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Gramtica essencial

Trobareu explicacions gramaticals ms detallades al Grammar Workshop, Students Book, pgines 114133.

Temps verbals
TEMPS o
FORMA
ESTRUCTURA Afirmativa

Negativa

Interrogativa

Present
simple

I/You/We/They work.

I/You/We/They do not (dont)

He/She/It works.

work.

Do I/you/we/they
work?
Does he/she/it work?

I am (m) working.

He/She/It does not (doesnt)


work.
I am (m) not working.

dades i estats
hbits i accions que es repeteixen
verbs destat

Am I working?

accions que passen en aquest

He/She/It is (s) not working.

Is he/she/it working?

Present
continuous

Present
perfect
simple
Present
perfect
continuous

He/She/It is (s)
working.

USOS

You/We/They are (re) not


You/We/They are (re) working.
working.
I/You/We/They have not
I/You/We/They have
(ve) worked.
(havent) worked.

Are you/we/they
working?

moment

situacions temporals
amb valor de futur, per aplans i
activitats organitzades

Have I/you/we/they
worked?

situacions actuals que van comenar


experincies passades, sense

accions acabades o fets del passat


fets que es van repetir en el passat
estats del passat
accions que es donaven en un

He/She/It has (s)

He/She/It has not (hasnt)

worked.

worked.

I/You/We/They have
(ve) been working.
He/She/It has (s)
been working.

I/You/We/They have not


(havent) been working.
He/She/It has not (hasnt)
been working.

Has he/she/it
worked?
Have I/you/we/they
been working?
Has he/she/it been
working?

I/You/He/She/It/We/
They worked.

I/You/He/She/It/We/They did
not (didnt) work.

Did I/you/he/she/it/we/
they work?

I/He/She/It was

I/He/She/It was not (wasnt)

working.

working.

Was I/he/she/it
working?

en el passat
especificar quan es van produir

accions repetides que afecten el


present

una acci repetida recent que influeix


en el present

lexplicaci duna acci o un fet del


passat

Past simple

Past
continuous

You/We/They were

working.
Past perfect
simple

I/You/He/She/It/
We/They had (d)
worked.
I/You/He/She/It/We/
used to
They used to work.
I/You/He/She/It/We/
would per
They would (d)
a hbits del
work.
passat
I/You/He/She/It/We/
will amb
valor de futur They will (ll) work.
be going to
I am (m) going to
amb valor de work.

futur

Future
continuous
Future
perfect
simple

You/We/They were not


(werent) working.

moment determinat del passat

accions passades interrompudes per

I/You/He/She/It/We/They had
not (hadnt) worked.

Were you/we/they
uns altres fets del passat
working?
Had I/you/he/she/it/we/ estats o accions anteriors a uns altres
fets del passat
they worked?

I/You/He/She/It/We/They did
not (didnt) use to work.
I/You/He/She/It/We/They would
not (wouldnt) work.

Did I/you/he/she/it/we/
they use to work?
Would I/you/he/she/it/
we/they work?

I/You/He/She/It/We/They will
not (wont) work.
I am (m) not going to
work.

Will I/you/he/she/it/we/ prediccions o opinions sobre el futur


they work?
decisions espontnies
Am I going to work? prediccions basadas en certeses
plans i intencions
Is he/she/it going to

He/She/It is (s) going He/She/It is (s) not going to


to work.
work.
You/We/They are (re) You/We/They are (re) not
going to work.
going to work.
I/You/He/She/It/We/
I/You/He/She/It/We/They will
They will (ll) be
not (wont) be working.
working.
I/You/He/She/It/We/
I/You/He/She/It/We/They will
They will (ll) have
not (wont) have been
been working.
working.

hbits o situacions del passat que ja


no sn certs en lactualitat

hbits o situacions del passat que ja


no sn certs en lactualitat

work?
Are you/we/they
going to work?
Will I/you/he/she/it/we/ accions futures que es donaran al
llarg dun perode de temps
they be working?
accions de futur ja planificades
Will I/you/he/she/it/
esdeveniments o accions que
shauran acabat en un moment
we/they have been
concret
working?

Gramtica essencial 119

Per a ordres o instruccions indirectes, no sutilitza say, sin


tell + complement (+ not) + to + infinitiu.

