You are on page 1of 260

   

       


    
              
        
             
  
            
   
        
           
 
              
                  
                       
               

               
    
              !
   

   "           !
   
 "  
        

 
  
   
      
   !

    # $%&        


    
!
   

 
  


      
 

   


 
'( )
'*+(,  ,
     ,
 -" "
 -" . %--
 
-
     /  
- 
011(-   2
/  
     3   01'4
2  
  " 5% /-627
,-" 




   
   
 
 
  


 



 !


 
  
       



 
  
   
    

 



 


  
           
                

 
     !  
  
"        #      $  !%
 !      &  $   '     
'    ($     '   # %  %
)   %*   %'   $  ' 
   +  " %    &
 '  !  #     
    $, 
 ( $

    
    -         .   
                   
  
             !  
"-                   (     %
            
   
 .  
   %   %   %   % 
      $             $      $ -  
             -            

            - -
// $$$   
0  
&  1 
     

2& )*3/ +)


* !4 !& 5!6%55787&  %  ) 9 
:   ! 
*   &
    
 
; "-./%< -
.$%   =>>8%8?7>
/- @8?7>2& )*3/ +)
"A   "    &  8?7>




Applying Total Quality Management Concepts to
Land Administration










Zahir Ali












Dedicated to my wife Safia Zahir




Preface
(YDOXDWLRQ DQG DVVHVVPHQW RI ODQG DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ V\VWHP /$6 
KDVEHHQJHWWLQJPRUHDWWHQWLRQRYHUWKHODVWIHZ\HDUV'LIIHUHQW
DVVHVVPHQW DSSURDFKHV KDYH

EHHQ WULHG DFURVV ODQG

DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ V\VWHPV DW LQWHUQDWLRQDO OHYHO WR DVVHVV WKH


SHUIRUPDQFH RI WKHVH V\VWHPV EXW WKH DWWHQWLRQ LV JLYHQ WR RQO\
WKRVH SDUDPHWHUV ZKLFK DUH FRPPRQ WR DOO WKHVH V\VWHPV ,Q
VRPHFDVHVOHJDODQGWHFKQLFDOSDUDPHWHUVDUHFRQVLGHUHGZKLOH
LQVWLWXWLRQDO DQG RUJDQLVDWLRQDO SDUDPHWHUV JRW PRUH DWWHQWLRQ LQ
RWKHUV 7KHUH KDYH EHHQ D IHZ HIIRUWV WR VWDQGDUGLVH WKH
SURFHGXUHV IRU DVVHVVLQJ WKH SHUIRUPDQFH RI ODQG DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ
V\VWHPV DW LQWHUQDWLRQDO OHYHO EXW QR LQWHUQDWLRQDOO\ DFFHSWHG RU
VWDQGDUGLVHGPHWKRGLVWKHUHWRDVVHVVWKHTXDOLW\RIDVWDQGDORQH
/$67KHUHLVDQHHGWRGHYHORSDTXDOLW\DVVHVVPHQWIUDPHZRUN
IRUDVVHVVLQJWKHTXDOLW\RIDVWDQGDORQH/$6LQDFRXQWU\WDNLQJ
LQWR DFFRXQW DOO LWV FRPSRQHQWV DQG SDUDPHWHUV DV SHU TXDOLW\
UHTXLUHPHQWV
7KH ILUVW SDUW RI WKLV ERRN LGHQWLILHV DQG DQDO\VHV D VHW RI
VWUXFWXUHG WKHRULHV DV D FRQFHSWXDO IUDPHZRUN 7KH IUDPHZRUN
GHILQHV FRQFHSWV RQ WKH WZR LPSRUWDQW VHWV RI DVSHFWV RI /$6
QDPHO\ WKH LQVWLWXWLRQDO DQG WHFKQLFDO 7KH LQVWLWXWLRQDO RQHV DUH
ORRNHGDWZLWKLQWKUHHEDVLFFDWHJRULHVRILQVWLWXWLRQVQDPHO\WKH
FRQVWLWXWLRQDO RUGHU LQVWLWXWLRQDO DUUDQJHPHQWV DQG QRUPDWLYH
EHKDYLRXUDO FRGHV 7KH WHFKQLFDO RQHV DUH FRQVLGHUHG DW WKUHH
RUJDQLVDWLRQDO OHYHOV QDPHO\ VWUDWHJLFSROLF\ OHYHO PDQDJHPHQW
OHYHODQGRSHUDWLRQDOOHYHO7KHVHFRQFHSWVDUHFRQVLGHUHGDVWKH
EDVLVIRUGHVLJQLQJWKH/$6TXDOLW\DVVHVVPHQWIUDPHZRUN



7KH VHFRQG SDUW RI WKLV ERRN H[SORUHV WKH LVVXHV RI WKH H[LVWLQJ
/$6 LQ 3DNLVWDQ WR XQGHUVWDQG WKH SUHVHQW VLWXDWLRQ DQG LGHQWLI\
WKH PRVW LPSRUWDQW HOHPHQWV RI WKH V\VWHP $Q H[SORUDWRU\ FDVH
VWXG\DSSURDFKLVXVHGLQWKLVFDVHWRFROOHFWERWKTXDOLWDWLYHDQG
TXDQWLWDWLYHGDWDIRUDQDO\VLQJWKHLVVXHVRIWKHH[LVWLQJ/$67KH
TXDOLWDWLYH GDWD ZDV FROOHFWHG WKURXJK LQWHUYLHZV VWUXFWXUHG DQG
VHPLVWUXFWXUHG  ZLWK VWDNHKROGHUV LQFOXGLQJ ODQG DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ
DJHQF\ RIILFLDOV ODQG RZQHUV UHDO HVWDWH DJHQWV DQG ODZ
SURIHVVLRQDOV
7KH WKLUG SDUW RI WKLV ERRN FRQFHUQV WKH TXDOLW\ DVVHVVPHQW RI
/$6 XVLQJ WKH TXDOLW\ DVVHVVPHQW IUDPHZRUN $Q H[SODQDWRU\
FDVH VWXG\ DSSURDFK LV DGRSWHG LQ WKLV FDVH WR XQGHUVWDQG WKH
TXDOLW\ VLWXDWLRQ RI WKH H[LVWLQJ /$6 E\ FROOHFWLQJ ERWK WKH
TXDOLWDWLYH DQG TXDQWLWDWLYH GDWD WKURXJK YLVLWV LQWHUYLHZV
PHHWLQJV DQG TXHVWLRQQDLUHV XVLQJ WKH GHVLJQHG TXDOLW\
DVVHVVPHQWIUDPHZRUN7KHTXDOLW\LQGLFDWRUVIRUHOHPHQWVRIWKH
LQVWLWXWLRQDO DQG WHFKQLFDO DVSHFWV RI /$6 ZHUH DQDO\VHG 7KH
DQDO\VLV RI WKLV GDWD SUHVHQWHG D FOHDU XQGHUVWDQGLQJ RI WKH
SUHVHQW VWDWXV RI WKHVH TXDOLW\ LQGLFDWRUV LQ WKH H[LVWLQJ /$6 RI
3DNLVWDQ
7KH ODVW SDUW RI WKLV ERRN GHYHORSV D VHW RI JXLGHOLQHV WR DSSO\
WRWDO TXDOLW\ PDQDJHPHQW FRQFHSWV WR /$6 LQ JHQHUDO DQG
HVSHFLDOO\ LQ 3DNLVWDQ $V KDV EHHQ VKRZQ IRU WKH FDVH RI
3DNLVWDQWKHGHVLJQHGTXDOLW\DVVHVVPHQWIUDPHZRUNIRU/$6FDQ
EH XVHG WR DVVHVV DQ H[LVWLQJ VWDQGDORQH V\VWHP DQG SULRULWL]H
HOHPHQWV WR EH DGGUHVVHG WKURXJK WKH TXDOLW\ LPSURYHPHQW
JXLGHOLQHV$OWKRXJKWKHIUDPHZRUNFDQEHWKHVWDUWLQJSRLQWRID
VLPLODU DVVHVVPHQW LQ DQRWKHU FRXQWU\ WKH FRXQWU\ VSHFLILFV ZLOO
DOZD\VOHDGWRDGDSWDWLRQIRUWKDWVLWXDWLRQ


Acknowledgements
$OOWKDQNVWRDOPLJKW\$OODKZKRJDYHPHWKHFRXUDJHWRFRPSOHWH
WKLVWDVNVXFFHVVIXOO\0DQ\SHRSOHDQGWKLQJVFDPHLQWRP\PLQG
ZKHQ,VWDUWHGWRZULWHWKLVDFNQRZOHGJHPHQW7KH\KHOSHGPHD
ORW LQ DOO NLQGV RI WURXEOHV WKURXJK WKH KDUG WLPHV HVSHFLDOO\ LQ
VKDSLQJP\EHDXWLIXOOLIH
7KH ILUVW DQG PRVW RQH , ZRXOG OLNH WR WKDQN 3URI -DDS
=HYHQEHUJHQ 'U $UELQG 7XODGKDU DQG 3URI 3DXO YDQ GHU 0ROHQ
RI ,7& 8QLYHUVLW\ RI 7ZHQWH WKH 1HWKHUODQGV IRU WKHLU GHGLFDWLYH
DQG HQWKXVLDVWLF UHYLVLRQ WR P\ ZRUN 7KHLU JHQWOH ZRUNLQJ VW\OH
KDV SRVLWLYHO\ LQIOXHQFHG P\ JURZWK DQG UHVHDUFK VNLOOV
XQDPELJXRXVO\
, ZRXOG DOVR OLNH WR WKDQN P\ H[ERVV $EGXO 1DVLU ODWH  +H ZDV
WKH SHUVRQ ZKR PRWLYDWHG PH IRU GLUHFWLQJ PH WR GR UHVHDUFK LQ
WKLV ILHOG +LV PRUDO VXSSRUW DQG NLQG FRRSHUDWLRQ DOZD\V
HQFRXUDJHG PH WR FRQWLQXH P\ VWXGLHV DEURDG , DOZD\V
DSSUHFLDWH KLV IULHQGO\ EHKDYLRXU DQG VXSSRUW LQ DOO P\ SUREOHPV
WKDW,IDFHGLQP\RIILFLDODQGSHUVRQDOOLIH0D\$OODKEOHVVKLPLQ
KHUHDIWHU DQG SODFH KLV VRXO LQ KHDYHQ DW WKH KLJKHVW SRVLWLRQ
$PLQ 
,DOVRWKDQNP\GHDUHVWIULHQGV7D\\HE=DPDQ $GYRFDWH DQG0LU
6DUGDU $IULGL IRU WKHLU NLQG FRRSHUDWLRQ LQ P\ ILHOGZRUN
TXHVWLRQQDLUH SUHSDUDWLRQ DV ZHOO DV LQWHUYLHZLQJ WKH ODZ\HU
FRPPXQLW\DQGUHDOHVWDWHDJHQWVGXULQJWKHGDWDFROOHFWLRQLQWKH
ILHOG , DOVR DFNQRZOHGJH 1RXPDQ 6KDK -DGRRQ 0%5 
.LID\DWXOODK .KDQ '/5  $MPDO %KDWWL 62  =DUZDOL .KDQ
3DWZDUL  DQG RWKHU VWDNHKROGHUV LQWHUYLHZHG IRU WKHLU DVVLVWDQFH
LQWKHGDWDFROOHFWLRQ


Contents
Preface .................................................................................................... 3
Acknowledgements ............................................................................... 5
Contents ................................................................................................. 6
List of Tables.......................................................................................... 9
List of Figures ...................................................................................... 10
Terminologies and Definitions ........................................................... 11
List of Abbreviations ........................................................................... 23
1. Land Administration System and Quality Concepts ..................25
 /DQG$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ6\VWHP
 )XQFWLRQV &RPSRQHQWVRI/DQG$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ6\VWHP
 )XQFWLRQVRI/DQG$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ6\VWHP
 &RPSRQHQWVRI/DQG$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ6\VWHP
 4XDOLW\DQG7RWDO4XDOLW\0DQDJHPHQW/LWHUDWXUH5HYLHZ
 (YDOXDWLQJWKH4XDOLW\RI/DQG$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ6\VWHP
 $VVHVVLQJ/DQG$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ6\VWHPV
 4XDOLW\,PSURYHPHQWRI/DQG$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ6\VWHP
 /DQG$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ6\VWHPV$VSHFWV
 ,QVWLWXWLRQDO$VSHFW
 7HFKQLFDO$VSHFW
 /DQG$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ4XDOLW\(OHPHQWV
2. Case Study Methodology and Cadastral Research .................... 55
 &DVH6WXG\0HWKRGRORJ\
 ([SORUDWRU\&DVH6WXG\
 ([SODQDWRU\&DVH6WXG\
 6WDJHVRID&DVH6WXG\0HWKRGRORJ\
 'HVLJQLQJ&DGDVWUDO5HVHDUFK
 5HVHDUFK6WUDWHJLHV


 /LWHUDWXUH5HYLHZ
 &DVH6WXGLHV
 5HVHDUFK6DPSOH
3. Exploratory Case Study in Pakistan ........................................... 75
 +LVWRULFDO%DFNJURXQGRI/DQG$GPLQLVWUDWLRQLQ3DNLVWDQ
 /DQG2ZQHUVKLS3DWWHUQVLQ3DNLVWDQ
 *RYHUQPHQW/DQG
 3ULYDWH/DQG
 9LOODJH&RPPRQ/DQG
 /DQG$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ6\VWHPLQ3DNLVWDQ
 2UJDQLVDWLRQDO)UDPHZRUN
 /HJLVODWLYH)UDPHZRUN
 /DQG$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ3URFHVVHV
 0DLQWHQDQFHRI/DQG5HFRUGV
 $QDO\VLVRI,QVWLWXWLRQDODQG7HFKQLFDO$VSHFWVRI/$6
 ,QVWLWXWLRQDO$VSHFW$QDO\VLV
 7HFKQLFDO$VSHFW$QDO\VLV
 ,PSRUWDQW(OHPHQWVRIWKH4XDOLW\$VVHVVPHQW)UDPHZRUN
4. Explanatory Case Study in Pakistan ......................................... 103
 )UDPHZRUN ,QGLFDWRUVIRU(YDOXDWLQJWKH4XDOLW\RI/$6
 4XDOLW\,QGLFDWRUVIRU,QVWLWXWLRQDO$VSHFWV(OHPHQWV
 4XDOLW\,QGLFDWRUVIRU7HFKQLFDO$VSHFWV(OHPHQWV
 $VVHVVLQJWKH4XDOLW\6LWXDWLRQRIH[LVWLQJ/$6
 4XDOLW\$VVHVVPHQWRI,QVWLWXWLRQDO$VSHFW
 4XDOLW\$VVHVVPHQWRI7HFKQLFDO$VSHFW
5. Discussing the Quality Assessment Framework ..................... 139
 6\VWHPDWLFXVHRI&DVH6WXG\0HWKRGRORJ\
 /$64XDOLW\$VVHVVPHQW)UDPHZRUN
 ,QGLFDWRUVDQG9DULDEOHVIRU/$64XDOLW\$VVHVVPHQW


 6\QWKHVLVRI,QVWLWXWLRQDO$VSHFW
 6\QWKHVLVRI7HFKQLFDO$VSHFW
6. Quality Improvement Guidelines ............................................... 155
 /$64XDOLW\,PSURYHPHQW)UDPHZRUN
 4XDOLW\,PSURYHPHQW*XLGHOLQHVRQ4XDOLW\,QVSHFWLRQ
 4XDOLW\,PSURYHPHQW*XLGHOLQHVRQ4XDOLW\&RQWURO
 4XDOLW\,PSURYHPHQW*XLGHOLQHVRQ4XDOLW\$VVXUDQFH
7. Conclusions and Recommendations......................................... 171
 &RQFOXVLRQV
 5HFRPPHQGDWLRQV
References ......................................................................................... 177
Appendices ........................................................................................ 194




List of Tables
7DEOH)DFWVKHHWDERXW.K\EHU3DNKWXQNKZD
7DEOH,QGLFDWRUV YDULDEOHVIRULQVWLWXWLRQDODVSHFW
7DEOH,QGLFDWRUV YDULDEOHVIRUWHFKQLFDODVSHFW
7DEOH$FFHVVWRIRUPDOFUHGLWV
7DEOH/DQGGLVSXWHV
7DEOH6WDNHKROGHUVYLHZRQODQG/$SURFHVVHV
7DEOH6WDNHKROGHUVYLHZRQODQGUHJLVWUDWLRQ WUDQVIHU
7DEOH$FFHVVWRODQGGDWD
7DEOH4XDOLW\VLWXDWLRQRILQVWLWXWLRQDODVSHFW
7DEOH4XDOLW\VLWXDWLRQRIWHFKQLFDODVSHFW




List of Figures
)LJXUH$JOREDOODQGDGPLQLVWUDWLRQSHUVSHFWLYH
)LJXUH&RPSRQHQWVRI/$6
)LJXUH6WDJHVRI740GHYHORSPHQW
)LJXUH7RSYLHZRI/$6SULVP
)LJXUH0HWKRGRORJLFDOIUDPHZRUNIRUXVLQJ&60
)LJXUH/RFDWLRQRIILHOGZRUNVWXG\DUHDV
)LJXUH$GPLQLVWUDWLYHKLHUDUFK\RI/$LQ3DNLVWDQ
)LJXUH2UJDQLVDWLRQDOVWUXFWXUHRI%25DW3URYLQFLDOOHYHO
)LJXUH6WUXFWXUHRI5HYHQXH&RXUWVLQ.3SURYLQFH
)LJXUH$VDPSOHFDGDVWUDOPDS 0XVDYL 
)LJXUH)UDPHZRUNIRUDVVHVVLQJWKHTXDOLW\RI/$6
)LJXUH/DQGGLVSXWHVWUHQGLQ6ZDELGLVWULFW
)LJXUH)HHVDQGFRVWVVWUXFWXUH
)LJXUH3URFHGXUHVLQODQGGLVSXWHUHVROXWLRQ
)LJXUH5HFRUG SURFHVVUHOLDELOLW\
)LJXUH*HR,&7DGDSWLRQ
)LJXUH/DQGUHFRUGURRPDWGLVWULFWOHYHO
)LJXUH/DQGLQIRUPDWLRQXSGDWLRQ
)LJXUH$QH[LVWLQJFDGDVWUDOPDS
)LJXUH5HFRUGURRPIRUFDGDVWUDOPDSV
)LJXUH(IILFLHQF\LQVHUYLFHV
)LJXUH/$6TXDOLW\DVVHVVPHQWIUDPHZRUN
)LJXUH/$6DVSHFWVDQGGLVWULEXWLRQRIWKHLUHOHPHQWV
)LJXUH/$64XDOLW\,PSURYHPHQW)UDPHZRUN




Terminologies and Definitions


Term

Definition / Description

Abadi Deh

6LWHRIDYLOODJHZKHUHSUHGRPLQDQWO\SHRSOH
OLYH

Agricultural

,WLVDGRFXPHQWZKLFKFRQILUPVODQG

Passbook

RZQHUVKLSRIWKHIDUPHUVDQGLWLVLVVXHGE\
WKHFRQFHUQHGRIILFLDOIURPUHYHQXHUHFRUGVRI
WKH3URYLQFLDO'LVWULFW&LW\*RYHUQPHQWV

Akhier Tasdiq

'XULQJWKHSURFHVVRIFUHDWLQJWKHQHZ

Register Haqdaran +DTGDUDQ=DPLQGRFXPHQWWKH7HKVLOGDURU


Zamin

1DLE7HKVLOGDUFUHDWHVWKLVGRFXPHQWWRYHULI\
WKDWDOOWKHPXWDWLRQVKDYHEHHQLQFRUSRUDWHG
LQWRWKHQHZGRFXPHQWE\3DWZDUL

Badastur

8QDOWHUHGRU6DPH$V

Bai

:KHQHYHUDSHUVRQVHOOVKLVODQGHLWKHU
FRPSOHWHO\RUSDUWLDOO\WRDQRWKHUSHUVRQWKLV
W\SHRIPXWDWLRQLVNQRZQDV%DLRU6DOH
,QIRUPDWLRQUHFRUGHGLQWKLVFDVHLV6DOH'HHG
1RGDWHRI5HJLVWU\DQGDPRXQWRI
5HJLVWUDWLRQHWF

Banjar

8QFXOWLYDWHGODQG

Banjar Jadeed

1HZIDOORZODQGZKLFKLVQRWFXOWLYDWHGIRU
FRQWLQXRXVIRXUKDUYHVWVWKRXJKLWZDV
FXOWLYDWHGHDUOLHU

Banjar Qadeem

2OGIDOORZODQGZKLFKLVFRQWLQXHGWREH
XQFXOWLYDWHGIRUQH[WIRXUKDUYHVWV

Barani

/DQGZKLFKLVGHSHQGHQWRQUDLQIDOO

Chahi

,UULJDWHGIURPZHOO


Term

Definition / Description

Chahi Nehri

,UULJDWHGSDUWO\IURPDZHOODQGSDUWO\IURP
FDQDO

Copy of Mutation

(DFK3DWZDULLVSURYLGHGZLWKDUHJLVWHUVR

Order

WKDWKHFDQLVVXHDIXUQLVKFRS\RI0XWDWLRQ
2UGHUWRWKHFRQFHUQHGSDUWLHV

Domicile

,WLVDGRFXPHQWZKLFKSURYHVWKDWDSHUVRQLV

Certificate

DUHVLGHQWRIDSODFHVLQFHKHWUDQVIHUUHGRU
RFFXSLHGDKRXVHZLWKDVSHFLILFDGGUHVV

Fak-Ur-Rehin

7KLVW\SHRIPXWDWLRQLVUHYHUVHSURFHVVRI

(Redemption deed

5HKLQ:KHQHYHUDSHUVRQ ZKRKDV

of Mortgage)

PRUWJDJHGKLVODQG ZDQWVWRJHWLWEDFNDIWHU
SD\LQJGXHVWRWKHPRUWJDJHHWKHW\SHRI
PXWDWLRQLVFDOOHG)DN8U5HKLQ,WFDQEHRI
WZRVXEW\SHV9HUEDO WKURXJK5R]QDPFKD 
RUWKURXJK5HJLVWU\,QFDVHRIYHUEDOW\SH
WKHGHWDLOVLQFOXGHW\SHRI0RUWJDJH6HULDO1R
RI5R]QDPFKD:DTLDWLDPRXQWRI0RUWJDJH
UHWXUQHGHWF,QFDVHRI5HJLVWU\WKH'HHG1R
LVDOVRUHFRUGHGLQDGGLWLRQWRWKHDERYH
LQIRUPDWLRQ

Fard

,WLVDWUXHFRS\RIWKH5HFRUGRI5LJKWVRI
RZQHUVKLSRIDODQG,WLVQRWWKHWLWOHGHHGLWVHOI
EXWUDWKHUWKDQDQHYLGHQFHRIWLWOH

Fard Taqseem Aab ,QDUHDVZKHUHODQGVDUHLUULJDWHGE\PHDQVRI


.DUH]RURWKHUVLPLODUVRXUFHDVWDWHPHQWRI
GLVWULEXWLRQRIZDWHU)DUG7DTVHHP$DELV
SUHSDUHGZKLFKVKRZVKRZZDWHUUHVRXUFHV
DUHGLVWULEXWHGLQWKHDUHD


Term

Definition / Description

Fard Bach

,WFRQWDLQVWKHGHWDLOVRIWKHGHPDQGRIODQG
UHYHQXHDQGWD[HVWKHUHRQUHFRYHUDEOHIURP
HDFKODQGRZQHULQDYLOODJH

Fard Badar

7KLVLVDVWDWHPHQWIRUWKHFRUUHFWLRQRIFOHULFDO
PLVWDNHVPDGHLQFRS\LQJWKHHQWULHVRI
5HJLVWHU+DTGDUDQ=DPLQ,WFRQVLVWVRIDIRLO
DQGFRXQWHUIRLO

Fard Malkiyat

7KLVGRFXPHQWLVDFRS\RIDSDJHRI5HJLVWHU
+DTGDUDQ=DPLQ

Field Book Mahaal

,WLVDSDUWRIWKH5HFRUGRI5LJKWDQG
FRQWDLQVIRUHDFK.KDVUDLWVOHQJWKDQG
EUHDWKFDOFXODWLRQRIDUHDDQGFODVVLILFDWLRQRI
VRLO,WLVSUHSDUHGDWWKHWLPHRI6HWWOHPHQW
DQGFRQVROLGDWLRQRIKROGLQJV(DFKHQWU\LQ
WKHERRNLVWREHVLJQHGE\.DQXQJR

Gardawar 

.DQXQJRRUVXSHUYLVRURI3DWZDULHV

Gardawari

$SURFHVVZKHUHE\LWLVGHWHUPLQHGZKRJURZV
ZKDWRQDSDUWLFXODUSDUFHORIODQG

Ghair Mumkin

$W\SHRIODQGRQZKLFKH[LVWLQJDUUDQJHPHQW
DUHGLIILFXOWWRPRYH

Hiba (Gift)

:KHQHYHUDSDUWRIFRPSOHWHODQGLVJLIWHGWR
VRPHSHUVRQWKHPXWDWLRQLVFDOOHG+LEDRU
*LIW7KHGHWDLOVRIWKHSHUVRQWRZKRPODQG
KDVEHHQJLIWHGDUHUHFRUGHG

Index Manzoor

7KLVUHJLVWHUFRQWDLQVDOOWKHDWWHVWHGDQG

Shudah Dakhil

DFFHSWHGPXWDWLRQV:KHQHYHUDQHZ

Kharij Mashmula

-DPDEDQGLLVPDGHDFRS\RIWKDWUHJLVWHULV
DWWDFKHGZLWKWKH-DPDEDQGL


Term

Definition / Description

Index Radeefwar

7KLVIRUPLVPHDQWWRORFDWHWKHRZQHUVDQG

Malikan and

PRUWJDJHVLQDQHVWDWHWKURXJKDQDOSKDEHWLFDO

Marthehan

LQGH[DQGWRILQGRXWWKHLUULJKWVLQYDULRXV
KROGLQJV .KHZDWV 

Index Survey/

7KLVIRUPVKRZVZKLFK.KDVUD SDUFHO 

Khasra Number

1XPEHUIDOOVLQZKLFK.KDWXQL1XPEHULQD
UHYHQXHHVWDWH

Interrogatories

'XULQJWKHPXWDWLRQSURFHVVLID3DWZDULILQGV
WKDWKHQHHGVWRUHFRUGWKHVWDWHPHQWRI
DQRWKHUSHUVRQIRUWKHGLVSRVDORIWKHFDVH
UHVLGLQJRXWVLGHWKHOLPLWVRIWKHWHKVLO7KHQ
WKH3DWZDULLVVXHVDQLQWHUURJDWRU\OHWWHUVWR
WKHFRQFHUQHGSHUVRQ

Intiqal

,WLVDPXWDWLRQZKLFKLVXVHGWRUHFRUG
WUDQVDFWLRQVRIODQG7KLVPD\LQFOXGHVDOHRI
ODQGJLIWRIODQGLQKHULWDQFHHWF

Kanungo

$.DQXQJRLVHLWKHUDUHYHQXHRIILFHURUD
MXQLRUUHYHQXHRIILFHU$MXQLRUUHYHQXHRIILFHU
LVFDOOHG*DUGDZDU$.DQXQJRLVLQFKDUJH
RIRQH.DQXQJR&LUFOH+HLVUHVSRQVLEOHIRU
RYHUVHHLQJWKH3DWZDUL
VODQGUHFRUGVDQGIRU
FURSDQGWHQDQF\DVVHVVPHQWV7KHODWWHU
IXQFWLRQLVWUDGLWLRQDOO\FDUULHGRXWE\D
*DUGDZDUEXWLQSUDFWLFHWKHWZRUROHVDUH
FDUULHGRXWE\RQHSHUVRQ+HRIILFLDOO\UHSRUWV
WR1DLE7HKVLOGDU

Kanungo Circle

$QDUHDZLWKLQDGLVWULFWDOORFDWHGWREH
VXSHUYLVHGE\D.DQXQJR2QH.DQXQJR


Term

Definition / Description
&LUFOHFRQVLVWVRI3DWZDU&LUFOHV

Karam

,WLVWKHXQLWRIOHQJWKWRPHDVXUHODQG,WYDULHV
IURPWHKVLOWRWHKVLODQGGLVWULFWWRGLVWULFW

Kharif

$XWXPQKDUYHVW

Khasra Number

,WLVDSORWQXPEHUJLYHQWRDVSHFLILFSLHFHRI
ODQGLQDYLOODJH7KLVODQGSDUFHO,'LVXQLTXH
IRUHDFKSDUFHOLQHDFKSDUWLFXODUHVWDWH2QH
RUPRUH.KDVUDIRUPD.KDWXQL7KH.KDVUD
1XPEHUVLQDYLOODJHDUHFUHDWHGDWWKHWLPHRI
6HWWOHPHQW

Khatuni Number

,WUHIHUVWRDVHWRIFXOWLYDWRUV.KDWXQL
1XPEHULVJLYHQWRWKHFXOWLYDWRUVLQWKH
.KHZDWDQGUXQVVHTXHQWLDOO\LQWKHYLOODJH
VWDUWLQJIURPWR1(DFK.KHZDWKDYHDW
OHDVWRQH.KDWXQLRUPRUH.KDWXQLHVEXW
DSSHDULQDVHTXHQFHZLWKLQWKH.KHZDWDQG
LQWKHYLOODJH2QH.KDWXQLPD\FRQWDLQPRUH
WKDQRQHODQGSDUFHOV

Khewat Number

$.KHZDW1XPEHULVWKHDFFRXQWQXPEHU
JLYHQWRRZQHU V ZKLFKIRUPDVHWRIFR
VKDUHUVZKRRZQWKHODQGLQVDPHRUGLIIHUHQW
SURSRUWLRQV,WLVDOVRDVHULDOQXPEHURIWKH
ODQGRZQHU V LQWKH5HJLVWHU+DTGDUDQ
=DPLQ(DFKRZQHU V KDVDXQLTXH.KHZDW
1XPEHU2QH.KHZDWPD\FRQWDLQPRUHWKDQ
RQH.KDWXQL

Khud Kasht 

/DQGFXOWLYDWHGE\WKHRZQHUKLPVHOI

Lal Kitab (Village

7KLVERRNSUHSDUHGDWWKHWLPHRI6HWWOHPHQW


Term

Definition / Description

Note Book)

,WKDVGHWDLOVDERXWWKHVWDWLVWLFVRIDYLOODJH
ODQGVHJWRWDODUHDDUHDVRZQDVVHVVPHQW
RIODQGUHYHQXHQXPEHURIHQWHUHGDQG
DWWHVWHGPXWDWLRQVQRWHVDERXWFKDQJHVLQ
FXOWLYDWLRQDQGRZQHUVKLSIRUWKHODVWIRXU
\HDUV,WDOVRVKRZVWKHSRSXODWLRQRIDYLOODJH
DQGDSSUR[LPDWHQXPEHURIOLYHVWRFN,WLVWKH
VWDWLVWLFDOERRNRIDYLOODJH

Lambardar or

$/DPEDUGDULVDSHUVRQLQWKHYLOODJHZKRLV

Headman

DSSRLQWHGE\'LVWULFW&ROOHFWRUXQGHUWKH/DQG
5HYHQXH$FW+LVGXWLHVDUHWKH
FROOHFWLRQRIODQGWD[HVRID5HYHQXH(VWDWH

Land

/DQGPHDQVODQGZKLFKLVQRWRFFXSLHGE\
WKHVLWHRIDWRZQYLOODJHIDFWRU\RULQGXVWULDO
HVWDEOLVKPHQWDQGLVRFFXSLHGRUKDVEHHQRU
FDQEHOHWIRUDJULFXOWXUDOSXUSRVHDOOLHGRU
VXEVHUYLHQWWRDJULFXOWXUHDQGLQFOXGHVWKH
VLWHVRIEXLOGLQJVDQGRWKHUVWUXFWXUHVRQVXFK
ODQG

Memoranda

$ORQJZLWKHYHU\PXWDWLRQDPHPRUDQGXPLV

Invoice

VHQWLQWKHIRUPRIDQLQYRLFH

Musavi

,WLVWKHPDSRIDUHYHQXHYLOODJHZKLFKLV
SUHSDUHGDWWKHWLPHRI6HWWOHPHQW,WVKRZV
DOOWKHILHOGVGXO\PHDVXUHGDQGQXPEHUHGLQ
DYLOODJH,WVXSGDWHGYHUVLRQLVFDOOHG6KDMUD
.LVWZDU

Naib-Tehsildar

+HLVDUHYHQXHRIILFHULQFKDUJHRIDWOHDVW
RQH.DQXQJR&LUFOH+HUHSRUWVWR7HKVLOGDU


Term

Definition / Description

Naqsha Haqooq

$VWDWHPHQWRIULJKWVLQZHOOVDQGWXEHZHOOV

Chahaat-o-Nul

WKDWFRQWDLQVLQIRUPDWLRQRQWKHORFDWLRQW\SH

Chahaat

VL]HDQGRZQHUVKLSRI:HOODQGWXEHZHOOVLQ
WKHDUHD

Nehri

,UULJDWHGIURPFDQDO

Parat Patwar

3DWZDULVFRS\RIWKHQHZVHWWOHPHQWUHFRUG

Parat Sarkar

*RYHUQPHQWVFRS\RIWKHQHZVHWWOHPHQW
UHFRUG

Parcha Khatuni

:KHQHYHUDQHZ-DPDEDQGLLVSUHSDUHGWKHQ
DFRS\RI3DUFKD.KDWXQLLVJLYHQWRDOOODQG
RZQHUVIRUYHULILFDWLRQ

Patwar Circle

$QDUHDZLWKLQD.DQXQJR&LUFOHDOORFDWHGWR
DSDUWLFXODU3DWZDULZKRSRVVHVVWKHRULJLQDO
ODQGUHFRUGVRIWKDWDUHD(DFK3DWZDU&LUFOH
FRYHUVEHWZHHQ5HYHQXH(VWDWHV$
5HYHQXH(VWDWHPD\EHDVLQJOHODUJHYLOODJH
RUWRVPDOOHUYLOODJHV

Patwari

$3DWZDULLVDQRIILFLDORIUHYHQXHGHSDUWPHQW
DQGLVWKHFXVWRGLDQRIUHYHQXHUHFRUG+HLV
WKHORZHVWUDQNLQJEXWWKHPRVWSRZHUIXO
PHPEHURIWKHUHYHQXHKLHUDUFK\+HDOVR
FDUULHVRXWFURSDVVHVVPHQW WZLFHD\HDUIRU
OHY\LQJJRYHUQPHQWWD[HV DQGWHQDQF\
VXUYH\

Rabi

6SULQJKDUYHVW

Receipt of

,QFDVHRIFROOHFWLRQRIPXWDWLRQIHHVLQ

Mutation Fee

DGYDQFHWKHFRUUHVSRQGLQJSHUVRQSD\VWKH
PXWDWLRQIHHWRWKHUHYHQXHRIILFHUDQGKH


Term

Definition / Description
LVVXHVDUHFHLSWWRWKHFRQFHUQHGSHUVRQ

Register Dakhil

,WLVDOVRNQRZQDV0XWDWLRQ5HJLVWHUZKLFK

Kharij

NHHSVWUDFNRIHYHU\PXWDWLRQ ,QWLTDO 7KLV


UHJLVWHUFRQVLVWVRIIRLODQGFRXQWHUIRLO7KH
FRXQWHUIRLOLVNHSWE\WKH3DWZDULIRUKLV
UHFRUGVZKLOHWKHIRLOFRS\LVIRUZDUGHGWR
WHKVLORIILFH

Register Haqdaran ,QFHUWDLQDUHDVWKHRZQHUVKLSRIGDWHWUHHVLV


Nakhlistan

FRQVLGHUHGWRDVVHVVUHYHQXH7KLVUHJLVWHU
GHWDLOVWKHFRPSOHWHLQIRUPDWLRQUHJDUGLQJ
QXPEHUW\SHDQGRZQHUVKLSRIGDWHWUHHV

Register Haqdaran 7KLVUHJLVWHUVKRZVWKHULJKWKROGHUVRIODQG


Zamin (Misal

LQFOXGLQJGHWDLOVRQRZQHUFXOWLYDWRUODQG

Miyadi)

VRLOUHQWHWFLWLVSUHSDUHGDWWKHWLPHRI
6HWWOHPHQWDQGLVXSGDWHGHYHU\IRXU\HDUV
IRULQFRUSRUDWLQJUHFHQWPXWDWLRQV

Register Jinswar

$VVRRQDVWKHILHOGLQVSHFWLRQRIDKDUYHVWLV
ILQLVKHGLQDQ\YLOODJHWKH3DWZDULFRPSOHWHV
WKHFURSDEVWUDFW -LQVZDU EHIRUHFRPPHQFLQJ
ZRUNLQWKHVHFRQGYLOODJH:KHQWKHILHOG
.DQXQJRFKHFNVWKHDEVWUDFWDQGVLJQVLWDV
FRUUHFWWKH3DWZDULHQWHUVDFRS\LQKLV
-LQVZDUUHJLVWHUDQGGLVSDWFKHVWKHDEVWUDFW
WRWKHRIILFH.DQXQJR

Register Khasra

7KLVUHJLVWHUFRQWDLQVWKHGHWDLOVRIWKH

Gardawari

LQVSHFWLRQRIFURSJURZQLQHDFKILHOGLQHDFK
KDUYHVWDQGDOOFKDQJHVRIRZQHUVKLSDQG
WHQDQF\,WLVDUHJLVWHURIKDUYHVWLQVSHFWLRQV


Term

Definition / Description
XQOLNH-DPDEDQGLZKLFKLV.KHZDWZLVHWKH
*DUGDZDULLV.KDVUDZLVH7KH3DWZDUL
FRQGXFWVDILHOGWRILHOGKDUYHVWLQVSHFWLRQ
HYHU\VL[PRQWKVLQWKHPRQWKRI2FWREHUDQG
$SULO+HUHFRUGVWKHSORWZLVHGHWDLOV
UHJDUGLQJFURSJURZQODQGGHVFULSWLRQDQG
VWDWXVRIWKHFXOWLYDWRU,WLVDWUDFNUHFRUGRI
WKHSRVVHVVLRQRIDSDUWLFXODUSDWFKRIODQG
ZKLFKKHOSVWRUHVROYHLVVXHVUHODWLQJWR
RZQHUVKLSRIWKDWSDWFK

Register of

,WFRQWDLQVSDUWLFXODUVRIDOOWUDQVDFWLRQVZKLFK

Mutations

DUHHQWHUHGE\D3DWZDULDQGGHFLGHGE\D
UHYHQXHRIILFHU7KH3DWZDULHQWHUVWKH
PXWDWLRQVRQWKHEDVLVRIGRFXPHQWYHUEDO
LQIRUPDWLRQSUHVHQWHGE\WKHFRQFHUQHG
SDUWLHVIRUFKDQJHVLQWLWOHLQWHUHVWRQODQG

Rehin (Mortgage

:KHQHYHUDODQGLVPRUWJDJHGFRPSOHWHO\RU

Deed)

SDUWLDOO\WRDQRWKHUSHUVRQRUSDUW\PXWDWLRQ
LVRI5HKLQW\SH7KHGHDOFDQEHHLWKHU
9HUEDORUWKURXJK5HJLVWU\,QWKLVFDVH
LQIRUPDWLRQOLNH'DWHRI0RUWJDJH$PRXQWDQG
5HJLVWU\1R RU5R]QDPFKD1RLQFDVHWKH
GHDOLVYHUEDO DUHHQWHUHG7KHODQGFDQEH
PRUWJDJHGZLWKRUZLWKRXWSRVVHVVLRQ

Roznamcha

$OOKDSSHQLQJVDERXWWKHODQGDIIDLUVDUH

Waqiati

UHFRUGHGLQWKLVGLDU\,QWKLVUHJLVWHUD
3DWZDULPDLQWDLQVDQ\LQFLGHQWRFFXUUHGDORQJ
ZLWKWKHGDWHPHWKRGDQGWKHVRXUFHE\


Term

Definition / Description
ZKLFKWKHHYHQWFDPHLQWRKLVQRWLFH)RU
LQVWDQFHKDLOVWRUPVHYHUHUDLQVWKHUHSRUWVRI
DOOWUDQVDFWLRQVRIODQGHQFURDFKPHQWVRQ
6WDWHODQGWRXUVFRQGXFWHGE\YDULRXV
UHYHQXHRIILFHUVDQGDOORWKHUPDWWHUV
FRQQHFWHGZLWKODQGDUHHQWHUHGLQLW

Shajra Nasab

,WLVDQLQKHULWDQFHRUJHQHDORJLFDOWUHHGUDZQ
SLFWRULDOO\,WLVSUHSDUHGLQHYHU\HVWDWHDWWKH
WLPHRI6HWWOHPHQWDQGLWIRUPVDSDUWRI
5HFRUGRI5LJKWV,WLVDSHGLJUHHWDEOH
VKRZLQJVXFFHVVLRQWRRZQHUVKLSULJKWV
RFFXUULQJIURPWLPHWRWLPHLQDQHVWDWH,WLV
UHYLVHGDIWHUHYHU\ILYH\HDUVDORQJZLWK
-DPDEDQGL$Q\FKDQJHLQWKHLQKHULWDQFHRU
JHQHDORJLFDOWUHHLVPDGHE\D3DWZDUL,W
FRQVLVWVRIWZRSDUWV

Shajra Nasab (Part 7KLVUHJLVWHUFRQWDLQVEDVLFLQIRUPDWLRQDERXW


A)

WKHPDQQHURIUHYHQXHFROOHFWLRQLQWKH
SDUWLFXODU5HYHQXH(VWDWHDQGDQLQGH[WR
XQGHUVWDQGWKHV\PEROVLQWKHJHQHDORJLFDO
WUHVVSUHSDUHGLQ3DUW%

Shajra Nasab (Part 7KLVSDUWRIWKHIRUPLQFOXGHVWKHDFWXDO


B)

6KDMUD1DVDERIWKHODQGRZQLQJIDPLOLHVLQD
5HYHQXH(VWDWH

Shajra Kistwar or

7KLVLVDPRVDLFUHIOHFWLRQRIDOOWKH0XVDYLHV

Shajra Parcha

RIDSDUWLFXODUYLOODJHRQDELJFRWWRQFORWK
/DWWKD IRUGD\WRGD\XVHE\D3DWZDUL

Shameelat Deh

,WLVDGGLWLRQDOODQGRIDYLOODJHZKLFKLVLQ


Term

Definition / Description
FRPPRQRZQHUVKLSRIWKHODQGRZQHUVRIWKDW
YLOODJH2ZQHUVKLSLQ6KDPHHODW'HKLV
SURSRUWLRQDWHWRWKHH[WHQWRIRZQHUVKLSRIWKH
RZQHUVLQWKH5HYHQXH(VWDWH

Summary of

$3DWZDULSUHSDUHVWKHOLVWVFRQWDLQLQJDOOWKH

Attested Mutations DWWHVWHGPXWDWLRQVLQFOXGLQJDOOWKHDSSURYHG


DQGXQDSSURYHGPXWDWLRQV7KHVHOLVWVDUH
SUHSDUHGIURP3DUDW3DWZDU$IWHUFKHFNLQJLW
ZLWKWKH5HJLVWHU'DNKLO.KDULMLWLVIRUZDUGHG
WRWHKVLORIILFH
Taqseem 

:KHQHYHUWKHUHLVDGLYLVLRQRIODQGLQDMRLQW
KROGLQJWKHPXWDWLRQLVNQRZQDV7DTVHHPRU
PXWDWLRQRISDUWLWLRQ7KHSDUWLWLRQFDQEH
YHUEDODPRQJWKHODQGRZQHUVRUZKHQFRXUW
GLUHFWVWKHSDUWLWLRQ

Tatimma Field

7KHSHUPDQHQWFKDQJHV LQFDVHRIPXWDWLRQ 

Book

LQWKHSDUWLWLRQRIODQGDUHPDLQWDLQHGLQWKLV
UHJLVWHUDIWHUUHPHDVXUHPHQWRIODQG

Tatimma Field

7KLVUHJLVWHUFRQWDLQVDOOWKHUHFRUGVLQZKLFK

Book Murabba

WKHSDUWLWLRQRIODQGLVPDGHDFFRUGLQJWR

Bandi

PXUDEEDEDQGL VTXDUHPHDVXUHPHQW 

Tatimma Field

7KLVUHJLVWHUFRQWDLQVDOOWKHUHFRUGVLQZKLFK

Book Mustateel

WKHSDUWLWLRQRIODQGLVPDGHDFFRUGLQJWR

Bandi

PXVWDWHHOEDQGL UHFWDQJXODUPHDVXUHPHQW 

Tatimma Shajra

,WLVDVXSSOHPHQWDU\PDS

Tehsil

,WLVDVXEGLVWULFW,WLVDEDVLFPXQLFLSDO
DGPLQLVWUDWLYHXQLW

Tehsildar

+HLVWKHDGPLQLVWUDWLYHKHDGRIUHYHQXH


Term

Definition / Description
PDFKLQHU\DWWHKVLOOHYHO

Waris

6XFFHVVRU

Zamindar

/DQGRZQHU



List of Abbreviations
ADBP

$JULFXOWXUDO'HYHORSPHQW%DQNRI3DNLVWDQ

BOR

%RDUGRI5HYHQXH

CSM

&DVH6WXG\0HWKRGRORJ\

DBMS

'DWDEDVH0DQDJHPHQW6\VWHP

DLR

'LUHFWRU/DQG5HFRUGV

ETD

([FLVHDQG7D[DWLRQ'HSDUWPHQW

FIG

,QWHUQDWLRQDO)HGHUDWLRQRI6XUYH\RUV

Geo-ICT

*HRLQIRUPDWLRQ&RPPXQLFDWLRQ7HFKQRORJ\

GIS

*HRJUDSKLF,QIRUPDWLRQ6\VWHP

GML

*HRJUDSK\0DUNXS/DQJXDJH

GPS

*OREDO3RVLWLRQLQJ6\VWHP

GTZ

*HVHOOVFKDIWIU7HFKQLVFKH=XVDPPHQDUEHLW

HEC

+LJKHU(GXFDWLRQ&RPPLVVLRQ 3DNLVWDQ 

HRSI

+LJK5HVROXWLRQ6DWHOOLWH,PDJHU\

ICT

,QIRUPDWLRQDQG&RPPXQLFDWLRQ7HFKQRORJ\

ISO

,QWHUQDWLRQDO6WDQGDUGV2UJDQL]DWLRQ

IT

,QIRUPDWLRQ7HFKQRORJ\

KP

.K\EHU3DNKWXQNKZD

LA

/DQG$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ

LAS

/DQG$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ6\VWHP

LIS

/DQG,QIRUPDWLRQ6\VWHP

MBR

0HPEHU%RDUGRI5HYHQXH

NGO

1RQ*RYHUQPHQWDO2UJDQL]DWLRQ

NUFFIC

1HWKHUODQGV2UJDQLVDWLRQIRU,QWHUQDWLRQDO&RRSHUDWLRQLQ


+LJKHU(GXFDWLRQ
OGC

2SHQ*HRVSDWLDO&RQVRUWLXP

OICRF

,QWHUQDWLRQDO2IILFHRI&DGDVWUHDQG/DQG5HFRUGV

RS

5HPRWH6HQVLQJ

SMBR

0HPEHU%RDUGRI5HYHQXH

SOP

6XUYH\RI3DNLVWDQ

SUPARCO 3DNLVWDQ6SDFH 8SSHU$WPRVSKHUH5HVHDUFK&RPPLVVLRQ


TQM

7RWDO4XDOLW\0DQDJHPHQW

UML

8QLILHG0RGHOOLQJ/DQJXDJH

UN

8QLWHG1DWLRQV

UNFAO

8QLWHG1DWLRQ)RRGDQG$JULFXOWXUH2UJDQL]DWLRQ

UNRCC

8QLWHG1DWLRQV5HJLRQDO&DUWRJUDSKLF&RQIHUHQFHV

XML

([WHQVLEOH0DUNXS/DQJXDJH





Land Administration System and


Quality Concepts



Chapter 1: Land Administration System and Quality Concepts

1.1 Land Administration System


/DQG LV WKH KDELWDW RI PDQ DQG LWV ZLGH XVH LV FUXFLDO IRU WKH
HFRQRPLFVRFLDODQGHQYLURQPHQWDODGYDQFHPHQWRIDOOFRXQWULHV
7KDNXU HW DO   /DQG LQIRUPDWLRQ LV D SULPH UHTXLVLWH IRU
PDNLQJ GHFLVLRQV UHODWHG WR ODQG LQYHVWPHQW ODQG GHYHORSPHQW
DQG ODQG PDQDJHPHQW $OO WKHVH LQIRUPDWLRQ UHGXFH XQFHUWDLQW\
E\ KHOSLQJ WR LGHQWLI\ DQG DQDO\VH ODQGUHODWHG SUREOHPV /DQG
UHFRUGV DUH DOVR YHU\ LPSRUWDQW DV WKHVH UHFRUGV IRUP WKH EDVLV
IRUDVVLJQPHQWDQGVHWWOHPHQWRIODQGWLWOHV 7KDNXUHWDO 
,Q WKLV ZD\ WKH GHYHORSPHQW DQG LPSOHPHQWDWLRQ RI /$6 SOD\V
NH\ UROH LQ ODQG UHVRXUFH PDQDJHPHQW DQG SODQQLQJ RI DQ\
FRXQWU\ 'LIIHUHQW DJHQFLHV DOO RYHU WKH ZRUOGDUH ZRUNLQJ IRU WKH
LPSURYHPHQW DQG LPSOHPHQWDWLRQ RI FDGDVWUH DQG ODQG
DGPLQLVWUDWLRQV\VWHPV
/DQG DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ LV WKH SURFHVVHV RI ODQG VXUYH\LQJ DQG
PDSSLQJ ODQG UHJLVWUDWLRQ ODQG FRQYH\DQFH ODQG YDOXDWLRQ DQG
WD[DWLRQ UHJXODWLRQ RI ODQG WHQXUH DOORFDWLRQ RI LQWHUHVWV LQ ODQG
ODQG GLVSXWH UHVROXWLRQ DQG ODQG PDUNHWV 1LFKROV   ,Q WKLV
ZD\ /$ FRYHUV D UDQJH RI SURFHVVHV GHDOLQJ ZLWK GHILQLWLRQ RI
ULJKWV LQ ODQG WKURXJK UHJLVWUDWLRQ FROOHFWLRQ RI ODQG WD[HV
YDOXDWLRQ RI ODQG IRU HVWDEOLVKLQJ ODQG PDUNHW PHFKDQLVP IRU
VROYLQJODQGGLVSXWHVDQGSURFHGXUHVIRUODQGWUDQVIHU$FFRUGLQJ
WR /\RQV DQG 6DWLVK   /$ LV D UHJXODWRU\ IUDPHZRUN
LQVWLWXWLRQDO DUUDQJHPHQWV

