more important issues are pressing. rather than one's own concerns. postpones or simply withdraws.g.

May negatively affect your confidence in your ability to respond to an aggressive opponent It makes it more difficult to transition to a win-win solution in the future Some of your supporters may not like your smoothing response and be turned off . the opponent may constantly try to take advantage of your tendency toward smoothing/accommodating. i.Some caveats of smoothing:     There is a risk to be abused.e. Therefore it is important to keep the right balance and this requires some skill.