Proposicions de relatiu
PRONOM RELATIU
which / that
who / that
whose
ADVERBI RELATIU
when
where

USOS
referncia a objectes
referncia a persones
expressi de possessi

USOS
referncia temporal
referncia espacial

PROPOSICI DE
RELATIUA

FORM

USOS

Proposici
especificativa

Shes the girl

informaci essencial
sobre el substantiu del
qual va darrere

who helped
me.
Proposici explicativa The girl, who
was very
clever, helped
me.

informacin addicional,
no essencial, sobre el
substantiu del qual va
darrere

Omissi del pronom relatiu


El pronom relatiu es pot ometre si no constitueix el subjecte
de la proposici de relatiu especificativa.

Thats the DVD (that / which) Soledad bought.


Hes the man (that / who) I was telling you about.

Sovint someten els relatius who, which i that en la llengua


parlada. Whose no es pot ometre mai.

Estil indirecte: temps verbals


ESTIL DIRECTE

ESTIL INDIRECTE

Present simple
He said, I watch TV.
Present continuous
He said, I am watching TV.
Present perfect simple
He said, I have watched TV.
Past simple
He said, I watched TV.
will
He said, I will watch TV.
can
He said, I can watch TV.
must
He said, I must watch TV.

Past simple
He said he watched TV.
Past continuous
He said he was watching TV.
Past perfect simple
He said he had watched TV.
Past perfect
He said he had watched TV.
would
He said he would watch TV.
could
He said he could watch TV.
have to
He said he had to watch TV.

say i tell
Els verbs say i tell, que introdueixen lestil indirecte, tenen el
mateix significat, per es fan servir duna manera diferent.
say (+ that) + estil indirecte.
tell + complement indirecte (+ that) + estil indirecte.

The policeman said (that) they arrested the burglar.


The policeman told me that they had arrested the burglar.

120 Gramtica essencial

Be quiet!

The teacher told us to be quiet.

Estil indirecte: verbs introductoris


VERB

ESTIL INDIRECTE

declare suggest
explain insist
say recommend
invite order
tell
agree offer
promise

verb + proposici encapalada per that

apologize (for)
suggest

verb + forma en ing

He declared that he loved her.


verb + objecte + to + infinitiu

He told her to sit down.


verb + to + infinitiu

She offered to pay for the


tickets.
She apologized for being late.

Preguntes indirectes
En la forma interrogativa de lestil indirecte, lordre s
diferent del de les preguntes directes. Tamb canvia el temps
verbal, com a la forma afirmativa de lestil indirecte.
Verb + subjecte (pregunta directa).

How tall are you? he asked.

Subjecte + verb (pregunta indirecta).

He asked me how tall I was.

Verbs modals
VERB MODAL
(o estructura relacionada)
can / cant
could / couldnt
be able to / not be able to
must
may / may not (NO PAS

USOS
descriure capacitat

expressar certesa
expressar possibilitat

maynt)

could / couldnt
might / mightnt
cant
have to / dont have to
need to / neednt
must (NO PAS mustnt)
should / shouldnt
ought to / oughtnt to
mustnt
VERB MODAL COMPOST
must have + participi passat
cant have + participi passat
may / might have + participi
passat

could have + participi passat


should have + participi passat

expressar impossibilitat
expressar obligaci

aconsellar
fer recomanacions
expressar prohibici
USOS
expressar certesa en el passat
expressar impossibilitat en el
passat
expressar possibilitat en el
passat
suggerir una acci passada
alternativa
criticar una acci passada

La veu passiva
TEMPS VERBAL

Infinitiu i forma en -ing


VEU ACTIVA

Present simple
Present continuous
Present perfect
Past simple
Past continuous

open
is opening
has opened
opened
was opening

Past perfect
will
be going to

had opened
will open
is going to open

VEU PASSIVA
is opened
is being opened
has been opened
was opened
was being
opened
had been opened
will be opened
is going to be
opened

Veu activa veu passiva


Quan es passa una frase de la veu activa a la veu passiva,
lobjecte es converteix en subjecte de la nova oraci.
Activa: The driver
subjecte

opened
verb

the door.
objecte

VERBS
admit
avoid
cant stand
cant imagine
consider
dont mind
enjoy

USOS
finish
imagine
mention
miss
practise
report
suggest

noms amb la forma en -ing

afford
agree
arrange
ask
attempt
choose
decide
expect

hope
learn
manage
pretend
promise
seem
want

noms amb to + infinitiu

begin
like
hate

love
prefer
start

amb linfinitiu o amb la forma en


-ing

La forma en -ing amb funci de substantiu


subjecte
Passiva: The door

verb

(by + agent)

was opened (by the driver).

s de la veu passiva
La veu passiva emfatitza lacci (= el verb) per damunt de qui
la fa (= lagent).