V\VWHPV DQG SURFHVVHV WKDW

HQFRPSDVV WKH GHWHUPLQDWLRQ DOORFDWLRQ DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ DQG


LQIRUPDWLRQFRQFHUQLQJODQG7KXV/$LQFOXGHVWKHGHWHUPLQDWLRQ
DQGFRQGLWLRQVRIDSSURYHGXVHVRIODQGWKHDGMXGLFDWLRQRIULJKWV
DQG WKHLU UHJLVWUDWLRQ YLD WLWOLQJ WKH UHFRUGLQJ RI ODQG WUDQVDFWLRQ
DQGWKHHVWLPDWLRQRIYDOXHDQGWD[HVEDVHGRQODQGDQGSURSHUW\
IRUEHWWHUPDQDJHPHQW


Chapter 1: Land Administration System and Quality Concepts

$FFRUGLQJ WR :LOOLDPVRQ HW DO   /$6 SURYLGH WKH


LQIUDVWUXFWXUH IRU LPSOHPHQWDWLRQ RI ODQG SROLFHV DQG ODQG
PDQDJHPHQW VWUDWHJLHV LQ VXSSRUW RI VXVWDLQDEOH GHYHORSPHQW
7KHLQIUDVWUXFWXUHLQFOXGHVWKHLQVWLWXWLRQDODUUDQJHPHQWVDOHJDO
IUDPHZRUN SURFHVVHV VWDQGDUGV ODQG LQIRUPDWLRQ PDQDJHPHQW
DQGGLVVHPLQDWLRQV\VWHPVDQGWHFKQRORJLHVUHTXLUHGWRVXSSRUW
DOORFDWLRQ ODQG PDUNHWV YDOXDWLRQ FRQWURO RI XVH DQG
GHYHORSPHQWRILQWHUHVWVLQODQG
/DQG DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ V\VWHPV DUH FRQFHUQHG ZLWK VRFLDO OHJDO
HFRQRPLF DQG WHFKQLFDO IUDPHZRUN ZLWKLQ ZKLFK ODQG PDQDJHUV
DQG DGPLQLVWUDWRUV PXVW RSHUDWH 81(&(   /DQG
DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ V\VWHP FRPSULVHV RI DQ H[WHQVLYH UDQJH RI
V\VWHPVDQGSURFHVVHVWRDGPLQLVWHUODQGWHQXUHODQGYDOXHODQG
XVHDQGODQGGHYHORSPHQW (QHPDUN ,QRUGHUWRVKDUHWKH
H[SHULHQFHVLQGHVLJQLQJ/$6DQG GLDJQRVHWKHWUHQGVLQGHVLJQ
DQGLPSOHPHQWDWLRQRIORFDOV\VWHPVDJOREDOSHUVSHFWLYHRI/$6
LVQHHGHG ,DQ3:LOOLDPVRQHWDO DVVKRZQLQ)LJXUH


)LJXUH$JOREDOODQGDGPLQLVWUDWLRQSHUVSHFWLYH (QHPDUN
 



Chapter 1: Land Administration System and Quality Concepts

7KLVJOREDOSHUVSHFWLYHRI/$UHODWHVWKHIRXUIXQFWLRQVRI/$6WR
VXSSRUWHIILFLHQWODQGPDUNHWVDQGHIIHFWLYHODQGXVHPDQDJHPHQW
IRUSURPRWLQJVXVWDLQDEOHGHYHORSPHQW
Land Tenure:/DQGWHQXUHFDQEHGHILQHGDVWKHZD\SHRSOHDUH
KROGLQJ WKH ODQG 0RUH VSHFLILFDOO\ ODQG WHQXUH LV WKH SHUFHLYHG
LQVWLWXWLRQDO DUUDQJHPHQW RI UXOHV SULQFLSOHV SURFHGXUHV DQG
SUDFWLFHV ZKHUHE\ D VRFLHW\ RU FRPPXQLW\ GHILQHV FRQWURO RYHU
DFFHVV WR PDQDJHPHQW RI H[SORLWDWLRQ RI DQG XVH RI PHDQV RI
H[LVWHQFHDQGSURGXFWLRQ 'HNNHU 7KHODQGWHQXUHSDUWRI
/$6 GHDOV ZLWK WKH DOORFDWLRQ DQG VHFXULW\ RI ULJKWV LQ ODQGV WKH
OHJDO VXUYH\V WR GHWHUPLQH WKH SDUFHO ERXQGDULHV WKH WUDQVIHU RI
SURSHUW\ RU XVH IURP RQH SDUW\ WR DQRWKHU WKURXJK VDOH RU OHDVH
DQG WKH PDQDJHPHQW DQG DGMXGLFDWLRQ RI GRXEWV DQG GLVSXWHV
UHJDUGLQJULJKWVDQGSDUFHOERXQGDULHV
Land Value: /DQG YDOXDWLRQ LV D SDUW RI /$6 GHDOLQJ ZLWK
HFRQRPLFGLPHQVLRQVRIODQG 'DOHDQG0F/DXJKOLQ /DQG
YDOXDWLRQ V\VWHP KDV LWV RZQ SURFHVV WR DSSURDFK WR WKH YDOXH
7KLVSURFHVVLVDIIHFWHGE\WKUHHPDLQD[HVLQZKLFKWKHILUVWD[LV
LQFOXGHV WKH LQSXWV FRPSULVLQJ OHJDO WLWOH OHJDO ULJKWV  OHJDO XVH
DQG OHJDO ORFDWLRQ WKH VHFRQG D[LV GHDOV ZLWK WKH FRQVWUDLQWV
FRPSULVLQJ YDOXDWLRQ ODZV DQG UHJXODWLRQV YDOXDWLRQ PHDVXUH
VWDQGDUGVFRGHRIFRQGXFWDQGPHWKRGRORJLHVDQGWKHWKLUGD[LV
FRPSULVHV WKH UHVRXUFHV FRPSULVLQJ KXPDQ UHVRXUFHV DQG
LQIRUPDWLRQ UHVRXUFHV $OO WKHVH WKUHH D[HV DUH UHTXLUHG WR
SURGXFHWKHYDOXH $O2PDUL 7KXVWKHODQGYDOXDWLRQSDUW
RI/$6FRQFHUQVWKHDVVHVVPHQWRIODQGYDOXHDQGSURSHUWLHVWKH
JDWKHULQJRIUHYHQXHVWKURXJKWD[DWLRQDQGWKHPDQDJHPHQWDQG
DGMXGLFDWLRQRIODQGYDOXDWLRQDQGWD[DWLRQGLVSXWHV
Land Use: 7KHODQGXVHSDUWRI/$6GHDOVZLWKWKHFRQWURORIODQG
XVH WKURXJK DGRSWLRQ RI ODQGXVH SODQQLQJ SROLFLHV DQG ODQG XVH


Chapter 1: Land Administration System and Quality Concepts

UHJXODWLRQV DW QDWLRQDO UHJLRQDO IHGHUDO DQG ORFDO OHYHOV WKH


HQIRUFHPHQW RI ODQG XVH UHJXODWLRQV DQG WKH PDQDJHPHQW DQG
DGMXGLFDWLRQRIODQGXVHFRQIOLFWV/DQGXVHLVFRQFHUQHGZLWKERWK
WKHIRUPDWLRQRIQHZXQLWVRIUHDOSURSHUWLHVDQGWKHUHDGMXVWPHQW
RI WKH H[LVWLQJ RQHV LQYROYLQJ FKDQJHV LQ ERWK WKH SXUSRVHV RI
WKHLU XVH DQG WKHLU VSDWLDO VWUXFWXUH (FRQRPLFDOO\ ODQG XVH FDQ
EHMXVWLILHGLQWHUPVRIODQGFRQVROLGDWLRQGHILQLWLRQRIEHVWXVH
WHUULWRULDO UHDGMXVWPHQWV ODQG UHRUJDQLVDWLRQ  RU LPSRVLWLRQ RI
UHVWULFWLRQV $X]LQV 
Land Development: 7KH ODQG GHYHORSPHQW SDUW RI /$6 GHDOV
ZLWK WKH SURFHVVHV DQG LQVWLWXWLRQV UHODWHG WR EXLOGLQJ RI QHZ
SK\VLFDO LQIUDVWUXFWXUH DQG XWLOLWLHV WKH LPSOHPHQWDWLRQ RI
FRQVWUXFWLRQ SODQQLQJ SXEOLF DFTXLVLWLRQ RI ODQG H[SURSULDWLRQ
FKDQJHRIODQGXVHWKURXJKJUDQWLQJRISODQQLQJSHUPLVVLRQVDQG
EXLOGLQJDQGODQGXVHSHUPLWVDQGWKHGLVWULEXWLRQRIGHYHORSPHQW
FRVWV
7KHODQGLQIRUPDWLRQLQIUDVWUXFWXUHSURYLGHVDEDVHIRUUXQQLQJWKH
LQWHUUHODWHGV\VWHPVRI/$6ZLWKLQWKHIRXULQWHUUHODWHGDUHDV7KH
ODQG LQIRUPDWLRQ DUHD VKRXOG EH RUJDQLVHG WR FRPELQH FDGDVWUDO
DQG WRSRJUDSKLF GDWD DQG WKHUHE\ OLQN WKH EXLOW HQYLURQPHQW
LQFOXGLQJOHJDOODQGULJKWV ZLWKWKHQDWXUDOHQYLURQPHQW LQFOXGLQJ
HQYLURQPHQWDO DQG QDWXUDO UHVRXUFH LVVXHV  7KHUHIRUH ODQG
LQIRUPDWLRQVKRXOGEHRUJDQLVHGDVDVSDWLDOGDWDLQIUDVWUXFWXUHDW
UHJLRQDOIHGHUDO QDWLRQDO DQG ORFDO OHYHO EDVHG RQ UHOHYDQW
SROLFLHV IRU GDWD VKDULQJ FRVWV UHFRYHU\ DFFHVV WR GDWD
VWDQGDUGVHWF (QHPDUN 
,Q D QXW VKHOO /$6V DUH WKH EDVLV IRU FRQFHSWXDOLVLQJ ULJKWV
UHVWULFWLRQV DQG UHVSRQVLELOLWLHV UHODWHG WR SHRSOH SROLFLHV DQG
SODFHV 3URSHUW\ ULJKWV DUH QRUPDOO\ FRQFHUQHG ZLWK RZQHUVKLS
DQG WHQXUH ZKHUHDV UHVWULFWLRQV XVXDOO\ FRQWURO WKH XVH DQG


Chapter 1: Land Administration System and Quality Concepts

DFWLYLWLHV RQ WKH ODQG 5HVSRQVLELOLWLHV UHODWH PRUH WR D VRFLDO


HWKLFDOFRPPLWPHQWRUDWWLWXGHWRHQYLURQPHQWDOVXVWDLQDELOLW\DQG
JRRG DJULFXOWXUDO DFWLYLWLHV (QHPDUN E  ,Q WKH 81(&(
  GRFXPHQW /$6 LV FRQVLGHUHG DV SDUW RI WKH LQIUDVWUXFWXUH
WKDWVXSSRUWVJRRGODQGPDQDJHPHQW,WLVIXUWKHUVWDWHGWKDW/$6
VKRXOGEHWUHDWHGDVDZD\WRDQHQGQRWDQHQGLQLWVHOI
,WLVHYLGHQWIURPWKHDERYHGLVFXVVLRQWKDW/$6FRYHUVDUDQJHRI
SURFHVVHV DLPLQJ IRU DUUDQJHPHQWV RI ULJKWV LQ ODQG DQG EHWWHU
PDQDJHPHQWRIODQGZLWKLQVRFLDOQRUPVDQGYDOXHVRIDVRFLHW\
$OO WKHVH SURFHVVHV DUH LQIOXHQFHG E\ QHZ GHYHORSPHQWV LQ
WHFKQRORJ\ DQG XVHUV QHHGV ZLWK FKDQJLQJ VRFLHWDO GHPDQGV
7KHUHIRUH DOO WKH LPSRUWDQW HOHPHQWV DQG LQGLFDWRUV FRQFHUQLQJ
/$6 SURFHVVHV LQFOXGLQJ ODQG WHQXUH ODQG YDOXH ODQG XVH DQG
ODQG GHYHORSPHQW PXVW EH RXWOLQHG DQG WKHQ DQDO\VHG IURP
TXDOLW\SRLQWRIYLHZ7KLVDQDO\VLVZLOOKHOSWRPRGHOWKHFKDQJLQJ
UROH RI /$6 ZLWKLQ FRXQWU\V VRFLDO FXOWXUDO QRUPV DQG YDOXHV DV
SHUXVHUVQHHGV,QRUGHUWRGHILQHTXDOLW\SDUDPHWHUVIRU/$6LW
LV HVVHQWLDO WR XQGHUVWDQG WKH IXQFWLRQV DQG FRPSRQHQWV RI /$6
EHIRUHJRLQJWRRXWOLQHWKHFRQWULEXWLQJHOHPHQWVDQGLQGLFDWRUVIRU
DQDO\VLQJWKHTXDOLW\RI/$6
1.2 Functions & Components of Land Administration System
$ EULHI RYHUYLHZ RI FDGDVWUDO DQG ODQG DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ V\VWHPV LV
SUHVHQWHGLQWKHSUHYLRXVVHFWLRQ)URPSULRUGLVFXVVLRQLWLVFOHDU
WKDW /$6 GHDOV ZLWK LPSOHPHQWDWLRQ RI SROLFLHV DQG ODZV IRU WKH
PDQDJHPHQW RI ODQG ULJKWV ODQG YDOXH ODQG XVH DQG ODQG
PDSSLQJ /DQG DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ V\VWHPV UHIOHFW WKH VRFLDO
UHODWLRQVKLS EHWZHHQ SHRSOH DQG ODQG ZKLFK LV UHFRJQLVHG E\ D
FRPPXQLW\RUD6WDWH YDQGHU0ROHQ /$6LVLPSOHPHQWHG



Chapter 1: Land Administration System and Quality Concepts

E\ D 6WDWH WR LPSOHPHQW SROLFLHV IRU UHFRUGLQJ DQG PDQDJLQJ DOO
ULJKWVLQODQG
1.2.1 Functions of Land Administration System
7KHPDLQIXQFWLRQVRI/$6LQFOXGHVODQGWHQXUHODQGYDOXHODQG
XVHDQGODQGGHYHORSPHQW7KHVHIXQFWLRQVDUHLQWHUUHODWHGDQG
WKH LQWHUUHODWLRQV DSSHDU WKURXJK WKH IDFW WKDW WKH DFWXDO
FRQFHSWXDO HFRQRPLF DQG SK\VLFDO XVHV RI ODQG DQG SURSHUWLHV
LQIOXHQFH ODQG YDOXHV /DQG YDOXH LV DOVR LQIOXHQFHG E\ WKH
SRVVLEOH IXWXUH XVH RI ODQG DV GHWHUPLQHG WKURXJK ]RQLQJ ODQG
XVHSODQQLQJUHJXODWLRQVDQGSHUPLWJUDQWLQJSURFHVVHV$QGWKH
ODQG XVH SODQQLQJ DQG SROLFLHV ZLOO RI FRXUVH GHWHUPLQH DQG
UHJXODWHIXWXUHODQGGHYHORSPHQW (QHPDUN 
7KHIRXUIXQFWLRQVRIODQGDGPLQLVWUDWLRQV\VWHP ODQGWHQXUHODQG
YDOXH ODQG XVH ODQG GHYHORSPHQW  DUH GLIIHUHQW LQ WKHLU
SURIHVVLRQDO IRFXV DQG DUH QRUPDOO\ XQGHUWDNHQ E\ D PL[ RI
SURIHVVLRQVLQFOXGLQJVXUYH\RUVHQJLQHHUVODZ\HUVYDOXHUVODQG
HFRQRPLVWV SODQQHUV DQG GHYHORSHUV )XUWKHUPRUH WKH DFWXDO
SURFHVVHV RI ODQG YDOXDWLRQ DQG WD[DWLRQ DV ZHOO DV WKH DFWXDO
ODQGXVHSODQQLQJSURFHVVHVDUHRIWHQQRWFRQVLGHUHGWREHSDUW
RI WKH ODQG DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ DFWLYLWLHV +RZHYHU HYHQ LI ODQG
DGPLQLVWUDWLRQLVWUDGLWLRQDOO\FHQWUHGRQWKHFDGDVWUDODFWLYLWLHVLQ
UHODWLRQWRODQGWHQXUHDQGODQGLQIRUPDWLRQPDQDJHPHQWPRGHUQ
/$6 PXVW EH GHVLJQHG WR GHOLYHU DQ HVVHQWLDO LQIUDVWUXFWXUH WKDW
HQFRXUDJHVLQWHJUDWLRQRIWKHIRXUIXQFWLRQV (QHPDUND 
$V VDLG DOO WKH DERYH IXQFWLRQV DUH LQWHUFRQQHFWHG 7KH
LQWHUUHODWLRQV DSSHDU WKURXJK WKH IDFW WKDW WKH DFWXDO FRQFHSWXDO
HFRQRPLFDQGSK\VLFDOXVHVRIODQGDQGSURSHUWLHVLQIOXHQFHODQG
YDOXHV/DQGYDOXHVDUHDOVRLQIOXHQFHGE\WKHSRVVLEOHIXWXUHXVH
RIODQGGHWHUPLQHGWKURXJK]RQLQJODQGXVHSODQQLQJUHJXODWLRQV


Chapter 1: Land Administration System and Quality Concepts

DQG SHUPLW JUDQWLQJ SURFHVVHV $QG WKH ODQG XVH SODQQLQJ DQG
SROLFLHV ZLOO RI FRXUVH GHWHUPLQH DQG UHJXODWH IXWXUH ODQG
GHYHORSPHQW
1.2.2 Components of Land Administration System
7KHYDULHW\RIWKHVH/$6IXQFWLRQVUHTXLUHVODQGDGPLQLVWUDWLRQWR
KDYHYDULRXVNLQGVRIFRPSRQHQWVWRGHDOZLWKODQG)RUH[DPSOH
WKHODQGWHQXUHIXQFWLRQUHTXLUHVSODFLQJHPSKDVLVRQWKHKROGLQJ
DQGWKHUHJLVWUDWLRQRILQWHUHVWVLQODQG2QJURXQGLGHQWLILFDWLRQLV
SURYLGHGE\VXUYH\RUVWKURXJKGHYHORSPHQWSODQVWRDVVLVWLQWKH
UHJXODWLRQRIXVH$WWKHVDPHWLPHWKHODQGXVHIXQFWLRQLVDOVR
FRQFHUQHG ZLWK XVH UHVWULFWLRQV LPSRVHG WKURXJK WKH UHJXODWRU\
SODQQLQJ PHFKDQLVPV 7KH ODQG YDOXH IXQFWLRQ IRFXVHV RQ WKH
HFRQRPLFXWLOLW\RIODQG7KHWD[DWLRQRIILFHUHTXLUHVWKHFKDQJHRI
ODQGXVHWRFDOFXODWHWKHUHYHQXHDQGWD[IRUVSHFLILFSXUSRVHV 6
60.DODQWDUL 
,Q RUGHU WR IXOILO DOO WKHVH /$6 IXQFWLRQV WKH /$6 KDV KLVWRULFDOO\
EHHQ RUJDQLVHG DURXQG IRXU VHWV RI FRPSRQHQWV UHVSRQVLEOH IRU
VXUYH\LQJ DQG PDSSLQJ ODQG UHJLVWUDWLRQ ODQG YDOXDWLRQ 'DOH
DQG0F/DXJKOLQ DQGODQGGHYHORSPHQWDVVKRZQLQ)LJXUH



)LJXUH&RPSRQHQWVRI/$6 660.DODQWDUL 


Chapter 1: Land Administration System and Quality Concepts

Land Registration: /DQG UHJLVWUDWLRQ LV D SURFHVV RI RIILFLDO


UHFRUGLQJRIOHJDOO\UHFRJQLVHGULJKWVLQODQGWKURXJKGHHGVRUDV
WLWOHFHUWLILFDWHVRQSURSHUWLHV7KLVLVDQRIILFLDOUHFRUGRIULJKWVRQ
ODQG RU RI GHHGV FRQFHUQLQJ FKDQJHV LQ WKH OHJDO VWDWXV RI ODQG
+HQVVHQ /DQGUHJLVWUDWLRQLVDSXEOLFUHJLVWHULQZKLFKWKH
GRFXPHQWDWLRQHIIHFWLQJLQWHUHVWVLQODQGDUHNHSW,WLVWKHRIILFLDO
OHJDOUHJLVWUDWLRQRISURSHUWLHV ODQGEXLOGLQJVDQGDSDUWPHQWV RI
OHJDOULJKWVDQGRIULJKWIXOFODLPDQWV %RJDHUWVDQG=HYHQEHUJHQ
 /DQGUHJLVWULHVGRFXPHQWFRQWDLQVDOOLQIRUPDWLRQDERXWWKH
ULJKWV LQ ODQG DQG WKH RZQHU WKDW FDQ EH WUDFHG EDFN LQ FDVH RI
UHVROYLQJ WKH ODQG GLVSXWHV DV ZHOO DV IRU WKH DVVHVVPHQW RI
SURSHUW\ WD[ /DQG UHJLVWUDWLRQ LV YHU\ LPSRUWDQW IRU JRYHUQPHQWV
WRFROOHFWSURSHUW\WD[HVIRUHFRQRP\JHQHUDWLRQ:LWKRXWNQRZLQJ
ZKR RZQVXVHV WKH ODQG DQG ZKDW WKDW ODQG LV EHLQJ XVHG IRU
JRYHUQPHQWV FDQQRW OHY\ SURSHUW\ WD[HV )DUYDFTXH DQG
0F$XVODQ   /DQG UHJLVWUDWLRQ ODQG WLWOLQJ  FDQ EH
XQGHUWDNHQ VSRUDGLFDOO\ DW WKH WLPH RI HDFK OHJDO WUDQVDFWLRQ RU
V\VWHPDWLFDOO\ DUHD E\ DUHD :KLOH WKH VSRUDGLF DSSURDFK JLYHV
PRUHLPPHGLDWHEHQHILWVWRLQGLYLGXDOODQGKROGHUVWKHV\VWHPDWLF
DSSURDFK SURYLGHV D ZLGHU UDQJH RI EHQHILWV PRUH TXLFNO\
HVSHFLDOO\LIWKHODQGUHJLVWU\LVSDUWRIDPRUHFRPSUHKHQVLYHODQG
LQIRUPDWLRQ V\VWHP ),*   7KHODQGUHJLVWUDWLRQ FRPSRQHQW
SURYLGHV D GDWD VHW RI ULJKWV LQ ODQG IRU /$6 LQ ERWK DSSURDFKHV
ZKHWKHUVSRUDGLFDOO\RUV\VWHPDWLFDOO\
Land Valuation: /DQG YDOXDWLRQ LV D SDUW RI /$6 GHDOLQJ ZLWK
HFRQRPLFGLPHQVLRQVRIODQG 'DOHDQG0F/DXJKOLQ 7KH
ODQGYDOXDWLRQFRPSRQHQWGHDOVZLWKWKHDVVHVVPHQWRIODQGYDOXH
DQG SURSHUWLHV WKH JDWKHULQJ RI UHYHQXHV WKURXJK WD[DWLRQ DQG
WKH PDQDJHPHQW DQG DGMXGLFDWLRQ RI ODQG YDOXDWLRQ DQG WD[DWLRQ
GLVSXWHV $Q HIIHFWLYH DQG HIILFLHQW ODQG PDUNHW GHSHQGV XSRQ


Chapter 1: Land Administration System and Quality Concepts

JRRGYDOXDWLRQFRPSRQHQW/DQGYDOXDWLRQRQRQHKDQGKHOSVWKH
6WDWH WR FROOHFW ODQG WD[HV IRU HFRQRP\ JHQHUDWLRQ ZKLOH RQ WKH
RWKHU KDQG LW KHOSV WKH ODQG RZQHU WR JHQHUDWH PRQH\ WKURXJK
YDOXHVIURPVDOHDQGPRUWJDJHIRULPSURYLQJKLVVWDQGDUGRIOLIH
$ VWDQGDUG PHFKDQLVP IRU ODQG YDOXDWLRQ VKRXOG EH DGRSWHG WR
ERRVW XS WKH ODQG PDUNHW IRU LQYHVWPHQW LQ ODQG DQG UHDO HVWDWH
7KHVLJQLILFDQWLVVXHVRIH[LVWLQJODQGYDOXDWLRQPHFKDQLVPQHHG
WR EH DQDO\VHG DV SHU TXDOLW\ UHTXLUHPHQWV VR WKDW PD[LPXP
EHQHILWVFRXOGEHDFFHVVHGERWKDW6WDWHDQGLQGLYLGXDOOHYHO
Land Development: /DQGGHYHORSPHQWGHDOVZLWKWKHSURFHVVHV
DQG LQVWLWXWLRQV UHODWHG WR EXLOGLQJ RI QHZ SK\VLFDO LQIUDVWUXFWXUH
DQG XWLOLWLHV ,W DOVR GHDOV ZLWK WKHLPSOHPHQWDWLRQRIFRQVWUXFWLRQ
SODQQLQJSXEOLFDFTXLVLWLRQRIODQGH[SURSULDWLRQFKDQJHRI ODQG
XVH WKURXJK JUDQWLQJ RI SODQQLQJ SHUPLVVLRQV DQG EXLOGLQJ DQG
ODQGXVHSHUPLWVDQGWKHGLVWULEXWLRQRIGHYHORSPHQWFRVWV7KXV
ODQGGHYHORSPHQWSOD\VDQLPSRUWDQWUROHLQWKHDOORFDWLRQRIODQG
UHVRXUFHV DQG ODQG XVH PDQDJHPHQW IRU D VRFLHW\ (QHPDUN
  :KLOH FRQVLGHULQJ RWKHU FRPSRQHQWV RI /$ LW LV DOVR
HVVHQWLDOWRFRQVLGHUWKHH[LVWLQJODQGGHYHORSPHQWSODQVVRWKDW
HIILFLHQW XWLOLVDWLRQ RI ODQG FDQ EH FDUULHG RXW DV SHU XVHUV QHHG
DQG VRFLHWDO UHTXLUHPHQWV ,Q WKLV ZD\ WKH LPSRUWDQW HOHPHQWV RI
ODQGGHYHORSPHQWQHHGWREHDQDO\VHGZLWKLQTXDOLW\DVVHVVPHQW
IUDPHZRUNIRUEHWWHUPDQDJHPHQWRIODQGXVHWRVHUYHVRFLHW\LQ
DQHIILFLHQWPDQQHU
Land

Mapping:

7UDGLWLRQDOO\ LQ /$6 WKH ODQG PDSSLQJ

FRPSRQHQW LV UHVSRQVLEOH IRU SURYLGLQJ WKH FDGDVWUDO PDS ,W LV
FRQFHUQHGZLWKJHRPHWULFDOGDWDHVSHFLDOO\WKHVL]HVKDSHDQG
ORFDWLRQRIHDFKODQGSDUFHO,QVRPHMXULVGLFWLRQVODQGPDSSLQJLV
RQO\ FRQFHUQHG ZLWK WKH ORFDWLRQ RI SURSHUW\ ERXQGDULHV ZKLOH LQ
RWKHUVLWLQFOXGHVDOOWKLQJVDWWDFKHGWRWKHVRLO7KHODWWHUFRQFHSW


Chapter 1: Land Administration System and Quality Concepts

HQFRPSDVVHVERWKODQGDQGLWVDVVRFLDWHGEXLOGLQJVREMHFWVWKDW
LQ VRPH MXULVGLFWLRQV DUH WUHDWHG DV VHSDUDWH HQWLWLHV 6WHXGOHU
  /DQG PDSSLQJ JLYHV SUHIHUHQFH WR VXUYH\ UHFRUGV
FRRUGLQDWHVDQGSODQV RISDUFHOERXQGDU\SRVLWLRQVRYHUSK\VLFDO
ORFDWLRQV RI EHDFRQV RQ WKH JURXQG +HQFH LQ FDVH RI ORVW RU
GLVSXWHGERXQGDU\RIDODQGSDUFHOLWLVWKHUHFRUGLQWKHUHJLVWHU
WKDWWDNHVSUHFHGHQFHRYHUVXUYH\VRQWKHJURXQG 6LOD\R 
7KH PDLQ SXUSRVH RI ODQG PDSSLQJ LV WR FROOHFW DQG PDNH
DYDLODEOHJHRLQIRUPDWLRQLQVXSSRUWRIODQGWHQXUHODQGYDOXDWLRQ
DQGODQGXVHIXQFWLRQV
$V D ZKROH /$6 KHOSV WR WUDQVIRUP ODQG SROLFLHV ZKLFK GHILQH
KRZUHVRXUFHVDQGEHQHILWVDUHWREHDOORFDWHG LQWRPDQDJHPHQW
RIODQGLHJRYHUQDQFHRIVRFLHW\
VVSDWLDOHQYLURQPHQW:KHWKHU
IRUPDORULQIRUPDO/$6FRPSULVHVDQH[WHQVLYHUDQJHRIV\VWHPV
DQGSURFHVVHVVRPHRIZKLFKDUHFORVHO\OLQNHGZLWKODQGSROLF\
DQG RWKHUV ZKLFK IDOO QHDUHU WR PDQDJHPHQW RI ODQG ,W LQFOXGHV
SURFHVVHV LQYROYHG ZLWK UHJXODWLQJ WKH GHYHORSPHQW DQG XVH RI
ODQG JDWKHULQJ UHYHQXHV IURP WKH ODQG WKURXJK VDOH OHDVLQJ
WD[DWLRQ HWF DQG UHVROYLQJ FRQIOLFWV FRQFHUQLQJ WKH RZQHUVKLS
DQG XVH RI WKH ODQG 'DOH DQG 0F/DXJKOLQ   7KH XVH RI
JHRLQIRUPDWLRQ DQG FRPPXQLFDWLRQV WHFKQRORJ\ *HR,&7  KDV
SURYLGHG QHZ WRROV IRU PRUH HIILFLHQW IXQFWLRQLQJ RI ODQG
GHYHORSPHQWPDQDJHPHQWDQGSODQQLQJDFWLYLWLHV
:KLOH DGDSWLQJ *HR,&7 LQ /$6 LW LV LPSRUWDQW WR FRQVLGHU WKH
XVHUV QHHG DQG VRFLHW\ QRUPV DQG YDOXHV IRU HQKDQFLQJ WKH
TXDOLW\RIWKHV\VWHPWRZRUNZLWKLQFRXQWU\VHQYLURQPHQW,QWKLV
UHJDUG WKH DQDO\VLV RI SUREOHPV DQG LVVXHV FRQFHUQLQJ WKH /$6
ZLWKLQ D FRXQWU\V HQYLURQPHQW FDQ SURYLGH QHFHVVDU\ LQSXWV IRU
IXUWKHU TXDOLW\ GHYHORSPHQW 0RUHRYHU WKH LQWURGXFWLRQ RI TXDOLW\
LPSURYHPHQWFRQFHSWVVXFKDVTXDOLW\DVVXUDQFHTXDOLW\FRQWURO


Chapter 1: Land Administration System and Quality Concepts

DQGWRWDOTXDOLW\PDQDJHPHQWFDQKHOSWRXQGHUVWDQGWKHH[LVWLQJ
TXDOLW\ VLWXDWLRQ IRU LPSURYLQJ WKH TXDOLW\ RI WKH V\VWHP DQG
HIIHFWLYH LPSOHPHQWDWLRQ RI QHZ WHFKQRORJLHV DV SHU XVHUV QHHG
DQGVRFLHWDOQRUPVDQGYDOXHV7KHQH[WVHFWLRQGHVFULEHVEDVLF
GHILQLWLRQV DQG FRQFHSWV RI TXDOLW\ DQG WRWDO TXDOLW\ PDQDJHPHQW
IRUGHYHORSLQJ/$6TXDOLW\LPSURYHPHQWJXLGHOLQHV
1.3 Quality and Total Quality Management Literature
Review
0DQ\GHILQLWLRQVRITXDOLW\DUHDYDLODEOHLQWKHOLWHUDWXUH4XDOLW\LV
WKH GHJUHH WR ZKLFK DQ REMHFW HJ SURFHVV SURGXFW RU VHUYLFH 
VDWLVILHVDVSHFLILHGVHWRIDWWULEXWHVRUUHTXLUHPHQWV &RRSHUDQG
)LVKHU   $FFRUGLQJ WR WKH $PHULFDQ 6RFLHW\ IRU 4XDOLW\
$64  4XDOLW\ GHQRWHV DQ H[FHOOHQFH LQ JRRGV DQG VHUYLFHV
HVSHFLDOO\WRWKHGHJUHHWKH\FRQIRUPWRUHTXLUHPHQWVDQGVDWLVI\
FXVWRPHUV &KDQGUXSDWOD   $FFRUGLQJ WR %LOLFK DQG 1HWR
  TXDOLW\ DV D PDFUR IXQFWLRQ RI LQVWLWXWLRQV PXVW EH
SUHVHQWLQWKHGD\WRGD\UXQQLQJRIDQLQVWLWXWLRQLQDVSHFWVVXFK
DV HVWDEOLVKPHQW RI SROLFLHV WKH GHFLVLRQ SURFHVV VHOHFWLRQ RI
SHUVRQQHO DOORFDWLRQ RI UHVRXUFHV GHILQLWLRQ RI SULRULWLHV DQG
VHUYLFH GHOLYHU\ WR VDWLVI\ FXVWRPHU UHTXLUHPHQWV 4XDOLW\ LV DQ
RQJRLQJ SURFHVV WKDW KDV WR EH VR SHUYDVLYH WKURXJKRXW WKH
LQVWLWXWLRQWKDWLWEHFRPHVWKHSKLORVRSK\DQGFXOWXUHRIWKHZKROH
LQVWLWXWLRQ $OO LQVWLWXWLRQV DQG HDFK GHSDUWPHQW ZLWKLQ WKH
LQVWLWXWLRQQHHGWRDGRSWWKHVDPHVWUDWHJ\WRVHUYHWKHFXVWRPHU
ZLWKHYHQEHWWHUTXDOLW\ORZHUFRVWTXLFNHUUHVSRQVHDQGJUHDWHU
IOH[LELOLW\ 6FKRQEHUJHU 
$ KLHUDUFKLFDO SURFHVV RI TXDOLW\ LQFOXGHV WKH GHYHORSPHQW RI
LQVSHFWLRQWKURXJKWRTXDOLW\FRQWUROZLWKLQWKHFRQWH[WRIV\VWHPV
RI TXDOLW\ DVVXUDQFH XQGHU WKH ZLGHU PDQDJHPHQW DSSURDFK RI


Chapter 1: Land Administration System and Quality Concepts

WRWDO TXDOLW\ PDQDJHPHQW 'DV 0XOP   2DNODQG  


GHILQHV WRWDO TXDOLW\ PDQDJHPHQW 740  DV DQ DSSURDFK WR
LPSURYLQJ WKH FRPSHWLWLYHQHVV HIIHFWLYHQHVV DQG IOH[LELOLW\ RI D
ZKROHRUJDQLVDWLRQ,QWKLVZD\740FDQSOD\DQLPSRUWDQWUROHLQ
LPSURYLQJ TXDOLW\ RI DQ\ RUJDQLVDWLRQ DV LW FRQVLGHUV WKH ZKROH
V\VWHPLQFOXGLQJDOOWKHSURFHVVHVDQGZRUNIRUFH
7RWDO 4XDOLW\ 0DQDJHPHQW LV WKH WRWDO RI DFWLYLWLHV DQG PHWKRGV
XVHGE\DQHQWHUSULVHLQRUGHUWRIXOILOWKHUHTXLUHPHQWVRIDFOLHQW
ZLWK WKH OHDVW FRVW 7KLV FDQ EH DFKLHYHG E\ DFWLYDWLQJ DOO WKH
UHVRXUFHV RI WKH HQWHUSULVH WHFKQRVWUXFWXUH DQG LQIUDVWUXFWXUH 
DQG XVLQJ OHDUQLQJ SURFHGXUHV DQG LQQRYDWLYH LGHDV VSULQJLQJ
IURP LQVLGH RU IURP WKH VXUURXQGLQJV RI WKH HQWHUSULVH 740
SUHVXSSRVHV WKDW LWV SULQFLSOHV ZLOO EH DSSOLHG WR DOO OHYHOV RI WKH
RUJDQLVDWLRQ RI WKH HQWHUSULVH 7KLV LPSOLHV WKDW LW PXVW EH
LQFRUSRUDWHG QRW RQO\ LQ HYHU\ SURGXFW RU VHUYLFH SURYLGHG DV
PDQ\ SHRSOH PD\ WKLQN  EXW DOVR WR DOO OHYHOV RI DFWLYLW\ 7RWDO
4XDOLW\0DQDJHPHQWFDQEHGHYHORSHGLQIRXUVWDJHVDVVKRZQLQ
)LJXUH /DNDNLVHWDO 


)LJXUH6WDJHVRI740GHYHORSPHQW 2VFKPDQ 


Chapter 1: Land Administration System and Quality Concepts

Inspection: LV WKH FRPSDULVRQ RI WKH FKDUDFWHULVWLFV RI WKH ILQDO
SURGXFW RU VHUYLFH WR WKH WHFKQLFDO VSHFLILFDWLRQV ,W LV DQ
HOHPHQWDU\ZD\IRUWKHFRQWURORIDSURGXFWRUVHUYLFH7KHEDVLF
DFWLRQVWDNHQLQLQVSHFWLRQDUHJUDGLQJDQGHYDOXDWLRQFRUUHFWLYH
DFWLRQV DQG GHWHUPLQDWLRQ RI FDXVHV UHVSRQVLEOH IRU D PLVV RU
IDLOXUH 7KLV LV WKH SKDVH LQ ZKLFK WKH TXDOLW\ RI D SURGXFW RU
VHUYLFH LV WHVWHG EHIRUH FXVWRPHUV QRWLFH LW ,Q /$6 DVSHFW WKLV
ZLOO IRFXV RQ WHFKQLFDO SUREOHPV DQG LVVXHV FRQFHUQLQJ WKH
H[LVWLQJ V\VWHP DQG DGDSWLQJ QHZ WHFKQRORJLHV IRU RYHUFRPLQJ
WKRVH SUREOHPV DQG LVVXHV 7KLV ZLOO PRVWO\ FRQFHUQ ZLWK WKH
RSHUDWLRQDOOHYHOZKHUHPRVWRIWKHSURGXFWVRUVHUYLFHVGHOLYHUHG
DWWKHXVHUVHQG
Quality Control (QC): IROORZV inspection DQG LV WKH WRWDO RI
RSHUDWLRQDO DQG WHFKQLFDO SURFHGXUHV ZKLFK FDQ FRQILUP WKH
TXDOLW\ RI D SURGXFW RU VHUYLFH DFFRUGLQJ WR VSHFLILFDWLRQV ,Q WKLV
SKDVHWKHTXDOLW\SUREOHPVDUHQRWRQO\GHWHFWHGEXWDOVRWUHDWHG
LQDPRUHV\VWHPDWLFDSSURDFK7KHEDVLFFRPSRQHQWVRI4&DUH
WKH TXDOLW\ KDQGERRN LQVSHFWLRQV DQG FRQWUROV SURGXFW WHVWLQJ
DQGGDWDGRFXPHQWDWLRQ)URP/$6SRLQWRIYLHZLWZLOOIRFXVRQ
ERWK WKH LQVWLWXWLRQDO DQG WHFKQLFDO SUREOHPV DQG LVVXHV DW
PDQDJHPHQWOHYHOVRWKDWWKHTXDOLW\RIWKHSURGXFWRUVHUYLFHFDQ
EHPHDVXUHGDWWKLVVWDJH
Quality Assurance (QA): LV WKH WRWDO RI SUHSURJUDPPHG RU
V\VWHPDWLF DFWLRQV DQG SURFHGXUHVQHFHVVDU\IRU HQVXULQJWKDWD
SURGXFW RU VHUYLFH IXOILOV DQG ZLOO FRQWLQXH WR IXOILO FHUWDLQ
VSHFLILFDWLRQV 7KLV SKDVH LQFOXGHV IXQFWLRQV RWKHU WKDQ GLUHFW
RSHUDWLRQV RI DQ LQVWLWXWLRQ WR LPSURYH WKH TXDOLW\ RI D SURGXFW RU
VHUYLFH7KHEDVLFFRPSRQHQWVRI4$DUHV\VWHPVFRQWUROTXDOLW\
GHVLJQVWDWLVWLFDOTXDOLW\FRQWUROFHUWLILFDWLRQE\WKLUGSDUWLHVFRVW
RI QR TXDOLW\ DQG DQDO\VLV IRU WKH URRW FDXVHV ZKLFK DUH


Chapter 1: Land Administration System and Quality Concepts

UHVSRQVLEOHIRUDIDLOXUH,Q/$6WKLVSOD\VDQLPSRUWDQWUROHDWWKH
SROLF\OHYHOZKHUHDVHWRIUXOHVDQGUHJXODWLRQPXVWEHGHILQHGWR
HQVXUHWKHTXDOLW\RIWKHSURGXFWRUVHUYLFH
Total Quality Management (TQM): LV WKH WRWDO RI DFWLYLWLHV DQG
PHWKRGV XVHG E\ DQ HQWHUSULVH LQ RUGHU WR IXOILO WKH UHTXLUHPHQWV
RIDFOLHQWZLWKWKHOHDVWFRVWHPSKDVLVJLYHQRQWKHOLQNEHWZHHQ
740 DQG 4$ 7KH EDVLF FRPSRQHQWV DQG DFWLRQV RI 740 DUH
FRQWLQXRXV LPSURYHPHQW SDUWLFLSDWLRQ RI FOLHQWV DQG VXSSOLHUV
SDUWLFLSDWLRQ RI DOO OHYHOV RI WKH HQWHUSULVH HYDOXDWLRQ RI
SHUIRUPDQFH WHDP ZRUN DQG LQYROYHPHQW RI DOO WKH SHUVRQQHO
)RU /$6 LW LV PRVW LPSRUWDQWWRGHYHORS740FRQFHSWDWUHJXODU
EDVLV VR WKDW QHZ DGYDQFHPHQWV LQ WHFKQRORJ\ DQG FXVWRPHUV
QHHGV DQDO\VLV FRXOG EH EURXJKW LQWR FRQVLGHUDWLRQ IRU LPSURYLQJ
WKH TXDOLW\ RI H[LVWLQJ V\VWHP ,Q WKLV ZD\ LW ZLOO FRYHU WKH
SURFHVVHVRI/$6DWDOORUJDQLVDWLRQDOOHYHOVLQFOXGLQJSROLF\OHYHO
PDQDJHPHQW OHYHO DQG RSHUDWLRQDO OHYHO ZLWKLQ WKH 740 TXDOLW\
LPSURYHPHQWIUDPHZRUN
740 LV DQ RUJDQLVDWLRQDO FRQFHUQ DQG QRW WKH GRPDLQ RI DQ\
VSHFLDOLVW RU VSHFLILF IXQFWLRQ =DLUL   740 LQYROYHV
HPSOR\HHLQYROYHPHQWDQGWHDPZRUNLQRUGHUWRGHYHORSDV\VWHP
WKDW PHHWV WKH QHHGV RI SURGXFW TXDOLW\ SURFHVV TXDOLW\ DQG
RUJDQLVDWLRQDOTXDOLW\:LWK740HYHU\ERG\ZLWKLQDQRUJDQLVDWLRQ
ZRUNVIRUFXVWRPHUVDWLVIDFWLRQ740LQFOXGHVDVHWRISULQFLSOHV
WRROVDQGSURFHGXUHVWKDWSURYLGHJXLGDQFHLQWKHSUDFWLFDODIIDLUV
RI UXQQLQJ DQ RUJDQLVDWLRQ 740 LQYROYHV DOO PHPEHUV RI WKH
RUJDQLVDWLRQLQFRQWUROOLQJDQGFRQWLQXRXVO\LPSURYLQJKRZZRUNLV
GRQH 0DDV 
740HQFRXUDJHVRUJDQLVDWLRQVWRRSHUDWHVLPSOHSURFHGXUHVWKDW
DUHERWKQHFHVVDU\DQGVXIILFLHQWIRUWKHDFKLHYHPHQWRIDTXDOLW\
DQG WR HOLPLQDWH QRQSURGXFWLYH DFWLYLWLHV DQG ZDVWH (PEDUNLQJ


Chapter 1: Land Administration System and Quality Concepts

RQ TXDOLW\ ZLWKRXW JRLQJ WKH ZKROH ZD\ WR 740 LV LQ JHQHUDO
UHJDUGHG DV D PLVWDNH (YHU\ FRQVXPHU QHHGV DQG H[SHFWV
TXDOLW\ DQG WKH RQO\ HIIHFWLYH ZD\ WR HQVXUH WKLV LV SRVVLEOH
WKURXJK 740 '7,   ,Q WKLV ZD\ WKH KROLVWLF DSSURDFK RI
740 VKRXOG EH FRQVLGHUHG ZKLOH GHYHORSLQJ D IUDPHZRUN IRU
LPSURYLQJ WKH TXDOLW\ RI H[LVWLQJ /$6 VR WKDW DOO WKH SURFHVVHV
ZLWKLQ/$6 VWDUWLQJIURPLQSXWWKURXJKWKHSURFHVVLQJWRWKHILQDO
SURGXFWVHUYLFHV FRXOGEHEURXJKWLQWRFRQVLGHUDWLRQ
1.4 Evaluating the Quality of Land Administration System
0DQ\ VWXGLHV KDYH EHHQ FRQGXFWHG E\ GLIIHUHQW UHVHDUFKHUV WR
HYDOXDWH H[LVWLQJ /$6 ZLWKLQ VSHFLILF HYDOXDWLRQ IUDPHZRUNV 7KH
FRPLQJ SDUW RI WKLV SDUDJUDSK SUHVHQWV VRPH RI WKHVH VWXGLHV LQ
GHWDLO DQG WKHQ GUDZV WKH DWWHQWLRQ WR WKH TXDOLW\ RI /$6 LQ WKH
QH[WSDUWRIWKLVSDUDJUDSK
1.4.1 Assessing Land Administration Systems
$VVHVVPHQWLVDQDWXUDODFWLYLW\IRUKXPDQEHLQJVDVPRVWSHRSOH
DUH LQFOLQHG WR HYDOXDWH DQ DFWLYLW\ FDUHIXOO\ EHIRUH GHFLGLQJ RQD
FRXUVH RI DFWLRQ 6LPLODUO\ RIWHQ WLPHV PDQDJHUV ZLOO KDYH WR
GHPRQVWUDWH WKDW GHFLVLRQV PDGH ZHUH UDWLRQDO DQG REMHFWLYHV
ZHUH DFKLHYHG 7KLV W\SH RI MXVWLILFDWLRQ FDQ EH DWWDLQHG DQG
GHPRQVWUDWHG WKURXJK DQ DVVHVVPHQW *HRUJLDGRX HW DO 
*LII  0F1DPDUD   /$6V DUH DLPHG ZLWK WKHLU RZQ
REMHFWLYHV ZLWKLQ VRFLHWDO QRUPV RI D VRFLHW\ IRU WKH SURWHFWLRQ RI
ULJKWV LQ ODQG DQG PDQDJHPHQW RI DOO RWKHU ODQG UHODWHG
LQIRUPDWLRQ 7KHUHIRUH WKH TXDOLW\ RI /$6V PXVW EH DVVHVVHG WR
HQVXUHWKHDFKLHYHPHQWRIWKHVHDLPVDQGREMHFWLYHV7KHUHVXOWV
RI DVVHVVPHQW ZLOO KHOS DOO WKH VWDNHKROGHUV WR RXWOLQH WKH
HOHPHQWV RI WKH H[LVWLQJ /$6V WKDW PD\ UHTXLUH IXUWKHU
LPSURYHPHQW


