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GERUNDIO/INFINITIVO

1.- Van seguidos de GERUNDIO
a) Los siguientes verbos
adm it, anticipate, avoid , consider, defer, delay, deny, detest, dread, enjoy, excuse, fancy, finish, forgive, im agine, involve, keep,
m ind, m iss, pardon, postpone, prevent, recollect, resent, resist, risk, stop, suggest, understand
b) Pueden tener una preposición ante el gerundio, sobre todo cuando tienen un complemento directo:
be for/against, care for, feel like, give up, keep on, leave off, look forward to, put off, see about, take to
c) expresiones como:
be accustom ed to, be used to, can't help, can't stand, it's no good, it's no use, it's worth (while), wouldn't m ind, don't m ind
d) Todos los verbos a la derecha de una preposición (excepto TO) deben ir en gerundio.
e) Cuando el verbo es el sujeto de una frase:
* Cuando la acción se considera en un sentido general. Implica que el hablante tiene experiencia. Puede usarse también el
infinitivo, pero ello implica una opinión no ligada a la experiencia:
Studying everyday is quite tiring. To climb a mountain must be a tiresome and dangerous experience.
* Cuando la acción se considera un hábito.
* Cuando es una acción prohibida.
f) Con adjetivos:
* Tras BUSY y W ORTH
* Algunos adjetivos, acompañados por preposiciones especiales van seguidos de gerundio:
keep on, be proud of, be accustom ed to, be used to, be exem pt from
2.- Van seguidos de GERUNDIO/INFINITIVO (°: con cambio de sentido; ¯sin cambio de sentido):
advise (°), allow (°), begin (¯), can't bear, continue (¯), deserve (¯), dread (°), forget (°), go on (°), hate (°), intend (¯), like
(°), love (°), mean (°), need (¯), perm it (°), prefer (°), propose (°), recom m end (°), regret (°), rem em ber (°), require (¯),
start (¯), stop (°), try (°), want (°)
* advise, allow, permit, recommend llevan infinitivo si la persona mencionada aparece
* Con muchos de estos verbos, como like, love, prefer, hate, dread, can't bear, se sigue GERUNDIO cuando la acción se piensa en un
sentido general (=uso de la forma condicional), y se sigue INFINITIVO cuando se piensa en un tiempo determinado.
* Después de forget, regret, remember se usa GERUNDIO para referirse a una acción que ocurre antes del verbo principal. Se usa
INFINITIVO para referirse a algo que ocurre después del verbo principal.
* Los verbos deserve, need, require, want, pueden ir seguidos indistintamente por GERUNDIO O INFINITIVO PASIVO cuando tienen
el significado de necesitar (esta camisa necesita un planchado) y siempre tienen idea pasiva.
* Tras el verbo try se usa INFINITIVO cuando tiene el significado de intento e implica dificultad. Se usa GERUNDIO cuando significa
comprobar y no implica dificultad.
* Tras propose se usa INFINITIVO, cuando significa "tener intención de". Con GERUNDIO significa sugerencia.
* M ean con GERUNDIO significa "implicar". Con INFINITIVO "intentar".
* Stop con GERUNDIO significa "cesar una acción para empezar otra". Con INFINITIVO significa "alto".
* Go on con gerundio significa la continuación de algo ya empezado. Con INFINITIVO continuar con algo nuevo.
* Used to con infinitivo significa una acción pasada o hábito que no pervive.
* To be used to con GERUNDIO significa estar acostumbrado.
* Tras want se usa TO INFINITIVO en su significado habitual de “querer”, pero seguido de GERUNDIO significa hacer falta, necesitar:
“this shirt wants / needs ironing.”
3.- Van seguidos de INFINITIVO:
a) Seguidos de TO + INFINITIVO:
afford, agree, aim , appear, arrange, bother, care, chance, claim , consent, decide, dem and, endeavour, fail, get, happen, have,
hesitate, hope, learn, long, m anage, offer, prepare, pretend, proceed, prom ise, refuse, resolve, seek, seem , swear, tend, threaten,
trouble, undertake, volunteer
* Auxiliares seguidos de TO + INFINITIVO:
be, dare, have, need, ought, used
b) Verbos seguidos de OBJETO + TO + INFINITIVO:
advise, allow, ask, com pel, encourage, expect, forbid, instruct, invite, oblige, order, perm it, rem ind, request, teach, tell, tempt,
urge, want, warn
* Verbos seguidos de OBJETO + TO + INFINITIVO /TO + INFINITIVO
ask, beg, expect, hate, help, intend, like, love, m ean, prefer, want, wish
c) Verbos seguidos de OBJETO + INFINITIVO:
feel, hear, help, let, listen, m ake, see, watch
* Auxiliares seguidos de INFINITIVO:
will, shall, would, should, can, could, may, m ight, do, must
* Las preposiciones EXCEPT y BUT van seguidas de BARE INFINITIVE (Infinitivo sin TO)
d) Infinitivo de propósito. A veces se usa el infinitivo para indicar la razón de hacer algo. Se utiliza TO + INFINITIVO. Las
estructuras SO AS TO y IN ORDER TO intensifican la idea de propósito. La construcción FOR + OBJETO + TO +
INFINITIVO también tiene la idea de propósito.