El causatiu
El causatiu sutilitza per descriure accions que alg o alguna
cosa porta a terme per nosaltres.

He had his shoes cleaned. (= Ell no es va netejar les

sabates.)

El causatiu es construeix amb have / get + objecte + participi


passat.
Have i get poden aparixer en qualsevol temps verbal, per
get se sol fer servir en frases menys formals. Igual que en la
veu passiva, by + agent es pot ometre si no sespecifica qui o
qu fa lacci.

La forma en -ing pot fer la funci de substantiu, sovint com a


subjecte de la frase.

Living in a capital city can be very expensive.

Oracions condicionals
FORMA

USOS

De primer grau
if / unless + present simple,
will + infinitiu
O
will + infinitiu if / unless +
present simple
De segon grau
if + past simple, would +
infinitiu
O
would + infinitiu if + past
simple
De tercer grau
if + past perfect, would have
+ participi passat
O
would have + participi passat
if + past perfect

fets possibles o probables en el


futur

situacions hipottiques ara o en


el futur

fets hipottics del passat

Gramtica essencial 121

Phrasal Verbs (verbs amb partcula)


PHRASAL VERB

PRONUNCIACI

DEFINICI

ask out

/sk at/

demanar una cita a alg

break into

/brek nt/

entrar en un lloc per la fora

break up with

/brek p w/

tallar amb alg

bring in

/br n/

introduir una nova llei, etc.

bring up

/br p/

criar i cuidar-se dun nen o una nena

bump into

/bmp nt/

trobar-se amb alg per casualitat

call round

/kl rand/

visitar alg a casa seva

carry out

/kri at/

dur a terme una tasca, un estudi, etc.

catch on

/kt n/

fer-se popular o posar-se de moda

chop up

/tp p/

tallar a trossets, picar

come across

/km krs/

trobar alguna cosa per casualitat

come along / go along

/km l/ / l/

acompanyar alg

come round / over

/km rand/ /v(r)/

visitar alg en un lloc

come together (as a group)

/km te(r)/

ajuntar-se amb altres persones per crear un grup unit

cover up

/kvr p/

encobrir errors o accions illegals daltres persones

cut out

/kt at/

deixar de menjar, dutilitzar o de fer alguna cosa

dish up

/d p/

emplatar menjar

dress up

/dres p/

mudar-se, posar-se roba elegant o especial

drop off

/drp f/

deixar alg en algun lloc

eat out

/it at/

menjar fora (en un restaurant, en una cafeteria, etc.)

end up

/end p/

trobar-se en un lloc, una situaci, etc.

feel like

/fil lak/

venir de gust prendre o fer alguna cosa

find out

/fand at/

descobrir, obtenir informaci preguntant, llegint, etc.

get on

/et n/

pujar a un autobs, tren, etc.

get on (well) with

/et n (wel) w/

avenir-se amb alg

get over

/et v(r)/

superar una situaci o un fet del passat

give back

/v bk/

tornar alguna cosa al seu amo o mestressa

give up

/v p/

cedir, oferir una cosa nostra a una altra persona

go ahead

/ hed/

seguir, avanar en alguna cosa

go away

/ wei/

anar-sen (de casa) durant un temps

go back

/ bk/

tornar a un lloc

go off

/ f/

passar-se (el menjar)

go on

/ n/

continuar fent alguna cosa

go out

/ at/

sortir de casa

go out with

/ at w/

sortir amb alg com a parella

go through

/ ru/

experimentar alguna cosa

go with

/ w/

combinar amb alguna cosa

go without

/ wat/

passar sense alguna cosa, no tenir alguna cosa

hand out

/hnd at/

donar, lliurar alguna cosa a alg

122 Phrasal verbs

PHRASAL VERB

PRONUNCIACI

DEFINICI

have round

/hv rand/

invitar alg a casa nostra

hear of

/hr v/

descobrir alguna cosa perqu alg ens lha explicat

join in

/dn n/

participar en una activitat amb altres persones

kick off

/kk f/

comenar (una reuni, un acte, etc.)

let on

/let n/

explicar un secret a alg

listen out for

/lsn at f(r)/

estar preparat per sentir / escoltar alguna cosa

look after (yourself)

/lk ft(r)/

tenir cura dalguna cosa, dalg, etc.

look for

/lk f(r)/

buscar

look into

/lk nt/

analitzar alguna cosa

meet up with

/mit p w/

reunir-se amb alg

own up to

/n p t/

reconixer la nostra responsabilitat en alguna cosa

pack out (the streets / square)