Chapter 1: Land Administration System and Quality Concepts

7KH TXDOLW\ RI /$6 FDQ EH HYDOXDWHG LQ WHUPV RI HIILFLHQF\ DQG
HIIHFWLYHQHVV$QHIILFLHQF\DVVHVVPHQWUHIHUVWRWKHHYDOXDWLRQRI
/$6V WR GHWHUPLQH LI WKH\ DUH DFKLHYLQJ WKHLU REMHFWLYHV LQ WKH
PRVWHFRQRPLFDOPDQQHU2QWKHRWKHUKDQGHIIHFWLYHQHVVUHIHUV
WRWKHHYDOXDWLRQRI/$6VWRGHWHUPLQHLIWKH\DUHDFKLHYLQJWKHLU
JRDOV DORQJ ZLWK KDYLQJ WKH SUHGLFWHG LPSDFW RQ VRFLHW\ *LII
DQG &URPSYRHWV   +RZHYHU WKH PDLQ FKDOOHQJH LV WR
GHYHORS DVVHVVPHQW WHFKQLTXHV FDSDEOH RI SURYLGLQJ DQG
DGHTXDWHO\UHSRUWLQJTXDOLW\UHVXOWVWRILQDQFLHUVVWDNHKROGHUVDQG
WKHSXEOLFZKHUHDSSOLFDEOH
7KH TXDOLW\ RI /$6V LV FXUUHQWO\ EHLQJ HYDOXDWHG E\ GLIIHUHQW
LQWHUQDWLRQDORUJDQLVDWLRQVDQGQDWLRQDODLGDJHQFLHVDVZHOODVE\
/$ DJHQFLHV WKHPVHOYHV LQ RUGHU WR DVVHVV WKH V\VWHPV IRU
SODQQLQJ VSRQVRULQJ RU FDUU\LQJ RXW UHIRUP SURMHFWV 7KH ),*
  VXJJHVWHG WKH FULWHULD RI VHFXULW\ FODULW\ VLPSOLFLW\
WLPHOLQHVV IDLUQHVV DFFHVVLELOLW\ FRVW DQG VXVWDLQDELOLW\ IRU
DVVHVVLQJDFWXDORUSRWHQWLDOVXFFHVVRIDFDGDVWUHRU/$67KHVH
PHDVXUHVDUHFXVWRPHURULHQWHGDQGFDQEHXVHGWRHYDOXDWHWKH
HIIHFWLYHQHVVRI/$ &KLPKDPKLZDHWDO 
7KH),*&RPPLVVLRQDOVRDWWHPSWHGLQWRFROOHFWVWDWLVWLFDO
GDWD RI QDWLRQDO FDGDVWUDO V\VWHPV DQG UHFHLYHG IHHGEDFN IURP
VRPH  FRXQWULHV LQ RUGHU WR GHYHORS D PRGHO WR EHQFKPDUN
FDGDVWUDO V\VWHPV DFURVV FRXQWULHV 6WHXGOHU HW DO   7KH
PRGHO ZDV EXLOW RQ WKH ILYH PHDVXUHPHQW GLPHQVLRQV RI  
JHQHUDO VWDWLVWLFV DQG FRQWHQW   SHUIRUPDQFH DQG UHOLDELOLW\  
FRPSOHWHQHVV   SHUVRQQHO DQG VDODU\ VWUXFWXUH DQG   FRVW
UHFRYHU\ DVSHFWV DORQJ ZLWK VHYHUDO SHUIRUPDQFH LQGLFDWRUV
&KLPKDPKLZDHWDO $ZHDOWKRILQIRUPDWLRQZDVFROOHFWHG
LQ WKLV UHJDUG DERXW WKH /$6V LQ WKHVH FRXQWULHV EXW D ODFN RI D
FOHDUIUDPHZRUNZDVREVHUYHG 6WHXGOHUHWDO 


Chapter 1: Land Administration System and Quality Concepts

7KH :RUOG %DQN DQG WKH 8QLWHG 6WDWHV $JHQF\ IRU ,QWHUQDWLRQDO
'HYHORSPHQW 86$,'  ILQDQFHG D FRPSDUDWLYH VWXG\ LQ  WR
HODERUDWH LQGLFDWRUV RQ VHYHUDO IHDWXUHV RI ODQG LQIRUPDWLRQ
V\VWHPV WKDW FDQ EH XVHG WR PDNH FRPSDULVRQV RI /$6V 7KLV
VWXG\ LQFOXGHG  GHYHORSLQJ FRXQWULHV DQG VL[ GHYHORSHG
FRXQWULHV7KLVZDVWKHILUVWHIIRUWDWLQWHUQDWLRQDOOHYHOWRHYDOXDWH
FURVVFRXQWU\/$6VEXWWKHVWXG\KDVWKUHHLPSRUWDQWOLPLWDWLRQV
)LUVWO\LWLVEDVHGRQWKHOLPLWHG81(&(GHILQLWLRQRIWKH/$6DQG
KHQFHLWGRHVQRWLQFOXGHLQGLFDWRUVUHODWHGWRNH\LQWHUYHQWLRQDQG
UHJXODWLRQWRROVWKDWDJRYHUQPHQWKDV6HFRQGO\WKHVWXG\XVHV
D VHW RI TXDOLWDWLYH LQGLFDWRUV ZLWK RSHQ TXHVWLRQV ODFNLQJ D
EHQFKPDUNIUDPHZRUN$VDFRQVHTXHQFHWKHTXDOLWDWLYHVHFWLRQ
LV EDVLFDOO\ GHVFULSWLYH DQG FDQQRW EH XVHG WR GHULYH SROLF\
FRQFOXVLRQV UHJDUGLQJ HIIHFWLYHQHVV RU HIILFLHQF\ RI WKH V\VWHPV
)LQDOO\ ZKLOH WKH VWXG\ LQFOXGHV D VHW RI TXDQWLWDWLYH LQGLFDWRUV
VXSSRUWHGE\DQH[SOLFLWEHQFKPDUNIUDPHZRUNWKHGDWDUHTXLUHG
IRU WKHVH LQGLFDWRUV LV GLIILFXOW WR FROOHFW DQG LV QRW DYDLODEOH LQ
PRVWRIWKHGHYHORSLQJFRXQWULHVLQFOXGHGLQWKHVDPSOH %XUQVHW
DO 
)XUWKHUPRUH D IUDPHZRUN IRU EHQFKPDUNLQJ /$6V ZDV DOVR
SUHVHQWHGDQGGLVFXVVHGLQWKH$QQXDOPHHWLQJRI&RPPLVVLRQ
DW *lYOH 6ZHGHQ 6WHXGOHU DQG :LOOLDPVRQ   DQG D UHSRUW
ZDV DOVR SXEOLVKHG E\ WKH ),*&RPPLVVLRQ  RQ %HQFKPDUNLQJ
&DGDVWUDO6\VWHPV 6WHXGOHUDQG.DXIPDQQ 
%XLOGLQJ IXUWKHU RQ WKH EHQFKPDUNLQJ PRGHO WKH FDGDVWUDO
WHPSODWH RI 5DMDELIDUG HW DO  6WHXGOHU HW DO  
VXJJHVWHG VRPH DGGLWLRQDO GLPHQVLRQV IRU FDGDVWUDO V\VWHPV
SHUIRUPDQFHHYDOXDWLRQ8VLQJWKHPHDVXUHPHQWFDWHJRULHVRI  
SDUFHOVWRVXUYH\DQGUHJLVWHU  LQIRUPDORFFXSDWLRQRIODQG  
FRPSOHWHQHVV  FRPSUHKHQVLYHQHVV  XVHDQGXVHIXOQHVVRI


Chapter 1: Land Administration System and Quality Concepts

VSDWLDO FDGDVWUDO GDWD  DQG   FDSDFLW\ LQ SODFH DQG QXPHURXV


LQGLFDWRUV 5DMDELIDUG HW DO   WKLV FDGDVWUDO WHPSODWH KDV
EHHQWHVWHGLQFRXQWULHV
7KH 81(&( :RUNLQJ 3DUW\ RQ /DQG $GPLQLVWUDWLRQ 81(&(
:3/$  KDV DOVR WULHG RYHU WKH ODVW IHZ \HDUV WR FRRUGLQDWH WKH
HYDOXDWLRQRI/$6UHIRUPVLQWUDQVLWLRQFRXQWULHVIRUUHIRUPLQJDQG
LPSURYLQJWKHVH/$6V7KH81(&(:3/$  VWDUWHGWRRIIHU
DVVLVWDQFH WR QDWLRQDO /$ DXWKRULWLHV UHYLHZLQJ WKH FXUUHQW
VLWXDWLRQDQGSHUIRUPDQFHRIWKHLU/$6DQGXQGHUWRRNHYDOXDWLRQ
PLVVLRQV WR FRXQWULHV LQ WUDQVLWLRQ +RZHYHU WKH :3/$ UHOLHG RQ
WKHEDFNJURXQGDQGH[SHUWLVHRIWKHSDUWLFLSDWLQJFRQVXOWDQWVDQG
D VWDQGDUGLVHG PHWKRG ZDV QRW DGRSWHG IRU HYDOXDWLQJ DQG
DVVHVVLQJQDWLRQDOV\VWHPV 6WHXGOHUHWDO 
7KHUH KDYH EHHQ IHZ DWWHPSWV WR VWDQGDUGLVHWKHSURFHGXUHVIRU
HYDOXDWLQJRUFRPSDULQJ/$6VRQWKHLQWHUQDWLRQDOOHYHOEXWWKHUH
LV QR LQWHUQDWLRQDOO\ DFFHSWHG RU VWDQGDUGLVHG PHWKRG IRU
HYDOXDWLRQ 7KLV LV PDLQO\ EHFDXVH WKH /$6V DUH UHIOHFWLQJ WKH
FXOWXUDO DQG VRFLDO FRQWH[W RI WKH FRXQWU\ LQ ZKLFK WKH\ DUH
RSHUDWLQJPDNLQJWKHPGLVWLQFWO\GLIIHUHQWDQGWKHUHIRUHGLIILFXOWWR
FRPSDUHZLWKHDFKRWKHU 6WHXGOHUHWDO ,WVKRXOGEHNHSW
LQPLQGWKDWWKHEHQFKPDUNLQJFRXOGEHXVHIXORQO\LIFRPSDULVRQV
DUHPDGHEHWZHHQFRXQWULHVWKDWDUHGHYHORSLQJDORQJWKHVDPH
SDWK 2WKHUZLVH GLIILFXOWLHV DULVH LQ XVLQJ WKH FRPSDULVRQ IRU WKH
SXUSRVHVRISURSRVLQJVROXWLRQVZKHUHWKHV\VWHPVKDYHGLIIHUHQW
VWUXFWXUHVDQGGLIIHULQJREMHFWLYHV
,QWKLVFRQQHFWLRQ6WHXGOHUHWDO  VXJJHVWHGDQHYDOXDWLRQ
IUDPHZRUNIRU/$6VZKLFKWDNHVDKROLVWLFDSSURDFKORRNLQJDWWKH
ZKROH V\VWHP 7KLV HYDOXDWLRQ IUDPHZRUN FRQVLGHUV IRXU
HYDOXDWLRQHOHPHQWVQDPHO\REMHFWLYHVVWUDWHJLHVRXWFRPHVDQG
UHYLHZ SURFHVV E\ OLQNLQJ WKHP ZLWK GLIIHUHQW VWDNHKROGHUV ZLWKLQ


Chapter 1: Land Administration System and Quality Concepts

WKHRUJDQLVDWLRQDOS\UDPLG7KLVFRUUHVSRQGVZLWKRWKHUDFFHSWHG
FRQFHSWVVXFKDVWKHIUDPHZRUNIRUUHHQJLQHHULQJ/$6VDQGWKH
ERRNNHHSLQJRUDFFRXQWLQJV\VWHPDQDORJ\IRU/$7KHUHVXOWLQJ
HOHPHQWV DVSHFWV DQG LQGLFDWRUV DUH WKHQ IDFLOLWDWHG E\ WKH
WRROER[ SULQFLSOHV IRU /$ ZKLFK SURYLGHV D YDOXDEOH EDVLV IRU WKH
HYDOXDWLRQRIWKHZKROHV\VWHP
6LPLODUO\ &KLPKDPKLZD HW DO   SUHVHQWHG D FRQFHSWXDO
PRGHO IRU PHDVXULQJ HQG WR HQG SHUIRUPDQFH RI /$6 EDVHG RQ
FURVVRUJDQLVDWLRQDOEXVLQHVVSURFHVVHV &%3V 7KH\GHYHORSHG
D SHUIRUPDQFH PHDVXUHPHQW IUDPHZRUN IRU /$ &%3V WKDW
FRQVLGHUHGWKHFULWLFDOPHDVXUHPHQWDUHDVIRU&%3GHOLYHU\
1.4.2 Quality Improvement of Land Administration System
,W LV DSSDUHQW IURP WKH DERYH GLVFXVVLRQ WKDW WKH TXDOLW\ RI /$6
FDQ EH HYDOXDWHG WKURXJK VHYHUDO PXOWLGLPHQVLRQDO DSSURDFKHV
7KHVHHYDOXDWLRQPHDVXUHVFDQIXUWKHUKHOSWRLPSURYHWKHTXDOLW\
RI H[LVWLQJ /$6 DV SHU TXDOLW\ UHTXLUHPHQWV +RZHYHU WKH PDLQ
DLP SXUVXHG LQ DQ HYDOXDWLRQ VKRXOG GHWHUPLQH ZKDW WR PHDVXUH
DQG KRZ WR PHDVXUH LW" ,W LV LPSRUWDQW WR NHHS LQ PLQG WKDW WKH
SHUIRUPDQFH RI DQ\ V\VWHP FDQ EH PHDVXUHG RQO\ LI WKH TXDOLW\
SDUDPHWHUVDQGLQGLFDWRUVRIWKHH[LVWLQJV\VWHPDUHNQRZQILUVW
7KHVH TXDOLW\ SDUDPHWHUV DQG LQGLFDWRUV DUH DOVR YDU\LQJ IURP
V\VWHP WR V\VWHP GHSHQGLQJ XSRQ WKH VWUXFWXUH RI H[LVWLQJ /$6
XVHUVQHHGVVRFLDODQGFXOWXUDOQRUPVDQGYDOXHVRIDVRFLHW\LQ
ZKLFKWKH/$6LVEHLQJSUDFWLVHG
,Q DOO WKHVH SUHYLRXV VWXGLHV WKH TXDOLW\ RI /$6V ZDV PHDVXUHG
DFURVV GLIIHUHQW ODQG DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ V\VWHPV WKDW ZHUH LQ XVH LQ
GLIIHUHQW FRXQWULHV DQG WKH DWWHQWLRQ ZDV JLYHQ WR RQO\ WKRVH
TXDOLW\ SDUDPHWHUV ZKLFK ZHUH FRPPRQ LQ DOO WKHVH /$6V
7KHUHIRUHGXHWRGLYHUVHQDWXUHRI/$6DFRPSUHKHQVLYHPHWKRG


Chapter 1: Land Administration System and Quality Concepts

LV WKXV UHTXLUHG WR DQDO\VH WKH TXDOLW\ RI DQ H[LVWLQJ /$6 RI D
FRXQWU\ H[FOXVLYHO\ E\ FRQVLGHULQJ DOO LWV FRPSRQHQWV WKURXJK DQ
DVVHVVPHQWIUDPHZRUNIRUEHWWHUDVVHVVPHQWDQGDQDO\VLV
7KLV TXDOLW\ DVVHVVPHQW IUDPHZRUN ZLOO IXUWKHU KHOS WR PRGHO WKH
FKDQJLQJ UROH RI H[LVWLQJ /$6 ZLWKLQ FRXQWU\V VRFLDO FXOWXUDO
QRUPV DQG YDOXHV DV SHU XVHUV QHHGV DQG TXDOLW\ UHTXLUHPHQWV
+RZHYHU WKH EDVLF FRQFHSWV RI TXDOLW\ DQG WRWDO TXDOLW\
PDQDJHPHQW 740  VKRXOG EH FRQVLGHUHG LQ WKLV FRQQHFWLRQ VR
WKDWDKROLVWLFDSSURDFKFRXOGEHIROORZHGWRDQDO\VHDQGLPSURYH
WKH TXDOLW\ RI H[LVWLQJ /$6 1R ZRUN KDV EHHQ FDUULHG RXW LQ WKLV
UHJDUG WR SUHVHQW D VHW RI TXDOLW\ LQGLFDWRUV IRU DVVHVVLQJ WKH
TXDOLW\RIH[LVWLQJ/$6ILUVWDQGWKHQGHYHORSTXDOLW\LPSURYHPHQW
JXLGHOLQHVIRUDVWDQGDORQH/$6
$VGLVFXVVHGHDUOLHULQWKHSUHYLRXVVHFWLRQDOOSUHYLRXVUHVHDUFK
VWXGLHV FRQVLGHUHG GLIIHUHQW FRPSRQHQWV RI /$6 LQFOXGLQJ OHJDO
WHFKQLFDO VRFLDO RUJDQLVDWLRQDO DQG SROLWLFDO FRPSRQHQW LQ RUGHU
WR HYDOXDWH WKHVH FRPSRQHQWV 7KH DQDO\VLV RI GLIIHUHQW
FRPSRQHQWVFDOOVIRUDKROLVWLFUHVSRQVH EHIRUH JRLQJ WR VXJJHVW
IXUWKHU VXJJHVWLRQV IRU LPSURYHPHQWV 7KHUHIRUH D FRQFHSWXDO
IUDPHZRUN LV WKXV UHTXLUHG WR DQDO\VH WKHVH FRPSRQHQWV IRU WKH
H[LVWLQJ /$6 EHIRUH JRLQJ WR GHILQH TXDOLW\ LPSURYHPHQW
JXLGHOLQHV
7KHUHIRUH DOO WKH DVSHFWV RI /$6 VKRXOG EH EURXJKW LQWR
FRQVLGHUDWLRQ EHIRUH JRLQJ WR DQDO\VH WKH TXDOLW\ LVVXHV RI WKH
H[LVWLQJ V\VWHP 7KHVH DVSHFWV FDQ EH EURDGO\ FDWHJRULVHG LQWR
WZRFDWHJRULHVLHLQVWLWXWLRQDODVSHFWDQGWHFKQLFDODVSHFWZKLFK
DUHGLVFXVVHGLQWKHQH[WVHFWLRQ



Chapter 1: Land Administration System and Quality Concepts

1.5 Land Administration Systems Aspects


7KH:RUOG%DQN  LQGLFDWHVWKDW/$6VDUHXVXDOO\RSHUDWHG
ZLWKLQGLVWLQFWVRFLDODQGFXOWXUDOQRUPVDQGYDOXHV7KHUHIRUHLWLV
LPSRUWDQW WR GHYHORS D IUDPHZRUN WKDW WDNHV LQWR DFFRXQW ERWK
LQVWLWXWLRQDO LQFOXGLQJ RUJDQLVDWLRQDO  DQG WHFKQLFDO DVSHFWV IRU
LPSOHPHQWLQJ /$6V LQ WKH FRQWH[W RI ODQG SROLF\ GHYHORSPHQW
5HVHDUFK VWXG\ LPSOLHV WKDW WKH WHFKQLFDO WKH OHJDO DQG WKH
RUJDQLVDWLRQDO DVSHFWV DUH DIIHFWLQJ V\VWHP RI ODQG UHJLVWUDWLRQ
DQG RQ DFKLHYLQJ LWV JRDOV 6LPLODUO\ WKH LQWHUUHODWLRQ EHWZHHQ
WKHVHDVSHFWVDOVRHIIHFWVWKLVHYHQVWURQJHU =HYHQEHUJHQ
 
/DQG $GPLQLVWUDWLRQ 6\VWHP LQYROYHV PDQ\ LVVXHV UHODWLQJ WR
KLVWRULFDOFXOWXUDOVRFLDO WHFKQLFDO DQG HFRQRPLF FRQGLWLRQV RID
VRFLHW\ 'LIIHUHQW VRFLHWLHV IDFH GLIIHUHQW LVVXHV )RU LQVWDQFH
FRXQWULHV ZLWK LQIRUPDO DQG FXVWRPDU\ UXOHV ZLOO IDFH GLIIHUHQW
LVVXHV WR WKRVH LQ SRVW FRQIOLFW VLWXDWLRQV 7KH WHFKQLFDO
UHTXLUHPHQWV RI D FKDQJLQJ /$6 IRU GHYHORSHG FRXQWULHV DUH
GLIIHUHQW WR WKRVH RI GHYHORSLQJ FRXQWULHV 6 6 0 .DODQWDUL
  0DQ\ UHVHDUFK VWXGLHV KDYH EHHQ FRQGXFWHG WR KLJKOLJKW
GLIIHUHQW LVVXHV FRQFHUQLQJWKHGHYHORSPHQWDQGLPSURYHPHQWRI
/$6 +RZHYHU WKLV VHFWLRQ GLVFXVVHV WKHVH LVVXHV XQGHU WKH
XPEUHOODRILQVWLWXWLRQDODQGWHFKQLFDODVSHFWVRI/$6ZKHUHDVWKH
HOHPHQWV FRQFHUQLQJ WR WKHVH WZR DVSHFWV DUH SXW LQ LWDOLF ZLWKLQ
WKHWH[W
1.5.1 Institutional Aspect
,QVWLWXWLRQV DUH GHILQHG DV WKH UXOHV RI WKH JDPH LQ D VRFLHW\ RU
PRUH IRUPDOO\ LQVWLWXWLRQV DUH WKH KXPDQO\ GHYLVHG FRQVWUDLQWV
WKDW VKDSH KXPDQ LQWHUDFWLRQV 1RUWK 7KHSOD\HUV RI WKH
JDPH DUH WKH RUJDQLVDWLRQV 7KH FRVW RI UHGXFLQJ XQFHUWDLQW\ LQ


Chapter 1: Land Administration System and Quality Concepts

KXPDQLQWHUDFWLRQVDUHGHSHQGHQWRQWKHTXDOLW\RIWKHLQVWLWXWLRQV
DQGKRZVHULRXVO\WKHVHDUHHQIRUFHG YDQGHU0ROHQ 7KH
:RUOG%DQN  FRQVLGHUVWKHODQGWLWOLQJODQGUHJLVWUDWLRQDQG
LQIRUPDWLRQ VXSSO\ LQ JHQHUDO DV H[DPSOHV RI LQVWLWXWLRQDO
GHYHORSPHQW
$ VRXQG LQVWLWXWLRQDO IUDPHZRUN LV EXLOW XSRQ D VWURQJ DELOLW\ WR
HYDOXDWHORFDOFRQGLWLRQVDQGWHFKQRORJLFDOGHYHORSPHQWVLQRWKHU
FRXQWULHV RU RUJDQLVDWLRQV &KLJLLQJH   7KHUH DUH WKUHH
EDVLF FDWHJRULHV RI LQVWLWXWLRQV QDPHO\ WKH FRQVWLWXWLRQDO RUGHU
WKH LQVWLWXWLRQDO DUUDQJHPHQWV DQG WKH QRUPDWLYH EHKDYLRXUDO
FRGHV )HGHU DQG )HHQ\   7KHVH WKUHH FDWHJRULHV GLUHFWO\
DIIHFWWKHTXDOLW\RI/$6DQGSURYLGHFOXHVZKHQFXUUHQWV\VWHPV
DUH QRW RSHUDWLQJ LQ DFFRUGDQFH ZLWK VRFLHW\V UHTXLUHPHQWV DQG
XVHUVQHHGV
1.5.1.1 Constitutional Order
7KH FRQVWLWXWLRQDO RUGHU GHDOV ZLWK WKH IXQGDPHQWDO UXOHV DERXW
KRZ VRFLHW\ LV RUJDQLVHG DUH EDVHG RQ WKH UXOHV IRU PDNLQJ
UXOHV )HGHU DQG )HHQ\   )URP WKH HDUO\ GD\V RI KLVWRU\
PDQ DOZD\V KDG D UHODWLRQVKLS ZLWK ODQG 6XFK D UHODWLRQVKLS
OHDGV WR VR FDOOHG ODQG WHQXUH ZKLFK GHILQHV KRZ ODQG LV WR EH
KHOG DQG XVHG 7KLV DUUDQJHPHQW DOZD\V GLIIHU IURP RQH FRXQWU\
WRDQRWKHUDQGHYHQZLWKLQRQHFRXQWU\DVLWLVRIWHQLQIOXHQFHGE\
KLVWRU\ SROLWLFV FXOWXUH JHRJUDSK\ UHOLJLRXVVRFLDO V\VWHPV DQG
WKHHFRQRPLFVLWXDWLRQ7KHUHODWLRQVKLSEHWZHHQDQLQGLYLGXDO RU
D JURXS RI SHRSOH RU FRPPXQLWLHV DQG D XQLW RI ODQG WKURXJK D
EXQGOH RI ULJKWV RU SURSHUW\ ULJKWV  LV WKH PRVW LPSRUWDQW SDUW RI
ODQG WHQXUH $ 0 7XODGKDU   $ ODQG WHQXUH V\VWHP LV WKH
LQVWLWXWLRQWKDWVKDSHVWKHLQWHUDFWLRQRIWKHSHRSOHDQGODQGZLWKLQ
DVRFLDOFRQWH[WWRFRPHWREHWWHUODQGPDQDJHPHQWDQGGLVSXWH


Chapter 1: Land Administration System and Quality Concepts

UHVROXWLRQV7KHUHDUHGLIIHUHQWIRUPVRIWHQXUHLQFOXGLQJVWDWXWRU\
WHQXUH FXVWRPDU\ WHQXUH DQG LQIRUPDO WHQXUH WKDW VKDSH KXPDQ
LQWHUDFWLRQZLWKODQGLQGLIIHUHQWVRFLHWLHV/$6VKDYHWRFRSHZLWK
WKH UHJLVWUDWLRQ RI ULJKWV WKDW PXVW REH\ WKH FRXQWU\V ODZV DQG
FRQVWLWXWLRQ ZLWK LWV WHQXUH V\VWHP )XUWKHUPRUH WKH security of
tenurePXVWEHHQVXUHGZLWKLQWKHV\VWHPIRUEHWWHUPDQDJHPHQW
RIODQGDQGGLVSXWHUHVROXWLRQV
1.5.1.2 Institutional Arrangements
7KH LQVWLWXWLRQDO DUUDQJHPHQWV DUH FUHDWHG ZLWKLQ WKH UXOHV
VSHFLILHG E\ WKH FRQVWLWXWLRQDO RUGHU VXFK DV ODZV UHJXODWLRQV
DVVRFLDWLRQV FRQWUDFWV DQG SURSHUW\ ULJKWV LQ ODQG )HGHU DQG
)HHQ\   7KHUH DUH DOVR VSHFLILF LQVWLWXWLRQDO DUUDQJHPHQWV
OLNH /$ ODQG UHJLVWUDWLRQ  DQG ODQG PDQDJHPHQW ODQG
FRQVROLGDWLRQ  WR VXSSRUW DQG DFWLYDWH WKH LQVWLWXWLRQ RI SURSHUW\
ULJKWV 6HYDWGDO   /DQG PDQDJHPHQW LQYROYHV WKH
LPSOHPHQWDWLRQ RI IXQGDPHQWDO SROLF\ GHFLVLRQV DERXW WKH QDWXUH
DQG H[WHQW RI LQYHVWPHQWV LQ ODQG )URP DQ LQVWLWXWLRQDO
SHUVSHFWLYH ODQG PDQDJHPHQW LQFOXGHV WKH IRUPXODWLRQ RI ODQG
SROLF\WKHOHJDOIUDPHZRUNUHVRXUFHPDQDJHPHQWDGPLQLVWUDWLYH
DUUDQJHPHQWV DQG ODQG LQIRUPDWLRQ PDQDJHPHQW ZKLFK LV
LQFOXGHG LQ WKH WHFKQLFDO SHUVSHFWLYH ,W HQWDLOV ERWK JRYHUQPHQW
DQG SULYDWH LQLWLDWLYHV 81(&(   7KXV WKH LQVWLWXWLRQDO
DUUDQJHPHQWV LQFOXGH property rights, land policy, legislation,
land-use planning, organisations and financial elements IRU
KDQGOLQJ SURSHUW\ ULJKWV DQG GDWD LQ /$6 ,QVWLWXWLRQDO
DUUDQJHPHQWVZRUNDVDEDFNERQHIRUGHYHORSLQJ/$6LQDVRFLHW\
ZLWKLQUXOHVGHILQHGE\WKHFRQVWLWXWLRQDORUGHU
/DQG SROLF\ LV D SDUW RI WKH QDWLRQDO SROLF\ RI D FRXQWU\ ZKLFK
JHQHUDOO\ UHODWHV WR HFRQRPLF GHYHORSPHQW VRFLDO MXVWLFH DQG


Chapter 1: Land Administration System and Quality Concepts

HTXLW\ DQG SROLWLFDO VWDELOLW\ 7KH ODQG SROLF\ SURPRWHV WKH


SURYLVLRQRIVHFXULW\RIWHQXUHDQGSURYLGHVPHDVXUHVWRSUHYHQW
ODQG VSHFXODWLRQ DQG ODQG GLVSXWHV 81),*   7KH
FRKHUHQF\ RI D QDWLRQDO ODQG SROLF\ ZLWK SROLFLHV LQ RWKHU VHFWRUV
UHIOHFWVWKHTXDOLW\RIDV\VWHPWKDWVXSSRUWVWKHFXVWRPHUVQHHGV
DQGVRFLHW\VUHTXLUHPHQWV
1.5.1.3 Normative Behavioural Code
7KHQRUPDWLYHEHKDYLRXUDOFRGHUHIHUVWRWKHFXOWXUDOYDOXHVWKDW
OHJLWLPLVHWKHDUUDQJHPHQWVDQGFRQVWUDLQEHKDYLRXU$FFRUGLQJWR
6FRWW  1RUPDWLYHV\VWHPVLQFOXGHERWKYDOXHVDQGQRUPV
9DOXHVDUHFRQFHSWLRQVRIWKHSUHIHUUHGRUWKHGHVLUDEOHWRJHWKHU
ZLWK WKH FRQVWUXFWLRQ RI VWDQGDUGV WR ZKLFK H[LVWLQJ VWUXFWXUHV RU
EHKDYLRXU FDQ EH FRPSDUHG DQG DVVHVVHG 1RUPV VSHFLI\ KRZ
WKLQJV VKRXOG EH GRQH WKH\ GHILQH OHJLWLPDWH PHDQV WR SXUVXH
YDOXHGHQGV,QWKLVZD\YDOXHVDUHFORVHO\OLQNHGWRJRDOVDQG
WKH QRUPV DUH WKH DFFHSWDEOH PHDQV WR DFKLHYH WKHVH SUH
GHILQHGJRDOVDVSHUXVHUQHHGVDQGVRFLHW\VUHTXLUHPHQWV7KH
QRUPDWLYH EHKDYLRXUDO FRGH LQFOXGH WKH legal framework IRU FR
RUGLQDWLRQ GHILQLWLRQ RI WKH RSHUDWLRQDO UXOHV responsibilities
users needs LAS processes, access to information (timeliness,
clarity, simplicity, fairness and quick responses), data organisation
(privacy and data protection), public awareness, DQG data pricing
6LQFH ODQG DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ V\VWHPV RSHUDWH ZLWKLQ GLIIHUHQW VRFLDO
DQG SROLWLFDO HQYLURQPHQW 7KHUHIRUH WKHVH V\VWHPV VKRXOG
DGGUHVV DOO WKH HOHPHQWV RI LQVWLWXWLRQDO DVSHFW WR UHFRJQLVH WKH
VWDNHKROGHUV QHHGV EHFDXVH GLIIHUHQW VWDNHKROGHUV PD\ QHHG
GLIIHUHQWIRUPVRISURGXFWRUVHUYLFHV)XUWKHUPRUHWKHVXFFHVVRI
DQ\ EURDGUDQJLQJ /$6 GHSHQGV RQ D QXPEHU RI LQVWLWXWLRQDO
LVVXHV WR EH DGGUHVVHG 81(&(   +HQFH HOHPHQWV RI


Chapter 1: Land Administration System and Quality Concepts

LQVWLWXWLRQDO DVSHFW VKRXOG EH WDNHQ LQWR FRQVLGHUDWLRQ ZKLOH


GHVLJQLQJ D TXDOLW\ DVVHVVPHQW IUDPHZRUN IRU FDGDVWUH DQG /$6
ZLWKLQWKHFRXQWU\VHQYLURQPHQW
*HQHUDOO\ WKH 6WDWH LV UHVSRQVLEOH IRU HVWDEOLVKPHQW DQG
HQIRUFHPHQW RI WKH LQVWLWXWLRQDO IUDPHZRUN ZLWKLQ ZKLFK WKH ODQG
PDUNHWV DUH DEOH WR RSHUDWH SURSHUO\ 7KH 6WDWH DOVR QHHGV DQ
HIILFLHQW /$ FDSDELOLW\ LQ RUGHU WR PHHW RWKHU QDWLRQDO SROLF\
REMHFWLYHVLQFOXGLQJMXVWLFHDQGKRPHDIIDLUVUHYHQXHJHQHUDWLRQ
WKURXJK WD[ SROLFLHV HQYLURQPHQWDO FRQWUROV UXUDO GHYHORSPHQW
FURVV ERUGHU LVVXHV DQG PXQLFLSDO DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ DW ORFDO OHYHO
'DOHDQG%DOGZLQ 
'DOH DQG %DOGZLQ   IXUWKHU UHFRPPHQGHG WKH QHHG IRU
LQVWLWXWLRQDO VWUHQJWKHQLQJ RI WKH /$ VHFWRU ZKLFK LQFOXGHV WKH
WKUHH SLOODUV RI WKH UHJXODWRU\ DXWKRULWLHV UHJLVWUDWLRQ YDOXDWLRQ
UHDO HVWDWH ILQDQFLQJ  DQG WKH XQGHUO\LQJ OHJDO IUDPHZRUN 7KH\
DOVR HQGRUVH WKH HVWDEOLVKPHQW RI WHFKQLFDO V\VWHPV UHTXLUHG IRU
LPSOHPHQWLQJ DQG SURYLGLQJ D QDWLRQDO OHYHO RI VHUYLFH ZLWKLQ D
UHDVRQDEOHWLPHDQGZLWKDKLJKOHYHORIVHFXULW\DQGFRQILGHQFH
,Q WKLV ZD\ WHFKQLFDO FRPSHWHQF\ SOD\V DQ LPSRUWDQW UROH DQG
LQVWLWXWLRQV ZLWK KLJK WHFKQLFDO GLPHQVLRQV DUH PRUH LQFOLQHG WR
GHOLYHU WKHLU VHUYLFHV PRUH HIILFLHQWO\ DV SHU XVHUV QHHGV DQG
FRPPXQLW\ UHTXLUHPHQW &KLJLLQJH   7KHUHIRUH LW LV
QHFHVVDU\WRDOVRIRFXVRQWKHWHFKQLFDODVSHFWRI/$6WRGHYHORS
TXDOLW\DVVHVVPHQWIUDPHZRUN
1.5.2 Technical Aspect
$ VXEVWDQWLDO DPRXQW RI WKH /$ DFWLYLW\ LV RI D WHFKQLFDO QDWXUH
81(&(   /DQG DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ V\VWHP FRQWDLQV RQ RQH
KDQGWKHGDWDEDVHFRQWDLQLQJVSDWLDOO\UHIHUHQFHGODQGGDWDDQG
RQ WKH RWKHU KDQG WKH SURFHGXUHV DQG WHFKQLTXHV IRU V\VWHPDWLF


Chapter 1: Land Administration System and Quality Concepts

FROOHFWLRQXSGDWLQJSURFHVVLQJDQGGLVWULEXWLRQRIWKHGDWDWRWKH
HQG XVHUV LQ DQ HIILFLHQW PDQQHU 7KH HOHPHQWV RI WHFKQLFDO
DVSHFWSOD\LPSRUWDQWUROHVLQGLIIHUHQWSURFHVVHVRI/$6LQFOXGLQJ
system development, data management (capture, maintenance,
access), DQG process designing $OO WKHVH HOHPHQWV DUH PRVW
LPSRUWDQWWRLPSURYHWKHHIILFLHQF\RI/$6E\FRQVLGHULQJWKHSDFH
RIFKDQJLQJWHFKQRORJ\DQGVRFLHWDOQHHGV
,W LV LPSRUWDQW WR NQRZ DERXW WKH /$6 REMHFWLYHV LQ UHODWLRQVKLS
ZLWK WKH RSSRUWXQLWLHV RIIHUHG E\ *HR,&7 EHIRUH JRLQJ WR DGDSW
WKLV WHFKQRORJ\ LQ WKH V\VWHP ,Q WKLV FRQQHFWLRQ WKH FRQFHSWXDO
PRGHO RI 0,7V VWUDWHJLF DOLJQPHQW PRGHO +HQGHUVRQ HW DO
 SURYLGHVDOLQHRIDFWLRQIRUHVWDEOLVKLQJDWHFKQLFDOVWUDWHJ\
WKDW OLQNV D UHODWLRQVKLS EHWZHHQ LQVWLWXWLRQV DQG VXSSRUWLQJ
WHFKQRORJLHV WR DFKLHYH RUJDQLVDWLRQDO JRDOV DQG REMHFWLYHV
$YLVRQHWDO&ROHPDQDQG3DSS 7KHDGDSWLRQRI
*HR,&7 LQ /$6 FDQ EH YLHZHG DW WKUHH RUJDQLVDWLRQDO OHYHOV
LQFOXGLQJ WKH VWUDWHJLF OHYHO PDQDJHPHQW OHYHO DQG RSHUDWLRQDO
OHYHO 6WHXGOHUHWDO LQDFFRUGDQFHZLWKXVHUVQHHGV
1.5.2.1 Strategic Level
7KHVWUDWHJLFOHYHOUHTXLUHVH[FOXVLYHOLQNVZLWKFKDQJLQJYLHZVRI
*HR,&75HFHQWGHYHORSPHQWVLQ*HR,&7KDYHDVWURQJLPSDFW
RQ WKH GHYHORSPHQW RI /$6V DQG VKDULQJ RI ODQG GDWD DPRQJ
YDULRXVVWDNHKROGHUVXVXDOO\NQRZQDVVSDWLDOGDWD,QIUDVWUXFWXUHV
6',  %RWK WKH WKHRUHWLFDO DQG SUDFWLFDO GHYHORSPHQWV LQ
WHFKQRORJLHV VXFK DV GLIIHUHQW UHPRWH VHQVLQJ VDWHOOLWH LPDJHV
DQG JHRJUDSKLFDO LQIRUPDWLRQ V\VWHPV *,6  LQFOXGLQJ GDWDEDVH
PDQDJHPHQW

FRQFHSWV

FDQ

LPSURYH

WKH

TXDOLW\

FRVW

HIIHFWLYHQHVVSHUIRUPDQFHDQGPDLQWDLQDELOLW\RI/$6V $OHNVLFHW
DO 7KHDGDSWLRQRIWKHVHWHFKQRORJLHVSURYLGHVHQRUPRXV


Chapter 1: Land Administration System and Quality Concepts

RSSRUWXQLWLHVWRVKDUHODQGUHODWHGLQIRUPDWLRQLQDPRUHHDV\ZD\
WKDQ WKH ROG IDVKLRQHG WHFKQRORJLHVPHWKRGV LQ ZKLFK WKH
LQIRUPDWLRQ LV PDQDJHG DQG VKDUHG WKURXJK PDQXDO UHFRUGV DQG
SURFHGXUHV 7KH ),*   VWUHVVHV WKH VHOHFWLRQ RI DQ
DSSURSULDWH WHFKQRORJ\ IRU PDSSLQJ DQG PDLQWDLQLQJ JHRPHWULFDO
FDGDVWUDO LQIRUPDWLRQ ZLWKLQ WKH VWUDWHJLF REMHFWLYHV 7KLV FDQ
UHDOO\ UHGXFH WKH FKDQFH RI GXSOLFDWLRQ LQ GDWD FUHDWLRQ DQG
XSGDWLQJIRUEHWWHUSHUIRUPDQFHRIWKHRUJDQLVDWLRQVGHDOLQJZLWK
ODQGLQIRUPDWLRQDQGPDQDJHPHQW
7KH HOHPHQWV LQIOXHQFLQJ WKH TXDOLW\ RI GHWHULRUDWHG /$6 ODUJHO\
GHSHQGRQWZRVWUDWHJLFHOHPHQWV7KHILUVWHOHPHQWLVDERXWWKH
DQDO\VLV RI XVHUV UHTXLUHPHQWV LQFOXGLQJ WKHLU UROHV 7KH VHFRQG
HOHPHQW LV WKH DGDSWLRQ RI ODWHVW WHFKQRORJLHV RQ /$ SURFHVVHV
VHUYLFHV WR DFKLHYH KLJK TXDOLW\ RI SURGXFWV WKDW DUH HDVLO\
DFFHVVLEOHDQGUHOLDEOHIRUODQGGDWDVXSSO\%RWKWKHVHHOHPHQWV
ZRXOGWKHQEULQJV\VWHPDUFKLWHFWXUHWKDWQHHGVWREHDOLJQHGZLWK
WKHHOHPHQWVRILQVWLWXWLRQDODVSHFWVSHFLILFDOO\RQODQGSROLF\DQG
ODZV IRU SURSHUW\ ULJKWV DQG SULYDF\ LVVXHV (OHPHQWV IRU
LPSURYLQJ WKH TXDOLW\ RI /$6 LQ WKLV UHJDUG ZRXOG EH WKH
adaptability of technologies in the organisation, involvement of
users, needs and their roles, use of quality standards,
development DQG understanding of system architecture IRU /$6
DQGDYDLODELOLW\DQGXVHRIDVWUDWHJLFSODQ (QHPDUNDQGYDQGHU
0ROHQ6WHXGOHUHWDO 
1.5.2.2 Management Level
$W PDQDJHPHQW OHYHO WKH LQIRUPDWLRQ V\VWHP FRQFHSWV IRU GDWD
PRGHOOLQJDQGSURFHVVPRGHOOLQJDUHWKHPRVWSUHYDLOLQJHOHPHQWV
LQWHUPRIRUJDQLVDWLRQDOVWUXFWXUHDVWKH\UHODWHWRKRZJRRGGDWD
DUH JDWKHUHG SURFHVVHG VWRUHG DQG GLVVHPLQDWHG DW DIIRUGDEOH


Chapter 1: Land Administration System and Quality Concepts

FRVW ZLWK PDQ\ GDWD DFFHVV SRLQWV VXFK DV D IURQW GHVN RU WKH
LQWHUQHW 2Q V\VWHP GHYHORSPHQW VLGH WKH FDGDVWUDO PRGHOOLQJ
VXFK DV /DQG $GPLQLVWUDWLRQ 'RPDLQ 0RGHO /$'0  LV
FRQVLGHUHG DV D EDVLF WRRO IRU IDFLOLWDWLQJ DSSURSULDWH V\VWHP
GHYHORSPHQWDQGIRUPLQJWKHEDVLVIRUPHDQLQJIXOFRPPXQLFDWLRQ
EHWZHHQ GLIIHUHQW SDUWV RI WKH  V\VWHPV YDQ 2RVWHURP HW DO
  2Q WKH GDWD FDSWXUH VLGH GXH WR DGYDQFHPHQWV LQ *HR
,&7 WKH WUDGLWLRQDO VXUYH\LQJ FRQFHSWV KDYH WDNHQ RQ D QHZ
VKDSH IURP GLVFLSOLQHRULHQWHG WHFKQRORJLHV VXFK DV JHRGHV\
SKRWRJUDPPHWU\VXUYH\LQJDQGFDUWRJUDSK\LQWRDPHWKRGRORJ\
RULHQWHG LQWHJUDWHG GLVFLSOLQH RI JHRLQIRUPDWLRQ VFLHQFH 7KHVH
DUH EDVHG RQ WKH JOREDO SRVLWLRQLQJ V\VWHP KLJKUHVROXWLRQ
UHPRWH VHQVLQJ LPDJHV DQG GLJLWDO SKRWRJUDSK\ $ 0 7XODGKDU
D  $ SDUWLFLSDWRU\ JHRJUDSKLF LQIRUPDWLRQ V\VWHP 3*,6 
FRPELQHGZLWKUHPRWHVHQVLQJLPDJHVLVLQWHUHVWLQJIRUJDWKHULQJ
JRRGGDWDZLWKWKHLQYROYHPHQWRIODQGRZQHUVWHQDQWVDQGRWKHU
VWDNHKROGHUV $OLHWDO 
6LPLODUO\ *,6 DQG GDWDEDVH WHFKQRORJLHV DUH WR EH HPSOR\HG IRU
land data processing, updating, storing DQG dissemination 7KH
LQWHJUDWLRQ DQG VKDULQJ RI JHRUHIHUHQFHG GDWD EHFRPHV PRUH
DQGPRUHFUXFLDODQGWKHUHLVDQLQFUHDVLQJQHHGIRUHIILFLHQWDQG
UHOLDEOHGDWDH[FKDQJH 6WHXGOHU ,QWKLVFRQWH[W2SHQ*,6
DQG *0/;0/ DUH LPSRUWDQW WRROV IRU HIILFLHQW DQG WUDQVSDUHQW
GDWDDFFHVVLQ/$DFWLYLWLHV
7KH LPSRUWDQW HOHPHQWV RI D IUDPHZRUN IRU LPSURYLQJ WKH TXDOLW\
RI /$6 DW PDQDJHPHQW OHYHO ZRXOG EH WKH system development
approach, systems/data/process models, distributed databases,
resource allocation data standards Vervice quality DQG VSDWLDO
DQGQRQVSDWLDOdata quality



Chapter 1: Land Administration System and Quality Concepts

1.5.2.3 Operational Level


7KH RSHUDWLRQDO OHYHO LQFOXGHV WKH SURFHVVHV DQG WHFKQLTXHV IRU
data capture, data maintenance, data access, data storage, DQG
data dissemination 7KHVH FDQ EH FRQVLGHUHG DV WKH EDFNERQHV
IRU TXDOLW\ GDWD SURGXFWV DQG VHUYLFHV DW WKH RSHUDWLRQDO OHYHO
:RUNIORZ PDQDJHPHQW DQG VHFXUHG GDWDEDVHV DUH EDVLF
FRPSRQHQWV RI IXQFWLRQDO /$6V 6WDQGDUG RSHUDWLQJ LQVWUXFWLRQV
IRUHDFKVWHSRIZRUNIORZVKRXOGEHGHYHORSHGDQGLPSOHPHQWHG
DV D SDUW RI WRWDO TXDOLW\ IUDPHZRUN ,PSRUWDQW HOHPHQWV RI VXFK
RSHUDWLRQDO V\VWHPV DQG ZRUNIORZV DUH WKRVH FRQFHUQLQJ VWHSV
UHTXLUHG IRU WKH workflows LQYROYHPHQW RI XVHUV LQ ODQG
WUDQVDFWLRQDPRXQWRIODQGWUDQVDFWLRQLQDGD\WLPHUHTXLUHGIRU
UHJLVWUDWLRQDQGVXUYH\LQJDYDLODELOLW\RIVHUYLFHVLQFDVHRIIUDXG
RUFRQIOLFWVDQGWLPHO\DYDLODELOLW\RIGDWD
1.5.3 Land Administration Quality Elements
,WLVFOHDUIURPWKHDERYHGLVFXVVLRQWKDWERWKWKHLQVWLWXWLRQDODQG
WHFKQLFDO DVSHFWV RI /$6 PXVW EH FRQVLGHUHG LQ RUGHU WR
XQGHUVWDQG WKH SUHVHQW VLWXDWLRQ RI WKH H[LVWLQJ V\VWHP DQG WKHQ
VXJJHVW JXLGHOLQHV IRU IXUWKHU TXDOLW\ LPSURYHPHQW 7KH
FRQWULEXWLQJ HOHPHQWV RI /$6 ERWK RQ LQVWLWXWLRQDO DQG WHFKQLFDO
DVSHFWV WR DQDO\VLV WKH TXDOLW\ RI WKH H[LVWLQJ V\VWHP LQFOXGHV
WHQXUH VHFXULW\ ODQG SROLF\ OHJDO IUDPHZRUN ODQG GLVSXWH
UHVROXWLRQPHFKDQLVPDYDLODELOLW\RIDVWUDWHJLFSODQFRRUGLQDWLRQ
DQG GDWD VKDULQJ XVH RI QHZ WHFKQRORJLHV GDWD RUJDQLVDWLRQ
GDWD PDQDJHPHQW /$ SURFHVVHV DQG ZRUNIORZV /,6 GHVLJQ
WUDLQLQJDQGKXPDQUHVRXUFHGHYHORSPHQWXVHUVQHHGVDQDO\VLV
DFFHVV WR LQIRUPDWLRQ RUJDQLVDWLRQV DQG ILQDQFLDO LVVXHV GDWD
SULFLQJ DQG UHVRXUFH DOORFDWLRQ GDWD VWDQGDUGV DQG TXDOLW\ RI
VHUYLFHVDQGSURGXFWVRIIHUHG