e) TO+ INFINITIVO tras el verbo TO BE + ADJETIVO se usa con adjetivos de emoción como:
am azed, angry, asham ed, astonished, bewildered, delighted, disappointed, disgusted, excited, glad, happy, overjoyed, pleased,

. . . . I care for starving people. . . . Your whisky tastes wonderful. . . They finished up serving in a shop. . verbs that can normally have progressive forms are called “dynamic verbs”. . . Try to imagine (you're) sitting in a cloud. . recognize. . . suppose. etc). understand. . It's worth paying a little extra. I can't imagine asking him for money. . . . imagine. . (In grammars. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . He can't help being useless I can't help thinking it was a mistake to let him go. . . EJEM PLOS The Prime Minster admitted taking bribes. However we complain they keep on throwing parties. need. . fit. surprise. . hard. I m easure 75 cm around the waist. know. possess. . . don't stop. . If you don't mind me/my saying so. impress. . I don't mind staying a little longer. see. If you take to doing something. . . . I think you’re right. . Excuse me butting in. . . . consist of. (have a flavour). . mean. . . . . I weigh 68 kilos. upset y con otros como awkward. . . It's worth paying a little attention. . She went to the office to see about (getting) an increase. . . please. Get some instruction even though you don't anticipate using it. . . . I feel we shouldn’t do it. . It's no good worrying any more tonight. . . depend on.) The most important of these verbs are: 1. . . doubt. . . . They detest (the very thought of) living elsewhere. . 5. . possible. Are you instructed to prevent me entering? I recollect playing here when this was a playground. sorry. . sound. . . . . . . .proud. . he won't lend you any money. . . . . remember. . . He turned his head trying to avoid breathing in the vapour. lack. W hy are you sm elling the meat? Is it bad?. . like. own. 3. . . . 4. these verbs are often called “stative verbs”. . . . . I can't stand listening to that noise all the time. . Compare the progressive and non-progressive uses of certain verbs: W hat are you thinking about?. matter. . . . . . prefer. The family could be forgiven for thinking we’re living in London. I'm busy talking on the phone. . . . . . 2. feel (have an opinion). difficult. satisfy. . The scales broke when I was weighing myself. . involve. owe. Hear. . . . Keep going. . He finished the argument (by) walking out of the room. . wish. . . weigh (have weight). John gave up drinking five years ago. Note the common use of can see and can hear instead of progressive tenses of see and hear: I can hear a funny noise I can see a woman doing the housework in the flat opposite. . The meat sm ells bad. If you have an expensive rug don't risk washing it yourself. Everything you dread doing you must do straight away They dreaded him coming. etc. . Dislike. guess. . . . He suggested going to the cinema. . The company deferred paying the employees. I could never excuse him for being so rude I could never excuse his being so rude She asked to be excused from acting that evening. If you mean to do something do it deliberately. resemble. hate. sad. . seem. realize. . . easy. . . . . . objects of prepositions. . Pardon me for interrupting/Pardon my interrupting. You prevent someone from doing something. . . . Astonish. I'm used to getting up quite early. . include. . I miss watching my favourite series. . It's no use begging him. . . I’m just tasting your whisky. . deserve. I'm accustomed to getting up quite early. . W hy’s that man m easuring the street?. . . . contain. . . . I’m feeling fine. I'm looking forward to seeing you again They kept putting off signing the paper. . She delayed starting divorce proceedings for six months. I don't fancy going back to that dreary house alone. . . . . . I’m seeing Philip tomorrow. . . . . . 6. . . taste. . measure (have length. . . Knowing her tastes. . . . They resent being treated as common criminals. think (have an opinion). He kept on drinking till he died. . love. I am glad to see you There are many verbs that are not generally used in the progressive tenses and others that are not used in certain of their meanings. . . . . surprised. I don’t like to go to a foreign country without knowing a little of the language. . You might consider moving to a new house. . . . . . . . . . . . I'm proud of being who I am. concern. . you begin to do it as a regular habit. Note that verbs which are never used in progressive tenses (like know) have “-ing” forms which can be used as participles. . Belong to. To delay something is to postpone it happening. Appear. . . Caring for a one-year-old involves changing nappies and making special meals. I see what you mean. smell (give out smell). . want. . . . . . . I'm for/against going to that house again. . . . . If you resist doing something you stop yourself from doing it. . I bought her a large box of chocolates. Believe. . I enjoy playing my guitar. . I only understand killing in self-defence. . I wouldn't mind being paid a little more. . shocked. . but it's not on any longer. .