/pk at/

omplir de gent (els carrers / una plaa)

pick at

/pk t/

picar, menjar en petites quantitats

pick up

/pk p/

agafar i alar alguna cosa o alg

pig out

/p at/

afartar-se de menjar

pull on

/pl n/

posar-se (unas botes, uns pantalons, etc.)

pull over

/pl v(r)/

decantar-se a un costat de la carretera amb el cotxe

put on (a show)

/pt n/

fer una representaci davant dels altres

put up

/pt p/

collocar alguna cosa on es vegi

put up with

/pt p w/

suportar, acceptar alguna cosa o alg sense protestar

rip off

/rp f/

estafar alg

run over

/rn v(r)/

atropellar alg amb el cotxe

see through

/si ru/

no abandonar una tasca, etc. fins a haver-la fet

set off (fireworks)

/set f/

preparar els focs artificials perqu explotin

set up

/set p/

parar una trampa a alg per fer-lo semblar culpable

sniff around

/snf rand/

ensumar, mirar dobtenir informaci sobre alg o alguna cosa

square up

/skwer p/

preparar-se per enfrontar-se a alg

stamp out

/stmp at/

eliminar alguna cosa

stand up for

/stnd p f(r)/

donar suport a alg o defensar-lo

stand up to

/stnd p t/

enfrontar-se a una mala situaci, no acceptar-la dentrada

stay in

/ste n/

quedar-se a casa, no sortir

swallow up

/swl p/

absorbir, utilitzar alguna cosa fins a acabar-la

take (time) off

/tek f/

agafar-se temps lliure a lescola o a la feina

take out

/tek at/

treure diners, etc. dun compte, etc.

tell off

/tel f/

renyar alg perqu ha fet alguna cosa malament

touch on

/tt n/

tocar un tema sense entrar en detalls

turn up

/tn p/

arribar a un lloc, aparixer, presentar-se

warm up

/wm p/

escalfar un menjar

whip up

/wp p/

preparar rpidamente un menjar

wrap up

/rp p/

embolicar-se amb roba dabric

Phrasal verbs 123

Verbs irregulars
INFINITIU
be
bear
beat
become
begin
bend
bet
bite
bleed
blow
break
bring
build
burn
buy
catch
choose
come
cost
cut
dig
do
draw
dream
drink
drive
eat
fall
feed
feel
fight
find
fly
forbid
forget
forgive
freeze
get
give
go
grow
hang
have
hear
hit
hold
hurt
keep
know
lead
learn
leave
lend
let
lie
light

126 Verbs irregulars

PAST SIMPLE
/bi/
/be(r)/
/bit/
/bkm/
/bgn/
/bend/
/bet/
/bat/
/blid/
/bl/
/brek/
/br/
/bld/
/bn/
/ba/
/kt/
/tuz/
/km/
/kst/
/kt/
/dg/
/du/
/dr/
/drim/
/drk/
/drav/
/it/
/fl/
/fid/
/fil/
/fat/
/fand/
/fla/
/fbd/
/fget/
/fgv/
/friz/
/get/
/gv/
/g/
/gr/
/h/
/hv/
/h(r)/
/ht/
/hld/
/ht/
/kip/
/n/
/lid/
/ln/
/liv/
/lend/
/let/
/la/
/lat/

was / were
bore
beat
became
began
bent
bet
bit
bled
blew
broke
brought
built
burned, burnt
bought
caught
chose
came
cost
cut
dug
did
drew
dreamed, dreamt
drank
drove
ate
fell
fed
felt
fought
found
flew
forbade
forgot
forgave
froze
got
gave
went
grew
hung
had
heard
hit
held
hurt
kept
knew
led
learned, learnt
left
lent
let
lay
lit

PARTICIPI PASSAT
/wz/, /w(r)/
/b/
/bit/
/bkem/
/bgn/
/bent/
/bet/
/bt/
/bled/
/blu/
/brk/
/brt/
/blt/
/bnd/, /bnt/
/bt/
/kt/
/tz/
/kem/
/kst/
/kt/
/dg/
/dd/
/dru/
/drimd/, /dremt/
/drk/
/drv/
/et/
/fel/
/fed/
/felt/
/ft/
/fand/
/flu/
/fbed/
/fgt/
/fgev/
/frz/
/gt/
/gev/
/went/
/gru/
/h/
/hd/
/hd/
/ht/
/held/
/ht/
/kept/
/nju/
/led/
/lnd/, /lnt/
/left/
/lent/
/let/
/le/
/lt/

been
borne
beaten
become
begun
bent
bet
bitten
bled
blown
broken
brought
built
burned, burnt
bought
caught
chosen
come
cost
cut
dug
done
drawn
dreamed, dreamt
drunk
driven
eaten
fallen
fed
felt
fought
found
flown
forbidden
forgotten
forgiven
frozen
got
given
been / gone
grown
hung
had
heard
hit
held
hurt
kept
known
led
learned, learnt
left
lent
let
lain
lit