Case Study Methodology and


Cadastral Research



Chapter 3: Case Study Methodology and Cadastral Research

2.1 Case Study Methodology


5HVHDUFKLQWKHDUHDRIFDGDVWUHDQGODQGDGPLQLVWUDWLRQV\VWHPV
LV LQFUHDVLQJO\ XVLQJ WKH LQIRUPDWLRQ V\VWHPV UHVHDUFK
PHWKRGRORJLHV %DUU\  %LWWQHU HW DO  &DVWDQ\HU DQG
&DQHW)RXULHDQGYDQ*\VHQ6WHXGOHUHWDO
6WXENMU  7DQ  7LQJ DQG :LOOLDPVRQ  ,DQ 3
:LOOLDPVRQDQG)RXULH,DQ3:LOOLDPVRQDQG7LQJ
=HYHQEHUJHQ   6WXGLHV LQ WKLV DUHD KDYH EHHQ FDUULHG RXW
XVLQJ GLIIHUHQW UHVHDUFK PHWKRGRORJLHV VXFK DV VRIW V\VWHP
PHWKRGRORJ\ FDVH VWXG\ PHWKRGRORJ\ HWF 6LOYD DQG 6WXENMU
  RXWOLQHG LQ WKHLU VWXG\ WKDW WKH PHWKRGRORJLHV XVHG LQ
FDGDVWUDO UHVHDUFK DUH ODUJHO\ WKRVH RI WKH VRFLDO VFLHQFHV 7KDW
DJUHHV ZLWK WKH QRWLRQ WKDW FDGDVWUH DQG /$6 UHODWH DV PXFK WR
SHRSOH DV LW UHODWHV WR ODQG DQG WKDW FDGDVWUDO DQG ODQG
DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ V\VWHPV DUH VKDSHG E\ VRFLDO SROLWLFDO DQG
HFRQRPLFFRQGLWLRQVDVZHOODVE\OHJDODQGWHFKQRORJLFDOIDFWRUV
7KLV UHVHDUFK IXUWKHU SUHYDLOV WKDW D FDVH VWXG\ PHWKRGRORJ\ LV
XVHG DV D UHVHDUFK PHWKRG LQ PRVW RI WKH FDGDVWUDO UHVHDUFK
VWXGLHV ZKLFK SURYHV WKH HIIHFWLYHQHVV RI FDVH VWXG\
PHWKRGRORJ\LQFDGDVWUDOUHVHDUFK
$ FDVH VWXG\ LV DQ H[DPLQDWLRQ RI WKH SKHQRPHQRQ LQ ZKLFK WKH
SULPDU\ SXUSRVH RI WKH REVHUYHU KDV EHHQ WR FDUU\ RXW UHVHDUFK
UDWKHU WKDQ WR LPSOHPHQW D V\VWHP RU LPSURYH DQ RSHUDWLRQDO
HQYLURQPHQW 2QVUXG HW DO   &DVH VWXG\ LV DQ LGHDO
PHWKRGRORJ\ZKHQDKROLVWLFDQGLQGHSWKLQYHVWLJDWLRQLVQHHGHG
)HDJLQ HW DO  <LQ   7KH DQDO\VLV RI D ODQG
DGPLQLVWUDWLRQV\VWHPDOVRUHTXLUHVDQLQGHSWKLQYHVWLJDWLRQDQG
KROLVWLFDSSURDFKWRFRQVLGHUDOODVSHFWVRIWKHH[LVWLQJV\VWHP
&DVH VWXG\ UHVHDUFK FDQ EH SRVLWLYLVW LQWHUSUHWLYH RU FULWLFDO
3RVLWLYLVW FDVH VWXG\ UHVHDUFK FDQ EH GHVFULSWLYH H[SORUDWRU\


Chapter 3: Case Study Methodology and Cadastral Research

WKHRU\EXLOGLQJ RUH[SODQDWRU\ WKHRU\WHVWLQJ DQGHDFKRIWKRVH


WKUHH DSSURDFKHV FDQ EH HLWKHU VLQJOH RU PXOWLSOHFDVH VWXGLHV
3DUp $QH[SORUDWRU\FDVHVWXG\ZKHWKHUEDVHGRQVLQJOH
RU PXOWLSOH FDVHV LV DLPHG DW GHILQLQJ TXHVWLRQV FRQVWUXFWV
SURSRVLWLRQV RU K\SRWKHVHV WR EH WKH REMHFW RI D VXEVHTXHQW
HPSLULFDOVWXG\ <LQ ([SORUDWRU\FDVHVWXG\FDQSURYLGHD
EDVLV IRU IXUWKHU LQYHVWLJDWLRQ DQG DQDO\VLV WR LQFOXGH DOO WKH
SDUDPHWHUVRIDV\VWHPWREHVWXGLHGWKURXJKDQH[SODQDWRU\FDVH
VWXG\
2.1.1 Exploratory Case Study
([SORUDWRU\ UHVHDUFK SURYLGHV LQVLJKWV LQWR DQG NQRZOHGJH RI DQ
LVVXH RU VLWXDWLRQ GUDZLQJ WKH GHILQLWLYH FRQFOXVLRQV RQO\ ZLWK
H[WUHPH FDXWLRQ ([SORUDWRU\ UHVHDUFK LV D W\SH RI UHVHDUFK
FRQGXFWHG ZKHQ WKH SUREOHP KDV QRW EHHQ FOHDUO\ GHILQHG ,W
KHOSV WR GHWHUPLQH WKH EHVW UHVHDUFK GHVLJQ GDWD FROOHFWLRQ
PHWKRG DQG VHOHFWLRQ RI VXEMHFWV :LNLSHGLD   ([SORUDWRU\
UHVHDUFKVWXGLHVDUHDOVRWHUPHGDVIRUPXODWLYHUHVHDUFKVWXGLHV
7KHPDLQSXUSRVHRIVXFKVWXGLHVLVWKDWRIIRUPXODWLQJDSUREOHP
IRU PRUH SUHFLVH LQYHVWLJDWLRQ 7KH PDMRU HPSKDVLV LQ VXFK
VWXGLHV LV PRVWO\ RQ WKH GLVFRYHU\ RI LGHDV DQG LQVLJKWV .RWKDUL
 7KHVHLGHDVDQGLQVLJKWVSURYLGHDOLQHRIDFWLRQIRUIXUWKHU
LQYHVWLJDWLRQ
$FFRUGLQJWR&UHVZHOO  H[SORUDWRU\FDVHVWXG\PHDQVWKDW
QRWPXFKKDVEHHQZULWWHQDERXWWKHWRSLFRUWKHSRSXODWLRQEHLQJ
VWXGLHG DQG WKH UHVHDUFKHU VHHNV WR OLVWHQ WR SDUWLFLSDQWV DQG
EXLOG DQ XQGHUVWDQGLQJ EDVHG RQ WKHLU LGHDV ([SORUDWRU\ FDVH
VWXGLHV LQYROYH RULJLQDO ILHOG LQWHUYLHZV RQ D OLPLWHG VFDOH ZLWK
LQWHUHVWHG SDUWLHV DQG LQGLYLGXDOV ZLWK D YLHZ WR VHFXUH JUHDWHU
LQVLJKW LQWR WKH SUDFWLFDO DVSHFWV RI WKH SUREOHP .RWKDUL  


Chapter 3: Case Study Methodology and Cadastral Research

([SORUDWRU\ UHVHDUFK XVHV D OHVV IRUPDO DSSURDFK ,W SXUVXHV


VHYHUDOSRVVLELOLWLHVVLPXOWDQHRXVO\DQGLQWKDWVHQVHLWLVQRWTXLWH
FHUWDLQ RI LWV REMHFWLYH ,Q RWKHU ZRUGV H[SORUDWRU\ FDVH VWXG\
SURYLGHV D EDFNJURXQG WR IDPLOLDULVH WKH JHQHUDO VXEMHFW ,W
LQYHVWLJDWHV WKH UHODWLRQVKLSV DPRQJ YDULDEOHV ZLWKRXW NQRZLQJ
ZK\WKH\DUHVWXGLHG
6LQFH DQ H[SORUDWRU\ FDVH VWXG\ GRHV QRW KDYH D K\SRWKHVLV WR
VWDUWZLWKWKHILQGLQJVRIVXFKDVWXG\KDYHWREHLQWHUSUHWHGRQD
SRVWIDFWXP EDVLV 7KH ILQGLQJV RI H[SORUDWRU\ FDVH VWXG\ RIWHQ
UHVXOW LQWR K\SRWKHVHV IRU H[SHULPHQWDO UHVHDUFK .RWKDUL  
&UHVZHOO  DUJXHVWKDWIRUDQH[SORUDWRU\FDVHVWXG\WKHXVH
RIDTXDOLWDWLYHDSSURDFKLVFRQVLGHUHGDSSURSULDWH+RZHYHUWKH
TXHVWLRQV RXWOLQHG WKURXJK H[SORUDWRU\ FDVH VWXG\ FDQ EH IXUWKHU
H[SODLQHG WKURXJK DQ H[SODQDWRU\ FDVH VWXG\ DSSURDFK WR
LQYHVWLJDWHDV\VWHPLQPRUHGHWDLO
2.1.2 Explanatory Case Study
([SODQDWRU\ UHVHDUFK DWWHPSWV WR FODULI\ ZK\ DQG KRZ WKHUH LV D
UHODWLRQVKLS EHWZHHQ WZR DVSHFWV RI D VLWXDWLRQ RU SKHQRPHQRQ
.XPDU   6WDNH   GHILQHV H[SODQDWRU\ FDVH VWXG\
UHVHDUFKDVDGLVFLSOLQHGTXDOLWDWLYHIRUPRILQTXLU\LQWRWKHVLQJOH
FDVH WKH DLP RI ZKLFK ZDV WR XQGHUVWDQG DQG HPSKDVLVH WKH
FRPSOH[LW\DQGXQLTXHQHVVRIWKDWFDVH<LQ  GHVFULEHGWKH
DSSOLFDWLRQV RI H[SODQDWRU\ FDVH VWXG\ DV D UHVHDUFK WRRO DFURVV
WKHVRFLDOVFLHQFHGLVFLSOLQHVLQERWKWKHWUDGLWLRQDOILHOGVVXFKDV
SV\FKRORJ\ VRFLRORJ\ DQG DQWKURSRORJ\ DV ZHOO DV WKH SUDFWLFH
RULHQWDWHG ILHOGV RI XUEDQ SODQQLQJ SXEOLF DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ SXEOLF
SROLF\PDQDJHPHQWVFLHQFHVRFLDOZRUNDQGHGXFDWLRQ
([SODQDWRU\ FDVH VWXGLHV DUH XVHIXO ZKHQ FRQGXFWLQJ FDXVDO
VWXGLHV VXFK DV WKH SHUIRUPDQFH HYDOXDWLRQ RI D V\VWHP


Chapter 3: Case Study Methodology and Cadastral Research

3DUWLFXODUO\ LQ FRPSOH[ VWXGLHV RI RUJDQLVDWLRQV RU FRPPXQLWLHV


RQH PLJKW GHVLUH WR HPSOR\ PXOWLYDULDWH FDVHV WR H[DPLQH D
SOXUDOLW\ RI LQIOXHQFHV %HUJ   )LVKHU DQG =LYLDQL  
FRQFOXGHG WKDW $Q H[SODQDWRU\ FDVH VWXG\ GHVLJQ SURYLGHV D
FRQWHPSRUDU\ IUDPHZRUN ZKLFK H[WHQGV EH\RQG WKH WUDGLWLRQDO
GHVFULSWLYHDQGH[SORUDWLYHFDVHVWXG\DYHQXHVHQDEOLQJFDVHVWR
EH XVHG ZLWK JUHDWHU ULJRXU LQ UHVHDUFK DV D WRRO WR VXSSRUW RU
UHIXWHK\SRWKHVHVDQGGHYHORSWKHRUHWLFDOPRGHOV,QWKLVZD\WKH
XVH RI DQ H[SODQDWRU\ FDVH VWXG\ HQDEOHV WKH UHVHDUFKHU WR
GHYHORS D WKHRUHWLFDO IUDPHZRUN DQG WKHQ MXVWLI\ LW WKURXJK
DQDO\VLQJ WKH TXDOLWDWLYH DQG TXDQWLWDWLYH GDWD EHLQJ FROOHFWHG LQ
WKHFDVHVWXG\7KLVFDQIXUWKHUKHOSWRVWUHQJWKHQWKLVWKHRUHWLFDO
IUDPHZRUNDIWHUDQDO\VLQJWKHFROOHFWHGGDWD
2.1.3 Stages of a Case Study Methodology
<LQ   UHFRPPHQGHG IRXU VWDJHV IRU D FDVH VWXG\
PHWKRGRORJ\
L

'HVLJQLQJWKHFDVHVWXG\

LL

&RQGXFWLQJWKHFDVHVWXG\

LLL

$QDO\VLQJWKHFDVHVWXG\HYLGHQFH

LY

:ULWLQJWKHFDVHUHSRUWDQGUHVHDUFKLPSOLFDWLRQV

i. Designing the case study


7KH GHVLJQ LV WKH ORJLFDO VHTXHQFH WKDW FRQQHFWV WKH HPSLULFDO
GDWD WR D VWXG\
V LQLWLDO UHVHDUFK TXHVWLRQV DQG XOWLPDWHO\ WR LWV
FRQFOXVLRQV,QRWKHUZRUGVDGHVLJQLVDQDFWLRQSODQIRUJHWWLQJ
IURPKHUHWRWKHUHZKHUHKHUHPD\EHGHILQHGDVWKHLQLWLDOVHWRI
TXHVWLRQVWREHDQVZHUHGDQGWKHUHLVVRPHVHWRIFRQFOXVLRQV
DQVZHUV  DERXW WKHVH TXHVWLRQV $ QXPEHU RI PDMRU VWHSV
LQFOXGLQJ WKH FROOHFWLRQ DQG DQDO\VLV RI WKH UHOHYDQW GDWD PD\ EH
IRXQGEHWZHHQKHUHDQGWKHUH <LQ 


Chapter 3: Case Study Methodology and Cadastral Research

,Q DQ H[SORUDWRU\ FDVH VWXG\ UHVHDUFK ZKLFK PHUHO\ OHDGV WR
LQVLJKWVWKHFDVHVWXG\GHVLJQPXVWFRQWLQXHWRUHPDLQIOH[LEOHVR
WKDWPDQ\GLIIHUHQWIDFHWVRIDSUREOHPPD\EHFRQVLGHUHGDVDQG
ZKHQ WKH\ DULVH DQG FRPH WR WKH QRWLFH RI WKH UHVHDUFKHU
+RZHYHUWKHUHVHDUFKGHVLJQLQFDVHRIGHVFULSWLYHVWXGLHVPXVW
EH ULJLG WR PDNH HQRXJK SURYLVLRQ IRU SURWHFWLRQ DJDLQVW ELDV IRU
PD[LPLVLQJUHOLDELOLW\ZLWKGXHFRQFHUQIRUHFRQRPLFDOFRPSOHWLRQ
RIWKHVWXG\ .RWKDUL 
)LYH LPSRUWDQW FRPSRQHQWV DUH SRLQWHG RXW E\ <LQ   WR
GHVLJQDFDVHVWXG\ZKLFKLQFOXGH
D  $VWXG\
VTXHVWLRQV
E  ,WVSURSRVLWLRQVLIDQ\
F  ,WVXQLW V RIDQDO\VLV
G  7KHORJLFOLQNLQJWKHGDWDWRWKHSURSRVLWLRQV
H  7KHFULWHULDIRULQWHUSUHWLQJWKHILQGLQJV

)RUPXODWLRQRIDVWXG\
VTXHVWLRQVLVWKHILUVWWDVNRIDUHVHDUFKHU
'HVLJQLQJ RQH RU PRUH UHODWHG UHVHDUFK TXHVWLRQV LQ DW OHDVW
EURDG WHUPV LV DV LPSRUWDQW LQ EXLOGLQJ WKHRU\ IURP FDVH VWXGLHV
DV LW LV LQ K\SRWKHVLVWHVWLQJ UHVHDUFK 3DUp   7KH IRUP RI
TXHVWLRQ  LQ WHUPV RI ZKR ZKDW ZKHUH KRZ DQG ZK\ 
SURYLGHV DQ LPSRUWDQW FOXH UHJDUGLQJ WKH PRVW UHOHYDQW UHVHDUFK
VWUDWHJ\WREHXVHG <LQ 
7KH VWXG\
V SURSRVLWLRQV DUH VRPHWLPHV GHULYHG IURP WKH VWXG\V
TXHVWLRQV DQG DUH KHOSIXO LQ IRFXVLQJ WKH VWXG\
V JRDOV (DFK
SURSRVLWLRQ GLUHFWV WKH DWWHQWLRQ WR VRPHWKLQJ WKDW VKRXOG EH
H[DPLQHG ZLWKLQ WKH VFRSH RI WKH VWXG\ 1RW DOO VWXGLHV QHHG WR
KDYH SURSRVLWLRQV $Q H[SORUDWRU\ VWXG\ UDWKHU WKDQ KDYLQJ
SURSRVLWLRQVZRXOGKDYHDVWDWHGSXUSRVHRUFULWHULDRQZKLFKWKH
VXFFHVVZLOOEHMXGJHG 7HOOLV<LQ 



Chapter 3: Case Study Methodology and Cadastral Research

7KHGHILQLWLRQRIWKHXQLWRIDQDO\VLV DQGWKHUHIRUHRIWKHFDVH LV


UHODWHG WR WKH ZD\ WKH LQLWLDO UHVHDUFK TXHVWLRQV KDYH EHHQ
GHILQHG 7KH XQLW RI DQDO\VLV GHILQHV ZKDW WKH FDVH LV ,W LV WKH
DFWXDO VRXUFH RI LQIRUPDWLRQ ZKLFK PD\ EH DQ LQGLYLGXDO
RUJDQLVDWLRQDO GRFXPHQW DQG DUWHIDFW HJ WKH FDSLWDO IORZ
EHWZHHQ FRXQWULHV DQ HFRQRPLF SROLF\  6HOHFWLRQ RI WKH
DSSURSULDWHXQLWRIDQDO\VLVUHVXOWVIURPDFFXUDWHO\VSHFLI\LQJWKH
SULPDU\ UHVHDUFK TXHVWLRQV ,I WKH TXHVWLRQV GR QRW OHDG WR WKH
IDYRXULQJRIRQHXQLWRIDQDO\VLVRYHUDQRWKHUWKHQWKHTXHVWLRQV
DUHSUREDEO\HLWKHUWRRYDJXHRUWRRQXPHURXV <LQ 
/LQNLQJWKHGDWDWRSURSRVLWLRQVDQGWRWKHFULWHULDIRULQWHUSUHWLQJ
WKH ILQGLQJV DUH WKH FRPSRQHQWV WKDW KDYH EHHQ WKH OHDVW ZHOO
GHYHORSHGLQFDVHVWXGLHV7KHVHFRPSRQHQWVUHSUHVHQWWKHGDWD
DQDO\VLV VWHSV LQ FDVH VWXG\ UHVHDUFK DQG D UHVHDUFK GHVLJQ
VKRXOGOD\DVROLGIRXQGDWLRQIRUWKLVDQDO\VLV <LQ 
ii. Conducting the case study
&RQGXFWLQJ WKH FDVH VWXG\ LV WKH PRVW LPSRUWDQW DQG GLIILFXOW
VWDJH,IQRWGRQHZHOOWKHHQWLUHFDVHVWXG\LQYHVWLJDWLRQFDQEH
HQGDQJHUHGDQGDOORIWKHHDUOLHUZRUNLQGHILQLQJWKHUHVHDUFK
TXHVWLRQV DQG GHVLJQLQJ WKH FDVH VWXG\  ZLOO KDYH EHHQ IRU
QRWKLQJ7KHSUHSDUDWLRQIRUGRLQJDFDVHVWXG\LQFOXGHVWKHSULRU
VNLOOV RI WKH LQYHVWLJDWRU WKH WUDLQLQJ DQG SUHSDUDWLRQ IRU WKH
VSHFLILF FDVH VWXG\ WKH GHYHORSPHQW RI D FDVH VWXG\ SURWRFRO
DQGWKHFRQGXFWRIDSLORWFDVHVWXG\ <LQ 7KLVLVWKHQH[W
VWDJHRIFDVHVWXG\PHWKRGRORJ\LQZKLFKWKHGDWDLVFROOHFWHGLQ
WKHILHOG
&DVH VWXG\ UHVHDUFK W\SLFDOO\ FRPELQHV PXOWLSOH GDWD FROOHFWLRQ
PHWKRGV &ROOHFWLQJ GLIIHUHQW W\SHV RI GDWD E\ GLIIHUHQW PHWKRGV
IURP GLIIHUHQW VRXUFHV SURGXFHV D ZLGHU VFRSH RI FRYHUDJH DQG
PD\ UHVXOW LQ D IXOOHU SLFWXUHRI WKHSKHQRPHQDXQGHUVWXG\WKDQ


Chapter 3: Case Study Methodology and Cadastral Research

ZRXOG KDYH EHHQ DFKLHYHG RWKHUZLVH %RQRPD   'DWD


FROOHFWLRQIRUFDVHVWXGLHVFDQUHO\RQPDQ\VRXUFHVRIHYLGHQFH
7KH VL[ LPSRUWDQW VRXUFHV RI HYLGHQFH DUH LGHQWLILHG LQ FDVH
UHVHDUFK ZKLFK DUH GRFXPHQWDWLRQ DUFKLYDO UHFRUGV LQWHUYLHZV
GLUHFW REVHUYDWLRQ SDUWLFLSDQW REVHUYDWLRQ DQG SK\VLFDO DUWHIDFWV
6WDNH  <LQ   1RW DOO QHHG WR EH XVHG LQ HYHU\ FDVH
VWXG\1RVLQJOHVRXUFHKDVDFRPSOHWHDGYDQWDJHRYHUWKHRWKHUV
<LQ   +RZHYHU WKH VHOHFWLRQ RI WKHVH GLIIHUHQW VRXUFHV
GHSHQGV XSRQ WKH QDWXUH RI WKH UHVHDUFK TXHVWLRQV DQG FDVH
VWXG\DSSURDFKWREHXVHG
iii. Analysing case study evidence
'DWD UHSUHVHQW WKH IUXLW RI D UHVHDUFKHUV ODERXU EHFDXVH WKH\
SURYLGH WKH LQIRUPDWLRQ WKDW ZLOO XOWLPDWHO\ DOORZ KLP WR GHVFULEH
SKHQRPHQD SUHGLFW HYHQWV LGHQWLI\ DQG TXDQWLI\ GLIIHUHQFHV
EHWZHHQ FRQGLWLRQV DQG HVWDEOLVK WKH HIIHFWLYHQHVV RI
LQWHUYHQWLRQV %HFDXVH RI WKHLU FULWLFDO QDWXUH GDWD VKRXOG EH
WUHDWHG ZLWK WKH XWPRVW UHVSHFW DQG FDUH ,I D VWXG\ KDV EHHQ
FRQGXFWHGLQDVFLHQWLILFDOO\ULJRURXVPDQQHUWKHGDWDZLOOKROGWKH
FOXHVQHFHVVDU\WRDQVZHUWKHUHVHDUFKHUVTXHVWLRQV 0DUF]\NHW
DO   7KHUHIRUH WKH GDWD DFTXLUHG LQ D FDVH VWXG\ WKURXJK
GLIIHUHQW VRXUFHV RI HYLGHQFHV VKRXOG EH DQDO\VHG FDUHIXOO\ WR
DQVZHU WKH UHVHDUFK TXHVWLRQV DQG XOWLPDWHO\ IXOILO WKH REMHFWLYHV
RIWKHUHVHDUFK
7KH DQDO\VLV RI FDVH VWXG\ HYLGHQFH LV RQH RI WKH PRVW GLIILFXOW
DVSHFWV RI GRLQJ FDVH VWXGLHV 'DWD DQDO\VLV FRQVLVWV RI
H[DPLQLQJFDWHJRULVLQJWDEXODWLQJRURWKHUZLVHUHFRPELQLQJWKH
HYLGHQFH WR DGGUHVV WKH LQLWLDO SURSRVLWLRQV RI D VWXG\ &DVH
VWXGLHVWHQGWRSURGXFHODUJHDPRXQWVRIGDWDWKDWDUHQRWUHDGLO\
DPHQDEOH WR PHFKDQLFDO PDQLSXODWLRQ DQDO\VLV DQG GDWD
UHGXFWLRQ <LQ 7KHEDVLFJRDORITXDOLWDWLYHGDWDDQDO\VLVLV


Chapter 3: Case Study Methodology and Cadastral Research

XQGHUVWDQGLQJ LH WKH VHDUFK IRU FRKHUHQFH DQG RUGHU .DSODQ


DQG0D[ZHOO 7KLVLVWKHPRVWGLIILFXOWDVSHFWRIFDVHVWXG\
PHWKRGRORJ\ 'LIIHUHQW DQDO\WLFDO WHFKQLTXHV VXFK DV FUHDWLQJ
IORZFKDUWVPDWULFHVGDWDGLVSOD\VDQGWDEXODWLRQFDQEHXVHGWR
IDFLOLWDWH GDWD DQDO\VLV 0LOHV DQG +XEHUPDQ   $IWHU
DQDO\VLQJFDVHVWXG\HYLGHQFHDFOHDUSLFWXUHRIDVWXGLHGV\VWHP
FDQEHGUDZQIRUIXUWKHULPSURYHPHQW
iv. Writing the case report and research implications
7KH UHSRUWLQJ DVSHFW RI D FDVH VWXG\ LV SHUKDSV PRVW LPSRUWDQW
IURPWKHXVHU UHDGHU SHUVSHFWLYH,WLVWKHFRQWDFWSRLQWEHWZHHQ
WKH XVHU DQG WKH UHVHDUFKHU $ ZHOOGHVLJQHG UHVHDUFK ZRUN WKDW
LVQRWZHOOH[SODLQHGWRWKHUHDGHUZLOOFDXVHWKHUHVHDUFKUHSRUWWR
IDOO LQWR GLVXVH 3DUp   $ FDVH UHSRUWGHDOVZLWKWKHUHVXOWV
RIDFRPSOHWHGFDVHVWXG\,WLVJHQHUDOO\SURGXFHGLQWKHZULWWHQ
IRUP DQG LV FDOOHG FDVH UHSRUW ,W LV D PDWWHU RI FRPPXQLFDWLQJ
ZKDW ZDV GRQH ZKDW RFFXUUHG DQG ZKDW WKH UHVXOWV PHDQ LQ D
FRQFLVH XQGHUVWDQGDEOH DFFXUDWH DQG ORJLFDO PDQQHU 6LQJK
 
5HSRUWLQJDFDVHVWXG\PHDQVEULQJLQJLWVUHVXOWVDQGILQGLQJVWR
FORVXUH ,W LV RQH RI WKH PRVW FKDOOHQJLQJ DVSHFWV RI GRLQJ FDVH
VWXGLHV7KHFDVHVWXG\UHSRUWGRHVQRWIROORZDQ\VWHUHRW\SLFDO
IRUP VXFK DV D MRXUQDO DUWLFOH 'LIIHUHQW DOWHUQDWLYHV H[LVW IRU
VWUXFWXULQJ FDVH VWXG\ UHSRUWV DV SHU FDVH VWXG\ UHTXLUHPHQWV
7KHVH DOWHUQDWLYHV LQFOXGH OLQHDUDQDO\WLF VWUXFWXUHV FRPSDUDWLYH
VWUXFWXUHV FKURQRORJLFDO VWUXFWXUHV HWF 7KH VHTXHQFH RI OLQHDU
DQDO\WLFVWUXFWXUHVLQYROYHVWKHLVVXHRUSUREOHPEHLQJVWXGLHGD
UHYLHZ RI WKH UHOHYDQW SULRU OLWHUDWXUH WKH PHWKRGV XVHG WKH
ILQGLQJV IURP WKH GDWD FROOHFWHG DQG DQDO\VHG DQG WKH
FRQFOXVLRQVDQGLPSOLFDWLRQVIURPWKHILQGLQJV <LQ ,WLVWKH
PRVW LPSRUWDQW VWHS RI D FDVH VWXG\ PHWKRGRORJ\ LQ ZKLFK WKH


Chapter 3: Case Study Methodology and Cadastral Research

ILQDO FRQFOXVLRQV DUH GUDZQ DIWHU DQDO\VLQJ WKH FDVH VWXG\


HYLGHQFH
2.2 Designing Cadastral Research
7KHUROHRIUHVHDUFKGHVLJQLVWRFRQQHFWWKHUHVHDUFKTXHVWLRQV
WR GDWD WKURXJK DSSURSULDWH WRROV DQG SURFHGXUHV 7KXV WKH
UHVHDUFKGHVLJQVLWVEHWZHHQWKHWZRVKRZLQJKRZWKHUHVHDUFK
TXHVWLRQV ZLOO EH FRQQHFWHG WR WKH GDWD DQG WKH WRROV DQG
SURFHGXUHV WR XVH LQ DQVZHULQJ WKHP 5HVHDUFK GHVLJQ PXVW
IROORZIURPWKHTXHVWLRQVDQGILWWKHPZLWKGDWD5HVHDUFKGHVLJQ
LVWKHEDVLFSODQIRUDSLHFHRIHPSLULFDOUHVHDUFKZKLFKLQFOXGHV
PDLQLGHDVVXFKDVVWUDWHJ\VDPSOHDQGWRROVDQGSURFHGXUHVWR
EHXVHGIRUFROOHFWLQJDQGDQDO\VLQJHPSLULFDOGDWD 3XQFK 
7KHVHOHFWLRQRIPHWKRGVIRUDQDO\VLQJDQGFROOHFWLQJGDWDLVYHU\
VLJQLILFDQW LQ WKH UHVHDUFK GHVLJQ SKDVH ,Q RUGHU WR FRQGXFW WKLV
UHVHDUFKDKROLVWLFDSSURDFKLVDGRSWHGWRFRQVLGHUDOODVSHFWVRI
/$6 DQG WKHQ GHYHORS D TXDOLW\ DVVHVVPHQW IUDPHZRUN IRU
HYDOXDWLQJWKHTXDOLW\RIWKHV\VWHP
,WLVPHQWLRQHGHDUOLHUWKDWWKHQDWXUHRILVVXHVUHODWLQJWR/$6VLV
YDU\LQJ IURP V\VWHP WR V\VWHP GHSHQGLQJ XSRQ WKH QRUPV DQG
YDOXHV RI D VRFLHW\ LQ ZKLFK WKH V\VWHP LV EHLQJ SUDFWLVHG ,W LV
DOVR FOHDU IURP WKH GLVFXVVLRQ WKDW WKH LQVWLWXWLRQDO DQG WHFKQLFDO
DVSHFWV RI /$6 FDQQRW EH VHSDUDWHG EHFDXVH PRVW RI WKH
HOHPHQWVDQGLQGLFDWRUVIRUWKHVHWZRDVSHFWVDUHLQWHUPLQJOHG$
KROLVWLFDSSURDFKLVWKXVQHHGHGWRJHWLQGHSWKXQGHUVWDQGLQJRI
WKH H[LVWLQJ V\VWHP EHIRUH JRLQJ WR GHILQH D VHW RI TXDOLW\
LPSURYHPHQWJXLGHOLQHVIRUIXUWKHUTXDOLW\LPSURYHPHQW
7KHUHIRUH D FRQFHSWXDO PRGHO VR FDOOHG /$6 3ULVP 0RGHO LV
DGRSWHGIRUFDUU\LQJRXWWKLVUHVHDUFKDVVKRZQLQ)LJXUH7KLV
PRGHO KHOSV WR XQGHUVWDQG WKH UHODWLRQVKLS DPRQJ DOO WKH


Chapter 3: Case Study Methodology and Cadastral Research

FRPSRQHQWVRIWKLVUHVHDUFKLHWKHLQVWLWXWLRQDODVSHFWWHFKQLFDO
DVSHFW HOHPHQWV DQG LQGLFDWRUV DQG TXDOLW\ LPSURYHPHQW
JXLGHOLQHV


)LJXUH7RSYLHZRI/$6SULVP
7KH/$63ULVP0RGHOFRQVLVWVRIDFHQWUDODUHDFDOOHGWKHTXDOLW\
LPSURYHPHQW JXLGHOLQHV IRU LPSURYLQJ /$6 ZKLFK LV VXUURXQGHG
E\WKHWKUHHVLGHV
x ,QVWLWXWLRQDODVSHFW
x 7HFKQLFDODVSHFW
x (OHPHQWVDQGLQGLFDWRUV
7KHInstitutional aspectVLGHLQFOXGHVWKHHOHPHQWVFRQWULEXWLQJWR
WKH LQVWLWXWLRQDO VLGH RI /$6 VXFK DV WHQXUH VHFXULW\ ODQG SROLF\
OHJDO IUDPHZRUN RUJDQLVDWLRQV DQG ILQDQFLDO LVVXHV ODQG GLVSXWH
UHVROXWLRQPHFKDQLVPWUDLQLQJDQGKXPDQUHVRXUFHGHYHORSPHQW
/$SURFHVVHVDQGZRUNIORZVGDWDSULFLQJDQGUHVRXUFHDOORFDWLRQ
DQG GDWD RUJDQLVDWLRQ SULYDF\ DQG GDWD SURWHFWLRQ  HOHPHQWV IRU
KDQGOLQJSURSHUW\ULJKWVDQGGDWDLQ/$6
7KHTechnical aspectVLGHFRPSULVHVDOOWKHHOHPHQWVFRQWULEXWLQJ
WR WKH WHFKQLFDO VLGH RI /$6 VXFK DYDLODELOLW\ RI D VWUDWHJLF SODQ
XVHUV QHHGV DQDO\VLV WHFKQRORJ\ DGRSWLRQ /,6 GHVLJQ GDWD
VWDQGDUGVDQGTXDOLW\RIVHUYLFHVDQGSURGXFWVRIIHUHG


Chapter 3: Case Study Methodology and Cadastral Research

7KH Elements and indicators VLGH FRQWDLQV DOO WKH HOHPHQWV DQG
LQGLFDWRUV RI ERWK WKH LQVWLWXWLRQDO DQG WHFKQLFDO DVSHFWV RI /$6
$OO WKHVH HOHPHQWV DQG LQGLFDWRUV VKRXOG EH WDNHQ LQWR
FRQVLGHUDWLRQ ZKLOH HYDOXDWLQJ WKH TXDOLW\ RI /$6 DQG WKHQ
GHYHORSLQJTXDOLW\LPSURYHPHQWJXLGHOLQHV
,WLVLPSRUWDQWWRQRWHWKDWDOOWKHIRXUFRPSRQHQWVRI/$63ULVP
0RGHO LH /$6 TXDOLW\ LPSURYHPHQW JXLGHOLQHV LQVWLWXWLRQDO
DVSHFW WHFKQLFDO DVSHFW DQG HOHPHQWV DQG LQGLFDWRUV DUH
LQWHUUHODWHG,IRQHLVGHYHORSHGWRWKHQHJOHFWRIDQRWKHUWKLVPD\
EHXQIDYRXUDEOHWRRYHUDOOTXDOLW\LPSURYHPHQWRI/$6
2.3 Research Strategies
7KH UHVHDUFK VWUDWHJ\ RXWOLQHV WKH WRROV DQG SURFHGXUHV WR EH
XVHG IRU FROOHFWLQJ DQG DQDO\VLQJ GDWD WR DQVZHU WKH UHVHDUFK
TXHVWLRQV DQG XOWLPDWHO\ SURYLGH D VROXWLRQ WR UHVHDUFK SUREOHP
7KHUHDUHWZRPHWKRGVRIGDWDFROOHFWLRQZKLFKDUHTXDOLWDWLYHDQG
TXDQWLWDWLYHKDYLQJWKHLURZQVWUHQJWKVDQGZHDNQHVVHV7KHXVH
RI TXDOLWDWLYH DSSURDFK LV FRQVLGHUHG DSSURSULDWH LQ FRQGXFWLQJ
H[SORUDWRU\ FDVH VWXGLHV &UHVZHOO   EXW WKH TXHVWLRQV
RXWOLQHG LQ H[SORUDWRU\ FDVH VWXGLHV FDQ EH IXUWKHU H[SODLQHG LQ
GHWDLO XVLQJ D TXDQWLWDWLYH DSSURDFK WKURXJK H[SODQDWRU\ FDVH
VWXG\2QHLPSRUWDQWWHFKQLTXHWRVWUHQJWKHQDUHVHDUFKGHVLJQLV
WR XVH ERWK WKH TXDOLWDWLYH DQG TXDQWLWDWLYH GDWD FROOHFWLRQ
PHWKRGV7KLVZLOOKHOSWRDYRLGWKHLUUHVSHFWLYHGLVDGYDQWDJHV
2.3.1 Literature Review
7KH OLWHUDWXUH UHYLHZ VHUYHV WZRSXUSRVHV )LUVW LW FRQYLQFHV WKH
UHDGHU WKDW WKH UHVHDUFKHU LV IDPLOLDU ZLWK WKH OLWHUDWXUH DQG
FRPSHWHQW WR FRQGXFW LQYHVWLJDWLRQV 6HFRQG LW FRQYLQFHV WKH
UHDGHU WKDW WKH SURSRVHG VWXG\ ILWV LQWR WKH H[LVWLQJ ERG\ RI
NQRZOHGJHDQGH[SODLQVKRZWKHSURSRVHGVWXG\LVQHHGHGWRILOOD


Chapter 3: Case Study Methodology and Cadastral Research

JDS LQ WKH OLWHUDWXUH 7KHUHIRUH WKH LPSRUWDQFH DQG YDOXH RI D
ZHOOFRQGXFWHG DQG WKRURXJK OLWHUDWXUH UHYLHZ FDQQRW EH
RYHUVWDWHG LQ WKH FRQWH[W RI SODQQLQJ D UHVHDUFK VWXG\
9DQGHU6WRHS DQG -RKQVWRQ   ,Q WKLV ZD\ D OLWHUDWXUH
UHYLHZ KHOSV WKH UHVHDUFKHU LQ SURYLGLQJ NQRZOHGJH DERXW WKH
WRSLF WR VWUHQJWKHQ KLV KROG RQ WKH VXEMHFW DQG KHOSV KLP LQ
FROOHFWLQJ VXIILFLHQW LQIRUPDWLRQ WR DQVZHU KLV UHVHDUFK TXHVWLRQ
7KHUHVHDUFKTXHVWLRQVRIWKLVUHVHDUFKDUHGHVFULSWLYHLQQDWXUH
XSWRVRPHH[WHQW$FFRUGLQJWR3XQFK  DGHVFULSWLYHVWXG\
VHWVRXWWRFROOHFWRUJDQLVHDQGVXPPDULVHLQIRUPDWLRQDERXWWKH
PDWWHU EHLQJ VWXGLHG ,W LV FRQFHUQHG ZLWK PDNLQJ FRPSOLFDWHG
WKLQJVXQGHUVWDQGDEOH$OLWHUDWXUHUHYLHZDSSURDFKZDVWKHEHVW
VWUDWHJ\ WR DQVZHU WKHVH UHVHDUFK TXHVWLRQV ,Q RUGHU WR
XQGHUVWDQG WKH ZKROH VWUXFWXUH RI FDGDVWUDO DQG ODQG
DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ V\VWHPV D GHHS UHYLHZ RI UHOHYDQW OLWHUDWXUH KDV
EHHQFDUULHGRXW7KLVKHOSHGWRRXWOLQHWKHLPSRUWDQWDVSHFWVDQG
HOHPHQWV WKDW FRQWULEXWH WR WKH TXDOLW\ HYDOXDWLRQ RI WKHVH
V\VWHPV 7KH OLWHUDWXUH UHYLHZ RQ TXDOLW\ DQG 7RWDO 4XDOLW\
0DQDJHPHQW 740  DOVR KHOSHG WR SURYLGH D GHWDLOHG
XQGHUVWDQGLQJ RI TXDOLW\ DQG 740 LQ WHUPV RI LWV UHVHDUFK DQG
DSSOLFDWLRQ LQ ODQG DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ 6LPLODUO\ WKH OLWHUDWXUH UHYLHZ
RQ FDVH VWXG\ PHWKRGRORJ\ KLJKOLJKWHG WKH XVH RI WKLV
PHWKRGRORJ\ LQ GLIIHUHQW VFHQDULRV DQG KHOSHG LQ GHVLJQLQJ WKLV
UHVHDUFK+HQFHWKHOLWHUDWXUHUHYLHZSURYLGHGDQLQLWLDODQVZHUWR
WKHVH UHVHDUFK TXHVWLRQV XS WR VRPH H[WHQW WKDW FDQ EH IXUWKHU
H[SODLQHGWKURXJKFDVHVWXG\
2.3.2 Case Studies
,Q RUGHU WR GR WKH KROLVWLF DQDO\VLV RI H[LVWLQJ /$6 LQ WKH VWXG\
DUHD WKLV UHVHDUFK FRQVLGHUHG WKH V\VWHPDWLF XVH RI H[SORUDWRU\


Chapter 3: Case Study Methodology and Cadastral Research

DQG H[SODQDWRU\ FDVH VWXG\ DSSURDFKHV IRU FROOHFWLQJ WKH


TXDOLWDWLYHDVZHOODVTXDQWLWDWLYHGDWDDVVKRZQLQ)LJXUH


)LJXUH0HWKRGRORJLFDOIUDPHZRUNIRUXVLQJ&60
7KH H[SORUDWRU\ FDVH VWXG\ DSSURDFK ZDV XVHG WR H[SORUH WKH
SUREOHPV RI WKH H[LVWLQJ /$6 DQG WKHQ GHILQLQJ HOHPHQWV DQG
LQGLFDWRUV IRU IXUWKHU DQDO\VLV :KHQ WKH HOHPHQWV DQG TXDOLW\
LQGLFDWRUV RI WKH H[LVWLQJ /$6 ZHUH GHILQHG DQ H[SODQDWRU\ FDVH
VWXG\ DSSURDFK ZDV WKHQ XVHG WR DQDO\VH WKH VWDWXV RI WKHVH
TXDOLW\ LQGLFDWRUV LQ PRUH GHWDLO $W WKH HQG WKH /$6 TXDOLW\
LPSURYHPHQWJXLGHOLQHVZHUHGHYHORSHGDVSHUSUREOHPVLWXDWLRQ
DQGTXDOLW\UHTXLUHPHQWVDIWHUDQDO\VLQJWKHUHVXOWVREWDLQHG
7ZRILHOGYLVLWVZHUHFDUULHGRXWLQWKLVUHVHDUFKWRFROOHFWWKHGDWD
LQ WKH ILHOG IRU DQDO\VLQJ DQG H[SORULQJ WKH H[LVWLQJ VLWXDWLRQ RI
/$6 LQ 3DNLVWDQ 7KHVH WZR FDVH VWXG\ DSSURDFKHV WRRN LQWR
DFFRXQW DOO WKH RUJDQLVDWLRQDO OHYHOV SROLF\ PDQDJHPHQW
RSHUDWLRQDO RIODQGDGPLQLVWUDWLRQDJHQF\WKURXJKLQWHUDFWLRQZLWK
DOO VWDNHKROGHUV WR FROOHFW VXIILFLHQW LQIRUPDWLRQ IRU LQGHSWK
DQDO\VLVRIWKHH[LVWLQJV\VWHP


Chapter 3: Case Study Methodology and Cadastral Research

2.3.2.1 Exploratory Case Study Approach


$QH[SORUDWRU\FDVHVWXG\DSSURDFKZDVXVHGLQWKHILUVWILHOGYLVLW
WR FROOHFW GDWD LQ WKH VWXG\ DUHDV WR XQGHUVWDQG WKH LVVXHV RI
H[LVWLQJ /$6 E\ H[SORULQJ WKH PRVW HOHPHQWV RI WKH V\VWHP 7KLV
ZDV FDUULHG RXW E\ DGRSWLQJ DOO WKH IRXU VWDJHV RI FDVH VWXG\
PHWKRGRORJ\ 7R XQGHUVWDQG WKH H[LVWLQJ VLWXDWLRQ RI /$6 LQ WKH
VWXG\ DUHD VRPH FULWLFDO TXHVWLRQV ZHUH EURXJKW LQWR
FRQVLGHUDWLRQWRPDNHWKLVFDVHVWXG\UHVHDUFKIRFXVHGDQGPRUH
HIIHFWLYH 7KHVH UHVHDUFK TXHVWLRQV ZHUH H[SORUHG LQ WKLV
H[SORUDWRU\ FDVH VWXG\ WR GHYHORS D FRQFHSWXDO IUDPHZRUN IRU
/$6 TXDOLW\ DVVHVVPHQW LQ WKH VWXG\ DUHD DV SHU FRXQWU\V
HQYLURQPHQW$VHWRITXHVWLRQQDLUHV $SSHQGL[ ZHUHGHVLJQHG
WR DQDO\VH WKH SUHVHQW VLWXDWLRQ RI /$6 LQ WKH VWXG\ DUHD 7KHVH
TXHVWLRQQDLUHV ZHUH GLVWULEXWHG DPRQJ GLIIHUHQW VWDNHKROGHUV
LQFOXGLQJ ODZ\HUV ODQG RZQHUV DQG ODQG DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ VWDII WR
JHWDFOHDUSLFWXUHRIWKHSUHVHQWV\VWHPIRUILQGLQJWKHLQGLFDWRUV
FRQWULEXWLQJWRWKHTXDOLW\DVVHVVPHQWIUDPHZRUN
,QWKLVVWXG\WKUHHVRXUFHVZHUHIUHTXHQWO\XVHGWRSURYLGHGDWD
IRU WKLV FDVH VWXG\ 7KHVH ZHUH D  LQWHUYLHZV E  DQDO\VLV RI
DUFKLYDO GRFXPHQWV DQG F  SDUWLFLSDQW
V REVHUYDWLRQV 7KHVH
VRXUFHV ZHUH XVHG GXULQJ ILHOG YLVLW WR JHW D FOHDU SLFWXUH RI WKH
SUHVHQW /$6 LQ WKH VWXG\ DUHD 'DWD ZDV FROOHFWHG WKURXJK
LQWHUYLHZV VWUXFWXUHG DQG VHPLVWUXFWXUHG  ZLWK DOO WKH
VWDNHKROGHUV GXULQJ RIILFH YLVLWV DW %RDUG RI 5HYHQXH %25 
KHDGTXDUWHUV DQG GLVWULFW RIILFHV WR JDLQ IXOO XQGHUVWDQGLQJ RI WKH
SUHVHQW VLWXDWLRQ RI /$6 LQ WKH FRXQWU\ HVSHFLDOO\ LQ WKH VWXG\
DUHD 7R XQGHUVWDQG WKH DFWXDO SUDFWLFHV FDUULHG RXW E\ WKH ODQG
DGPLQLVWUDWLRQVWDIILQWKHILHOGVRPHYLVLWVZHUHDOVRFDUULHGRXWLQ
WKH ILHOG 2WKHU LQIRUPDWLRQ DERXW WKH H[LVWLQJ V\VWHP ZHUH DOVR
FROOHFWHG WKURXJK OLWHUDWXUH UHYLHZ DQG LQWHUYLHZV ZLWK GLIIHUHQW


