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CHAPTER 5 NOTES

HR planning process

1. Forecasting
2. Goal setting and strategic planning
3. Program implementation and evaluation

Forecasting

Predict areas within the organization


where there will be labor shortage or
surpluses.

Transitional Matrix

a chart that lists job categories held in one


period and shows proportion of
employees in each of those job categories
in a future period.

2nd step in HR Planning: Goal setting and


strategic planning

Purpose of setting specific numerical goals


is to focus attention on the
problem/provide a basis for measuring the
organizations success in addressing labor
shortages/surpluses.

First three ways you can do to reduce a


surplus?

1. Downsizing
2. Pay reductions
3. Demotions

The next three ways you can use to reduce


a surplus?

Methods to avoid a shortage?

Pro: Fast Results


Con: Hurt future recruiting

1. Transfers
2. Work sharing
Fast methods, consequences to
human suffering are less severe
3. Hiring Freeze
Slow method, less painful then layoffs

Any activity carried on by the organization with the primary


purpose of identifying and attracting potential employees.

Recruiting

All companies have to


make decisions in three
areas of recruiting:

Personal Policies

An organizations _________are its decisions about how it


will carry out HR management, including how it will fill job
vacancies.

Job Posting

Process of communicating information about a job vacancy

1. Personnel policies
2. Recruitment sources
3. Characteristics and behavior of the recruiter

Yield Ratios

A ratio that expresses percentage of applicants who


successfully move from one stage of the recruitment and
selection process to the next.

Cost per hire

Find cost of using a particular recruitment source for a


particular type of vacancy.

Ch. 5 Summary

First step in HR planning is personnel forecasting. Through


trend analysis and good judgment, planner determines
supply and demand for HR.
Next step - determine labor demand for workers in various
job categories.
Analysis of a transitional matrix
helps identify which job categories
can be filled internally and where
high turnover is likely.

CHAPTER 6
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Personal Selection

Process through which organizations make


decisions about who will

Criteria for measuring the effectiveness of


selection tools and methods?

1. Method provides reliable information.


2. Method provides valid information.
3. Information can be generalized to apply to
candidates.
4. Method offers high utility.
5. The selection criteria are legal.

Reliability

Extent to which a measurement is free


from random error.

Validity

Extent to which performance on a


measure (such as a test score) is related to
what the measure is designed to assess
(such as job performance).

3 ways the Federal Government measures


validity by the Uniform Guidelines on
Employee Selection Procedures?

1. Criterion-related
2. Content
3. Construct

Predictive Validation

Research that uses test scores of all


applicants and looks for a relationship
between scores and future performance of
applicants who were hired.

Concurrent Validation

Research that consists of administering a


test to people who currently hold a job,
and then comparing their scores to
existing measures of job performance

Content Validity

Consistency between test items or


problems and kinds of situations or
problems that occur on the job.

Construct Validity

Consistency between a high score on a


test and high level of a construct (i.e.,
intelligence or leadership ability) as well as
between mastery of this construct and
successful performance of the job.

Generalizable Selection

Method applies not only to the conditions


in which the method was originally
developed job, organization, people,
time period, etc.

4 things used to gather background


information?

1.
2.
3.
4.

Application Forms

Low-cost way to gather basic data from


applicants such as
Contact information
Work experience
Educational background
Technical experience
Memberships in professional or trade
groups

Background Checks

Way to verify that applicants are as they


represent themselves.

Types of Employment Tests


1. Aptitude Test
2. Achievement Test

1. Access how well a person can learn or


acquire skills and abilities
2. Measure a persons existing knowledge
and skills.

Application forms
Resumes
Reference checks
Background checks

Five major personality dimensions


measured by personality inventories?
1. Sociable, gregarious, assertive, expressive
2. Emotionally stable, secure, content
3. Courteous, trusting, good-natured,
tolerant, cooperative, forgiving
4. Dependable, organized, preserving,
thorough, achievement-oriented
5. Curious, imaginative, artistically sensitive,
broad-minded, playful

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Extroversion
Adjustment
Agreeableness
Conscientiousness
Inquisitiveness

Interviewing Effectively

Multiple Hurdle Model


Compensatory Model

How do organizations select Employees?

Multiple Hurdle Model

Process of arriving at a selection decision


by eliminating some candidates at each
stage of the selection process.

Compensatory Model

Process of arriving at a selection decision


in which a very high score on one type of
assessment can make up for a low score
on another.

Ch. 6 Summary

Be prepared
Put applicant at ease
Ask about past behavior
Listen
Take notes
At the end of the interview, make
sure the candidate knows what to
expect next

Selection typically begins with a review of


candidates applications and rsums.
The organization administers tests to
candidates who meet basic requirements,
and qualified candidates undergo one or
more interviews.
Organizations check references and
conduct background checks.
A candidate is selected to fill each vacant
position.

Ch. 6 Summary
Organizations need to measure
success of selection methods. Criteria
used include?

Ch. 6 Summary Cont.

An important principle of selection is to


combine several sources of information
about candidates, rather than relying
solely on interviews or a single type of
testing.
Sources should be chosen carefully to
relate to characteristics identified in job
description to increase validity of decision
criteria.
Organizations are more likely to make
decisions that are fair and unbiased and
choose the best candidate.

Ch. 6 Summary Cont.

Selection process must be conducted in a


way that avoids discrimination and
provides access to persons with
disabilities.
Selection methods must be valid for job
performance, and scores may not be
adjusted to discriminate against or give
preference to any group.
Focus on finding the person who will be
best fit with job and organization. This
includes an assessment of ability and
motivation.

CHAPTER 7

Validity
Reliability
Utility
Legality
Generalizable