/bin/
/bn/
/bitn/
/bkm/
/bgn/
/bent/
/bet/
/btn/
/bled/
/bln/
/brkn/
/brt/
/blt/
/bnd/, /bnt/
/bt/
/kt/
/tzn/
/km/
/kst/
/kt/
/dg/
/dn/
/drn/
/drimd/, /dremt/
/drk/
/drvn/
/itn/
/fln/
/fed/
/felt/
/ft/
/fand/
/fln/
/fbdn/
/fgtn/
/fgvn/
/frzn/
/gt/
/gvn/
/bin/, /gn/
/grn/
/h/
/hd/
/hd/
/ht/
/held/
/ht/
/kept/
/nn/
/led/
/lnd/, /lnt/
/left/
/lent/
/let/
/len/
/lt/

INFINITIU
lose
make
mean
meet
pay
put
read
ride
ring
rise
run
say
see
sell
send
shake
shine
shoot
show
shut
sing
sink
sit
sleep
smell
speak
spell
spend
spill
spin
split
spoil
spread
spring
stand
steal
stick
sting
sweep
swim
swing
take
teach
tear
tell
think
throw
understand
wake
wear
win
write

PAST SIMPLE
/luz/
/mek/
/min/
/mit/
/pe/
/pt/
/rid/
/rad/
/r/
/raz/
/rn/
/se/
/si/
/sel/
/send/
/ek/
/an/
/ut/
//
/t/
/s/
/sk/
/st/
/slip/
/smel/
/spik/
/spel/
/spend/
/spl/
/spn/
/splt/
/spl/
/spred/
/spr/
/stnd/
/stil/
/stk/
/st/
/swip/
/swm/
/sw/
/tek/
/tit/
/te(r)/
/tel/
/k/
/r/
/ndstnd/
/wek/
/we(r)/
/wn/
/rat/

lost
made
meant
met
paid
put
read
rode
rang
rose
ran
said
saw
sold
sent
shook
shone
shot
showed
shut
sang
sank
sat
slept
smelled, smelt
spoke
spelled, spelt
spent
spilt
spun
split
spoiled, spoilt
spread
sprang
stood
stole
stuck
stung
swept
swam
swung
took
taught
tore
told
thought
threw
understood
woke
wore
won
wrote

PARTICIPI PASSAT
/lst/
/med/
/ment/
/met/
/ped/
/pt/
/red/
/rd/
/r/
/rz/
/rn/
/sed/
/s/
/sld/
/sent/
/k/
/n/
/t/
/d/
/t/
/s/
/sk/
/st/
/slept/
/smeld/, /smelt/
/spk/
/speld/, /spelt/
/spent/
/splt/
/spn/
/splt/
/spld/, /splt/
/spred/
/spr/
/std/
/stl/
/stk/
/st/
/swept/
/swm/
/sw/
/tk/
/tt/
/t/
/tld/
/t/
/ru/
/ndstd/
/wk/
/w(r)/
/wn/
/rt/

/lst/
/med/
/ment/
/met/
/ped/
/pt/
/red/
/rdn/
/r/
/rzn/
/rn/
/sed/
/sin/
/sld/
/sent/
/ekn/
/n/
/t/
/n/
/t/
/s/
/sk/
/st/
/slept/
/smeld/, /smelt/
/spkn/
/speld/, /spelt/
/spent/
/splt/
/spn/
/splt/
/spld/, /splt/
/spred/
/spr/
/std/
/stln/
/stk/
/st/
/swept/
/swm/
/sw/
/tekn/
/tt/
/tn/
/tld/
/t/
/rn/
/ndstd/
/wkn/
/wn/
/wn/
/rtn/

lost
made
meant
met
paid
put
read
ridden
rung
risen
run
said
seen
sold
sent
shaken
shone
shot
shown
shut
sung
sunk
sat
slept
smelled, smelt
spoken
spelled, spelt
spent
spilt
spun
split
spoiled, spoilt
spread
sprung
stood
stolen
stuck
stung
swept
swum
swung
taken
taught
torn
told
thought
thrown
understood
woken
worn
won
written

Verbs irregulars 127