Chapter 3: Case Study Methodology and Cadastral Research

VWDNHKROGHUV LQFOXGLQJ IDUPHUV ODZ\HUV DQG %25 SHUVRQDOV LQ


WKHVWXG\DUHD
'XULQJ WKH GDWD FROOHFWLRQ SURFHVV D YDULHW\ RI WHFKQLTXHV
LQFOXGLQJ VWUXFWXUHG DQG VHPLVWUXFWXUHG LQWHUYLHZV ZLWK
LQGLYLGXDOVDQGJURXSVZHUHDSSOLHGWRFROOHFWWKHGDWDLQWKHILHOG
7KH TXDOLWDWLYH GDWD ZHUH FROOHFWHG WKURXJK UHYLHZ RI KLVWRULFDO
GRFXPHQWVRIILFLDOUHSRUWVDQGQHZVDUWLFOHV2QWKHSUHOLPLQDU\
DQDO\VLV RI WKLV TXDOLWDWLYH GDWD DSSURSULDWH TXHVWLRQQDLUHV ZHUH
WKHQGHVLJQHGGXULQJWKHILHOGYLVLWWRJHWTXDQWLWDWLYHGDWD7KHVH
TXHVWLRQQDLUHV ZHUH GHVLJQHG RQ WKH EDVLV RI /$6 LVVXHV WR
DQDO\VH WKH SUHVHQW VLWXDWLRQ RI WKH V\VWHP LQ VWXG\ DUHD 7KHVH
TXHVWLRQQDLUHV ZHUH GLVWULEXWHG DPRQJ WKH VWDNHKROGHUV WR JHW
GHHSXQGHUVWDQGLQJRIWKHH[LVWLQJV\VWHP
7KLV LQYHVWLJDWLRQ DLGHG LQ GHYHORSLQJ D FRQFHSWXDO TXDOLW\
DVVHVVPHQW IUDPHZRUN IRU DVVHVVLQJ WKH TXDOLW\ RI H[LVWLQJ /$6
2Q WKH DQDO\VLV RI WUDQVFULEHG TXDOLWDWLYH DQG TXDQWLWDWLYH GDWD
IURP WKLV FDVH VWXG\ WKH TXDOLW\ LQGLFDWRUV IRU PRVW LPSRUWDQW
HOHPHQWVRIWKHLQVWLWXWLRQDODQGWHFKQLFDODVSHFWVRIH[LVWLQJ/$6
ZHUHVHOHFWHG
2.3.2.2 Explanatory Case Study Approach
$Q H[SODQDWRU\ FDVH VWXG\ DSSURDFK LV XVHG LQ WKH VHFRQG ILHOG
YLVLWWRH[SODLQWKHTXDOLW\VLWXDWLRQRIWKHH[LVWLQJ/$6IRUWKHPRVW
LPSRUWDQW HOHPHQWV H[SORUHG LQ WKH ILUVW FDVH VWXG\  DV ZHOO DV
RWKHUFRQWULEXWLQJHOHPHQWVWKURXJKWKHLULQGLFDWRUVDQGYDULDEOHV
7KH VHFRQG ILHOG YLVLW ZDV DOVR FRQGXFWHG LQ WKH VWXG\ DUHDV WR
FROOHFW ERWK TXDOLWDWLYH DQG TXDQWLWDWLYH GDWD WKURXJK YLVLWV
LQWHUYLHZV DQG TXHVWLRQQDLUH VXUYH\V 7KLV LQFOXGHG LQWHUYLHZV
ZLWK WKH VWDNHKROGHUV LQFOXGLQJ ODQG RZQHUV ODZ SURIHVVLRQDOV
UHDOHVWDWHDJHQFLHVUHYHQXHFRXUWVDQGEDQNVRIILFLDOVDVZHOO


Chapter 3: Case Study Methodology and Cadastral Research

DVYLVLWVWRWKH%RDUGRI5HYHQXH %25 RIILFHVLQWKHVHGLVWULFWV


WRPHHWZLWK%25RIILFLDOVDQGVWDII
7R XQGHUVWDQG WKH SUHVHQW VWDWXV RI WKHVH LQGLFDWRUV IRU H[LVWLQJ
/$6 LQ WKH VWXG\ DUHD VRPH VWUXFWXUHG DQG VHPLVWUXFWXUHG
LQWHUYLHZV ZHUH DOVR FRQGXFWHG ZLWK ODQG DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ RIILFLDOV
LQFOXGLQJ 6HQLRU 0HPEHU %RDUG RI 5HYHQXH 60%5  0HPEHU
%RDUGRI5HYHQXH 0%5 6HFWDU\'LUHFWRU/DQG5HFRUGV '/5 
7HKVLOGDUV 1DLE7HKVLOGDUV DQG 3DWZDULHV EHLQJ ZRUNLQJ DW
GLIIHUHQW

RUJDQLVDWLRQDO

OHYHOV

$

QXPEHU

RI

GHWDLOHG

TXHVWLRQQDLUHV $SSHQGL[ ZHUHDOVRGLVWULEXWHGDPRQJWKH


VWDNHKROGHUV LQFOXGLQJ %25 RIILFLDOV ODZ SURIHVVLRQDOV ODQG
RZQHUVUHDOHVWDWHDJHQFLHVUHYHQXHFRXUWVDQGEDQNVRIILFLDOV
WR XQGHUVWDQG WKH SUHVHQW VLWXDWLRQ RI WKHVH TXDOLW\ LQGLFDWRUV LQ
GHWDLO
%RWK TXDOLWDWLYH DQG TXDQWLWDWLYH GDWD ZDV FROOHFWHG IURP WKH
FURVVVHFWLRQRIGLIIHUHQWVWDNHKROGHUVLQXUEDQDQGUXUDODUHDVRI
WKHVHGLVWULFWV$OOWKHVWDNHKROGHUVZHUHSURSRUWLRQDOO\VDPSOHGLQ
HDFKGLVWULFWWRDFKLHYHDQDSSURSULDWHGLVWULEXWLRQRIGDWDVDPSOH
7KH TXDOLWDWLYH GDWD ZDV FROOHFWHG WKURXJK LQWHUYLHZV VWUXFWXUHG
DQG

VHPLVWUXFWXUHG 

DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ

DJHQF\

ZLWK

VWDNHKROGHUV

RIILFLDOV

ODQG

LQFOXGLQJ

RZQHUV

DQG

ODQG
ODZ

SURIHVVLRQDOV ZKLOH WKH TXDQWLWDWLYH GDWD ZDV FROOHFWHG WKURXJK


VWUXFWXUHGTXHVWLRQQDLUHVGLVWULEXWHGDPRQJDOOWKHVWDNHKROGHUV
$Q LQGHSWK DQDO\VLV RI FROOHFWHG GDWD ZDV FDUULHG RXW WR
XQGHUVWDQG WKH SUHVHQW VWDWXV RI WKHVH TXDOLW\ LQGLFDWRUV LQ WKH
VWXG\ DUHD 7KH DQDO\VLV RI WKLV GDWD SURYLGHG DQ LQGHSWK
XQGHUVWDQGLQJ RI WKHVH TXDOLW\ LQGLFDWRUV LQ H[LVWLQJ /$6 7KLV
LQYHVWLJDWLRQ KHOSHG LQ DVVHVVLQJ WKH TXDOLW\ VLWXDWLRQ RI H[LVWLQJ
/$6 LQ WKH VWXG\ DUHD 7KLV GHWDLOHG DVVHVVPHQW IXUWKHU OHG WR



Chapter 3: Case Study Methodology and Cadastral Research

IRUPXODWH WKH QHFHVVDU\ JXLGHOLQHV ZLWKLQ WKH EURDG FRQWH[W RI


740FRQFHSWVIRULPSURYLQJWKHTXDOLW\RIWKHH[LVWLQJ/$6
2.3.3 Research Sample
,Q 3DNLVWDQ ODQG DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ V\VWHP LV XQGHU WKH FRQWURO RI
SURYLQFLDOVWDWH JRYHUQPHQWV ZKHUH DOO ODQG DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ
DFWLYLWLHVDUHFDUULHGRXWXQGHUWKHLUMXULVGLFWLRQDWSURYLQFLDOOHYHO
6LQFHDOOWKHODQGDGPLQLVWUDWLRQDFWLYLWLHVDUHFDUULHGRXWE\HDFK
/$ DXWKRULW\ LQ WKHLU FRQFHUQHG SURYLQFHVWDWH WKHUHIRUH D
VHOHFWLRQ RI RQH SURYLQFH FDQ EH XVHG DV D UHVHDUFK VDPSOH IRU
LQGHSWK DQDO\VLV RI WKH V\VWHP 7KH UHVXOWV FDQ EH WKHQ
JHQHUDOLVHGWRUHSUHVHQWWKHVLWXDWLRQRIH[LVWLQJ/$6LQWKHZKROH
FRXQWU\
7KH ODQG DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ RUJDQLVDWLRQ FDOOHG %RDUG RI 5HYHQXH
%25  LQ WKH .K\EHU 3DNKWXQNKZD SURYLQFH RI 3DNLVWDQ ZDV
FKRVHQ LQ WKLV UHVHDUFK IRU H[SORULQJ ERWK WKH LQVWLWXWLRQDO DQG
WHFKQLFDO DVSHFWV RI WKH H[LVWLQJ /$6 6RPH IDFWV DERXW WKH
.K\EHU3DNKWXQNKZD .3 SURYLQFHDUHJLYHQLQ7DEOH
7DEOH)DFWVKHHWDERXW.K\EHU3DNKWXQNKZD
Capital:

3HVKDZDU

Area:

VTNP

Population:

 (VWLPDWHG 

Density:

NP

Languages:

3DVKWR6DUDLNL8UGXDQG+LQGNR

Literacy Rate:



Administrative Division: 
Districts:



Tehsils:



Kanungo Circles:




Chapter 3: Case Study Methodology and Cadastral Research

Patwar Halqas:



Mauzahjat:



Revenue Courts:


Source:Wikipedia (2012) and BOR

7KH %25 RIILFHV DW WKH 3HVKDZDU DQG 6ZDEL GLVWULFWV RI .3
SURYLQFH ZHUH YLVLWHG GXULQJ WKH ILHOG YLVLWV 7KH ORFDWLRQV RI WKH
GLVWULFWVRQWKHSURYLQFLDOPDSDUHVKRZQLQ)LJXUH3HVKDZDU
LV WKH SURYLQFLDO FDSLWDO FLW\ RI .3 SURYLQFH DQG %25 KDV LWV
SURYLQFLDO KHDGTXDUWHUV LQ WKLV FLW\ 6ZDEL LV D GLVWULFW FLW\ DQG
%25 KDV LWV RIILFH DW GLVWULFW OHYHO LQ WKLV FLW\ 0HHWLQJV DQG
LQWHUYLHZV ZHUH DUUDQJHG ZLWK WKH %25 RIILFLDOV DW WKH
KHDGTXDUWHUV LQ 3HVKDZDU FLW\ 7KLV LQFOXGHG 6HQLRU 0HPEHU
%RDUG RI 5HYHQXH 60%5  0HPEHU %RDUG RI 5HYHQXH 0%5 
DQG 'LUHFWRU /DQG 5HFRUGV '/5  7KH RWKHU %25 RIILFLDOV VXFK
DV7HKVLOGDU1DLE7HKVLOGDUDQG3DWZDULZHUHDOVRLQWHUYLHZHGLQ
WKHVHWZRGLVWULFWVWRQRWHGRZQWKHLUFRQFHUQVDERXWWKHH[LVWLQJ
V\VWHP


)LJXUH/RFDWLRQRIILHOGZRUNVWXG\DUHDV


Chapter 3: Case Study Methodology and Cadastral Research

7KHVH WZR GLVWULFWV ZHUH VHOHFWHG EHFDXVH WKH UHVHDUFKHU KDG D


JRRG FRQWDFW ZLWK SHRSOH ZKR ZHUH ZRUNLQJ LQ %25 KHUH LQ WKH
SURYLQFH .3 LV DOVR WKH KRPH SURYLQFH RI WKH UHVHDUFKHU DQG LW
ZDVTXLWHHDV\WRREWDLQVXIILFLHQWLQIRUPDWLRQIRUWKLVVWXG\XVLQJ
SHUVRQDOFRQWDFWV)XUWKHUPRUHWKHVHWZRGLVWULFWVZHUHVHOHFWHG
WR LQFOXGH WKH LVVXHV RI XUEDQ DV ZHOO DV UXUDO SRSXODWLRQ LQ WKH
GDWDFROOHFWLRQDQGLQIRUPDWLRQJDWKHULQJSURFHVV





Exploratory Case Study in Pakistan



Chapter 3: Exploratory Case Study in Pakistan

3.1 Historical Background of Land Administration in


Pakistan
7KHHYROXWLRQRIODQGDGPLQLVWUDWLRQLQ,QGR3DNFDQEHWUDFHG WR
WKH HDUO\ 0XVOLP 5XOH LQ WKH WK DQG WK FHQWXULHV Sultan Ala
Uddin KhiljiZDVWKHILUVW,QGLDQ5XOHUWRKDYHLQWURGXFHGDV\VWHP
RI PHDVXUHPHQW RI ODQG DQG SUHSDUDWLRQ RI D UHFRUG RI RZQHUV
DQG KROGHUV RI XVDJH ULJKWV  ,W ZDV KRZHYHU GXULQJ WKH UHLJQ RI
JUHDW 0XJKDO .LQJ Akbar   WKDW WKH V\VWHP RI
PHDVXUHPHQW RI ODQG PDSSLQJ DQG SUHSDUDWLRQ RI ODQG UHFRUGV
ZDV VXEVWDQWLDOO\ LPSURYHG DQG DQ HIIHFWLYH KLHUDUFK\ IRU ODQG
DGPLQLVWUDWLRQZDVHVWDEOLVKHG$NEDUV+LQGX0LQLVWHUTodar Mal
KDV XQDQLPRXVO\ EHHQ JLYHQ WKH FUHGLW IRU OD\LQJ GRZQ WKH
IRXQGDWLRQV RI WKH SUHVHQW GD\ /$6 SUHYDOHQW LQ ,QGLD 3DNLVWDQ
%DQJODGHVK DQG VRPH RWKHU VRXWK $VLDQ FRXQWULHV *DXKDU
 
7KH %ULWLVK  GXULQJ WKHLU WZR KXQGUHG \HDUV RI UXOH LQ ,QGLD 
LPSURYHG UHILQHG DQG IRUPDOLVHG WKH V\VWHP RI ODQG
DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ 7KH QHFHVVDU\ OHJLVODWLRQ SHUWDLQLQJ WR ODQGV
ULJKWV DQG UHVSRQVLELOLWLHV RI WKH RZQHUV YLVjYLV WKH 6WDWH
UHODWLRQVKLS EHWZHHQ ODQG RZQHUV DQG WHQDQWV ULJKWV DQG
UHVSRQVLELOLWLHV RI YDULRXV WHQDQWV FDWHJRULHV V\VWHP RI
DGMXGLFDWLRQ RI GLVSXWHV RQ PDWWHUV SHUWDLQLQJ WR ODQG DQG
SRZHUV DQG GXWLHV RI YDULRXV UHYHQXH RIILFHUV ZHUH FOHDUO\
GHILQHG
$JULFXOWXUHZDVWKHPDLQVRXUFHRIIRRGSURGXFWLRQIRUWKHSHRSOH
DVZHOODVWKHSULQFLSDOVRXUFHRILQFRPHWKURXJKODQGUHYHQXHIRU
WKH JRYHUQPHQW 2WKHU WKDQ WKH FRQVLGHUDWLRQV RI LQFRPH WKH
V\VWHPDOVRHQDEOHGWKH5XOHUWRKDYHDWLJKWJULSRQKLVVXEMHFWV
WKURXJK WLHUV RI LQWHUPHGLDULHV DSSRLQWHG E\ KLP 3UHSDUDWLRQ RI
ODQG UHFRUGV EHFDPH QHFHVVDU\ WR NHHS IXOO UHFRUG RI WKH WD[


Chapter 3: Exploratory Case Study in Pakistan

SD\LQJRZQHUVRIODQGDQGWRSHULRGLFDOO\XSGDWHWKHFKDQJHVLQ
RZQHUVKLS RQ DFFRXQW RI LQKHULWDQFH RU VDOH ,W DOVR EHFDPH
QHFHVVDU\ IRU WKH DXWKRULWLHV WR NQRZ H[DFW GHWDLOV RI ODQG
EHORQJLQJWRHDFKRZQHULQDYLOODJHLHKRZPXFKWRWDOODQGHDFK
LQGLYLGXDORZQHGLQKRZPDQ\SDUFHOVDQGLQZKDWORFDWLRQVLQD
YLOODJH
+HQFHDQHHGZDVIHOWIRUSUHSDUDWLRQRIDFRPSUHKHQVLYHUHFRUG
RIULJKWV DW WKH WLPH RI /DQG 6HWWOHPHQW )XUWKHUPRUH WKH
JRYHUQPHQW DOVR QHHGHG WR NQRZ WKH W\SH RU TXDOLW\ RI ODQG IRU
GHWHUPLQLQJ ODQG SURGXFWLYLW\ IRU DVVHVVPHQW RI ODQG UHYHQXH
6XEVHTXHQWO\ LW DOVR EHFDPH QHFHVVDU\ IRU WKH JRYHUQPHQW WR
PDNH SHULRGLF HVWLPDWHV RI WKH SURGXFWLRQ RI YDULRXV FURSV
7KHUHIRUH WKH FURS LQVSHFWLRQ UHJLVWHUV .KDVUD *DUGDZDUL DQG
FURSHVWLPDWLRQUHJLVWHUV-LQVZDUDVZHUHDOVRLQWURGXFHG
,QDQXWVKHOOWKHH[LVWLQJODQGDGPLQLVWUDWLRQV\VWHPZDVUHILQHG
YDVWO\ LPSURYHG DQG IRUPDOLVHG E\ WKH %ULWLVK GXULQJ WKHLU WZR
KXQGUHG\HDUVUXOHRYHU,QGLD/DQG6HWWOHPHQWRSHUDWLRQVZHUH
XQGHUWDNHQ LQ YDULRXV SDUWV RI WKH FRXQWU\ WR VXUYH\ WKH HQWLUH
DUHD RI D GLVWULFW IRU XQGHUWDNLQJ PHDVXUHPHQW DQG PDSSLQJ
YDULRXV SDUFHOV RI ODQG LQ HYHU\ YLOODJH 7KLV ZDV FDUULHG RXW WR
DVVHVVWKHWRWDOODQGUHYHQXHGXHVIURPDYLOODJHDQGWRDOORFDWH
WKHWRWDOODQGDPRQJVWYDULRXVODQGKROGHUVLQDYLOODJH
3.2 Land Ownership Patterns in Pakistan
$OO WKH ODQG LQ D SURYLQFH LV RZQHG HLWKHU E\ JRYHUQPHQW RU E\
LQGLYLGXDOODQGRZQHUV/DQGULJKWVDUHIXUWKHUFODVVLILHGDVXQGHU
0DVXG 
3.2.1 Government Land
7KHWHUPVWRGHQRWHJRYHUQPHQWODQGDUH6WDWH/DQGRU.KDOVD
6DUNDU ZKHUH 6DUNDU PHDQV JRYHUQPHQW DQG .KDOVD PHDQV


Chapter 3: Exploratory Case Study in Pakistan

SXUHLHIUHHRUXQHQFXPEHUHG.KDOVDZDVWKHODQGZKLFKZDV
SXUH RU IUHH DV GLVWLQJXLVKHG IURP WKH ODQG ZKLFK KDG EHHQ
DVVLJQHGRUJUDQWHGWRLQGLYLGXDOVE\WKH5XOHU 0RUHODQG 
.KDOVD/DQGLVIXUWKHUIDOOLQJLQWRWKHIROORZLQJEURDGFDWHJRULHV
LH D  .KDOVD /DQG XQGHU WKH PDQDJHPHQW DQG FRQWURO RI WKH
ODQG UHYHQXH GHSDUWPHQW DQG E  .KDOVD /DQG XQGHU WKH
PDQDJHPHQWDQGFRQWURORIWKHIRUHVWGHSDUWPHQW
7KHYLOODJHFRPPXQLW\KDVDWLPHKRQRXUHGULJKWVRIJUD]LQJWKHLU
FDWWOHDQGWDNLQJIDOOHQWUHHEUDQFKHVLQWKH.KDOVD/DQG7KHVH
ULJKWVDUHHQMR\HGE\WKHUHVLGHQWVRIYLOODJHVORFDWHGDGMDFHQWWR
WKH .KDOVD /DQG DW DOO WLPHV H[FHSW ZKHQ SDUW RI WKH .KDOVD
/DQGXQGHUWKHPDQDJHPHQWRIWKHIRUHVWGHSDUWPHQWLVRIILFLDOO\
FORVHGIRUUHJHQHUDWLRQSXUSRVHV &KDXGKDU\ 7KHVHW\SHV
RIJRYHUQPHQWODQGVDUHVWLOOLQH[LVWHQFHDVIRXQGGXULQJWKHILHOG
YLVLWVDQGVWXG\LQJWKHDUFKLYDOGRFXPHQWV
7KH %ULWLVK 5XOHUJRYHUQPHQW IURP WLPHWRWLPH JUDQWHG ODQG RXW
RI WKLV .KDOVD /DQG WR WKH YLOODJH FRPPXQLWLHV WR EH XVHG DV
9LOODJH &RPPRQ /DQG 1RQ.KDOVD 6WDWH /DQG IDOOV LQWR WKUHH
FDWHJRULHV LH D  $VVLJQHG WR LQGLYLGXDOV ZKR FRXOG QRUPDOO\ EH
UHVXPHGE\WKHUXOHU E *UDQWHGWRLQGLYLGXDOVZKRFRXOGQRWEH
QRUPDOO\ UHVXPHG DQG F  /DQG FXOWLYDWHG GLUHFWO\ XQGHU WKH
6WDWH 7KH JUDQWHG ODQG ZDV PRUH OLNH D JLIW XQGHU WKH 0XVOLP
/DZDQGLWFDQQRWEHUHYRNHGDIWHUSRVVHVVLRQKDVEHHQJLYHQWR
WKHEHQHILFLDU\
3.2.2 Private Land
)DUP ODQG LV DOPRVW HQWLUHO\ RZQHG SULYDWHO\ H[FHSW IRU WKH
LOOHJDOO\ HQFURDFKHG DQG FXOWLYDWHG 6WDWH /DQG )DUP ODQG PD\
EHVHOIFXOWLYDWHGRUFXOWLYDWHGWKURXJKWHQDQWVZKRSD\UHQWWRWKH
RZQHU HLWKHU LQ FDVK RU LQNLQG ,I WKH ODQG LV FXOWLYDWHG WKURXJK


Chapter 3: Exploratory Case Study in Pakistan

VHUYDQWV RU VHDVRQDO ODERXU LW UHPDLQV LQ WKH FDWHJRU\ RI VHOI
FXOWLYDWHG 2ZQHUV KDYH IXOO ULJKWV WR VHOO JLIW H[FKDQJH RU
GLVSRVHRII WKHLU 3ULYDWH /DQG &KDXGKDU\   +RZHYHU WKH
ODZRISUHHPSWLRQLPSRVHVFHUWDLQUHVWULFWLRQVRQWKHVDOHRIODQG
WRSHRSOHUHVLGLQJRXWVLGHWKHYLOODJHRUQRWRZQLQJDGMDFHQWODQGV
LQWKHYLOODJH7KHODZDOVRJLYHVHTXDOULJKWVRIVDOHDQGSXUFKDVH
RI ODQG WR ZRPHQ RZQHUV 7KH ,VODPLF /DZ RI ,QKHULWDQFH LV
DSSOLFDEOH WR DOO 0XVOLPV DQG RQ WKH GHDWK RI DQ RZQHU WKH
SURSULHWRUVKLSRIKLVODQGLVWUDQVIHUUHG PXWDWHG LQWKHQDPHVRI
KLV OHJDO KHLUV VRQV GDXJKWHUV SDUHQWV ZLYHV HWF  LQ
DFFRUGDQFH ZLWK WKH VKDUHV IL[HG E\ WKH ODZ 7KLV ODZ LV VWULFWO\
IROORZHG LQ WKH H[LVWLQJ V\VWHP DV REVHUYHG IURP WKH GRFXPHQWV
FROOHFWHGLQWKHILHOG)XUWKHUPRUHWKHJRYHUQPHQWLVHPSRZHUHG
WRFRPSXOVRULO\DFTXLUH3ULYDWH/DQGXQGHUWKH/DQG$FTXLVLWLRQ
$FWIRUSXEOLFSXUSRVHV,QWKLVFDVHWKHRZQHUVDUHHQWLWOHGWREH
FRPSHQVDWHGLQFDVKDFFRUGLQJWRWKHSUHYDOHQWPDUNHWSULFHVDV
GHWHUPLQHG E\ WKH &ROOHFWRU /DQG $FTXLVLWLRQ 7KH DIIHFWHG
RZQHUVDOVRKDYHWKHULJKWRIWZRDSSHDOVLQWKHFRXUW 'RXLHDQG
*RUULH 
3.2.3 Village Common Land
7KLV LV DOVR FDOOHG 6KDPHHODW RU 6KDPHHODW 'HK RI D YLOODJH
ZKLFKLVWKHODQGFROOHFWLYHO\RZQHGE\DOOWKHODQGRZQHUVRIWKDW
YLOODJH6KDPHHODWODQGLVDJUDQWJLYHQE\WKH5XOHUJRYHUQPHQW
RXW RI WKH 6WDWH /DQG WR WKH RZQHUV RI D YLOODJH WR EH XVHG IRU
WKHLUFRPPRQSXUSRVHVDQGWKLVJUDQWLVXVXDOO\PDGHDWWKHWLPH
RI /DQG 6HWWOHPHQW 6XFK ODQG LQ D YLOODJH LV MRLQWO\ RZQHG DQG
SRVVHVVHG E\ WKH ODQG RZQHUV RI WKDW YLOODJH DQG LV XVHG IRU WKH
FRPPRQ SXUSRVHV RI WKH YLOODJH FRPPXQLW\ 7KHVH FRPPRQ
SXUSRVHV DUH JUD]LQJ JURXQGV ILUHZRRG FROOHFWLRQ JUDYH\DUGV


Chapter 3: Exploratory Case Study in Pakistan

FRPPXQLW\ EXLOGLQJV PRVTXHV VFKRROV GLVSHQVDULHV HWF 


YLOODJH SRQGV DQG URDGV EULGDO SDWKV DQG SDVVDJHV IRU FDWWOH
PRYHPHQW &KDXGKDU\ $OOSHUVRQVUHFRUGHGDVRZQHUVRI
ODQGLQDYLOODJHDUHDOVRMRLQWRZQHUVRI6KDPHHODWRIWKDWYLOODJH
DQG WKHLU VKDUHV EHLQJ SURSRUWLRQDWH WR WKH VL]H RI WKHLU KROGLQJ
YLVjYLVWRWDOIDUPODQGLQWKHYLOODJH7KLVSULQFLSOHLVGHVFULEHGLQ
WKHUHYHQXHUHFRUGVDV+DVDE5DVDG.KHZDWRULQSURSRUWLRQWR
KLV RZQHUVKLS LQ WKH YLOODJH 'RXLH DQG *RUULH   1R ODQG
RZQHU FDQ VHOO KLV VKDUH RI 6KDPHHODW XQOHVV KH DOVR VHOOV
ZKROH RU SDUW RI KLV IDUP ODQG 1R FRRZQHU PD\ HQFURDFK RQ
6KDPHHODW DQG DQ\ RWKHU FRVKDUHU FDQ PRYH WKH DXWKRULWLHV WR
JHWWKHHQFURDFKHULPPHGLDWHO\HMHFWHG
3.3 Land Administration System in Pakistan
7KH ODQG PDQDJHPHQW DFWLYLWLHV LQ 3DNLVWDQ DUH FDUULHG RXW E\ D
ODQG DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ DJHQF\ FDOOHG %RDUG RI 5HYHQXH %25  DW
SURYLQFHVWDWH OHYHO 7KH SURYLQFHVWDWH LV GLYLGHG LQWR GLYLVLRQV
7KH 'LYLVLRQ LV WKHQ GLYLGHG LQWR GLVWULFWV DQG D 'LVWULFW LV VXE
GLYLGHG LQWR WHKVLOV )RU WKH SXUSRVHV RI ODQG UHYHQXH
DGPLQLVWUDWLRQD7HKVLOLVIXUWKHUGLYLGHGLQWR.DQXQJR&LUFOHV
DQG D .DQXQJR &LUFOH LQWR 3DWZDU &LUFOHV ZKLFK FRPSULVH RI D
QXPEHU RI UHYHQXH HVWDWHV 0R]D  RU 9LOODJHV 7KH ODQG
DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ LV GHFHQWUDOLVHG GRZQ WR WKH YLOODJH OHYHO 7KH
SURYLQFLDOJRYHUQPHQWVDUHUHVSRQVLEOHIRUODQGPDWWHUVDQGORFDO
ODQGPDQDJHPHQWWKURXJKWKHLUUHYHQXHGHSDUWPHQWVDQGGLVWULFW
DGPLQLVWUDWLRQDVVKRZQLQ)LJXUH



Chapter 3: Exploratory Case Study in Pakistan


%RDUGRI5HYHQXH

3URYLQFH6WDWH

&RPPLVVLRQHU

'LYLVLRQ

'HSXW\&RPPLVVLRQHU

'LVWULFW

7HKVLO

7HKVLOGDU

.DQXQJR&LUFOH

.DQXQJR

3DWZDUL

3DWZDU&LUFOH


)LJXUH$GPLQLVWUDWLYHKLHUDUFK\RI/$LQ3DNLVWDQ
,QWKHFRQWH[WRIODQGDGPLQLVWUDWLRQWKH%RDUGRI5HYHQXH %25 
LVDWWKHWRS%25LVWKHRQO\RUJDQLVDWLRQDWSURYLQFLDOOHYHOZKLFK
LVPDQGDWHGZLWKDOOPDWWHUVFRQFHUQLQJWKHDGPLQLVWUDWLRQRIODQG
FROOHFWLRQRIODQGUHYHQXHSUHSDUDWLRQRIODQGUHFRUGVDQGRWKHU
ODQGPDWWHUV,WLVDOVRWKHKLJKHVWFRXUWRIDSSHDODQGUHYLVLRQLQ
UHYHQXH FDVHV ZLWKLQ WKH SURYLQFH 5HYHQXH LQIRUPDWLRQ LV
FRQFHQWUDWHG DW YLOODJH OHYHO ZLWK WKH ORZHVW OHYHO RI UHYHQXH
RIILFLDO WKH 3DWZDUL IRU PDLQWDLQLQJ FROOHFWLYH DQG GHWDLOHG
LQIRUPDWLRQRQODQGLQWKH5HFRUGRI5LJKWV
3.3.1 Organisational Framework
2UJDQLVDWLRQDOVWUXFWXUHRI%25DWSURYLQFLDOOHYHOLQ.3SURYLQFH
RI 3DNLVWDQ LV VKRZQ LQ )LJXUH  7KH %25 KDV WKUHH KLJKHVW
0HPEHUVQDPHO\WKH&KLHI/DQG&RPPLVVLRQHU 6HQLRU0HPEHU
%RDUG RI 5HYHQXH60%5  &KLHI 6HWWOHPHQW &RPPLVVLRQHU
0HPEHU,  DQG WKH 3URYLQFLDO 5HOLHI &RPPLVVLRQHU 0HPEHU,, 
XQGHUWKHSURYLQFLDOUHYHQXHPLQLVWHU *RYWRI.3. 


Chapter 3: Exploratory Case Study in Pakistan


)LJXUH2UJDQLVDWLRQDOVWUXFWXUHRI%25DW3URYLQFLDOOHYHO
7KH Chief Land Commissioner LV UHVSRQVLEOH IRU UHFRYHU\ RI
JRYHUQPHQW GXHV VXFK DV DJULFXOWXUDO LQFRPH WD[ ODQG UHYHQXH
ZDWHU UDWH 8VKHU UHOLJLRXV WD[  PXWDWLRQ IHHV VWDPS GXW\
UHJLVWUDWLRQ IHH FRS\LQJ IHH DQG DUUHDUV UHODWLQJ WR WKH
$JULFXOWXUDO 'HYHORSPHQW %DQN RI 3DNLVWDQ DQG FRRSHUDWLYH
VRFLHWLHV +H DOVR IUDPHV WKH ODZVUXOHVSROLFLHV UHODWLQJ WR
UHYHQXH PDWWHUV DQG SURYLGHV JXLGHOLQHV IRU PDLQWHQDQFH RI
UHFRUGRIULJKWV SHULRGLFDO UHFRUG IRU XVH RI ULJKWKROGHUV DQG
UHYHQXH

GHSDUWPHQW

&RPPLVVLRQHUV

+H

VXSHUYLVHV

'HSXW\

UHYHQXH

&RPPLVVLRQHUV

ZRUN

RI

$VVLVWDQW

&RPPLVVLRQHUV DQG RWKHU RIILFHUV DQGFRXUWVLQWKHSURYLQFH+H


DOVR QRWLILHV QHZ DGPLQLVWUDWLYH XQLWV VXFK DV 'LYLVLRQV
'LVWULFWV7HKVLOV.DQXQJR&LUFOHVDQG3DWZDU&LUFOHV *RYW
RI.3. )LQDOO\KHGHDOVZLWKDOOVHUYLFHPDWWHUVUHODWLQJWR
UHYHQXHVWDII
7KHChief Settlement CommissionerLVUHVSRQVLEOHIRUSUHSDUDWLRQ
DQG H[HFXWLRQ RI SROLFLHV IRU GLVSRVDO RI VWDWH ODQG IRU GLIIHUHQW
SXUSRVHV VXFK DV DJULFXOWXUH SXUSRVH LQ UXUDO DUHDV UHVLGHQWLDO


Chapter 3: Exploratory Case Study in Pakistan

SXUSRVH LQ UXUDOXUEDQ DUHDV FRPPHUFLDO LQGXVWULDO FKDULWDEOH


DQG UHOLJLRXV SXUSRVHV *RYW RI .3.   +H LV DOVR WKH
DSSHOODWHUHYLVLRQDODXWKRULW\IRUUHYHQXHFDVHV
7KH Provincial Relief Commissioner LV DSSRLQWHG XQGHU WKH
3UHYHQWLRQ DQG 5HOLHI $FW  +H KDV WKH UHVSRQVLELOLW\ IRU
OD\LQJ GRZQ SROLFLHV DQG SODQV IRU GLVDVWHU PDQDJHPHQW LQ WKH
SURYLQFH *RYWRI.3. +HSURYLGHVWKHPDLQWHQDQFHDQG
UHVWRUDWLRQ RI ODZ DQG RUGHU LQ DUHDV DIIHFWHG E\ FDODPLWLHV IRU
H[WHQGLQJUHOLHIWRWKHDIIHFWHGSRSXODWLRQ
7KHDirector Land Records '/5 XQGHUWKHGLUHFWVXSHUYLVLRQRI
WKH Chief Land Commissioner  LV LQ FKDUJH RI DOO GLVWULFWV LQ WKH
SURYLQFH ,Q HDFK GLVWULFW WKH VWDII XQGHU WKH '/5 LQFOXGH WKH
&KLHI 6HWWOHPHQW 2IILFHU 6HWWOHPHQW 2IILFHU 7HKVLOGDU 1DLE
7HKVLOGDU.DQXQJRDQG3DWZDUL7KH'/5VXSHUYLVHVERWKWKH
3DWZDUL DQG .DQXQJR DJHQWV DQG LQVSHFWV WKH 5HFRUGRI
5LJKWVDQGVWDWLVWLFDOUHFRUGFRPSLOHGWKURXJKLWVPHDQV *RYWRI
.3. +HPDNHVWKHSRVWLQJRIVHWWOHPHQW.DQXQJRVDQG
0DSSHUV +H FKHFNV WKH UHFRUG RI FURS SULFHZHDWKHU UHSRUWV
UDLQJDXJHVFDWWOHFHQVXVFURSH[SHULPHQWVDQGUHWXUQRIZDJHV
DQGRIDJULFXOWXUDOVWDWLVWLFVFDUULHGRXWE\WKHGLVWULFWRIILFHUV+H
KDVFRQWURORIFHUWDLQFKDUJHVVXFKDVPXWDWLRQIHHVFRS\LQJDQG
LQVSHFWLRQIHHVRI3DWZDULVUHFRUGDQGDOOH[SHQGLWXUHVUHODWHGWR
DQ\ZRUNFDUULHGRXWE\.DQXQJRDQG3DWZDUL
$W 7HKVLO OHYHO D Tehsildar LV WKH QDPH JLYHQ WR DQ RIILFHU LQ
FKDUJHRID7HKVLOTehsildarLVSULPDULO\DUHYHQXHRIILFHUDQGLV
UHVSRQVLEOH IRU WKH FROOHFWLRQ RI ODQG UHYHQXH DQG RWKHU GXHV
SD\DEOH WR WKH JRYHUQPHQW +H LV FRQVWDQWO\ RQ WRXU WR NHHS LQ
WRXFKZLWKVXERUGLQDWHUHYHQXHRIILFLDOVWRREVHUYHWKHVHDVRQDO
FRQGLWLRQVDQGFRQGLWLRQRIFURSVWRWDNHQRWHRIWKHGLIILFXOWLHVRI
WKH FXOWLYDWRUV +H GUDZV XS UHSRUWV DQG UHFRPPHQGV UHPLVVLRQ


Chapter 3: Exploratory Case Study in Pakistan

RUVXVSHQVLRQRIUHYHQXHNHHSVWKHODQGUHFRUGVXSWRGDWHVLWV
LQ FRXUW WR VHWWOH GLVSXWHV UHJDUGLQJ WHQDQF\ DUUHDUV RI UHQW
HMHFWPHQW RI WHQDQWV DQG PDNHV HQWULHV LQ DFFRXQW ERRNV 7KH
GXWLHV RI WKH Tehsildar DQG Naib-Tehsildar GR QRW VXEVWDQWLDOO\
GLIIHU H[FHSW WKDW D Tehsildar LV YHVWHG ZLWK WKH SRZHUV RI DQ
$VVLVWDQW&ROOHFWRUVWJUDGHZKHUHDVDNaib-TehsildarLVYHVWHG
ZLWK WKH SRZHUV RI DQ $VVLVWDQW &ROOHFWRU QG JUDGH &KDXGKDU\
 
Kanungo VXSHUYLVHV WKH ZRUN RI 3DWZDULV +H LV WKH RQO\ OLQN
EHWZHHQWKHWHKVLORIILFHUDQGPatwari(DFKTehsildarLVDVVLVWHG
E\ DQ Office Kanungo ZKRVH PDLQ GXW\ LV WR FRQVROLGDWH WKH
LQIRUPDWLRQRQGLIIHUHQWPDWWHUV PatwariLVWKHORZHVWIXQFWLRQDU\
RIWKHUHYHQXHGHSDUWPHQW+HPDLQWDLQVDQGXSGDWHVWKHUHFRUG
SHUWDLQLQJ WR KLV RZQ 3DWZDU &LUFOH UHYHQXH HVWDWH  $ Patwari
FDUULHVRXWILHOGVXUYH\FURSLQVSHFWLRQWZLFHD\HDULQWKHPRQWKV
RI0DUFK 5DEL DQG2FWREHU .KDULI 
3.3.2 Legislative Framework
2Q RQH KDQG WKH %25 LV UHVSRQVLEOH IRU NHHSLQJ DQ XSWRGDWH
UHFRUGRIWKHGHWDLOVRIILHOGQXPEHUVDQGRQWKHRWKHUKDQGLWKDV
5HYHQXH &RXUWV )LJXUH   WR DGMXGLFDWH XSRQ GLVSXWHV DULVLQJ
RXWRILW



Chapter 3: Exploratory Case Study in Pakistan


)LJXUH6WUXFWXUHRI5HYHQXH&RXUWVLQ.3SURYLQFH
%DVLFOHJLVODWLRQRQODQGODZVZDVSURPXOJDWHGWKURXJKRXW%ULWLVK
SHULRG ZKLFK ZHUH PRVWO\ EDVHG RQ WKH VDPH SULQFLSOHV DQG
FRQFHSWVDVZHUHGHYHORSHGGXULQJWKH0XJKDO3HULRGEXWYDU\LQJ
LQ GHWDLO IURP SURYLQFH WR SURYLQFH 7KHUHDUH VHYHUDO /DZV DQG
$FWV WKDW GHDO ZLWK ODQG WKH UHODWLRQVKLS EHWZHHQ ODQGORUG DQG
WHQDQWVPRUWJDJRUDQGPRUWJDJHHDVVHVVPHQWDQGFROOHFWLRQRI
ODQG WD[ DJULFXOWXUH LQFRPH WD[ ORFDO UDWHV DQG ODQG DFTXLVLWLRQ
IRUSXEOLFSXUSRVHV7KHVH/DZVDQG$FWVDUHDGPLQLVWHUHGDQG
PDLQWDLQHGE\%25LQHDFKSURYLQFH7KHPDLQDFWVDGPLQLVWHUHG
E\%25DUHDVIROORZV 4D]L 
i.

Land Revenue Act 1967

7KLV $FW ZDV SDVVHG GXULQJ WKH RQHXQLW (DVW DQG :HVW
3DNLVWDQ  WLPH EXW KDV EHHQ DGRSWHG DQG DPHQGHG E\ DOO RI WKH
SURYLQFHV WRJHWKHU ZLWK QHFHVVDU\ FKDQJHV ,W GHDOV ZLWK WKH
LVVXHV RI 5HFRUGRI5LJKWV DQG ODQG UHYHQXH 7KH /DQG
5HYHQXH $FW ZDV UHYLVHG LQ  KDYLQJ ;9 &KDSWHUV DQG 
6HFWLRQV


Chapter 3: Exploratory Case Study in Pakistan

ii.

NWFP Tenancy Act 1950

$OO WKH SURYLQFHV KDYH DGRSWHG WKLV $FW ,W GHDOV ZLWK WKH
UHODWLRQVKLSRIODQGORUGDQGWHQDQWVUHJDUGLQJSURGXFHRIODQGDQG
HMHFWLRQRIWHQDQWVGXHWRQRQSD\PHQWRIUHQWRUSURGXFHE\WKH
WHQDQW WR WKH ODQGORUGV ,W LV WKH RQO\ OHJLVODWLRQ ZKLFK GHDOV ZLWK
YDULRXVDVSHFWVRIWHQDQF\ULJKWVLQ3DNLVWDQ
iii.

Pre-Emption Act 1987

7KLV ODZ KDV EHFRPH RSHUDWLYH E\ UHYHQXH GHSDUWPHQW DIWHU


SURPXOJDWLRQRISDUDRIWKH0DUWLDO/DZ5HJXODWLRQ 0/5 
LQZKLFKKDVJLYHQWKHILUVWULJKWRISUHHPSWLRQWRDWHQDQW
1RUPDOFDVHVRISUHHPSWLRQRIODQGDUHGHDOWE\WKHFLYLOFRXUWV
7KH UHYHQXH FRXUWV HQWHUWDLQ RQO\ WKRVH FDVHV LQ ZKLFK D WHQDQW
EULQJV D SUHHPSWLRQ VXLW 3UHHPSWLRQ ODZV JLYH FHUWDLQ
SUHIHUHQWLDOULJKWVWRQHLJKERXUVLQPDWWHUVRIVDOHRIODQG
iv.

Land Acquisition Act 1894

7KLV $FW GHDOV ZLWK WKH DFTXLVLWLRQ RI ODQG QHHGHG IRU SXEOLF
SXUSRVHVDQGGHWHUPLQLQJWKHDPRXQWRIFRPSHQVDWLRQWREHSDLG
RQDFFRXQWRIVXFKDFTXLVLWLRQ:KHQHYHUDQ\ODQGLVDFTXLUHGE\
WKH JRYHUQPHQW IRU DQ\ SXEOLF SXUSRVH RU E\ D FRPSDQ\ WKH
SURFHHGLQJV DUH XQGHUWDNHQ E\ WKH 'LVWULFW &ROOHFWRU XQGHU WKH
MXULVGLFWLRQRIWKLV$FW
v.

Registration Act 1908

7KLV $FW GHDOV ZLWK WKH UHJLVWUDWLRQ RI YDULRXV GRFXPHQWV


LQFOXGLQJ WKRVH UHODWLQJ WR ODQG  ZLWK UHJLVWUDWLRQ DXWKRULWLHV
1RUPDOO\ UHYHQXH RIILFHUV DV GHWDLOHG LQ /DQG 5HYHQXH $FW
  DUH GHFODUHG DV UHJLVWUDWLRQ DXWKRULWLHV 8QGHU WKLV $FW
YDULRXVGRFXPHQWVWREHH[HFXWHGDQGUHJLVWHUHGLQWKHRIILFHRI
VXEUHJLVWUDU OLNH VDOH GHHGV PRUWJDJH GHHGV OHDVH GHHGV


Chapter 3: Exploratory Case Study in Pakistan

SRZHU RI DWWRUQH\ SDUWQHUVKLS GHHGV DQG RWKHU GHHGV 7KHVH


GHHGV DUH HQWHUHG LQ WKH UHOHYDQW UHJLVWHUV DIWHU WKH GRFXPHQWV
DUHSURSHUO\VWDPSHGFKHFNHGDQGGXO\ZLWQHVVHG
vi.

Land Consolidation Act 1960

,Q RUGHU WR DFKLHYH EHWWHU DJULFXOWXUH \LHOGV WKH JRYHUQPHQW KDV
SDVVHG D ODZ NQRZQ DV /DQG &RQVROLGDWLRQ $FW  7KH
SXUSRVH RI WKLV $FW LV WKDW ZLWK WKH FRQVHQW RI ODQG RZQHUV WKH
H[FKDQJHRIODQGWDNHVSODFHLQDFRQVROLGDWHGVKDSH
vii.

Transfer of Property Act 1982

7KLV $FW GHDOV ZLWK WKH WUDQVIHU VDOHV DQG PRUWJDJHV FKDUJHV
OHDVH H[FKDQJHV DQG DFWLRQDEOH FODLPV LQ UHVSHFW RI SURSHUW\
7KLVLVDYHU\LPSRUWDQWSLHFHRIOHJLVODWLRQLQWHUPVRIGLVSXWHV
viii.

Land Reforms Act 1982

/DQG UHIRUPV ODZV KDYH EHHQ LQWURGXFHG DW YDULRXV VWDJHV


LQFOXGLQJWKH0/5RQ0/5RQDQG
/DQG 5HIRUPV $FW ,, RQ  7KH PDLQ DLP RI WKHVH ODQG
UHIRUPVZDVWRGHWHUPLQHWKHLQGLYLGXDOKROGLQJVWRDPDQDJHDEOH
VL]HIRULPSURYLQJWKHGHVWLQ\RISHDVDQWU\OLIH7KLV$FWJLYHVWKH
ULJKWVWRWHQDQWLQSRVVHVVLRQRIDFHUWDLQSURSHUW\
6HYHUDO UXOHV DUH DYDLODEOH LQ RUGHU WR LPSOHPHQW WKHVH $FWV
ZKLFKDUH
x /DQG5HYHQXH5XOHV
x 6HWWOHPHQW0DQXDO
x /DQG5HFRUGV0DQXDO
x /DQG$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ0DQXDO
3.3.3 Land Administration Processes
7KH %25 DUH FDUU\LQJ GLIIHUHQW /DQG $GPLQLVWUDWLRQ /$ 
SURFHVVHVLQWKHSURYLQFHDWORFDOOHYHO 3DWZDU&LUFOH &RPSOHWH


Chapter 3: Exploratory Case Study in Pakistan

GHWDLOV DERXW DOO WKH /$ SURFHVVHV DUH ZULWWHQ LQ WKH /DQG
$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ 0DQXDO   DQG /DQG 5HFRUG 0DQXDO  
7KHVH

PDQXDOV

DUH

UHJXODUO\

SXEOLVKHG

DV

SHU

DPHQGPHQWVFKDQJHV VXJJHVWHG E\ WKH ELOOV SDVVHG RXW LQ WKH


SURYLQFLDODVVHPEO\7KHPRVWFRPPRQ/$SURFHVVHVDVIRXQGLQ
WKHVWXG\DUHDGXULQJWKHILOHGYLVLWVDUHGLVFXVVHGEHORZ
i.

Records-of-Rights Process

5HFRUGVRI5LJKWV DUH FRQVWUXFWHG IRU HYHU\ 'HK D 5HYHQXH


(VWDWH RU D 5HYHQXH 9LOODJH  GXULQJ 6HWWOHPHQW 2SHUDWLRQV $
5HYHQXH9LOODJHRUD5HYHQXH(VWDWHRUD0R]DRUD'HKRUD
0DKDDOLVDKDELWDWLRQIRUZKLFKDVHSDUDWH5HFRUGRI5LJKWVLV
EHLQJSUHSDUHG,QIODWFRXQWU\VLGHRIWKHSODLQVWKHGZHOOLQJVDUH
FRQVWUXFWHGFORVHWRHDFKRWKHULQRQHFHQWUDOSODFHVXUURXQGHG
E\ IDUP ODQG DQG 6KDPHHODW RQ DOO VLGHV ,Q PRXQWDLQRXV DQG
KLOO\ DUHDV WKH GZHOOLQJV DUH QRW FRQVWUXFWHG DW RQH ORFDWLRQ EXW
DUH GLVSHUVHG DOO RYHU WKH ZDWHUVKHG 8VXDOO\ D FRXSOH RU PRUH
KRXVHV DUH FRQVWUXFWHG LQ RQH SODFH QH[W WR HDFK RWKHU LQ WKH
PLGVWRI RU LQFORVHSUR[LPLW\WRWKHLUODQGKROGLQJV
ii.

Gardawari (Binomial Inspection) Process

%HIRUHHYHU\KDUYHVWVHDVRQWKH3DWZDULPDNHVDVXUYH\LQKLV
3DWZDU &LUFOH FDOOHG *DUGDZDUL ,WV SXUSRVH LV WR FROOHFW
LQIRUPDWLRQDERXWWKHPDWXUHGFURSSHGDUHDXQGHUGLIIHUHQWFURSV
VRZQ E\ IDUPHUV LQ D 3DWZDU &LUFOH *DUGDZDUL SURYLGHV
LQIRUPDWLRQ DERXW WKH GDWH RQ ZKLFK WKH LQVSHFWLRQ RI HDFK
KDUYHVW VKRXOG EHJLQ WKH NLQG RI VRLO 4LVP =DPLQ  W\SH RI WKH
FURS -LQV VRZQDQGWKHDUHDVRZQ 5DTED.DVKW ZLWKUHIHUHQFH
WR.KDVUD1XPEHU SDUFHOLGHQWLILFDWLRQQXPEHU 
iii.

Fard Malkiyat (Ownership Document) Process




Chapter 3: Exploratory Case Study in Pakistan

7KH GRFXPHQW VKRZLQJ RZQHUVKLS RI ODQG LV FDOOHG WKH )DUG
0DONL\DW ,W LV SUHSDUHG E\ WKH FRQFHUQHG 3DWZDUL RU GLVWULFW
RIILFHU RQ SD\PHQW RI IHH DV SUHVFULEHG LQ VFKHGXOH RI FRSLHV RI
H[WUDFWFKDUJHV,WLVFUHDWHGIURP+DTGDUDQ=DPLQ -DPDEDQGL 
UHJLVWHU DQG WKH LQFRUSRUDWLRQV PDGH WKURXJK DQ\ PXWDWLRQ
,QWLTDO 
iv.

Fard Badar (Error Correction) Process

:KHQHYHU D FOHULFDO PLVWDNH LV GHWHFWHG LQ FXUUHQW -DPDEDQGL


DIWHU LW KDV EHHQ ILQDOO\ DWWHVWHG DQG ILOHG ZKHWKHU WKDW PLVWDNH
ZDV RULJLQDOO\ PDGH LQ WKDW RU DQ\ SUHYLRXV -DPDEDQGL WKH
3DWZDUL PDNHV WKH QHFHVVDU\ HQWULHV DERXW LW LQ WKH FROXPQV RI
WKH)DUG%DGDU7KLVSURFHVVLVXVHGIRUWKHSXUSRVHRIDYRLGLQJ
WKH HQWU\ RI D IXUWKHU PXWDWLRQ RI LQKHULWDQFH LQ FDVHV ZKHUH LQ
HQWHULQJ WKH RULJLQDO PXWDWLRQ VRPH RI WKH KROGLQJV RI WKH
GHFHDVHGZHUHXQNQRZLQJO\RPLWWHG
v.

Register Haqdaran Zamin (Land Registration) Process

7KH 5HJLVWHU +DTGDUDQ =DPLQ SUHYLRXVO\ NQRZQ DV WKH


-DPDEDQGL5HJLVWHULVRQHRIWKHPRVWLPSRUWDQWGRFXPHQWVRI
5HFRUGRI5LJKWVDVZHOODVWKHSHULRGLFUHFRUGLQUXUDODUHDV,W
SULPDULO\ VKRZV WKH ULJKW KROGHUV RI ODQG LQFOXGLQJ GHWDLOV RQ
RZQHUFXOWLYDWRUODQGVRLODQGUHQW,WLVFUHDWHGHYHU\IRXU\HDUV
IRULQFRUSRUDWLQJUHFHQWPXWDWLRQV ,QWLTDODW WKDWKDYHWDNHQSODFH
VLQFHWKHODVWGRFXPHQWZDVFUHDWHGIURPWKHSUHYLRXV+DTGDUDQ
=DPLQ ODQGRZQHUV UHJLVWHU
vi.

Mutation Process

$PXWDWLRQLVDFKDQJHLQWKHDJULFXOWXUDOODQGUHFRUGV7KHUHDUH
YDULRXV

W\SHV

RI

PXWDWLRQV

ZLWK

GLIIHUHQW

WUDQVDFWLRQ

FKDUDFWHULVWLFV$PXWDWLRQSURFHVVLVDSURFHVVZLWKPDQ\FKHFNV


Chapter 3: Exploratory Case Study in Pakistan

DQG EDODQFHV ,Q WKLV SURFHVV DQ RUDO UHSRUW RU DSSOLFDWLRQ IRU
PXWDWLRQLQZULWLQJLVPDGHWR3DWZDUL7KHNH\SHUVRQVLQYROYHG
LQ D PXWDWLRQ SURFHVV DUH 3DWZDUL *DUGDZDU .DQXQJR DQG
7HVKLOGDU RU 1DLE7HKVLOGDU 5HYHQXH 2IILFHU  &KDQJHV LQ WKH
UHFRUGHGULJKWVDQGLQWHUHVWDUHPDQDJHGDW3DWZDU/HYHO7KHUH
DUHYDULRXVW\SHVRIPXWDWLRQVVXFKDVVDOHJLIWDQGGHYROXWLRQRI
ODQGPRUWJDJLQJOHDVHDQGVXEGLYLVLRQ
3.3.4 Maintenance of Land Records
7KHODQGUHFRUGGDWDLVPDLQWDLQHGDWWHKVLORIILFHVDVREVHUYHGLQ
WKHILHOGYLVLWV7KHVHUHFRUGVHWVDUHGHYHORSHGIRUHDFK3DWZDU
&LUFOH DW WKH WLPH RI 6HWWOHPHQW )RU PDLQWHQDQFH RI WKHVH
UHFRUGV D 3DWZDUL KDV WR PDLQWDLQ WKH IROORZLQJ PDSV DQG
UHJLVWHUV
i.

Field Map

$ FDGDVWUDO PDS FDOOHG 0XVDYL LV VKRZQ LQ)LJXUH  ,W VKRZV
DOO WKH ILHOGV GXO\ PHDVXUHG DQG QXPEHUHG LQ D YLOODJH 7KLV LV
EDVLFDOO\ D VXUYH\HG SDSHU PDS DW GLIIHUHQW VFDOHV GHSHQGLQJ
XSRQWKHYLOODJHDUHDQRUPDOO\DWDVFDOHRI .DUDP DERXW
 VFDOH RU VR DFFRUGLQJ WR SDUFHO VL]HV LQ WKH YLOODJH  7KH
\DUGVWLFNRIPHDVXULQJDILHOGLVFDOOHG.DUDPZKLFKLVIHHWLQ
OHQJWK /DQG SDUFHOV DUH ODEHOOHG ZLWK WKHLU .KDVUD 1XPEHU
SDUFHO LGHQWLILFDWLRQ QXPEHU  DQG GLPHQVLRQ RI HDFK VLGH (DFK
.KDVUD1XPEHULVRZQHGE\DQRZQHU0XVDYLLVGHYHORSHGDW
WKHWLPHRIVHWWOHPHQWDQGQRFKDQJHVFDQEHPDGHLQWKLVUHFRUG
VHWWLOOWKHQH[WVHWWOHPHQW6XEGLYLVLRQOLQHVEUHDNXSDQLUUHJXODU
ODQG SDUFHO LQ GLIIHUHQW UHJXODU JHRPHWULFDO VKDSHV 7KHVH
VXEGLYLVLRQ OLQHV DUH JHQHUDOO\ UHSUHVHQWHG ZLWK GRWWHG OLQH DQG
DUHGHILQHGIRUDUHDFDOFXODWLRQRQWKHPDS



Chapter 3: Exploratory Case Study in Pakistan


)LJXUH$VDPSOHFDGDVWUDOPDS 0XVDYL 
ii.

Field Book

7KLVERRNFRQWDLQVWKHGHWDLOVRIPHDVXUHPHQWRIHDFKILHOGVXFK
DVLWVOHQJWKEUHDGWKGLDJRQDOGHWDLODQGWRWDODUHDZRUNHGRXW
iii.

Shajra Kistwar

$OO WKH 0XVDYLHV RI D YLOODJH DUH GUDZQ XS FRQMRLQWO\ RQ D FORWK
ODWWKD  IRU GD\WRGD\ XVH E\ D 3DWZDUL ZKLFK LV FDOOHG 6KDMUD
.LVWZDU
iv.

Register Haqdaran Zamin (Jamabandi)

7KLV LV WKH PRVW LPSRUWDQW UHJLVWHU FRQWDLQLQJ QHFHVVDU\


SDUWLFXODUV DERXW RZQHUVKLS WHQDQF\ .KDVUD 1XPEHU
FODVVLILFDWLRQVRXUFHRILUULJDWLRQODQGUHYHQXHDQGUHQW ODJDQ 
v.

Register of Mutations

,W FRQWDLQV SDUWLFXODUV RI DOO WUDQVDFWLRQV ZKLFK DUH HQWHUHG E\ D
3DWZDULDQGGHFLGHGE\DUHYHQXHRIILFHU
vi.

Register Khasra Gardawari




Chapter 3: Exploratory Case Study in Pakistan

7KLVUHJLVWHUFRQWDLQVWKHGHWDLOVRIWKHLQVSHFWLRQRIFURSJURZQLQ
HDFK ILHOG LQ HDFK KDUYHVW DQG DOO FKDQJHV RI RZQHUVKLS DQG
WHQDQF\,WLVDWUDFNUHFRUGRIWKHSRVVHVVLRQRIDSDUWLFXODUSDWFK
RIODQGZKLFKKHOSVWRUHVROYHLVVXHVUHODWLQJWRRZQHUVKLSRIWKDW
SDWFK
vii.

Lal Kitab (Village Note Book)

7KLV ERRN KDV GHWDLOV DERXW WKH VWDWLVWLFV RI D YLOODJH ODQGV HJ
WRWDO DUHD DUHD VRZQ DVVHVVPHQW RI ODQG UHYHQXH QXPEHU RI
HQWHUHG DQG DWWHVWHG PXWDWLRQV QRWHV DERXW FKDQJHV LQ
FXOWLYDWLRQDQGRZQHUVKLSIRUWKHODVWIRXU\HDUV,WDOVRVKRZVWKH
SRSXODWLRQRIDYLOODJHDQGWKHDSSUR[LPDWHQXPEHURIOLYHVWRFN,W
LVWKHVWDWLVWLFDOERRNRIDYLOODJH
viii.

Fard Bach

,W FRQWDLQV WKH GHWDLOV RI WKH GHPDQG RI ODQG UHYHQXH DQG WD[HV
WKHUHRQUHFRYHUDEOHIURPHDFKODQGRZQHULQDYLOODJH
ix.

Roznamcha Waqiati

$OO KDSSHQLQJV DERXW WKH ODQG DIIDLUV DUH UHFRUGHG LQ WKLV GLDU\
)RU LQVWDQFH KDLOVWRUP VHYHUH UDLQV WKH UHSRUWV RI DOO
WUDQVDFWLRQV RI ODQG HQFURDFKPHQWV RQ 6WDWH ODQG WRXUV
FRQGXFWHG E\ YDULRXV UHYHQXH RIILFHUV DQG DOO RWKHU PDWWHUV
FRQQHFWHGZLWKODQGDUHHQWHUHGLQLW
,Q DGGLWLRQ WR WKHVH UHJLVWHUV WKHUH DUH RWKHU IRUPV RI UHJLVWHUV
ZKLFK DUH PDLQWDLQHG E\ 3DWZDUL $SSHQGL[   EXW DUH QRW RI
PXFK LPSRUWDQFH $OO WKHVH ODQG UHFRUGV DUH NHSW XQGHU WKH
FXVWRG\RIGLIIHUHQW%25RIILFLDOVDWGLVWLQFWOHYHOV
3.4

Analysis of Institutional and Technical Aspects of LAS

$OWKRXJK WKH /$6 LQ 3DNLVWDQ LV WLPH WHVWHG DQG KDV UHPDLQHG
IXQFWLRQDO IRU PRUH WKDQ WZR KXQGUHG \HDUV SUHVHQWO\ WKHUH DUH


Chapter 3: Exploratory Case Study in Pakistan

VHYHUDO FRQFHUQV GXH WR FKDQJHV LQ VRFLHWDO QHHGV SDUWLFXODUO\


XVHUVYLHZV *DXKDU4D]L5D]DHWDO:RUOG
%DQN   6LQFH WKLV VWXG\ ZDV H[SORUDWRU\ LQ QDWXUH RQO\
OLPLWHGILHOGTXHVWLRQQDLUHVZHUHXVHGDWWKLVVWDJH,QDGGLWLRQWR
FROOHFWLQJ WKH DUFKLYDO GRFXPHQWV DQG VWXGLHV RQ WKH SUHVHQW
RUJDQLVDWLRQDO PDQGDWHV VXSSRUWLQJ ODZV DQG SURFHVVHV DQG
UHFRUGVILHOGYLVLWVZHUHFRQGXFWHGWRJHWLQGHSWKXQGHUVWDQGLQJ
RI H[LVWLQJ LVVXHV 'XULQJ WKLV ILHOGZRUN VWXG\ PDQ\ LVVXHV ZHUH
UDLVHG YHUEDOO\ DQG D QXPEHU RI UHVSRQVHV ZHUH FROOHFWHG LQ
ZULWLQJ0DMRUILQGLQJVDUHRUJDQLVHGEHORZXQGHUWKHLQVWLWXWLRQDO
DQGWHFKQLFDODVSHFWVRI/$6
3.4.1 Institutional Aspect Analysis
7KH UHVSRQVHV IURP GLIIHUHQW VWDNHKROGHUV LQFOXGLQJ  ODQG
DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ DJHQF\ RIILFLDOV  IDUPHUV DQG  ODZ
SURIHVVLRQDOV UHJDUGLQJ WKH H[LVWLQJ LQVWLWXWLRQDO DVSHFW ZHUH
UHFHLYHGWKURXJKDTXHVWLRQQDLUH $SSHQGL[D E\DVNLQJFULWLFDO
TXHVWLRQV 1LQH RSHQ LQWHUYLHZV IURP WKH  RIILFHUV RI %25 DW
KHDGTXDUWHUVDQGDWGLVWULFWRIILFHVVKRZHGWKDWWKHSUHVHQW/$6
LV ILVFDO LQ QDWXUH ZKLFK LV PDLQO\ XVHG IRU ODQG WD[ FROOHFWLRQ WR
JHQHUDWHUHYHQXH7KHODQGUHFRUGVVKRZLQIRUPDWLRQRQZKRWKH
WD[ SD\HU LV" KRZ PXFK WKH WD[ YDOXH LV" KRZ PXFK WKH ODQG
FRVWDQGVL]H LV"DQGZKHUHWKHORFDWLRQLV",WGRHVQRWFOHDUO\
GHILQHWKHQDWXUHRIULJKWVLQODQGIRUODQGRZQHUV7KLVPHDQVWKDW
WKH OHJDO VHFXULW\ RQ ODQG ULJKWV LV QRW IXOO\ JXDUDQWHHG LQ WKH
H[LVWLQJV\VWHP
5HVSRQVHV IURP WKH VWDNHKROGHUV LQFOXGLQJ  ODZ SURIHVVLRQDOV
DQG ODQG RZQHUV VKRZHG WKDW WKH\ ZHUH QRW VDWLVILHG ZLWK WKH
SHUIRUPDQFH RI WKH SUHVHQW /$6 $V  RI WKH VWDNHKROGHUV
LQGLFDWHGWKDWWKHUHLVDURRPIRUFRUUXSWLRQDQGXQRIILFLDOFKDQJHV


Chapter 3: Exploratory Case Study in Pakistan

LQ ODQG UHFRUGV GXH WR GHSHQGHQFH RQ 3DWZDULV IRU ODQG
WUDQVDFWLRQ DQG RWKHU SURFHVVHV ZKLFK DIIHFW WKH HIILFLHQF\ DQG
HIIHFWLYHQHVV RI WKH SUHVHQW /$6  RI WKH VWDNHKROGHUV ZHUH
QRW VDWLVILHG ZLWK WKH SURFHGXUHV DQG SURFHVVHV LQ WKH SUHVHQW
/$6VXFKDVPXWDWLRQ7KHVHUHVXOWVZHUHLQDJUHHPHQWZLWKWKH
OLWHUDWXUHDQGUHSRUWVDFFHVVHGLQWKLVILHOGZRUN 4D]L
:RUOG%DQN 
$OO WKH VWDNHKROGHUV DJUHHG WKDW LQDFFXUDF\ DQG WKH FRPSOH[
QDWXUH RI SUHVHQW /$6 H[DFHUEDWHV ODQGUHODWHG GLVSXWHV 7KLV
DOVR FUHDWHV GRXEWV DERXW WKH VHFXULW\ RI WHQXUH LQ ODQG RZQHUV
PLQGV GXH WR ZKLFK WKH\ GR QRW XVH WKHLU SURSHUW\ IRU DQ\
PRUWJDJHDQGORDQVIURPEDQNV0RUHRYHUWKHODQGWUDQVDFWLRQV
DUH UHODWLYHO\ H[SHQVLYH DQG GLVSXWHV DERXW WKH FRUUHFWQHVV RI
ODQG ULJKWV DUH FDXVHG DPRQJ RWKHUV E\ DQ LQHIILFLHQW DQG
GLVSHUVHG ODQG UHFRUG V\VWHP 4D]L   7KH  RI  %25
RIILFLDOVLQFOXGLQJ3DWZDULVDQG1DLE7HKVLOGDUVSRLQWHGRXWWKDW
WKH JRYHUQPHQW SURYLGH LQVXIILFLHQW IXQGLQJ IRU VWDWLRQDU\ LQ WKH
ODQG RIILFHV 7KH IXQG LV SURYLGHG DFFRUGLQJ WR WKH ROG UXOHV DQG
UHJXODWLRQV IROORZLQJ IURP WKH %ULWLVK SHULRG 7KHUHIRUH WKH\ DUH
VHHNLQJ WR JHW WKH GHVLUHG PRQH\ IURP VWDNHKROGHUV WKURXJK
GLIIHUHQWPHDQVDIIHFWLQJWKHLUSHUIRUPDQFH
 RI WKH VWDNHKROGHUV LQFOXGLQJ  ODZ SURIHVVLRQDOV DQG ODQG
RZQHUV DFFHSWHG WKDW WKH RIILFLDO SURFHGXUHV LQ H[LVWLQJ /$6 DUH
VRFRPSOLFDWHGWKDWWKLVDOZD\VOHDGVWRGHOD\VLQFRXUWGHFLVLRQV
ZKLFKDIIHFWWKHODQGPDUNHWGLUHFWO\RULQGLUHFWO\ERWKDWORFDODQG
QDWLRQDOOHYHORIWKHVWDNHKROGHUVDOVRDGPLWWHGWKDWODFNRI
FUHGLEOH LQIRUPDWLRQ DQG LQVXIILFLHQW FRRSHUDWLRQ RI ODQG
DGPLQLVWUDWLRQRIILFLDOVGXULQJODQGGLVSXWHVJHQHUDWHFRQVLGHUDEOH
GHOD\V LQ UHVROYLQJ SHQGLQJ FDVHV LQ FRXUWV 0XPWD] DQG
1RVKHUZDQL   DOVR PHQWLRQHG WKDW WKH OHJDO SURFHGXUHV LQ


Chapter 3: Exploratory Case Study in Pakistan

ODQG FDVHV DUH FRPSOH[ DQG WKH GXUDWLRQ RI D ODQG FDVH PD\ JR
EH\RQGWKHOLWLJDQWVOLIHWLPHRIWKHVWDNHKROGHUVZHUHQRWLQ
DJUHHPHQWZLWKFRXUWSURFHGXUHVLQWKHSUHVHQW/$6
$OWKRXJK D 3DWZDUL LV REOLJDWHG WR DSSHDU LQ FRXUW LQ DOO ODQG
UHODWHG LQTXLULHV DV UHVSRQGHG E\  RI WKH  %25 RIILFLDOV
GXULQJWKHILHOGZRUNVWXG\EXWRIWKHVWDNHKROGHUVSRLQWHGRXW
WKDWODQGDGPLQLVWUDWLRQRIILFLDOVGRQRWSURYLGHLQWLPHFRRSHUDWLRQ
GXULQJ WKHLU ODQG UHODWHG GLVSXWHV +RZHYHU DV SRLQWHG RXW E\
 RI WKH ODQG DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ RIILFLDOV WKH ZRUNORDG RQ D
3DWZDUL PDNHV LW LPSRVVLEOH IRU KLP WR SHUIRUP KLV GXWLHV LQ D
EHWWHU ZD\  RI VWDNHKROGHUV DOVR VDLG WKDW %25 GRHV QRW
KDYH VXIILFLHQW LQIUDVWUXFWXUH DQG PDQSRZHU WR GHOLYHU DOO WKHLU
VHUYLFHVLQDQHIILFLHQWPDQQHU
0RUHRYHU ODQG UHFRUG PDLQWHQDQFH WDNHV SODFH WKURXJK DQ
LQWULFDWHV\VWHPZKLFKLQYROYHVVHYHUDOOHYHOVRIDGPLQLVWUDWLRQDV
PHQWLRQHG E\  RI WKH ODQG DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ RIILFLDOV )RU
H[DPSOHDOOWKHFKDQJHVRIRZQHUVKLSXVHRURWKHUGHDOLQJZLWK
ODQGLVUHFRUGHGE\D3DWZDULEXWWKHUHFRUGVKDYHWREHFKHFNHG
DQG IRUZDUGHG E\ WKH .DQXQJR DQG DSSURYHG E\ 7HKVLOGDU RU
1DLE7HKVLOGDU 7KLV PDNHV WKH SURFHVV WLPH FRQVXPLQJ DQG
DOZD\VOHDGVWRGHOD\VDWWKHXVHUVHQG
,WLVFOHDUIURPWKHDERYHDQDO\VLVWKDWWKHPRVWSUHYDLOLQJLVVXHV
LQ WKH H[LVWLQJ /$6 RQ LQVWLWXWLRQDO VLGH DUH WHQXUH VHFXULW\ ODQG
GLVSXWH UHVROXWLRQ ODQG DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ SURFHVVHV DQG ILQDQFLQJ
DQGGDWDFRVWV
3.4.2 Technical Aspect Analysis
7KH UHVSRQVHV RI WKH VWDNHKROGHUV LQFOXGLQJ  ODQG
DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ DJHQF\ RIILFLDOV  IDUPHUV DQG  ODZ
SURIHVVLRQDOV UHJDUGLQJ WKH SUHVHQW WHFKQLFDO DVSHFW ZHUH


Chapter 3: Exploratory Case Study in Pakistan

UHFHLYHG WKURXJK D VHW RI TXHVWLRQQDLUH E\ DVNLQJ FULWLFDO


TXHVWLRQV $SSHQGL[ E  ,W LV HYLGHQW IURP WKH UHVSRQVHV RI WKH
ODQG DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ RIILFLDOV WKDW WKH SUHVHQW ODQG UHFRUGV DUH LQ
SDSHUIRUPDW7KHVHODQGUHFRUGVDUHTXLWHRXWGDWHGDQGWKHUHLV
D ODFN RI XSGDWHG JHRJUDSKLFDO LQIRUPDWLRQ  RI WKH %25
UHVSRQGHQWV VDLG WKDW WKHUH LV QR UHIHUHQFLQJ SURMHFWLRQ 
LQIRUPDWLRQDYDLODEOHRQWKHH[LVWLQJFDGDVWUDOPDSZKLFKFUHDWHV
DJDSEHWZHHQWKHPDSDQGWKHUHJLVWHUWRSUHVHQWWKHUHDOLW\RQ
WKHJURXQGDVSRLQWHGRXWE\RIWKHVWDNHKROGHUV
,QIRUPDWLRQ DERXW WKH 5HFRUGRI5LJKWV LV RULJLQDOO\ HVWDEOLVKHG
RQWKHEDVLVRIDGHWDLOHGILHOGVXUYH\DQGLQFOXGHVDPDSRIHDFK
YLOODJH ZKLFK VKRZV WKH SRVLWLRQ DQG ERXQGDU\ RI HDFK ODQG
SDUFHO $OO WKHVH JUDSKLFDO LQIRUPDWLRQ LV LQWHQGHG WR EH XSGDWHG
HYHU\\HDUVZKLFKLVQRWLQDFFRUGDQFHZLWKUDSLGFKDQJHV
LQGHYHORSPHQWDOZRUNVLQDVRFLHW\7KHDJULFXOWXUDOODQGLQPDQ\
DUHDVLVVWLOOUHFRUGHGLQWKHQDPHRIDSHUVRQZKRSDVVHGDZD\
ORQJ DJR DQG ZKRVH OHJDO VXFFHVVRUV DUH WKH RZQHUV EXW ZKRVH
QDPHV DUH QRW HQWHUHG LQ WKH ODQG UHFRUGV .KDOLG   ,W LV
DFFHSWHGE\PRVWRIWKH%25RIILFLDOVWKDW5HFRUGRI5LJKWVDUH
XSGDWHGRQFHHYHU\IRXU\HDUVZKLFKDIIHFWVWKHHIILFLHQF\RI/$6
DQGVORZVGRZQWKHODQGWUDQVDFWLRQEXVLQHVVLQWKHODQGPDUNHW
,QIDFWODQGUHFRUGVVKRXOGEHPDLQWDLQHGIRUODQGWUDQVDFWLRQVRQ
UHJXODUEDVLV
 RI WKH VWDNHKROGHUV UHVSRQGHG WKDW GHOD\V LQ PRVW RI ODQG
GLVSXWHV ZHUH GXH WR XQDYDLODELOLW\ RI VXIILFLHQW NQRZOHGJH DQG
LQIRUPDWLRQ DERXW WKH ODQG 0RUHRYHU  RI WKH VWDNHKROGHUV
DUJXHG WKDW D 3DWZDUL GRHV QRW SURYLGH FRUUHFW DQG WLPHO\
LQIRUPDWLRQ LQ DOO ODQG UHODWHG GLVSXWHV  RI WKH VWDNHKROGHUV
VDLGWKDWODQGUHODWHG GLVSXWHV FDQ EH VROYHGHDVLO\LQWLPHLIWKH



Chapter 3: Exploratory Case Study in Pakistan

LQIRUPDWLRQ RQ ODQG LV SURYLGHG FRUUHFWO\ E\ %25 RIILFLDOV LQ D
WLPHO\IDVKLRQ
0RVWRIWKHVWDNHKROGHUVUHVSRQGHGWKDWWKH\DUHQRWDZDUHRIWKH
ODQG UHODWHG SURFHGXUHV DQG IHHV GHILQHG E\ %25  RI %25
RIILFLDOVDJUHHGWKDWQRHIIRUWLVFDUULHGRXWE\%25WRSXEOLVKDQ\
SULQWHG LQIRUPDWLRQ IRU SXEOLF DZDUHQHVV DERXW ODQG UHODWHG
SURFHGXUHV EDVLF VWHSV DQG RWKHU UXOHV IRU ODQG WUDQVDFWLRQV
7KDW LV ZK\ WKH SXEOLF ZDV QRW DZDUH RI ZKR KDV WR EH
DSSURDFKHG IRU DQ DSSHDO LQ ODQG GLVSXWHV RU ZKR LV UHVSRQVLEOH
IRUZKDWDWGLIIHUHQWOHYHOVRIODQGDGPLQLVWUDWLRQDJHQF\
7KH 60%5 VDLG WKDW OHVV HGXFDWLRQ DQG WUDLQLQJ IDFLOLWLHV DUH
SUHVHQWO\ DYDLODEOH IRU WKH WUDLQLQJ RI %25 VWDII DQG RIILFLDOV +H
VDLG WKDW WKHUH LV RQO\ RQH WUDLQLQJ VFKRRO DW SURYLQFLDO OHYHO WR
WUDLQ WKHLU VWDII +H DOVR VDLG WKDW WKH H[LVWLQJ HGXFDWLRQDO DQG
WUDLQLQJSURJUDPVGRQRWKDYHVXIILFLHQWFDSDFLW\
$FFRUGLQJ WR  RI WKH VWDNHKROGHUV WKH ODQG UHJLVWHUV DQG
FDGDVWUDOPDSVDUHQRWLQJRRGFRQGLWLRQZKLFKUHVWULFWVWKHLUXVH
IRU SURGXFLQJ DQ HIILFLHQW ODQG PDUNHW 7KH WHPSRUDO DUFKLYHV
ODQGUHFRUGURRPV DUHRQO\VWRUHGDWGLVWULFWOHYHODVPHQWLRQHG
E\ DOO RI WKH %25 RIILFLDOV 7KHUH ZHUH VWLOO RFFDVLRQV ZKHQ WKH
HQWLUH UHFRUG ZDV ZLSHG RXW GXH WR ILUH RU IORRG 'XULQJ WKH ILHOG
YLVLW LW ZDV REVHUYHG WKDW WKH PHWKRGV XVHG IRU ODQG VXUYH\LQJ
ZHUH TXLWH ROG DQG WLPH FRQVXPLQJ HYHQ LPSRVVLEOH VRPHWLPHV
ZKHQWKHUHZHUHKDUVKZHDWKHUFRQGLWLRQV'XHWRWKLVUHDVRQQR
ODQG UHFRUGV ZHUH SUHSDUHG E\ %25 LQ VRPH UHPRWH KLOO\ DUHDV
DQG QR VHWWOHPHQW VXUYH\V KDYH EHHQ FDUULHG RXW LQ WKRVH DUHDV
IRUWKHODVWVL[W\\HDUV
0RUHRYHURIWKHVWDNHKROGHUVDQGRIWKH%25RIILFLDOV
DJUHHG WKDW WKH LQWURGXFWLRQ RI QHZ WHFKQRORJLHV LQ WKH SUHVHQW



Chapter 3: Exploratory Case Study in Pakistan

V\VWHP ZLOO UHVXOW LQ DQ LPSURYHPHQW LQ LWV TXDOLW\ DQG
SHUIRUPDQFH
,WLVFOHDUIURPWKHDERYHDQDO\VLVWKDWWKHPRVWLPSRUWDQWLVVXHV
LQ WKH H[LWLQJ /$6 RQ WHFKQLFDO VLGH DUH FRRUGLQDWLRQ  GDWD
VKDULQJGDWDRUJDQLVDWLRQWHFKQRORJ\DGDSWLRQZRUNIORZVIRU/$
SURFHVVHVDQGTXDOLW\VWDQGDUGV
3.5

Important Elements of the Quality Assessment

Framework
)URPWKLVH[SORUDWRU\FDVHVWXG\LQFDVHRI3DNLVWDQWKHIROORZLQJ
HOHPHQWV DUH VHHQ DV FULWLFDO IRU GHYHORSLQJ WKH TXDOLW\
DVVHVVPHQW IUDPHZRUN DOWKRXJK QDWLRQDO SDUWLFXODULWLHV PLJKW
OHDGWRDGGLQJRQHRUPRUHHOHPHQWVZKHQDSSO\LQJLWLQDQRWKHU
FRXQWU\
i.

Tenure Security

7HQXUH VHFXULW\ LV DVVXUHG E\ D PXOWLWXGH RI IDFWRUV QRW RQO\ E\
WKH UHYHQXH UHFRUG  ,Q DGGLWLRQ WR WKH RIILFLDO GRFXPHQWV WKH
VRFLDOFDSLWDOFRPPXQLW\UHODWLRQVDQGRQHVSRVLWLRQRISRZHULQ
WKH ORFDO FRQWH[W DGG WR WKH DXWKHQWLFLW\ RI RQHV FODLP WR ODQG
OHDGLQJWRWHQXUHVHFXULW\ 4D]L 7KHSUHVHQW/$6LVIRXQG
ILVFDOLQQDWXUHZKLFKLVGHYHORSHGRQO\IRUWD[FROOHFWLRQSXUSRVH
,W GRHV QRW FOHDUO\ GHILQH WKH QDWXUH DQG H[WHQWV RI ULJKWV LQ ODQG
IRUWKHODQGRZQHUVDQGWHQDQWV,QSUHVHQW/$6WHQXUHVHFXULW\LV
EDVHG RQ LQWHUDFWLRQ RI YDULRXV VRFLDO DGPLQLVWUDWLYH DQG OHJDO
IDFWRUV7KLVKDVDIIHFWHGWKHTXDOLW\RI/$6IRUPDUNHWGHPDQGV
DVSHUXVHUVQHHGVDQGFRXQWU\VHFRQRP\
ii.

Land Dispute Resolution

7KH PDLQ W\SHV RI ODQG GLVSXWHV DUH FRQIOLFWV EHWZHHQ YDULRXV
SHUVRQVZLWKDMRLQWRZQHUVKLSRIWKHVDPHSLHFHRIODQG EHFDXVH


Chapter 3: Exploratory Case Study in Pakistan

RILQKHULWDQFH FRQIOLFWVEHWZHHQVPDOOKROGHUVRQGHWHUPLQLQJWKH
ERXQGDULHV RI ILHOGV HIIRUWV WR HQFURDFK XSRQ DQRWKHUV RU
FRPPXQDO RU JRYHUQPHQW ODQG RIWHQ ZLWK WKH LQYROYHPHQW RI
UHYHQXH RIILFLDOV  DQG UDUHO\ FRQIOLFWV EHWZHHQ ODQG RZQHUV DQG
WHQDQWV RQ WKH GLYLVLRQ RI HDUQLQJV IURP ODQG RU ZKHQ WKH
ODQGRZQHUV ZDQW WR HYLFW WKH WHQDQWV ,Q DOO WKHVH FRQIOLFWV D
UHIHUHQFH DOZD\V QHHGV WR EH PDGH WR WKH ODQG UHFRUGV 4D]L
   7KH ODQG GLVSXWH UHVROXWLRQ PHFKDQLVP LV YHU\
FRPSOLFDWHG DQG LW WDNHV YHU\ ORQJ WLPH WR UHVROYH WKHVH ODQG
GLVSXWHV 7KHVH PHFKDQLVPV DOVR EULQJ KLJK FRVWV DQG DUH WLPH
FRQVXPLQJ PDQ\ VWDNHKROGHUV KLJKOLJKWHG WKLV GXULQJ WKH
LQWHUYLHZV  0RUHRYHU DQ DQDO\VLV RI OHJDO DQG SROLF\ IUDPHZRUN
GRFXPHQWV VKRZV WKDW ODQG UHODWHG PDWWHUV DUH JRYHUQHG XQGHU
VHYHUDO SLHFHV RI OHJLVODWLRQ DQG WZR SDUDOOHO V\VWHPV RI
DGMXGLFDWLRQ XQGHU UHYHQXH FRXUWV DQG FLYLO FRXUWV 4D]L  
$OWKRXJKDQLQGHSHQGHQWMXGLFLDU\H[LVWVLQWKHFRXQWU\EXWVWLOOWKH
ODQG UHODWHG GLVSXWHV VXFK DV ERXQGDU\ ODQG UHYHQXH SDUWLWLRQ 
DUHDGMXGLFDWHGE\UHYHQXHFRXUWVZKLOHRWKHUPDWWHUVUHODWLQJ WR
ODQGWLWOHDQGRZQHUVKLSDUHDGMXGLFDWHGXSRQE\FLYLOFRXUWV
iii.

Data Organisation

/DQGUHFRUGGDWDLQFOXGHPDSVILHOGVNHWFKHVDQGUHJLVWHUVWKDW
QHHG WR EH NHSW XSWRGDWH IRU JHWWLQJ ODQG LQIRUPDWLRQ $OO WKHVH
ODQG UHFRUGV DUH FUHDWHG DQG PDLQWDLQHG DW ORFDO OHYHO YLOODJH
OHYHO LQWKHSUHVHQWV\VWHPZKHUHPRVWRIWKHZRUNLVFDUULHGRXW
E\ D 3DWZDUL DQG DOO WKH ODQG UHFRUGV DUH LQ KLV FXVWRG\ 7KH
H[SDQVLRQ RI 3DWZDULV MXULVGLFWLRQ GXH WR LQFUHDVLQJ VXEGLYLVLRQ
RI KROGLQJV DQG SRSXODWLRQ JURZWK PDNH WKH ODQG UHFRUGV
XQPDQDJHDEOH7KHUHDUHDUHDVZKHUHQRSURSHUODQGUHFRUGVDUH
SUHSDUHGGXHWRWKHDEVHQFHRIWKHFRQVROLGDWLRQODQGVHWWOHPHQW


Chapter 3: Exploratory Case Study in Pakistan

RSHUDWLRQVDQGDEVHQFHRIQHZWHFKQRORJLHV0RUHRYHULPSURSHU
PDLQWHQDQFH RI ODQG UHFRUG DQG LQWHUSRODWLRQ LOOHJDO FKDQJHV  LQ
WKHUHFRUGRIULJKWVOHDGWRDORWRIGLIILFXOWLHVDQGODQGGLVSXWHV
iv.

Technology Adaption

7KH SUHVHQW /$6 LV TXLWH ROG DQG QHZ WHFKQRORJLHV VKRXOG EH
DGDSWHGDVSHUQHZSRVVLELOLWLHVDQGGHPDQGVDWXVHUVHQG7KH
DGDSWLRQ RI ODWHVW WHFKQRORJ\ SOD\V D NH\ UROH LQ LPSURYLQJ WKH
HIILFLHQF\ RI /$6 )RU H[DPSOH UHFHQW DGYDQFHV LQ WKH VSDFH
EDVHG GDWD FDSWXULQJ WHFKQLTXHV LPDJLQJ  KDYH UHYROXWLRQLVHG
WKH ILHOG RI FDUWRJUDSK\ DQG PDSSLQJ ,Q WKLV ZD\ QHZ
SKRWRJUDPPHWULF RU UHPRWH VHQVLQJ  WHFKQLTXHV XVLQJ WKH DHULDO
SKRWRJUDSKVRUKLJKUHVROXWLRQVDWHOOLWHLPDJHVFDQEHXVHGDVDQ
DOWHUQDWLYH WR WKH WUDGLWLRQDO ODQG VXUYH\LQJ DSSURDFK IRU VSDWLDO
GDWDDFTXLVLWLRQ,QWKLVFDVHPRVWPHDVXUHPHQWVFDQEHGRQHLQ
WKH RIILFH $ 0 7XODGKDU E  7KH WHFKQRORJ\ DGDSWLRQ ZLOO
PDNHWKH/$6SURFHVVHVTXLFNHUWRSURYLGHIDVWVHUYLFHVDWXVHUV
HQGWRIXOILOODQGPDUNHWQHHGVIRUHQKDQFHGHFRQRP\JHQHUDWLRQ
DQG XVHUV VDWLVIDFWLRQ 7KH XVH RIKLVWRULFDOVDWHOOLWHLPDJHVFDQ
DOVR KHOS LQ UHVROYLQJ PDQ\ GLVSXWHV VXFK DV SDUFHO ERXQGDU\
GLVSXWH HWF :KLOH DGDSWLQJ WKH ODWHVW WHFKQRORJLHV LQ /$6 LW LV
QHFHVVDU\ WR XQGHUVWDQG WKH XVHUV QHHGV DQG UHTXLUHPHQWV VR
WKDWWKHFRVWRIWHFKQRORJ\DGDSWLRQPXVWEHUHGXFHGDVPXFKDV
SRVVLEOH
v.

Land Administration Processes

7KH FRPSOH[ V\VWHP RI PDLQWDLQLQJ ODQG UHFRUGV FXPEHUVRPH


EXVLQHVV SURFHVVHV KDUGWRGHFLSKHU ODQJXDJH RI ODQG UHFRUGV
DQG JHQHUDO DSDWK\ WRZDUGV WKH ULJKWV RI FLWL]HQV KDYH DGGHG WR
WKHP\VWLILFDWLRQRIODQGUHFRUGV7KLVFUHDWHVIHDULQWKHPLQGVRI
SHRSOH DERXW WKH SRWHQWLDO PDQLSXODWLRQ RI WKHVH ODQG UHFRUGV


Chapter 3: Exploratory Case Study in Pakistan

4D]L   7KH ODQG DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ SURFHVVHV LQ SUHVHQW /$6


DUHWRRROGDQGWLPHFRQVXPLQJ :RUOG%DQN )RUH[DPSOH
DFKDLQRIVL[VWHSVLVIROORZHGLQPXWDWLRQSURFHVVZKLFKUHTXLUHV
ZHHNVIRUSURFHVVLQJDVLQJOHPXWDWLRQ7KHVH/$SURFHVVHV
QHHGWREHLPSURYHGWRSURYLGHTXLFNVHUYLFHVWRXVHUVIRUIXOILOOLQJ
WKHGHPDQGVRIDVRFLHW\DQGODQGPDUNHW
vi.

Workflows for Land Administration Processes

:RUNIORZ PDQDJHPHQW DQG VHFXUHG GDWDEDVHV DUH WKH EDVLF


FRPSRQHQWV RI IXQFWLRQDO /$6V 6WDQGDUG RSHUDWLQJ LQVWUXFWLRQV
IRUHDFKVWHSRIZRUNIORZVKRXOGEHGHYHORSHGDQGLPSOHPHQWHG
DV D SDUW RI D WRWDO TXDOLW\ IUDPHZRUN ,Q WKLV ZD\ WKH ZRUNIORZV
VKRXOGEHFRQVLGHUHGZKLOHLPSURYLQJWKHTXDOLW\RI/$6DVLWZLOO
SURYLGH D OLQHRIDFWLRQ IRU ODQG DJHQF\ VWDII WR FDUU\ RXW WKHLU
WDVNV HIILFLHQWO\ 7KH LPSRUWDQW VXEHOHPHQWV RI ZRUNIORZV DUH
WKRVH FRQFHUQLQJ VWHSV UHTXLUHG IRU ZRUNIORZV SDUWLFLSDWLRQ RI
XVHUV LQ ODQG WUDQVDFWLRQ DPRXQW RI ODQG WUDQVDFWLRQ LQ D GD\
WLPHUHTXLUHGIRUUHJLVWUDWLRQDQGVXUYH\LQJDYDLODELOLW\RIVHUYLFHV
LQFDVHRIIUDXGFRQIOLFWVDQGWLPHO\DYDLODELOLW\RIGDWD
vii.

Financing & Data Costs

$YDLODELOLW\ RI IXQGV LV D OLPLWLQJ IDFWRU LQ DGGUHVVLQJ ODQG


DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ DQG ODQG PDQDJHPHQW LVVXHV DV REVHUYHG LQ WKLV
VWXG\ ZKLOH LQWHUYLHZLQJ WKH %25 RIILFLDOV )LQDQFLQJ LV DQ
LPSRUWDQW IDFWRU WKDW DIIHFWV WKH TXDOLW\ RI /$6 WR SURYLGH D
VXIILFLHQW SXVK WR UXQ WKH V\VWHP SURSHUO\ 7KHVH HOHPHQWV PXVW
EH EURXJKW LQWR FRQVLGHUDWLRQ ZKLOH LPSURYLQJ WKH TXDOLW\ RI
H[LVWLQJ/$6LQWKHFRXQWU\
viii.

Quality Standards



Chapter 3: Exploratory Case Study in Pakistan

7KH WUDGLWLRQDOH[LVWLQJ ODQG LQIRUPDWLRQ V\VWHP LV HQWLUHO\ EDVHG


RQ PDSV DQG ODQG UHFRUGV ZKLFK DUH LQ SDSHU IRUPDWV 7KHVH
UHFRUGV KDYH QR VXUYH\LQJ VWDQGDUGV DQG RIWHQ KDYH TXLWH RXW
GDWHG LQIRUPDWLRQ ZKLFK UHVWULFWV WKHLU RSHUDWLRQDO XVHIXOQHVV LQ
H[WUDFWLQJ SUHFLVH LQIRUPDWLRQ RQ ODQG SDUFHOV DQG RZQHUVKLS
4XDOLW\ VWDQGDUGV VKRXOG EH GHILQHG IRU WKHVH SURGXFWV DQG
SURFHVVHV VR WKDW OHVV HIIRUW ZRXOG EH UHTXLUHG ZKLOH WKH GDWD LV
DFFHVVHGVKDUHGDQGWUDQVIHUUHG
7KH DERYH QLQH HOHPHQWV DUH PRVW LPSRUWDQW RQHV $OO WKHVH
HOHPHQWV PXVW EH EURXJKW LQWR FRQVLGHUDWLRQ ZKLOH GHYHORSLQJ D
TXDOLW\ DVVHVVPHQW IUDPHZRUN IRU HYDOXDWLQJ DQG WKHQ LPSURYLQJ
WKH TXDOLW\ RI /$6 ZLWKLQ FRXQWU\V HQYLURQPHQW 7KHVH HOHPHQWV
VKRXOGEHYLHZHGIURPERWKWKHLQVWLWXWLRQDODQGWHFKQLFDODVSHFWV
RI /$6 VR WKDW DOO WKH SUREOHPV LVVXHV PXVW EH EURXJKW LQWR
FRQVLGHUDWLRQ ,Q WKLV ZD\ D WKRURXJK HYDOXDWLRQ LV IXUWKHU
UHTXLUHG WR ILQG RXW D UHODWLRQVKLS EHWZHHQ WKHVH HOHPHQWV DQG
WZR DVSHFWV RI /$6 7KLV FDQ EH GRQH E\ H[SODLQLQJ WKHVH
HOHPHQWVLQPRUHGHWDLOXVLQJWKHLUSDUDPHWHUVDQGLQGLFDWRUVIRU
DVVHVVLQJWKHTXDOLW\RIWKHV\VWHP





Explanatory Case Study in Pakistan



Chapter 4: Explanatory Case Study in Pakistan

4.1

Framework & Indicators for Evaluating the Quality of

LAS
,Q RUGHU WR XQGHUVWDQG DQG HYDOXDWH WKH H[LVWLQJ TXDOLW\ VLWXDWLRQ
RI /$6 LW LV LPSRUWDQW WR GHILQH WKH HOHPHQWV DQG LQGLFDWRUV WKDW
SOD\LPSRUWDQWUROHLQTXDOLW\DVVHVVPHQWDQGGHYHORSPHQWRIWKH
V\VWHP7KHPRVWLPSRUWDQWHOHPHQWVRI/$6TXDOLW\DVVHVVPHQW
IUDPHZRUNIRUWKHFDVHRI3DNLVWDQDUHLGHQWLILHGEXWRYHUDOOWKHUH
DUH RWKHU FRQWULEXWLQJ HOHPHQWV WKDW FDQ KHOS LQ H[SODLQLQJ WKHVH
HOHPHQWV LQ PXFK GHWDLO 7KHVH FRQWULEXWLQJ HOHPHQWV LQFOXGH
ODQG SROLF\ OHJDO IUDPHZRUN DYDLODELOLW\ RI D VWUDWHJLF SODQ
RUJDQLVDWLRQ DQG PDQGDWHV /,6 GHVLJQ WUDLQLQJ DQG KXPDQ
UHVRXUFH GHYHORSPHQW XVHUV QHHGV DQDO\VLV DQG TXDOLW\ RI
VHUYLFHVDQGSURGXFWVRIIHUHGE\/$6
)XUWKHUPRUH LW LV LPSRUWDQW WKDW DOO WKH HOHPHQWV PXVW EH
FRQVLGHUHGDWDOOWKHRUJDQLVDWLRQDOOHYHOVRI/$6WRKDYHLQGHSWK
LQYHVWLJDWLRQ RI WKH H[LVWLQJ VLWXDWLRQ 6WHXGOHU HW DO  
LGHQWLILHG WKH WKUHH OHYHOV RI DQ RUJDQLVDWLRQ LQFOXGLQJ WKH SROLF\
OHYHOWKHPDQDJHPHQWOHYHODQGWKHRSHUDWLRQDOOHYHO7KHUHIRUH
DOO WKH LQGLFDWRUVDQG YDULDEOHVIRUWKHHOHPHQWVRI/$6QHHGV WR
EH GHILQHG DQG DQDO\VHG DW DOO WKH WKUHH RUJDQLVDWLRQDO OHYHOV RI
/$6 WR DVVHVV WKH H[LVWLQJ TXDOLW\ VLWXDWLRQ RI WKH V\VWHP
7KHUHIRUH DOO WKHVH HOHPHQWV QHHG WR EH DQDO\VHG ZLWKLQ
RUJDQLVDWLRQDO S\UDPLG RI /$6 LQFOXGLQJ WKH SROLF\ OHYHO WKH
PDQDJHPHQW OHYHO DQG WKH RSHUDWLRQDO OHYHO WR JHW LQGHSWK
DQDO\VLV RI WKH H[LVWLQJ V\VWHP $OO WKHVH HOHPHQWV DUH IXUWKHU
FDWHJRULVHGHLWKHURQLQVWLWXWLRQDORUWHFKQLFDOVLGH
$ IUDPHZRUN IRU DVVHVVLQJ WKH TXDOLW\ RI /$6 WKURXJK DOO LWV
HOHPHQWV ZLWKLQ WKH RUJDQLVDWLRQDO OHYHOV RI /$6 LV VKRZQ LQ
)LJXUH


Chapter 4: Explanatory Case Study in Pakistan

LAS Quality Assessment Framework

Elements of Institutional
Aspect
Tenure security
/DQGSROLF\
/HJDOIUDPHZRUN
Land dispute resolution
6WUDWHJLFSODQV
2UJDQLVDWLRQ PDQGDWHV
+5GHYHORSPHQW
LA processes
&RRUGLQDWLRQ GDWDVKDULQJ
Financing & data costs

Organisational Levels

Policy Level
Management Level
Operation Level

Elements of Technical
Aspect
8VHUVQHHGV
Technology adaption
Data organisation
7UDLQLQJDQGGHYHORSPHQW
/,6GHVLJQ
Workflows for LA processes
Quality standards
6HUYLFHV SURGXFWV

Quality Assessment


)LJXUH)UDPHZRUNIRUDVVHVVLQJWKHTXDOLW\RI/$6
7KH PRVW LPSRUWDQW HOHPHQWV DUH ZULWWHQ LQ LWDOLF ZKLOH WKH
FRQWULEXWLQJHOHPHQWVDUHZULWWHQLQQRUPDOIRQW7KHLQGLFDWRUVIRU
DQDO\VLQJ WKH TXDOLW\ RI WKHVH HOHPHQWV IRU WKH H[LVWLQJ /$6 DUH
GLVFXVVHG LQ WKH IROORZLQJ VXEVHFWLRQ 7KH LPSRUWDQFH RI WKHVH
TXDOLW\LQGLFDWRUVZLWKUHVSHFWWRWKHLUHOHPHQWVDVSHULQVWLWXWLRQDO
DQGWHFKQLFDODVSHFWVLVRXWOLQHGEHORZ
4.1.1 Quality Indicators for Institutional Aspects Elements
i.

Tenure Security

7HQXUHVHFXULW\LVDVVXUHGE\DPXOWLWXGHRIIDFWRUV,QDGGLWLRQWR
WKHRIILFLDOGRFXPHQWVWKHVRFLDOFDSLWDOFRPPXQLW\UHODWLRQVDQG
RQHVSRVLWLRQRISRZHULQWKHORFDOFRQWH[WDGGWRWKHDXWKHQWLFLW\
RI FODLPV WR ODQG OHDGLQJ WR WHQXUH VHFXULW\ 4D]L  
5HGXFWLRQLQODQGGLVSXWHVLVRQHRIWKHLQGLFDWRUVWKDWUHSUHVHQW
WKH OHYHO RI WHQXUH VHFXULW\ DV HYDOXDWHG E\ WKH :RUOG %DQN LQ
PDQ\ODQGPDQDJHPHQWSURMHFWV/DQGLVRQHRIWKHPDLQVRXUFHV
RI FROODWHUDO IRU REWDLQLQJ FUHGLW IURP HVWDEOLVKHG ILQDQFLDO


Chapter 4: Explanatory Case Study in Pakistan

LQVWLWXWLRQV VXFK DV EDQNV DV ZHOO DV IURP LQIRUPDO SURYLGHUV RI
FUHGLW $'% ,QWKLVUHJDUGHTXDODFFHVVWRODQGRIILFHVIRU
ODQGRZQHUVSOD\VDQLPSRUWDQWUROHWRJHWWKHLUODQGUHODWHGGDWD
WR DSSO\ IRU FUHGLW DQG LQYHVWPHQW LQ WKHLU ODQG 7KH ODQG PDUNHW
FDQRSHUDWHHIIHFWLYHO\DQGHIILFLHQWO\LIWHQXUHVHFXULW\LVDVVXUHG
,Q WKLV ZD\ DQ LQFUHDVHG LQYHVWPHQW LQ WKH ODQG VHFWRU LV RQH RI
WKHPRVWLPSRUWDQWLQGLFDWRUVWRH[SODLQWKHOHYHORIWHQXUHVHFXULW\
ZLWKLQ D VRFLHW\ )XUWKHUPRUH WHQXUH VHFXULW\ LV EDVHG RQ WKH
LQWHUDFWLRQRIYDULRXVVRFLDODGPLQLVWUDWLYHDQGOHJDOIDFWRUV7KH
LQGLFDWRUV IRU WHQXUH VHFXULW\ LQFOXGH reduction in land disputes,
equal access to land offices for stakeholders, increased land
values, and increased access to formal credits 0LWFKHOO HW DO
  7KHVH LQGLFDWRUV FDQ EH XVHG WR HYDOXDWH WKH SUHVHQW
VLWXDWLRQRIWHQXUHVHFXULW\LQWKHH[LVWLQJV\VWHP
ii.

Land Policy

/DQG SROLF\ LV D SDUW RI WKH QDWLRQDO SROLF\ RI D FRXQWU\ 6XFK D
SROLF\ JHQHUDOO\ UHODWHV WR HFRQRPLF GHYHORSPHQW VRFLDO MXVWLFH
DQG HTXLW\ DQG SROLWLFDO VWDELOLW\ 81),*   $ ODQG SROLF\
PXVW EH GHILQHG DV WKH ZD\ WKH JRYHUQPHQW LQWHQGV WR GHDO ZLWK
ODQGUHODWHG DFWLYLWLHV VXFK DV ODQG PDQDJHPHQW ODQG UHIRUP
ODQG UHJLVWUDWLRQ UROH RI /$6 LQ VXSSRUWLQJ ODQG PDUNHW HWF
3RVVLEOH LQGLFDWRUV WR DVVHVV WKH TXDOLW\ RI D ODQG SROLF\ LQFOXGH
types of formally and informally recognised rights, percentage of
the population covered by the formal system, and characteristics
of the population without formal rights %XUQV HW DO  
6LPLODUO\ WKH H[LVWHQFH RI ODQG SROLF\ WR GHILQH DFFHVV WR ODQG
ULJKWVDQGODQGXVHLVDQLPSRUWDQWIDFWRUIRULPSURYLQJWKHTXDOLW\
RI WKH /$6 7KH DQDO\VLV RI WKHVH LQGLFDWRUV FDQ KHOS WR SUHVHQW



Chapter 4: Explanatory Case Study in Pakistan

WKHTXDOLW\VLWXDWLRQRIDODQGSROLF\DQGSURYLGHDOLQHRIDFWLRQIRU
IXUWKHULPSURYHPHQWV
iii.

Legal Framework

$ OHJDO IUDPHZRUN WKDW OHJLWLPLVHV JRYHUQPHQWDO DFWLRQV FDQ


SURYLGH D OHJDOO\ PHDQLQJIXO /$6 DQG HQKDQFHV LWV XVH LQ D
VRFLHW\ (QHPDUN DQG YDQ GHU 0ROHQ   $ OHJDO IUDPHZRUN
PXVWEHGHILQHGWRVROYHODQGUHODWHGPDWWHUVDQGODQGGLVSXWHVLQ
DSHDFHIXOZD\7KHUROHRIDOHJDOIUDPHZRUNLVYHU\LPSRUWDQWIRU
ODQG ULJKWV ODQGXVH DQG ODQG YDOXDWLRQ LQ ODQG DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ
V\VWHPV7KHH[LVWHQFHRIDQDGHTXDWHOHJDOIUDPHZRUNIRUODQG
XVH SODQQLQJ DQG ODQGXVH ULJKWV ZLOO HQKDQFH WKH DELOLW\ DQG
FDSDFLW\ RI D /$6 WR VHUYH WKH QHHGV RI D VRFLHW\ IURP ERWK WKH
JRYHUQPHQW DQG WKH FLWL]HQ SHUVSHFWLYH 81(&(   ,I WKH
UHIHUHQFHV WR OHJLVODWLRQ JRYHUQLQJ ODQG DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ DUH
VFDWWHUHG DPRQJ PDQ\ ODZV DQG DUH RXWGDWHG WKHQ WKH SURSHU
LPSOHPHQWDWLRQ DQG HQIRUFHPHQW RI ODZV DUH GLIILFXOW +HQFH WKH
DQDO\VLVRIWKHOHJDOIUDPHZRUNLQUHODWLRQWRland rights, land-use,
and land valuationLVDYHU\LPSRUWDQWLQGLFDWRUIRUDVVHVVLQJWKH
TXDOLW\RI/$6
iv.

Land Dispute Resolution

/DQG FRQIOLFWV DUH D ZLGHVSUHDG SKHQRPHQRQ WKDW FDQ RFFXU DW


DQ\WLPHRUSODFH%RWKQHHGDQGJUHHGFDQHTXDOO\OHDGWRWKHP
DQGVFDUFLW\DQGLQFUHDVHVLQODQGYDOXHFDQPDNHWKLQJVZRUVH
/DQG FRQIOLFWV RFFXU LQ PDQ\ IRUPV 7KHUH DUH FRQIOLFWV EHWZHHQ
VLQJOH SDUWLHV DV IRU LQVWDQFH ERXQGDU\ FRQIOLFWV EHWZHHQ
QHLJKERXUV  LQKHULWDQFH FRQIOLFWV EHWZHHQ VLEOLQJV DQG GLVSXWHV
RYHU WKH XVH RI D JLYHQ SLHFH RI ODQG $OO WKH ODQG FRQIOLFWV QR
PDWWHU KRZ SHDFHIXO RU YLROHQW WKH\ DUH SURGXFH QHJDWLYH
FRQVHTXHQFHV IRU LQGLYLGXDOV DV ZHOO DV IRU WKH HQWLUH VRFLHW\


Chapter 4: Explanatory Case Study in Pakistan

:HKUPDQQ   7KH ODQG GLVSXWH UHVROXWLRQ PHFKDQLVP LV D


YHU\LPSRUWDQWLQGLFDWRULQWKLVUHJDUGWRDVVHVVWKHTXDOLW\RI/$6
,W LV RIWHQ QHFHVVDU\ WR GHVLJQ HIIHFWLYH EXW IDVW MXULGLFDO DQG
WHFKQLFDOSURFHGXUHVWRGRFXPHQWWKHULJKWVLQODQGDQGWRUHVROYH
DQ\ VXEVHTXHQW FRQIOLFWV WKDW RFFXU 7KLV FDQ EH PHDVXUHG E\
JHWWLQJ LQIRUPDWLRQ DERXW WKH level of land disputes, means for
conflict resolution, procedures for land dispute resolution, and
time taken to resolve land disputes %XUQVHWDO 
v.

Strategic Plans

6WUDWHJLF SODQV UHTXLUH H[FOXVLYH OLQNV ZLWK FKDQJLQJ YLHZV RI


*HR,&7 DQG XVHUV UHTXLUHPHQWV 6WUDWHJLFSODQVVKRXOGEHNHSW
LQ PLQG ZKLOH PDNLQJ QHFHVVDU\ FKDQJHV LQ D V\VWHP WR DGRSW
QHZ WHFKQRORJLHV 6WUDWHJLHV PXVW EH DSSURSULDWH WR UHDFK SUH
GHILQHGJRDOVDQGREMHFWLYHV7KHTXDOLW\RI/$6ODUJHO\GHSHQGV
RQ WZR VWUDWHJLF HOHPHQWV 7KH ILUVW HOHPHQW LV WKH DQDO\VLV RI
XVHUVUHTXLUHPHQWVLQFOXGLQJWKHLUUROHVDQGWKHVHFRQGHOHPHQW
LV WKH DGRSWLRQ RI QHZ WHFKQRORJ\ IRU /$ SURFHVVHVVHUYLFHV WR
DFKLHYH TXDOLW\ RI WKH SURGXFWV WKDW DUH HDVLO\ DFFHVVLEOH DQG
UHOLDEOH IRU ODQG GDWD VXSSO\ 7KH SUHVHQW ,QIRUPDWLRQ
&RPPXQLFDWLRQ 7HFKQRORJ\ ,&7  GHYHORSPHQWV PXVW EH
UHYLHZHG DQG WKHLU VXLWDELOLW\ PXVW EH DVVHVVHG WR DFKLHYH WKH
REMHFWLYHVRIWKH,&7VWUDWHJ\,QGLFDWRUVIRUDVVHVVLQJWKHTXDOLW\
RIVWUDWHJLFSODQVLQ/$6LQFOXGHthe analysis of existing strategic
and development plans for ICT adoption, analysis of strategic
targets, and reviews of objectives and strategies IRU DFKLHYLQJ
WKRVHWDUJHWV
vi.

Organisation and Mandates

7KHVWUXFWXUHRIDQRUJDQLVDWLRQIRUODQGUHFRUGPDQDJHPHQWDQG
LWVPDQGDWHSOD\VDQLPSRUWDQWUROHWRLPSURYHWKHTXDOLW\RI/$6


Chapter 4: Explanatory Case Study in Pakistan

&OHDU PDQGDWHV ZLWKLQ WKH SXEOLF DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ HQKDQFH


HIIHFWLYHQHVV RI DQ RUJDQLVDWLRQ 7KHUH DUH FRXQWULHV ZKHUH
YDULRXV RUJDQLVDWLRQV KDYH D PDQGDWH RQ ODQG UHODWHG LVVXHV
*RYHUQPHQWVVKRXOGWDNHLQWRDFFRXQWWKHRSHUDWLRQDODVSHFWVRI
WKHVHPDQGDWHV,WPDNHVQRVHQVHWRLPSRVHDPDQGDWHWKDWLV
H[SHFWHG QRW WR EH ZRUNDEOH DQG PDQDJHDEOH 7KH DELOLW\ DQG
FDSDFLW\RIDQ\/$6UHOLHVRQFOHDUPDQGDWHV*RRGSHUIRUPDQFH
FDQ QHYHU EH JXDUDQWHHG ZLWKRXW D FOHDU DQG PDQDJHDEOH
PDQGDWH (QHPDUN DQG YDQ GHU 0ROHQ   7KH VWUXFWXUH RI
ODQGDGPLQLVWUDWLRQRUJDQLVDWLRQVDQGDOORFDWLRQRIWKHLUPDQGDWHV
WRZDUGVDVSHFLILFOHYHORIVKDULQJLQIRUPDWLRQFDQKHOSWRSURPRWH
FRRUGLQDWLRQ

DPRQJ

WKH

PDQGDWHG

RUJDQLVDWLRQV

7KH

organisational structure of a land administration agency DQG WKH


analysis of procedures for mandates allocationDUHWKHLQGLFDWRUV
IRUDVVHVVLQJWKHTXDOLW\RIDQ\/$6
vii.

Human Resource Development

/DQG $GPLQLVWUDWLRQ LV PRUH DERXW SHRSOH  IURP SROLWLFLDQV


VHQLRU SURIHVVLRQDOV DQG PDQDJHUV PLGGOH PDQDJHUV DQG
DGPLQLVWUDWRUV WR RIILFH DQG ILHOG SHUVRQQHO 7KHUHIRUH WKH
capacity assessment DQG development in terms of human
resourcesLVFRQVLGHUHGWREHWKHPRVWFULWLFDO (QHPDUNDQGYDQ
GHU 0ROHQ   7KH DQDO\VLV RI FDSDFLW\ QHHGV LQ WHUPV RI
KXPDQUHVRXUFHGHYHORSPHQWLVLPSRUWDQWWRDVVHVVWKHDELOLW\RI
WKHODQGDGPLQLVWUDWLRQV\VWHPLQWRWDO7KLVFDQIXUWKHUIDFLOLWDWHWR
LGHQWLI\ WKH JDS EHWZHHQ WKH H[LVWLQJ KXPDQ UHVRXUFH FDSDFLW\
DQG WKH FDSDFLW\ QHHGHG IRU XQGHUWDNLQJ DOO ODQG DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ
WDVNVLQWKHVKRUWPHGLXPDQGORQJWHUP
viii.

Land Administration Processes



Chapter 4: Explanatory Case Study in Pakistan

/DQGDGPLQLVWUDWLRQLVWKHSURFHVVRIUHJXODWLQJODQGDQGSURSHUW\
GHYHORSPHQWWKHXVHDQGFRQVHUYDWLRQRIWKHODQGWKHJDWKHULQJ
RIUHYHQXHVIURPODQGWKURXJKVDOHVOHDVLQJDQGWD[DWLRQDQGWKH
UHVROYLQJ RI FRQIOLFWV FRQFHUQLQJ WKH RZQHUVKLS DQG XVH RI ODQG
'DOH DQG 0F/DXJKOLQ   /DQG $GPLQLVWUDWLRQ /$ 
SURFHVVHV SOD\ DNH\ UROH IRU LPSURYLQJ WKH TXDOLW\ RI /$6 /DQG
DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ SURFHVVHV VKRXOG EH FOHDU DQG VLPSOH WR
XQGHUVWDQG E\ ODQG DGPLQLVWUDWRUV DQG VWDNHKROGHUV 0RUH
FRPSOH[ SURFHGXUHV DQG UHJXODWLRQV FDQ VORZ GRZQ WKH V\VWHP
DQG GLVFRXUDJH WKHLU XVH LQ VRFLHW\ 7KH VHFXULW\ DQG IDLUQHVV RI
/$ SURFHVVHV DUH DOVR UHTXLUHG IRU WKH RSHUDWLRQ RI DQ HIIHFWLYH
ODQGPDUNHW,QGLFDWRUVWRDVVHVVWKHTXDOLW\RI/$SURFHVVHVDUH
clarity and simplicity, reliability, security, and timeliness
ix.

Coordination and Data Sharing

7KH JUHDWHVW EHQHILWV RI /$6 FDQ RQO\ EH UHDOLVHG LI WKLV EDVLF
LQIRUPDWLRQ V\VWHP LV XVHG DQG FRRUGLQDWHG ZLWK RWKHU W\SHV RI
ODQG LQIRUPDWLRQ 7KLV DOZD\V LQYROYHV FRRUGLQDWLRQ ZLWK RWKHU
SXEOLF DQG SULYDWH RUJDQLVDWLRQV ZKLFK DUH UHVSRQVLEOH IRU WKLV
W\SH RI GDWD ),*   'DWD VKDULQJ DQG FRRUGLQDWLRQ DPRQJ
GLIIHUHQW RUJDQLVDWLRQV IRU DFFHVVLQJ ODQG UHODWHG GDWD DUH
LPSRUWDQW LQGLFDWRUV IRU TXDOLW\ DVVHVVPHQW RI /$6 7KH RWKHU
HVVHQWLDO

LQGLFDWRUV

arrangements,

DUH

co-operation

institutional
and

and

organisational

communication

between

institutions, and involvement of the private sector 6WHXGOHUHWDO


  7KHVH LQGLFDWRUV FDQ KHOS WRDVVHVV WKH SUHVHQW VWDWXV RI
FRRUGLQDWLRQ DQG GDWD VKDULQJ DPRQJ WKH GLIIHUHQW RUJDQLVDWLRQV
7KLV DVVHVVPHQW ZLOO JXLGH WRZDUGV WKH QHFHVVDU\ DUUDQJHPHQWV
WRLPSURYHWKHTXDOLW\RI/$6
x.

Financing and Data Costs




Chapter 4: Explanatory Case Study in Pakistan

$YDLODELOLW\ RI IXQGV LV D OLPLWLQJ IDFWRU LQ DGGUHVVLQJ ODQG


DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ DQG ODQG PDQDJHPHQW LVVXHV )LQDQFLQJ LV DQ
LPSRUWDQW IDFWRU WKDW DIIHFWV WKH TXDOLW\ RI /$6 WR SURYLGH D
VXIILFLHQWSXVKWRUXQWKHV\VWHPSURSHUO\7KHVHHOHPHQWVVKRXOG
EHEURXJKWLQWRFRQVLGHUDWLRQ ZKLOH LPSURYLQJ WKHTXDOLW\RI/$6
:LWK VRXQG IRXQGDWLRQV DQG D UHOLDEOH DGPLQLVWUDWLYH V\VWHP D
TXDOLW\ V\VWHP WKHQ UHOLHV RQ FRVW HIIHFWLYH RSHUDWLRQV DQG
UHDVRQDEOH OHYHOV RI IRUPDO PDUNHW SDUWLFLSDWLRQ %XUQV DQG
'DOU\PSOH   ,Q RUGHU WR HYDOXDWH WKH ILQDQFLQJ DQG GDWD
FRVWV HOHPHQW RI /$6 WKH LPSRUWDQW LQGLFDWRUV DUH information
about funding authority, foreign (external) funding, tax collection
and fee structure
$VXPPDU\RIDOOWKHLQGLFDWRUVDQGYDULDEOHVIRUWKHHOHPHQWV RI
LQVWLWXWLRQDODVSHFWLVSUHVHQWHGLQ7DEOH
7DEOH,QGLFDWRUV YDULDEOHVIRULQVWLWXWLRQDODVSHFW
Elements

Indicators and Variables


x 5HGXFWLRQLQODQGGLVSXWHV
x (TXDODFFHVVWRODQGRIILFHV
x ,QFUHDVHGODQGYDOXHV

Tenure security

x ,QFUHDVHGDFFHVVWRIRUPDOFUHGLWV
x 2ZQHUVSHUFHSWLRQDERXWWHQXUH
VHFXULW\
x 5ROHRI,VODPLFWHQXUHV\VWHP
x 7\SHVRIIRUPDOO\DQGLQIRUPDOO\
UHFRJQLVHGULJKWV

/DQGSROLF\

x 3HUFHQWDJHRIWKHSURYLQFH 
SRSXODWLRQFRYHUHGE\IRUPDOV\VWHP
x &KDUDFWHULVWLFVRISRSXODWLRQZLWKRXW
IRUPDOULJKWV
x ([LVWHQFHRIODQGSROLF\


Chapter 4: Explanatory Case Study in Pakistan

x $FFHVVWRODQGULJKWV
x /DQGXVHSROLF\
x /HJDOIUDPHZRUNIRU
x Land rights,
x Land use, and
/HJDOIUDPHZRUN

x

Land value

x 5HJLVWUDWLRQPHFKDQLVP
x /HJLWLPLVDWLRQRI*RYWUHJXODWLRQV
x /HJLVODWLRQJRYHUQLQJ/$
x /HYHORIGLVSXWHVRYHUODQG
Land dispute
resolution

x 7\SHVRIODQGGLVSXWHV
x 7LPHWDNHQWRUHVROYHODQGGLVSXWH
x 0HDQVIRUFRQIOLFWUHVROXWLRQ
x 3URFHGXUHVIRUODQGGLVSXWHUHVROXWLRQ
x 6WUDWHJLFWDUJHWV
x 5HYLHZRIREMHFWLYHV VWUDWHJLHV

6WUDWHJLFSODQV

x 6WUDWHJLF GHYHORSPHQWSODQVIRU,7
DGRSWLRQ
x $QDO\VLVRIXVHUVQHHG WKHLUUROH
x ([LVWHQFHRIODQGERDUG

2UJDQLVDWLRQDQG
PDQGDWHV

x 2UJDQLVDWLRQVWUXFWXUH
x 0DQGDWHVDOORFDWLRQ
x &XVWRPHUUHODWLRQ
x +XPDQUHVRXUFHFDSDFLW\

+XPDQUHVRXUFH
GHYHORSPHQW

Land administration
processes

x +XPDQUHVRXUFHGHYHORSPHQWIDFLOLWLHV
x (IIRUWVWDNHQIRUKXPDQUHVRXUFH
GHYHORSPHQW
x /LVWRISURFHVVHV
x &ODULW\ VLPSOLFLW\
x 5HOLDELOLW\


Chapter 4: Explanatory Case Study in Pakistan

x 6HFXULW\
x 7LPHOLQHVV
x /DQGUHJLVWUDWLRQSURFHVV
x /DQGVXUYH\LQJSURFHVV

&RRUGLQDWLRQDQG
GDWDVKDULQJ

x ,QVWLWXWLRQDO RUJDQLVDWLRQDO
DUUDQJHPHQWV
x &RRSHUDWLRQ FRPPXQLFDWLRQEHWZHHQ
LQVWLWXWLRQV
x 3ULYDWHVHFWRULQYROYHPHQW
x )XQGLQJDXWKRULW\

Financing and data


costs

x )RUHLJQ H[WHUQDO IXQGLQJ


x 7D[FROOHFWLRQ
x )HHVWUXFWXUH
x )LQDQFLDOUHVRXUFHV

4.1.2 Quality Indicators for Technical Aspects Elements


i.

Users Needs

/DQG DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ V\VWHPV KDYH WR RSHUDWH ZLWKLQ D VRFLDO DQG


SROLWLFDO HQYLURQPHQW 7KH\ VKRXOG UHFRJQLVH WKH XVHUV QHHGV
EHFDXVH GLIIHUHQW XVHUV PD\ QHHG GLIIHUHQW IRUPV RI SURGXFWV RU
VHUYLFHV%HIRUHDOWHULQJDQH[LVWLQJV\VWHPRULQWURGXFLQJDQHZ
RQHLWLVHVVHQWLDOWKDWWKHUHTXLUHPHQWVRIWKRVHZKRZLOOXVHRU
EHQHILWIURPWKHV\VWHPVKRXOGEHFOHDUO\LGHQWLILHG$ZLGHYDULHW\
RI XVHU FRPPXQLWLHV QHHG WR EH FRQVXOWHG LQ WKLV UHJDUG WR
XQGHUVWDQG WKHLU UHTXLUHPHQWV DQG WKH FRQVWUDLQWV XQGHU ZKLFK
WKH\FXUUHQWO\RSHUDWH 81(&( :KLOHDGRSWLQJWKHODWHVW
WHFKQRORJLHV LQ /$6 LW LV QHFHVVDU\ WR understand users needs
and requirementsVRWKDWWKHFRVWRIWHFKQRORJ\DGRSWLRQFDQEH
UHGXFHG DV PXFK DV SRVVLEOH ,Q RUGHU WR DQDO\VH WKH XVHUV
QHHGV LQ PRUH GHWDLO D list of users LQ ERWK WKH private and


Chapter 4: Explanatory Case Study in Pakistan

government sectors PXVW EH GHILQHG WR LQFRUSRUDWH WKHLU QHHGV


ZKLOHDGRSWLQJWKHODWHVWWHFKQRORJLHVLQDV\VWHP
ii.

Technology Adaption

$GRSWLQJ WKH ODWHVW WHFKQRORJ\ SOD\V D NH\ UROH LQ TXDOLW\


LPSURYHPHQWRI/$6 0.DODQWDULHWDO 5HFHQWDGYDQFHV
LQVSDFHEDVHGGDWDFDSWXULQJWHFKQLTXHVKDYHEURXJKWFKDQJHV
LQWKHILHOGRIFDUWRJUDSK\DQGPDSSLQJ&DGDVWUDOLQIRUPDWLRQFDQ
EH FROOHFWHG DQG FDGDVWUDO SDUFHO ERXQGDULHV FDQ EH VXUYH\HG
ZLWKOHVVODERXUWLPHDQGFRVWDVFRPSDUHGWRWKHROGIDVKLRQHG
ILHOGVXUYH\LQJWHFKQLTXHE\LQWHJUDWLQJJOREDOSRVLWLRQLQJV\VWHP
GDWD UHPRWH VHQVLQJ LPDJHU\ DQG H[LVWLQJ FDGDVWUDO PDSV
WKURXJKSDUWLFLSDWRU\JHRJUDSKLFLQIRUPDWLRQV\VWHPWHFKQLTXH $OL
HW DO   7HFKQRORJ\ DGRSWLRQ PDNHV SURFHVVHV TXLFN DQG
SURYLGHVIDVWVHUYLFHVDWWKHXVHUVHQGWRDFFRPSOLVKODQGPDUNHW
QHHGV IRU DQ HQKDQFHG HFRQRP\ DQG XVHUV VDWLVIDFWLRQ 7KH
DELOLW\ RI ODQG DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ RUJDQLVDWLRQV WR PHHW WKHLU VSHFLILF
IXQFWLRQVLQDVRFLHW\UHTXLUHVDSSURSULDWHPDQDJHPHQWRI,&7LQ
D ODQG DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ RUJDQLVDWLRQ 2UJDQLVDWLRQV WKDW DSSO\ ,&7
JUDGXDOO\  IURP D VLPSOH WR D PRUH FRPSOH[ DSSURDFK  VKRXOG
KDYH D VRXQG ,&7 SROLF\ RWKHUZLVH LW PD\ OHDG WR VHULRXV
SUREOHPV DW D ODWHU VWDJH (QHPDUN DQG YDQ GHU 0ROHQ  
,QGLFDWRUV WR DVVHVV WKH FDSDELOLW\ RI /$6 IRU DGRSWLQJ QHZ
WHFKQRORJ\ LQFOXGH analysis of present GIS status, digital data
availability, hardware and software, and capacity buildingWRDGRSW
WHFKQRORJ\
iii.

Data Organisation

/DQG UHFRUG GDWD LQFOXGH PDSV ILHOG VNHWFKHV DQG UHJLVWHUV WKDW
QHHGWREHNHSWXSWRGDWHIRUJHWWLQJODQGLQIRUPDWLRQLQDWLPHO\
IDVKLRQ 7KLV XSGDWHG ODQG LQIRUPDWLRQ SOD\V DQ LPSRUWDQW UROH LQ


Chapter 4: Explanatory Case Study in Pakistan

ODQG PDUNHW GHYHORSPHQW ODQG YDOXDWLRQ ODQG WD[DWLRQ DQG ODQG


GLVSXWH UHVROXWLRQ $ FOHDU GHILQLWLRQ RI WKH GDWD W\SH DQG RYHUDOO
PDQDJHPHQWUHVSRQVLELOLW\IRUDFTXLULQJVSDWLDODQGDWWULEXWHGDWD
GDWD DFFHVV GDWD VKDULQJ EHWZHHQ VWDNHKROGHUV GDWD
FXVWRGLDQVKLS DQG SULYDF\ DUH LPSRUWDQW FRPSRQHQWV LQ WKLV
UHJDUG $'%%HQQHWWHWDO 'DWDVKDULQJDPRQJWKH
GDWDXVHUDJHQFLHVLVDOVRDQLPSRUWDQWFRPSRQHQWWKDWVKRXOGEH
NHSW LQ PLQG IRU HIIHFWLYH RSHUDWLRQ RI /$6 7KH LPSRUWDQW
LQGLFDWRUV LQ WKLV FRQWH[W LQFOXGH data

coverage

and

completeness, protection, updating, availability DQG data sharing


iv.

Training and Development

/DQG DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ V\VWHPV FDQQRW EH GHYHORSHG DQG


VXVWDLQDEO\ PDLQWDLQHG ZLWKRXW DQ DGHTXDWH DQG VRXQG
HGXFDWLRQDO EDVH 6XIILFLHQW DQG DGHTXDWH HGXFDWLRQDO UHVRXUFHV
DUHHVVHQWLDOWRSURYLGHWKHSURIHVVLRQDOFRPSHWHQFHUHTXLUHGIRU
GHYHORSLQJ DQG PDLQWDLQLQJ DSSURSULDWH /$6V (QHPDUN DQG
:LOOLDPVRQ   7KH DQDO\VLV RI WKLV HOHPHQW FDQ IXUWKHU
IDFLOLWDWH WR KLJKOLJKW WKH JDS EHWZHHQ WKH H[LVWLQJ HGXFDWLRQDO
IDFLOLWLHV IRU ODQG DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ SURIHVVLRQDOV DQG WKH UHTXLUHG
WUDLQLQJ DQG GHYHORSPHQW QHHGV WR RYHUFRPH WKH VKRUWFRPLQJV
IRU /$6 TXDOLW\ LPSURYHPHQW 7KH TXDOLW\ LQGLFDWRUV RQ WKLV VLGH
LQFOXGHV WKH analysis of existing facilities for education and
training, collaboration of land agency with educational and
research institutions
v.

Land Information System Design

$ ODQG LQIRUPDWLRQ V\VWHP FRQVLVWV RI D QXPEHU RI EURDG


GLPHQVLRQV VXFK DV WHFKQRORJLFDO GLPHQVLRQ RUJDQLVLQJ
SURFHGXUHV DQG DQ LQVWLWXWLRQDO HOHPHQW ZKLFK LQFOXGHV D
FRUSRUDWHVWUXFWXUH,WDOVRLQFOXGHVDSODWIRUPRUDUHVRXUFHEDVH


Chapter 4: Explanatory Case Study in Pakistan

RQ ZKLFK GDWD DUH VWRUHG DQG IURP ZKLFK PHDQLQJIXO ODQG
LQIRUPDWLRQ FDQ EH SURGXFHG DQDO\VHG DQG GLVVHPLQDWHG
%HQQHWW HW DO  81(&$  ,DQ 3 :LOOLDPVRQ HW DO
  7KH LQIRUPDWLRQ V\VWHP GHVLJQ FRQFHSWV IRU /$6 LQ
GDWDSURFHVVPRGHOOLQJDUHWKHPRVWSUHYDLOLQJHOHPHQWVLQWHUPV
RI RUJDQLVDWLRQDO VWUXFWXUH 7KHVH FRQFHSWV UHODWH WR KRZ WKH
TXDOLW\GDWDDUHJDWKHUHGSURFHVVHGVWRUHGDQGGLVVHPLQDWHGDW
DIIRUGDEOH FRVW ZLWK PDQ\ GDWD DFFHVV SRLQWV VXFK DV D IURQW
GHVN RU LQWHUQHW 6\VWHP GHVLJQ FRQFHSWV VKRXOG EH WDNHQ LQWR
FRQVLGHUDWLRQ ZKLOH LPSURYLQJ WKH TXDOLW\ RI /$6 7KH PRVW
LPSRUWDQWLQGLFDWRUVLQWKLVFRQWH[WLQFOXGH structural definition of
the system, consultation with foreign (external) agencies for
improving the system structure, and consistency with new
developments in technology
vi.

Workflows for Land Administration Processes

:RUNIORZ PDQDJHPHQW DQG VHFXUHG GDWDEDVHV DUH WKH EDVLF


FRPSRQHQWV RI IXQFWLRQDO ODQG DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ V\VWHPV *RRG
FRQWURORQWKHSHUIRUPDQFHRIDODQGDGPLQLVWUDWLRQRUJDQLVDWLRQLV
LPSRVVLEOHZLWKRXWDFOHDUGHVFULSWLRQRIWKHZRUNIORZVLQWHUPVRI
DFWLYLWLHV UHTXLUHPHQWV DQG UHVSRQVLELOLWLHV 7KLV LV WKH EDVLV IRU
PRQLWRULQJ DQG DFFRXQWDELOLW\ $W WKH VDPH WLPH D FOHDU
GHVFULSWLRQ RIIHUV RSSRUWXQLWLHV WR LGHQWLI\ DQG DEROLVK
LQHIILFLHQFLHV:LWKRXWDSSURSULDWHDWWHQWLRQWRZRUNIORZVDQGWKH
VWUXFWXUHV LQ ZKLFK WKH\ KDYH WR RSHUDWH WKH DELOLW\ RI ODQG
DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ RUJDQLVDWLRQV IRU JRRG SHUIRUPDQFH LV TXHVWLRQHG
(QHPDUN DQG YDQ GHU 0ROHQ   7KH VWDQGDUG RSHUDWLQJ
LQVWUXFWLRQV IRU HDFK VWHS RI WKH ZRUNIORZ VKRXOG EH GHYHORSHG
DQG LPSOHPHQWHG DV D SDUW RI WKH WRWDO TXDOLW\ LQ /$6 7KH
LPSRUWDQWTXDOLW\LQGLFDWRUVLQWKLVUHJDUGLQFOXGHinformation flow


Chapter 4: Explanatory Case Study in Pakistan

analysis within/across the organisation, performance monitoring


DQG good management practices
vii.

Quality Standards

7KH GDWD TXDOLW\ KDV DQ LPSDFW RQ GHFLVLRQPDNLQJ RI DQ
RUJDQLVDWLRQ 7KLV LPSDFW GHSHQGV RQ WKH UROH RI WKH JHRJUDSKLF
LQIRUPDWLRQV\VWHP *,6 LQWKHRUJDQLVDWLRQIRUWH[WXDODVZHOODV
JUDSKLFDO GDWD FROOHFWLRQ DQG PDQDJHPHQW 7KH UHTXLUHPHQWV IRU
GDWD TXDOLW\ DUH GLIIHUHQW LQ GLIIHUHQW VFHQDULRV GHSHQGLQJ RQ
ZKHWKHU *,6 LV XVHG DW RSHUDWLRQDO OHYHO PDQDJHPHQW OHYHO RU
H[HFXWLYH OHYHO 0lNHOl   6LQFH LQ GHYHORSLQJ D VSDWLDO
GDWDEDVH IRU D FDGDVWUHODQG DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ V\VWHP WKH GDWD
FRPHV IURP GLIIHUHQW VRXUFHV WKHLU TXDOLW\ YDULHV 'LIIHUHQW
DVSHFWV RIGDWDTXDOLW\OLNHSRVLWLRQDO TXDOLW\ WHPSRUDO TXDOLW\ RU
FRPSOHWHQHVV PXVW EH GHILQHG 6WDQHN DQG )UDQN   7KH
GHILQLWLRQ RI TXDOLW\ VWDQGDUGV IRU WKH SURGXFWV DQG SURFHVVHV RI
/$6 VKRXOG EH PDGH LQ VXFK D ZD\ WKDW OHVV HIIRUW ZRXOG EH
UHTXLUHG ZKHQ WKH GDWD LV DFFHVVHG VKDUHG DQG WUDQVIHUUHG
,PSRUWDQW LQGLFDWRUV WR DQDO\VH WKH VLWXDWLRQ RI H[LVWLQJ TXDOLW\
VWDQGDUGV LQ /$6 LQFOXGH performance

evaluation,

data

standards, data coverage, data accuracy DQG quality control


viii.

Services and Products

6HUYLFHVDQGSURGXFWVRI/$6VKRXOGEHSURYLGHG LQ WLPH WR IXOILO


WKH XVHUV QHHGV 6HUYLFHV FDQ EH LPSURYHG E\ LQWURGXFLQJ QHZ
WHFKQLTXHV HJ SKRWRJUDPPHWULF WHFKQLTXHV XVLQJ DHULDO
SKRWRJUDSKVRUKLJKUHVROXWLRQVDWHOOLWHLPDJHVFDQEHXVHGDVDQ
DOWHUQDWLYH WR WUDGLWLRQDO ODQG VXUYH\LQJ DSSURDFKHV IRU VSDWLDO
GDWDDFTXLVLWLRQ,QWKLVFDVHPRVWPHDVXUHPHQWVFDQEHGRQHLQ
WKH RIILFH $ 0 7XODGKDU E  )URQW GHVN VHUYLFHV FDQ DOVR
LPSURYH WKH TXDOLW\ RI VHUYLFHV DW WKH XVHUV HQG WR JHW WKHLU


Chapter 4: Explanatory Case Study in Pakistan

GHVLUHG SURGXFWV LQ DQ HDVLHU ZD\ ,PSRUWDQW LQGLFDWRUV WR


PHDVXUH WKH TXDOLW\ RI VHUYLFHV DQG SURGXFWV RIIHUHG E\ /$6
LQFOXGHservice delivery, efficiency, list of services, DQG WKH list of
productsRIIHUHGE\WKHODQGDGPLQLVWUDWLRQDJHQF\
$ OLVW RI DOO WKH LQGLFDWRUV DQG YDULDEOHV IRU WKH HOHPHQWV RI
WHFKQLFDODVSHFWLVVXPPDULVHGLQ7DEOH
7DEOH,QGLFDWRUV YDULDEOHVIRUWHFKQLFDODVSHFW
Elements

Indicators and Variables


x /LVWRIXVHUVLQ
xGovt. sector, and

8VHUVQHHGV

xPrivate sector
x $FFHVVWRGDWD
x $YDLODELOLW\RIUHTXLUHGGDWD
x &RYHUDJH FRPSOHWHQHVV
x 3URWHFWLRQ

Data organisation

x 8SGDWLQJ
x $YDLODELOLW\
x 6KDULQJ
x 3UHVHQW*,6VWDWXV

Technology
adoption

x 'LJLWDOGDWDDYDLODELOLW\
x +DUGZDUH VRIWZDUH
x &DSDFLW\EXLOGLQJ
x )DFLOLWLHVIRUHGXFDWLRQDQGWUDLQLQJ

7UDLQLQJDQG
GHYHORSPHQW

/DQGLQIRUPDWLRQ
V\VWHPGHVLJQ

x &ROODERUDWLRQZLWKHGXFDWLRQDO
LQVWLWXWLRQV
x &ROODERUDWLRQZLWKUHVHDUFK
LQVWLWXWLRQV
x 6WUXFWXUDOGHILQLWLRQRIWKHV\VWHP
x &RQVXOWDWLRQZLWKIRUHLJQ H[WHUQDO 


Chapter 4: Explanatory Case Study in Pakistan

DJHQFLHV
x &RQVLVWHQF\
Workflows for LA
processes

x ,QIRUPDWLRQIORZ
x *RRGPDQDJHPHQW
x 3HUIRUPDQFHPRQLWRULQJ
x (YDOXDWLRQ
x 1DWLRQDO,QWHUQDWLRQDOVWDQGDUGV

Quality standards

x 4XDOLW\FRQWURO
x $FFXUDF\
x &RYHUDJH
x /LVWRIVHUYLFHV

6HUYLFHVDQG
SURGXFWV

x /LVWRISURGXFWV
x 6HUYLFHGHOLYHU\
x (IILFLHQF\

4.2

Assessing the Quality Situation of existing LAS

7KH UHVHDUFK PDWULFHV WR H[SODLQ WKH HOHPHQWV RI /$6 IRU
GHVFULELQJ WKH TXDOLW\ VLWXDWLRQ RI WKH H[LVWLQJ /$6 LQ WKH VWXG\
DUHD DUH OLVWHG LQ $SSHQGL[  6LPLODUO\ D VHW RI TXHVWLRQQDLUHV
XVHG LQ WKLV H[SODQDWRU\ FDVH VWXG\ IRU HDFK VWDNHKROGHU LV
DWWDFKHGLQ$SSHQGL[$QDQDO\VLVRIWKLVH[SODQDWRU\FDVHVWXG\
LV SUHVHQWHG LQ WKH IROORZLQJ VXEVHFWLRQV WR DVVHVV WKH TXDOLW\
VLWXDWLRQIRUHOHPHQWVRIWKHLQVWLWXWLRQDODQGWHFKQLFDODVSHFWVRI
/$6LQWKHVWXG\DUHD
4.2.1 Quality Assessment of Institutional Aspect
i.

Tenure Security

7KHTXDQWLWDWLYHGDWDFROOHFWHGDERXWWKHQXPEHURIODQGGLVSXWHV
LQERWKVWXG\DUHDVZDVFROOHFWHG$QLQFUHDVLQJWUHQGZDVIRXQG
IRU WKH QXPEHU RI ODQG GLVSXWHV LQ 6ZDEL DV VHHQ LQ )LJXUH 


Chapter 4: Explanatory Case Study in Pakistan

7KLV LQFUHDVLQJ QXPEHU RI ODQG GLVSXWHV SRLQWV WRZDUGV WKH IHDU
WKDWWHQXUHVHFXULW\LVQRWEHLQJWDFNOHGHIIHFWLYHO\LQWKHSUHVHQW
V\VWHP


)LJXUH/DQGGLVSXWHVWUHQGLQ6ZDELGLVWULFW
0RUHRYHU  RI WKH ODQG RZQHUV IHOW WKDW WKHLU ULJKWV DUH
XQVHFXUH LQ WKH H[LVWLQJ V\VWHP ZKHQ WKH\ UHVSRQGHG WR D
TXHVWLRQ DERXW WHQXUH VHFXULW\ 7KH VWDNHKROGHUV VDLG WKDW ODQG
YDOXH LV LQFUHDVLQJ ZLWK WKH SDVVDJH RI WLPH DQG LQYHVWPHQW LQ
SURSHUW\ VHFWRU LV JHWWLQJ KLJKHU EXW WKLV UDWH LV PXFK KLJKHU LQ
XUEDQDUHDVDVFRPSDUHGWRUXUDODUHDV0RVWRIWKHVWDNHKROGHUV
VDLGWKDWWKH\KDYHHTXDODFFHVVWRODQGRIILFHVIRUFROOHFWLQJWKHLU
ODQGUHFRUGVWRREWDLQFUHGLWIURPHVWDEOLVKHGILQDQFLDOLQVWLWXWLRQV
,Q ERWK VWXG\ DUHDV PRVW RI EDQNVILQDQFLDO LQVWLWXWLRQV ZHUH
ZLOOLQJ WR PRUWJDJH ODQG EXW LW ZDV REVHUYHG IURP WKH ILHOGZRUN
GDWDWKDWDORZHUQXPEHURIODQGRZQHUVZHUHDSSO\LQJGXHWRWKH
IDFWWKDWWKH\GLGQRWJHWWKHLUODQGGRFXPHQWVLQWLPHDQGLWWRRND
ORQJWLPHWRPRUWJDJHWKHLUODQG 7DEOH 


Chapter 4: Explanatory Case Study in Pakistan

7DEOH$FFHVVWRIRUPDOFUHGLWV

Questions

$UHWKHILQDQFLDO
LQVWLWXWLRQVEDQNVZLOOLQJWR
PRUWJDJHODQG"
'RODQGRZQHUVDSSO\IRU
FUHGLWVDJDLQVWWKHLUODQG"

+RZPXFKWLPHGRHVLWWDNHWR
PRUWJDJHODQG"

,VWKHQXPEHURIODQGRZQHUV
DSSO\LQJIRUFUHGLWVDJDLQVW
WKHLUODQGLQFUHDVLQJRU
GHFUHDVLQJ"

Response

Frequency
Bank
Land
Officials Owners
(n=25) (n=50)

Not willing





Less willing





Fully willing





No





Yes





1 week





2 weeks





3 weeks





More





Decreasing



Stable



Increasing



)XUWKHUPRUHWKH6HFUHWDU\%25VDLGWKDWH[LVWLQJ/$6LVILVFDOLQ
QDWXUH ZKLFK ZDV GHYHORSHG LQ WKH SDVW IRU WD[ FROOHFWLRQ
SXUSRVHV +H VDLG WKDW LW GRHV QRW FOHDUO\ GHILQH WKH QDWXUH DQG
H[WHQW RI ULJKWV LQ ODQG IRU ODQG RZQHUV DQG RWKHU VWDNHKROGHUV
'XHWRWKLVFRPSOH[QDWXUHRIULJKWVLQODQGWKHODQGRZQHUVVWLOO
IHHO WKDW WKHLU ULJKWV DUH XQVHFXUH )XUWKHUPRUH WKH 6HQLRU
0HPEHU %RDUG RI 5HYHQXH 60%5  VDLG WKDW WKH ,VODPLF WHQXUH
V\VWHP SOD\V DQ LPSRUWDQW UROH WR SURYLGH ULJKWV LQ ODQG IRU WKH
RZQHUV WKURXJK WKH ,VODPLF LQKHULWDQFH V\VWHP ZKLFK LV IXOO\
SUDFWLFHGLQWKHSUHVHQWV\VWHP
ii.

Land Policy


Chapter 4: Explanatory Case Study in Pakistan

,Q 3DNLVWDQ D ODQG SROLF\ H[LVWV DW SURYLQFLDO OHYHO IRU WKH
PDQDJHPHQW RI DOO W\SHV RI ODQG DV WKH 60%5 VDLG GXULQJ KLV
LQWHUYLHZ +H DOVR LQGLFDWHG WKDW WKHUH DUH VWLOO DPELJXLWLHV LQ WKH
H[LVWLQJ SROLF\ WR GHILQH GLIIHUHQW IRUPV RI IRUPDOO\ DQG LQIRUPDOO\
UHFRJQLVHG ULJKWV LQ ODQG +H PHQWLRQHG WKDW %25 LV WKH RQO\
DXWKRULW\ LQ WKH SURYLQFH ZKLFK LV LQYROYHG LQ GHYHORSLQJ DQG
LPSOHPHQWLQJODQGSROLF\7KH60%5VDLGWKDWWKHZKROHSURYLQFH
LVFRYHUHGE\DIRUPDOV\VWHPDQGWKDWWKHUHDUHQRXQUHJLVWHUHG
SDUFHOV LQ WKH SURYLQFH 7KH 60%5 DOVR VDLG WKDW DOO WKH
SURFHGXUHV IRU HVWDEOLVKPHQW WUDQVIHU DQG DEROLWLRQ RI ULJKWV WR
ODQG DUH FOHDU DQG ZHOO DFFHSWHG +H DFFHSWHG WKDW OHJDOO\ WKH
UHJXODWLRQVDGGUHVVHTXLW\DQGIDLUQHVVRQDFFHVVWRULJKWVWRODQG
ODQGUHIRUP EXWSUDFWLFDOO\LWLVQRWIXOO\LPSOHPHQWHG
iii.

Legal Framework

7KH H[LVWLQJ OHJDO IUDPHZRUN RI %25 LV YHU\ ROG DQG LW GRHV QRW
SURYLGH HQRXJK FODULW\ DQG WUDQVSDUHQF\ DV SRLQWHG RXW E\ WKH
%25 RIILFLDOV LQ WKHLU LQWHUYLHZV 7KH OHJDO DQG SROLF\ IUDPHZRUN
JRYHUQLQJ ODQG UHFRUGV DUH JRYHUQHG XQGHU VHYHUDO SLHFHV RI
OHJLVODWLRQDQGWZRSDUDOOHOV\VWHPVRIDGMXGLFDWLRQH[LVWXQGHUWKH
UHYHQXH FRXUWV DQG FLYLO FRXUWV 7KH UHYHQXH FRXUWV DQG FLYLO
FRXUWV LQWHUPLQJOH RQ VLPLODU SRLQWV OHDGLQJ WR FRXUW FDVHV WKDW
WDNHGHFDGHVRIWKHODZSURIHVVLRQDOVVDLGWKDWWKHSUHVHQW
VWDWXVRIOHJLVODWLRQJRYHUQLQJODQGDGPLQLVWUDWLRQLVVFDWWHUHGDQG
RXWGDWHG7KH'LUHFWRU/DQG5HFRUGV '/5 SRLQWHGRXWWKDWWKH
OHJDOIUDPHZRUNGRHVQRWSURYLGHHQRXJKFODULW\DQGWUDQVSDUHQF\
RQODQGKROGLQJV+HDOVRVDLGWKDWWKHZKROHFRPSOH[RIYDOXDWLRQ
DQGWD[DWLRQRIODQGIRUJDWKHULQJUHYHQXHVLVQHLWKHUGHILQHGQRU
HQIRUFHG+HLQGLFDWHGWKDWQRSHUIHFWV\VWHPKDVHYROYHGVRIDU
WRWDNHLQWRDFFRXQWWKHLPSDFWRIODQGWD[DWLRQRQXVHRIODQGDQG


Chapter 4: Explanatory Case Study in Pakistan

RQ ODQG PDUNHWV 0RVW RI WKH VWDNHKROGHUV DOVR TXHVWLRQHG WKDW
WKH YDOXDWLRQ PHWKRG IRU ODQG WD[DWLRQ GRHV QRW ILW WR LWV VRFLHWDO
QHHGVDVVKRZQLQ)LJXUH7KH'/5VWDWHGWKDWSHRSOHFRPSO\
ZLWK WKHVH UDWHV EHFDXVH WKH\ GR QRW KDYH DQRWKHU FKRLFH +H
VDLGWKDWWKHOHJDOIUDPHZRUNQHHGVWREHWDLORUHGDVSHUVRFLHWDO
FKDQJHVDQGXVHUVGHPDQGVWRPDNHWKHV\VWHPPRUHHIILFLHQW


)LJXUH)HHVDQGFRVWVVWUXFWXUH
iv.

Land Dispute Resolution

$V PHQWLRQHG HDUOLHU WKH ODQG UHODWHG PDWWHUV DUH JRYHUQHG LQ
VHYHUDO SLHFHV RI OHJLVODWLRQ DQG WZR SDUDOOHO V\VWHPV RI
DGMXGLFDWLRQ XQGHU WKH UHYHQXH DQG FLYLO FRXUWV 0RVW RI WKH
VWDNHKROGHUVDJUHHGWKDWWKHODQGFRQIOLFWUHVROXWLRQPHFKDQLVPV
DUHYHU\FRPSOLFDWHGDQGLWWDNHVDYHU\ORQJWLPHWRUHVROYHODQG
GLVSXWHV 7KH\ VDLG WKDW WKHVH PHFKDQLVPV DUH H[SHQVLYH DQG
WLPHFRQVXPLQJDVZHOO7KH\IXUWKHUDUJXHGWKDWWKHSURFHGXUHV
LQ ODQG GLVSXWH UHVROXWLRQ DUH QRW FOHDU DQGXQNQRZQ E\ WKHP DV
VKRZQLQ)LJXUH



Chapter 4: Explanatory Case Study in Pakistan


)LJXUH3URFHGXUHVLQODQGGLVSXWHUHVROXWLRQ
7KH ODQG RZQHUV VDLG WKDW WKH 3DWZDUL D ODQG UHFRUG NHHSHU DW
YLOODJH OHYHO  NHHSV DOO WKH RULJLQDO ODQG UHFRUGV ZLWK KLP DOO WKH
WLPH DQG KH KDV WKH DXWKRULW\ WR PDNH FKDQJHV UHODWLQJ WR
RZQHUVKLSLQWKHRULJLQDOUHFRUGZKLFKLVDOZD\VTXHVWLRQDEOHDQG
FDQ FUHDWH ODQG GLVSXWHV 7KLV LV IXUWKHU YHULILHG E\ WKH W\SH RI
ODQG GLVSXWHV DV PRVW RI WKH RZQHUVKLS GLVSXWHV ZHUH IRXQG
DPRQJRWKHUW\SHVRIODQGGLVSXWHVVXFKDVERXQGDU\GLVSXWHHWF
LQERWKGLVWULFWVDVSUHVHQWHGLQ7DEOH
7DEOH/DQGGLVSXWHV

Questions

:KDWW\SHVRIGLVSXWHV
DUHWKHUHLQODQG"

Responses

Frequencies
Land
Law
owner professionals
(N=50) (N=52)

Ownership





Boundary





Both













+RZPXFKWLPHLWWDNHV 1 year
WRUHVROYHODQGGLVSXWHV" 2 years


Chapter 4: Explanatory Case Study in Pakistan

3UHVHQWVWDWXVRIWKH
OHJLVODWLRQJRYHUQLQJ
ODQGDGPLQLVWUDWLRQ"

:KDWLVWKHOHYHORI
GLVSXWHVLQODQG"
v.

3 years





More





Scattered



Out-dated



Updated



Other



Low



Moderate



High



Strategic Plans

7KHVWUDWHJLFOHYHOUHTXLUHVH[FOXVLYHOLQNVZLWKFKDQJLQJYLHZVRQ
*HR,&7 7KH TXDOLW\ RI /$6 ODUJHO\ GHSHQGV XSRQ WZR VWUDWHJLF
HOHPHQWV 7KH ILUVW VXE HOHPHQW LV DERXW WKH DQDO\VLV RI XVHUV
UHTXLUHPHQWV 7KH VHFRQG VXE HOHPHQW LV WKH DGRSWLRQ RI WKH
ODWHVWWHFKQRORJLHVLQODQGDGPLQLVWUDWLRQSURFHVVHVDQGVHUYLFHV
WRDFKLHYHDKLJKTXDOLW\RISURGXFWVWKDWDUHHDVLO\DFFHVVLEOHDQG
UHOLDEOHIRUODQGGDWDVXSSO\7KH60%5VDLGWKDWVXFKDOLVWGRHV
QRW H[LVW ZKLFK FDQ GHILQH WKH VWUDWHJLF WDUJHWV DQG DOO WKH
SURFHGXUHV IROORZHG DV LW ZDV LQ WKH SDVW )XUWKHUPRUH KH VDLG
WKDW WKH REMHFWLYHV DQG VWUDWHJLHV RI %25 DUH QRW UHYLHZHG DQG
WKHUH LV QR UHJXODU SURFHVV IRU UHYLHZ +H DOVR VDLG WKDW QR *,6
GHYHORSPHQWSODQLVSXEOLVKHGIRUDGRSWLQJ*,6WHFKQRORJ\LQWKH
SUHVHQWV\VWHP
vi.

Organisation and Mandates

7KHUH LV DQ LQGHSHQGHQW ODQG ERDUG DQG WKH %RDUG RI 5HYHQXH
%25  LV WKH RQO\ RUJDQLVDWLRQ LQ WKH FRXQWU\ DW SURYLQFLDO OHYHO
ZLWKDPDQGDWHWRPDQDJHODQGUHODWHGGDWDIRUWD[FROOHFWLRQDQG


Chapter 4: Explanatory Case Study in Pakistan

GLVSXWH UHVROXWLRQ 7KH %25 ZRUNV XQGHU WKH SURYLQFLDO


JRYHUQPHQW DQG WKHLU PDQGDWHV DUH DOUHDG\ GHILQHG E\ WKH
SURYLQFLDO JRYHUQPHQW 7KH 60%5 VDLG WKDW WKHVH PDQGDWHV DUH
FOHDU DQG PDQDJHDEOH +H DOVR SRLQWHG RXW WKDW WKHVH PDQGDWHV
DUHQRWRYHUODSSLQJDQGWKHDOORFDWLRQRIPDQGDWHVUHIOHFWVDZHOO
EDODQFHG DSSURDFK WRZDUGV GHFHQWUDOLVDWLRQ +H IXUWKHU VDLG WKDW
WKH RUJDQLVDWLRQDO VWUXFWXUH RI %25 LV ZHOO GHVLJQHG IRU WKH
H[HFXWLRQ RI ZRUN SURFHVVHV DQG WKH PDQDJHPHQW RI FXVWRPHU
UHODWLRQVLVFOHDUO\GHILQHGLQDOORFDWLQJWKHVHPDQGDWHV
vii.

Human Resource Development

7KH KXPDQ UHVRXUFH GHYHORSPHQW LVVXH KDV QRW EHHQ WDNHQ


HIIHFWLYHO\ LQ WKH H[LVWLQJ /$6 DV RQO\ RQH WUDLQLQJ VFKRRO LV
DYDLODEOH IRU %25 RIILFLDOV DW SURYLQFLDO OHYHO ZLWK OHVV WUDLQLQJ
IDFLOLWLHV 7KH '/5 VWDWHG WKDW QR HIIRUW KDV EHHQ FDUULHG RXW WR
GHYHORS KXPDQ UHVRXUFH FDSDFLW\ LQ WKH H[LVWLQJ V\VWHP 7KH
TXDOLILFDWLRQ FULWHULRQ IRU WKH DSSRLQWPHQW RI QHZ VWDII LQ WKH ODQG
DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ DJHQF\ LV DOVR IRXQG LQHIIHFWLYH WR RYHUFRPH QHZ
FKDOOHQJHVLQKXPDQUHVRXUFHGHYHORSPHQW
viii.

Land Administration Processes

7KH PDLQ /DQG $GPLQLVWUDWLRQ /$  SURFHVVHV FDUULHG RXW E\ WKH


%25LQFOXGHODQGVHWWOHPHQWODQGUHYHQXHFROOHFWLRQODQGWLWOHV
ODQG WUDQVDFWLRQV DQG ODQG WUDQVIHUV 7KHVH SURFHVVHV DUH QRW
FOHDUDQGVLPSOHWRXQGHUVWDQGIRUWKHJHQHUDOSXEOLFDVDGPLWWHG
E\  RI WKH VWDNHKROGHUV 0RUHRYHU  RI WKH VWDNHKROGHUV
VDLGWKDWWKHVHSURFHVVHVDUHWLPHFRQVXPLQJDQGGRQRWSURYLGH
WKH QHFHVVDU\ LQIRUPDWLRQ LQ D WLPHO\ IDVKLRQ 7KH VWDNHKROGHUV
YLHZVDERXWWKHTXDOLW\RIWKHH[LVWLQJ/$SURFHVVHVDUHSUHVHQWHG
LQ7DEOH



Chapter 4: Explanatory Case Study in Pakistan

7DEOH6WDNHKROGHUVYLHZRQODQG/$SURFHVVHV

Questions

Frequency
Bank
Law
Land
Estate
Responses
Officials Officials Owners Agents
(n=25) (n=52) (n=50) (n=53)
Less
reliable

























Less fair







Average







Fair



















No









Yes









Not
updated









Less
updated









Fully
updated









+RZUHOLDEOHLV
WKHSURFHVVDQG Reliable
WKHUHFRUGLWVHOI"
More
reliable
,VWKHSUHVHQW
V\VWHPIDLULQ
GHYHORSPHQW
DQGRSHUDWLRQ"

,VWKHV\VWHP
Not clear
FOHDUDQGVLPSOH
Less clear
WRXQGHUVWDQG
IRUJHQHUDO
Fully clear
SXEOLF"
,VWKHV\VWHP
SURYLGLQJ
QHFHVVDU\
LQIRUPDWLRQLQD
WLPHO\IDVKLRQ"
7KHLQIRUPDWLRQ
VWRUHGDERXW
ODQGLQODQG
UHJLVWHUVLVXS
WRGDWH"

$QVZHULQJ D TXHVWLRQ UHJDUGLQJ WKH IDLUQHVV RI WKH SUHVHQW


V\VWHPRIWKHVWDNHKROGHUVVDLGWKDWWKH/$SURFHVVHVDQG
UHFRUGVWKHPVHOYHVDUHOHVVUHOLDEOHDVVKRZQLQ)LJXUH7KH\



Chapter 4: Explanatory Case Study in Pakistan

DOVR VDLG WKDW ODQG UHFRUGV DUH QRW NHSW XSWRGDWH DQG LQ PRVW
FDVHVWKH\DUHRXWGDWHG


)LJXUH5HFRUG SURFHVVUHOLDELOLW\
$OWKRXJKWKH%25RIILFLDOVVDLGWKDWWKHDSSURDFKWRODQGUHFRUGV
LVQRWVLJQLILFDQWIRUFUHDWLRQRIODQGGLVSXWHVGXHWRDGPLQLVWUDWLYH
FKHFNVWKHODQGRZQHUVDVZHOODVWKHODZSURIHVVLRQDOVSRLQWHG
RXWWKDWLWLVVLJQLILFDQWGXHWROHVVVHFXULW\SURYLGHGLQWKHSUHVHQW
V\VWHPRIPDLQWDLQLQJWKHVHODQGUHFRUGVDWGLIIHUHQWOHYHOV
0RVW VWDNHKROGHUV VDLG WKDW WKH GHHGV RI VDOH UHJLVWUDWLRQ DQG
ODQGWUDQVIHUSURFHVVHVLQWKHSUHVHQWV\VWHPDUHWRRFRPSOLFDWHG
DQGLWWDNHVDORQJWLPHWRUHJLVWHUDGHHGRIVDOHRUWUDQVIHUODQG
7KHLUUHVSRQVHVDERXWWLPHDQGVWHSVUHTXLUHGLQWKHVHSURFHVVHV
DUH SUHVHQWHG LQ 7DEOH  7KH\ DOVR VDLG WKDW WKHVH SURFHVVHV
DUHQRWVRHDV\IRUWKHP
7DEOH6WDNHKROGHUVYLHZRQODQGUHJLVWUDWLRQ WUDQVIHU
Questions

Responses



Frequencies

Chapter 4: Explanatory Case Study in Pakistan

Land
Estate
Patwaries
Owners Agents
(N=50)
(N=50) (N=53)
+RZPXFKVWHSVDUH
LQYROYHGLQWKHODQG
WUDQVIHU"

3 steps







4 steps







5 steps







More







1 week



















More







1 week



















More







Not easy





Less easy





Easy





+RZPXFKWLPHLWWDNHV 2 weeks
WRWUDQVIHUODQG"
3 weeks

+RZPXFKWLPHLWWDNHV 2 weeks
WRUHJLVWHUDGHHG"
3 weeks

+RZHDV\LVWKH
SURFHGXUHIRUGHHGRI
VDOHUHJLVWUDWLRQ"

0RUHRYHU WKH %25 RIILFLDOV VDLG WKDW WKH LQIRUPDWLRQ LQ ODQG
UHJLVWHUV LV XSGDWHG HYHU\ IRXU \HDUV ZKLOH DOO WKH JUDSKLFDO
LQIRUPDWLRQLQFDGDVWUDOPDSVLVWREHXSGDWHGHYHU\\HDUV
'XHWRWKLVORQJWLPHVSDQPRVWRIWKHVWDNHKROGHUVVDLGWKDWWKH
H[LVWLQJV\VWHPGRHVQRWSURYLGHXSWRGDWHLQIRUPDWLRQLQDWLPHO\
IDVKLRQ7KH%25RIILFLDOVVDLGWKDWRQO\WKHILHOGVXUYH\WHFKQLTXH
LV XVHG LQ WKH SUHVHQW V\VWHP ZKLFK LV WRR ROG DQG WLPH
FRQVXPLQJ IRU WKHP HVSHFLDOO\ LQ DUHDV ZKHUH ZHDWKHU LV KDUVK
DQGWKHWHUUDLQLVPRXQWDLQRXV
ix.

Coordination and Data Sharing




Chapter 4: Explanatory Case Study in Pakistan

7KH 60%5 VDLG WKDW %25 KDV LWV RZQ LQVWLWXWLRQDO DQG
RUJDQLVDWLRQDODUUDQJHPHQWVDWSURYLQFLDOOHYHOWRFDUU\RXWDOOODQG
UHODWHGDFWLYLWLHV7KHVHDUUDQJHPHQWVDUHIXUWKHUQDUURZHGGRZQ
DW ORFDO OHYHO LQ HDFK GLVWULFW XQGHU WKH %25 RUJDQLVDWLRQDO VHWXS
WR SUHSDUH DQG PDLQWDLQ ODQG UHFRUGV DW ORFDO OHYHO +H VDLG WKDW
%25VKDUHVWKHLUGDWDDQGFRRUGLQDWHVLQDQHIILFLHQWPDQQHUDV
WKH XVHU DJHQFLHV DVN IRU WKH GHVLUHG GDWD +H VDLG WKDW DOO WKH
ODQG UHODWHG LQIRUPDWLRQ LV FUHDWHG DQG PDLQWDLQHG RQO\ E\ WKH
%25 DQG WKH SULYDWH VHFWRU LV QRW LQYROYHG LQ FDUU\LQJ RXW WKHVH
DFWLYLWLHV
x.

Financing and Data Costs

7KH '/5 VDLG WKDW WKH SURYLQFLDO DQG GLVWULFW JRYHUQPHQWV DUH
SURYLGLQJ ILQDQFLDO VXSSRUW WR %25 DQG DSSUR[LPDWHO\  RI WKH
FRVWVLVUHFRYHUHGIURPIHHVDQGGDWDVDOHV+HVDLGWKDWWKHODQG
UHYHQXHWKHQJRHVWRWKHSURYLQFLDOUHYHQXHDFNQRZOHGJPHQWDQG
EHFRPHV SDUW RI WKH DQQXDO EXGJHW 5HJDUGLQJ IHHV DQG FRVWV
VWUXFWXUH LQ WKH SUHVHQW V\VWHP  RI WKH VWDNHKROGHUV
LQFOXGLQJ UHDO HVWDWH DJHQWV DQG ODQG RZQHUV  VKRZHG WKHLU
GLVDJUHHPHQWZLWKWKHSUHVHQWV\VWHP7KH'/5IXUWKHUVDLGWKDW
%25 GRHV QRW KDYH VXIILFLHQW ILQDQFLDO UHVRXUFHV WR DGRSW *HR
,&7 LQ WKH SUHVHQW V\VWHP 6LPLODUO\  RI %25 RIILFLDOV
DFFHSWHG WKDW WKH ILQDQFLDO PHFKDQLVPV DUH QRW DSSURSULDWH WR
PHHWWKHEXVLQHVVGHPDQGV
4.2.2 Quality Assessment of Technical Aspect
i.

Users Needs

$OWKRXJK GLIIHUHQW XVHUV H[LVW LQ WKH JRYHUQPHQW DQG SULYDWH


VHFWRUVXQIRUWXQDWHO\WKH%25RIILFLDOVGLGQRWKDYHDQ\VSHFLILF
OLVWRIWKHVHXVHUV0RVWRIWKHVWDNHKROGHUVVDLGWKDWWKHSURFHVV


Chapter 4: Explanatory Case Study in Pakistan

IRUDFFHVVLQJODQGUHFRUGVLVQRWFRQYHQLHQWDQGVLPSOHIRUWKHP
7DEOH 
7DEOH$FFHVVWRODQGGDWD

Questions

Response
Introducing
Geo-ICT

Frequencies
Bank
Land
Estate
Officials Owners Agents
(N=25) (N=50) (N=53)


















Not
convenient







Less
convenient







Convenient







+RZVLPSOHLVWKH Not simple


SURFHVVUHTXLUHGWR
Less simple
DFFHVVODQG
UHFRUG"
Simple



















Not
affordable







Affordable







Short time







Average
time







Long time







+RZFDQODQG
UHFRUGVEHPDGH
RePRUHDFFHVVLEOHWR
structuring
HYHU\ERG\"
Other
+RZFRQYHQLHQWLV
WKHSURFHVVWR
DFFHVVODQG
UHFRUG"

+RZPXFK IRUPDO
DQGLQIRUPDO 
SD\PHQWLV
LQYROYHGLQ
DFFHVVLQJODQG
UHFRUG"
+RZPXFKWLPHLW
WDNHVWRDFFHVV
ODQGUHFRUG"



Chapter 4: Explanatory Case Study in Pakistan

0RUHRYHU  RI VWDNHKROGHUV VDLG WKDW LW WDNHV D ORQJ WLPH WR
DFFHVV WKHLU ODQG UHFRUGV 7KH VWDNHKROGHUV LQFOXGLQJ ODQG
RZQHUVEDQNRIILFLDOVDQGUHDOHVWDWHDJHQWVDOVRDJUHHGWKDWWKH
SUHVHQW V\VWHP RQO\ SDUWLDOO\ SURYLGHV DOO WKH HVVHQWLDO GDWD
DFFRUGLQJWRWKHLUQHHGV
ii.

Technology Adaption

7KH '/5 VDLG WKDW QR ODQGUHFRUGV DUH DYDLODEOH LQ GLJLWDO IRUPDW
DQG DOO ODQG UHFRUGV H[LVW RQ SDSHU LQ WKH IRUP RI UHJLVWHUV DQG
PDSV +H VDLG WKDW RQO\ VRPH VPDOO HIIRUWV KDYH EHHQ WDNHQ WR
FRQYHUWODQGGDWDLQWRDGLJLWDOIRUPDWEXWWKH\DUHDWVQDLOVSDFH
7KH60%5IXUWKHUVDLGWKDW%25GRHVQRWKDYHHQRXJKILQDQFLDO
UHVRXUFHVIRUSURYLGLQJQHZKDUGZDUHDQGVRIWZDUHIDFLOLWLHVLQWKH
H[LVWLQJODQGDGPLQLVWUDWLRQV\VWHP
7KH '/5 DJUHHG WKDW QR *,6 WHFKQRORJ\ KDV EHHQ LQWURGXFHG LQ
WKH SUHVHQW V\VWHP DQG RQO\ LQ &KLWUDO GLVWULFW LV D VHWWOHPHQW
RSHUDWLRQLQSURFHVVXVLQJWRWDOVWDWLRQ+RZHYHUQRVNLOOHGVWDII
DUHDYDLODEOHWRIXOO\RSHUDWHWKHVHGHYLFHVHIIHFWLYHO\RIWKH
VWDNHKROGHUV VDLG WKDW QHZ WHFKQRORJ\ VKRXOG EH DGRSWHG LQ WKH
SUHVHQW V\VWHP ZKHUH  RI WKHP ZHUH H[SHFWLQJ WKDW WKH
LQWURGXFWLRQ RI *HR,&7 LQ WKH SUHVHQW V\VWHP ZLOO PDNH ODQG
UHFRUGV PRUH DFFHVVLEOH WR HYHU\ERG\ 7KH 60%5 IXUWKHU VDLG
WKDW %25 GRHV QRW KDYH VXIILFLHQW WUDLQHG VWDII IRU LPSOHPHQWLQJ
QHZWHFKQRORJLHVLQWKHV\VWHP )LJXUH +HVDLGWKDWDORWRI
HIIRUWZLOOEHUHTXLUHGRQLQVWLWXWLRQDODQGKXPDQFDSDFLW\EXLOGLQJ
WR LQWURGXFH QHZ WHFKQRORJ\ LQ WKH SUHVHQW V\VWHP +H DUJXHG
WKDWWKHUHLVRQO\RQHWUDLQLQJVFKRROIRUWKHZKROH%25VWDIILQWKH
SURYLQFHWRWUDLQWKHLURIILFLDOV



Chapter 4: Explanatory Case Study in Pakistan


)LJXUH*HR,&7DGDSWLRQ
iii.

Data Organisation

7KH %25 LV WKH RQO\ DXWKRULW\ ZKLFK LV UHVSRQVLEOH IRU NHHSLQJ
DQG XSGDWLQJ ODQG UHFRUGV $OWKRXJK WKH %25 KDV ODQG UHFRUGV
IRU DOO  GLVWULFWV RI WKH SURYLQFH WKHUH DUH VWLOO DUHDV ZKHUH QR
SURSHU ODQG UHFRUGV DUH SUHSDUHG GXH WR DEVHQFH RI ODQG
FRQVROLGDWLRQ DQG VHWWOHPHQW RSHUDWLRQV VLQFH WKH\ ZHUH FDUULHG
RXWLQWKHSDVW/DQGUHFRUGVDUHPDLQWDLQHGDWORFDOOHYHOLQHDFK
GLVWULFW EXW LPSURSHU PDLQWHQDQFH RI ODQG UHFRUGV )LJXUH  
OHDGV WR D ORW RI GLIILFXOWLHV 7KH VWDNHKROGHUV VDLG WKDW LPSURSHU
PDLQWHQDQFHRIODQGUHFRUGVDQGXWWHUDQFHLQUHFRUGRIULJKWVDOVR
OHDGVWRSUREOHPVFRQFHUQLQJWKHSURWHFWLRQRIWKLVODQGGDWD



Chapter 4: Explanatory Case Study in Pakistan


)LJXUH/DQGUHFRUGURRPDWGLVWULFWOHYHO
7KH VWDNHKROGHUV VDLG WKDW DOO WKH WHPSRUDO DUFKLYHV DUH RQO\
VWRUHG DW WKH GLVWULFW OHYHO UHFRUGV URRP ZKHUH WKHUH DUH VWLOO
RFFDVLRQV ZKHUH WKH HQWLUH UHFRUGV DUH ZLSHG RXW GXH WR ILUH RU
IORRGV )XUWKHUPRUH DOO WKH H[LVWLQJ ODQG UHFRUGV DUH LQ PDQXDO
IRUP DQG QR GDWD LV DYDLODEOH LQ GLJLWDO IRUP  RI WKH
VWDNHKROGHUVVDLGWKDWWKH\KDYHHTXDODFFHVVWRODQGRIILFHVEXW
RIWKHPDOVRSRLQWHGRXWWKDWLWLVQRWHDV\IRUWKHPWRDFFHVV
WKHLUODQGUHFRUGV
iv.

Training and Development

7KH LQVWLWXWLRQDO DQG KXPDQ FDSDFLW\ EXLOGLQJ LV IRXQG OHVV


VXIILFLHQW LQ WKH VWXG\ DUHD 7KH 60%5 VDLG WKDW %25 GRHV QRW
KDYHVXIILFLHQWWUDLQHGVWDIIIRULPSOHPHQWLQJ QHZWHFKQRORJLHVLQ
WKH H[LVWLQJ V\VWHP +H VDLG WKDW ORW RI HIIRUW ZLOO EH UHTXLUHG LQ
LQVWLWXWLRQDO DQG KXPDQ FDSDFLW\ EXLOGLQJ VLGH WR LQWURGXFH QHZ
WHFKQRORJ\+HSRLQWHGRXWWKDWOHVVWUDLQLQJIDFLOLWLHVDUHDYDLODEOH



Chapter 4: Explanatory Case Study in Pakistan

IRU WKH ODQG DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ DJHQF\ LQ WKH SURYLQFH WR WUDLQ WKHLU
VWDII
v.

Land Information System Design

7KH60%5VDLGWKDWWKHVWUXFWXUHRIWKHH[LVWLQJV\VWHPLVXVHIXO
DQGFOHDUO\GHILQHG+HVDLGWKDWWKHH[LVWLQJV\VWHPLVWLPHWHVWHG
LQ SUDFWLFH IRU PDQ\ GHFDGHV +H LQGLFDWHG WKDW %25 GRHV QRW
KDYH DQ\ FRQVXOWDWLRQ ZLWK RWKHU IRUHLJQ H[WHUQDO  DJHQFLHV IRU
V\VWHPGHVLJQDQGDOOWKHSURFHVVHVDUHIROORZHGDVWKH\ZHUHLQ
WKHSDVW7KH'/5VDLGWKDWWKHH[LVWLQJV\VWHPLVHQWLUHO\EDVHG
RQPDSVDQGUHFRUGVLQSDSHUIRUPDWDQGQRQHZFRQFHSWVKDYH
EHHQ LQWURGXFHG LQ WKH SUHVHQW V\VWHP 0RUHRYHU QR VSDWLDO
UHIHUHQFH FRRUGLQDWH  V\VWHP LV IROORZHG E\ WKH %25 IRU
FDGDVWUDO PDS JHQHUDWLRQ DQG DOO WKH PHDVXUHPHQWV DUH FDUULHG
RXWXVLQJPHWKRGVQRWJHQHUDOO\DSSOLHGLQPRUHFXUUHQWV\VWHPV
vi.

Workflows for Land Administration Processes

7KH '/5 VDLG WKDW WKH DOORFDWLRQ RI WDVNV DQG UHVSRQVLELOLWLHV WR
PDQDJHUV DUH DSSURSULDWH EXW WKH LQWHUQDO DQG H[WHUQDO
LQIRUPDWLRQ IORZ LV OHVV FOHDUO\ VSHFLILHG 7KH 60%5 SRLQWHG WKDW
WKH PDQDJHULDO WRROV LQ WHUPV RI SODQQLQJ FRQWURO DFFRXQWDELOLW\
DQG OLDELOLW\ DUH DSSURSULDWH +RZHYHU WKH '/5 VDLG WKDW WKH
SHUIRUPDQFHPRQLWRULQJLQWKHSUHVHQWV\VWHPLVOHVVDSSURSULDWH
WRZDUGV JRRG SHUIRUPDQFH +H VDLG WKDW RUJDQLVDWLRQDO FXOWXUH
HQFRXUDJHV VKDULQJ RI YDOXHV WRZDUGV JRRG SHUIRUPDQFH EXW
WKHUH DUH OHVV FRRUGLQDWHG HIIRUWV DPRQJVW DOO VWDNHKROGHUV ZKR
VKDUHWKHLUYDOXDEOHFRPPHQWVDQGNQRZOHGJH
vii.

Quality Standards

7KH '/5 VDLG WKDW WKH SHUIRUPDQFH RI %25 LV RQO\ PRQLWRUHG
LQWHUQDOO\DQGWKHUHLVQRH[WHUQDOPRQLWRULQJV\VWHPDYDLODEOHIRU


Chapter 4: Explanatory Case Study in Pakistan

SHUIRUPDQFH PRQLWRULQJ DQG HYDOXDWLRQ 7KH VWDNHKROGHUV


FRPSODLQHG WKDW WKHUH DUH QR VXUYH\LQJ VWDQGDUGV IRU FDGDVWUDO
PDS JHQHUDWLRQ LQ WKH H[LVWLQJ V\VWHP 7KH\ TXHVWLRQHG WKDW
WKHVH PDSV KDYH TXLWH RXWGDWHG LQIRUPDWLRQ ZKLFK UHVWULFW WKHLU
RSHUDWLRQDO XVHIXOQHVV LQ H[WUDFWLQJ SUHFLVH LQIRUPDWLRQ RQ ODQG
SDUFHOVDQGRZQHUVKLS7KH'/5DOVRDFFHSWHGWKDWWKHUHDUHQR
TXDOLW\ SDUDPHWHU PDWULFHV WR PDLQWDLQ ODQG UHFRUGV DQG DOO WKH
SURFHVVHV DUH FDUULHG RXW LQ D FRQYHQWLRQDO ZD\ +H VDLG WKDW
WHFKQRORJ\ DGRSWLRQ ZLOO LPSURYH WKH TXDOLW\ RI GDWDVHUYLFHV DQG
ZLOOEULQJWUHPHQGRXVFKDQJHVIRULPSURYLQJVHUYLFHGHOLYHU\
RIWKHVWDNHKROGHUVFRPSODLQHGWKDWWKHLQIRUPDWLRQVWRUHGLQODQG
UHJLVWHUVLVQRWXSWRGDWH )LJXUH 


)LJXUH/DQGLQIRUPDWLRQXSGDWLRQ
7KH '/5 VDLG WKDW WKH %25 KDV ODQG GDWD FRYHULQJ WKH ZKROH
SURYLQFH GLVWULFWV LQFOXGLQJODQGUHJLVWHUVDQGFDGDVWUDOPDSV
7KHVH FDGDVWUDO PDSV DUH DYDLODEOH DW DSSUR[LPDWHO\ 
VFDOH )LJXUH 



Chapter 4: Explanatory Case Study in Pakistan


)LJXUH$QH[LVWLQJFDGDVWUDOPDS
$OO WKHVH PDSV DUH SUHSDUHG DQG PDLQWDLQHG PDQXDOO\ EXW QR
TXDOLW\ VWDQGDUGV DUH IROORZHG WR SUHSDUH WKHVH PDSV
)XUWKHUPRUHWKHVHPDSVGRQRWIROORZFDUWRJUDSKLFUXOHVDQGQR
SURMHFWLRQ V\VWHP LV IROORZHG WR SUHSDUH WKHP 7KH FRQGLWLRQV RI
WKHUHFRUGURRPVIRUNHHSLQJWKHVHFDGDVWUDOPDSVDUHDOVRYHU\
SRRU )LJXUH 


)LJXUH5HFRUGURRPIRUFDGDVWUDOPDSV
viii.

Services & Products




Chapter 4: Explanatory Case Study in Pakistan

7KH %25 RIILFLDOV VDLG WKDW DOO WKH VHUYLFHV DQG SURGXFWV DUH
SDUWLDOO\GHOLYHUHGWRXVHUVDWORFDOOHYHO7KH'/5VDLGWKDWWKHUH
LV D YHU\ ODUJH HVWDEOLVKPHQW RI UHYHQXH RIILFHV DQG RIILFLDOV DW
GLVWULFW DQG WHKVLO VXEGLVWULFW  OHYHO EXW WKHUH DUH QRW HQRXJK
RIILFHV QRU DQ LQIUDVWUXFWXUH WR SURYLGH WKHLU VHUYLFHV HIIHFWLYHO\
0RUHRYHU  RI WKH VWDNHKROGHUV DOVR VDLG WKDW %25 GRHV QRW
KDYHVXIILFLHQWLQIUDVWUXFWXUHWRGHOLYHUWKHLUVHUYLFHVLQDQHIILFLHQW
PDQQHU )LJXUH 


)LJXUH(IILFLHQF\LQVHUYLFHV






Discussing the Quality Assessment


Framework



Chapter 5: Discussing the Quality Assessment Framework

5.1

Systematic use of Case Study Methodology

&DVH VWXG\ LV DQ LGHDO PHWKRGRORJ\ ZKHQ WKH ERXQGDULHV


EHWZHHQ WKH SKHQRPHQRQ DQG UHDOOLIH FRQWH[W DUH QRW FOHDUO\
GHILQHGDQGDKROLVWLFDQGLQGHSWKLQYHVWLJDWLRQLVQHHGHG )HDJLQ
HWDO<LQ ,WDOVRSUHVHUYHVWKHLQWHUUHODWLRQEHWZHHQ
WKH UHOHYDQW IDFWRUV DIIHFWLQJ WKH ZKROH V\VWHP dDJGDV DQG
6WXENMU  GLVFXVVHGWKHXVHRIFDVHVWXG\PHWKRGRORJ\LQ
PRVW RI GRFWRUDO UHVHDUFK VWXGLHV FDUULHG RXW LQ WKH ILHOG RI
FDGDVWUHDQGODQGDGPLQLVWUDWLRQ7KH\KLJKOLJKWHGWKHXVHIXOQHVV
RI FDVH VWXG\ PHWKRGRORJ\ DQG WKH DSSURDFKHV IRU FROOHFWLQJ
TXDOLWDWLYH DQGRU TXDQWLWDWLYH GDWD LQ FRQGXFWLQJ WKRVH GRFWRUDO
UHVHDUFKVWXGLHV$QH[SODQDWRU\FDVHVWXG\DSSURDFKLVXVHGLQ
VRPH VWXGLHV ZKHUHDV DQ H[SORUDWRU\ FDVH VWXG\ DSSURDFK LV
XVHGLQRWKHUV
&DVHVWXG\PHWKRGRORJ\LVVHOHFWHGIRUGRLQJWKLVUHVHDUFKVLQFH
QRFOHDUERXQGDU\LVIRXQGEHWZHHQWKHLQVWLWXWLRQDODQGWHFKQLFDO
DVSHFWV RI ODQG DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ V\VWHP /$6  DQG WKH
LQWHUUHODWLRQVKLS EHWZHHQ WKH HOHPHQWV DQG TXDOLW\ LQGLFDWRUV IRU
HDFK DVSHFW LV IRXQG YHU\ VWURQJ ,W LV REVHUYHG WKDW QR FOHDU
ERXQGDU\ H[LVWV EHWZHHQ WKHVH DVSHFWV RI /$6 )LJXUH   VR
WKHXVHRIRQO\H[SORUDWRU\RUH[SODQDWRU\FDVHVWXG\DSSURDFKLV
QRW VXIILFLHQW WR GR LQGHSWKDQDO\VLVRIWKHV\VWHP )XUWKHUPRUH
WKH UHVHDUFK TXHVWLRQV IUDPHG DV ZKDW DQG KRZ DOVR
GHWHUPLQHG WKH V\VWHPDWLF XVH RI ERWK H[SORUDWRU\ DQG
H[SODQDWRU\ FDVH VWXG\ DSSURDFK $Q H[SORUDWRU\ FDVH VWXG\
DSSURDFK LV XVHIXO WR DQVZHU WKH ZKDW W\SH RI TXHVWLRQV E\
H[SORULQJ WKH V\VWHP ZKHUHDV DQ H[SODQDWRU\ FDVH VWXG\
DSSURDFK LV XVHIXO WR DQVZHU WKH KRZ W\SH RI TXHVWLRQ E\
DQDO\VLQJWKHV\VWHPLQGHWDLO <LQ )RUWKHV\VWHPDWLFXVH
RI FDVH VWXG\ PHWKRGRORJ\ D WKRURXJK VWXG\ RI WKH


Chapter 5: Discussing the Quality Assessment Framework

PHWKRGRORJLFDO OLWHUDWXUH RQ FDVH VWXG\ PHWKRG LV FRQVLGHUHG


PRVW LPSRUWDQW HVSHFLDOO\ *HUULQJ  5RODQG DQG 2ODI
 <LQ   7KLV KHOSHG WR NHHS WKH IRFXV RQ WKH SRLQW RI
LQWHUHVWDQGZKDWLQIRUPDWLRQWREHH[WUDFWHGIURPWKHFDVH V 
,QWKLVVWXG\DQH[SORUDWRU\FDVHVWXG\DSSURDFKLVILUVWO\XVHGWR
LQYHVWLJDWHWKHLVVXHVRIH[LVWLQJ/$6LQWKHFRXQWU\WRUHFRJQLVH
WKHPRVWLPSRUWDQWHOHPHQWVIRUGHYHORSLQJDTXDOLW\DVVHVVPHQW
IUDPHZRUN 7KLV LV GRQH E\ DQDO\VLQJ WKH GDWD FROOHFWHG LQ WKH
ILHOG WKURXJK LQWHUYLHZV ZLWK ODQG DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ DJHQF\ RIILFLDOV
ODQG RZQHUV UHDO HVWDWH DJHQWV DQG ODZ SURIHVVLRQDOV $IWHU
DQDO\VLQJ WKH WUDQVFULEHG TXDOLWDWLYH DQG TXDQWLWDWLYH GDWD IURP
WKLV H[SORUDWRU\ FDVH VWXG\ WKH PRVW LPSRUWDQW HOHPHQWV RI
H[LVWLQJ/$6DUHVHOHFWHG
$TXDOLW\DVVHVVPHQWIUDPHZRUNLVWKHQGHYHORSHGWRDVVHVVWKH
H[LVWLQJ TXDOLW\ VLWXDWLRQ RI /$6 LQ WKH FRXQWU\ 7KH FRQWULEXWLQJ
TXDOLW\ LQGLFDWRUV WR EH XVHG LQ H[SODQDWRU\ FDVH VWXG\ IRU WKH
HOHPHQWV RI LQVWLWXWLRQDO DQG WHFKQLFDO DVSHFWV RI /$6 $Q
H[SORUDWRU\ FDVH VWXG\ DSSURDFK FDQ KHOS LQ WKLV UHJDUG WR ILQH
WXQHWKHVHSDUDPHWHUVDQGTXDOLW\LQGLFDWRUVIRUDVWDQGDORQH/$6
ZLWKLQ FRXQWU\V HQYLURQPHQW ,Q WKLV ZD\ WKH H[SODQDWRU\ FDVH
VWXG\DSSURDFKLVXVHGWRXQGHUVWDQGWKHTXDOLW\VLWXDWLRQRI/$6
LQ WKH FRXQWU\ E\ FROOHFWLQJ TXDOLWDWLYH DQG TXDQWLWDWLYH GDWD
WKURXJK YLVLWV LQWHUYLHZV PHHWLQJV DQG TXHVWLRQQDLUHV LQ WKH
VWXG\ DUHD 7KH DQDO\VLV RI WKLV GDWD JDYH D FOHDUXQGHUVWDQGLQJ
RIWKHSUHVHQWVWDWXVRIWKHVHTXDOLW\LQGLFDWRUVLQH[LVWLQJV\VWHP
7KH V\VWHPDWLF XVH RI FDVH VWXG\ PHWKRGRORJ\ H[SORUDWRU\
H[SODQDWRU\ FDVH VWXG\ DSSURDFK  SURYLGHG D PHWKRGRORJLFDO
IUDPHZRUNWRGRLQGHSWKDQDO\VLVRIDODQGDGPLQLVWUDWLRQV\VWHP
7KLV ZDV LPSRVVLEOH E\ XVLQJ HLWKHU H[SORUDWRU\ RU H[SODQDWRU\
FDVHVWXG\DSSURDFKLQLVRODWLRQ


Chapter 5: Discussing the Quality Assessment Framework

5.2

LAS Quality Assessment Framework

,W LV PHQWLRQHGHDUOLHU WKDWWKH SHUIRUPDQFH RI /$6V LV DVVHVVHG


WKURXJK PXOWLGLPHQVLRQDO DSSURDFKHV E\ VXJJHVWLQJ GLIIHUHQW
FULWHULD DQG XVLQJ GLIIHUHQW DVVHVVPHQW WHFKQLTXHV ,Q VRPH
VWXGLHVRQO\TXDQWLWDWLYHGDWDLVFROOHFWHGZKLOHDVHWRITXDOLWDWLYH
LQGLFDWRUV LV XVHG LQ RWKHU VWXGLHV ZLWK RSHQ TXHVWLRQV ODFNLQJ D
EHQFKPDUN IUDPHZRUN 7KHUH KDYH EHHQ VRPH DWWHPSWV WR
VWDQGDUGLVH WKH SURFHGXUHV IRU HYDOXDWLQJRUFRPSDULQJ/$6VRQ
WKH LQWHUQDWLRQDO OHYHO :RUOG %DQN   EXW WKHUH LV QR
LQWHUQDWLRQDOO\ DFFHSWHG RU VWDQGDUGLVHG PHWKRG IRU HYDOXDWLRQ
7KLVLVPDLQO\EHFDXVH/$6VDUHUHIOHFWLQJWKHFXOWXUDODQGVRFLDO
FRQWH[W RI WKH FRXQWU\ LQ ZKLFK WKH\ DUH RSHUDWLQJ 7KLV PDNHV
WKHP GLVWLQFWO\ GLIIHUHQW DQG WKHUHIRUH GLIILFXOW WR FRPSDUH ZLWK
HDFK RWKHU 6WHXGOHU HW DO   $ TXDOLW\ DVVHVVPHQW
IUDPHZRUN LV WKXV QHHGHG WR DQDO\VH WKH TXDOLW\ RI D VWDQGDORQH
/$6 ZLWKLQ FRXQWU\V HQYLURQPHQW +RZHYHU WKH TXDOLW\ RI DQ\
V\VWHP LV DVVHVVHG RQO\ LI WKH SDUDPHWHUV DQG LQGLFDWRUV IRU
DVVHVVLQJWKHTXDOLW\RIWKHV\VWHPDUHILUVWNQRZQ,QFDVHRIODQG
DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ WKH QDWXUH RI WKHVH SDUDPHWHUV DQG TXDOLW\
LQGLFDWRUV DUH YDU\LQJ IURP V\VWHP WR V\VWHP GHSHQGLQJ RQ WKH
VWUXFWXUHRIH[LVWLQJ/$6VRFLDODQGFXOWXUDOQRUPVDQGYDOXHVRI
DVRFLHW\LQZKLFKWKHV\VWHPLVEHLQJSUDFWLFHG
,Q RUGHU WR LQYHVWLJDWH WKH TXDOLW\ RI /$6 DOO WKH HVVHQWLDO
HOHPHQWVRIWKHH[LVWLQJV\VWHPVKRXOGEHH[DPLQHGWKURXJK/$6
TXDOLW\ DVVHVVPHQW IUDPHZRUN DV VKRZQ LQ )LJXUH  7KLV
LQYHVWLJDWLRQ FDQ IXUWKHU DVVLVW WR GHYHORS TXDOLW\ LPSURYHPHQW
JXLGHOLQHV WR LPSURYH WKH TXDOLW\ RI /$6 ,Q WKLV VWXG\ DQ
H[SORUDWRU\ FDVH VWXG\ DSSURDFK LV XVHG WR KLJKOLJKW WKH PRVW
LPSRUWDQWHOHPHQWVIRUXQGHUVWDQGLQJWKHSUHVHQWVLWXDWLRQRI/$6
LQ WKH FRXQWU\ $OL HW DO   7KH H[SODQDWRU\ FDVH VWXG\


Chapter 5: Discussing the Quality Assessment Framework

DSSURDFK LV WKHQ XVHG WR DVVHVV WKH /$6 TXDOLW\ VLWXDWLRQ E\
FKRRVLQJVXLWDEOHLQGLFDWRUVDQGYDULDEOHVIRUHDFKHOHPHQW


)LJXUH/$6TXDOLW\DVVHVVPHQWIUDPHZRUN
7KLV UHVHDUFK FDWHJRULVHG DOO WKH HOHPHQWV RI /$6 ZLWKLQ
LQVWLWXWLRQDODQGWHFKQLFDODVSHFWV+RZHYHULWZDVLPSRVVLEOHWR
VHSDUDWH WKHP FRPSOHWHO\ EHFDXVH PRVW RI WKH HOHPHQWV DQG
LQGLFDWRUV FRPELQHG VRPH RI ERWK DVSHFWV7KHGLVWULEXWLRQRIDOO
WKHVH HOHPHQWV LQFOXGLQJ WKH LPSRUWDQW RQHV LQ LWDOLF IRQW  ZLWKLQ
WZRDVSHFWVLVVKRZQLQ7RUQDGR&KDUWLQ)LJXUHZKHUHWKH
OHQJWK RI HDFK EDU UHSUHVHQWV WKH SRUWLRQ RI HDFK DVSHFW LQ
GLIIHUHQW FRORXUV 7KLV GLVWULEXWLRQ LV FDUULHG RXW RQ WKH EDVLV RI
TXHVWLRQV DVNHG IRU LQYHVWLJDWLQJ WKH TXDOLW\ LQGLFDWRUV DQG
YDULDEOHVWRDVVHVVWKHTXDOLW\VLWXDWLRQRI/$6



Chapter 5: Discussing the Quality Assessment Framework


)LJXUH/$6DVSHFWVDQGGLVWULEXWLRQRIWKHLUHOHPHQWV
,QRUGHUWRGRLQGHSWKDQDO\VLVRIWKHV\VWHPDKROLVWLFDSSURDFK
LV DGRSWHG WKURXJK /$6 3ULVP 0RGHO WR OLQN DOO WKH IRXU
FRPSRQHQWV RI /$6 TXDOLW\ LPSURYHPHQW IUDPHZRUN EHLQJ WKH
LQVWLWXWLRQDODVSHFWWHFKQLFDODVSHFWHOHPHQWVDQGLQGLFDWRUVDQG
TXDOLW\LPSURYHPHQWJXLGHOLQHV7KLVLQWHJUDWLRQIXUWKHUHQDEOHGWR
H[DPLQH WKH TXDOLW\ VLWXDWLRQ RI D VWDQGDORQH /$6 WKURXJK D
TXDOLW\DVVHVVPHQWIUDPHZRUN )LJXUH 
5.3

Indicators and Variables for LAS Quality Assessment

7KHLQGLFDWRUVDQGYDULDEOHVIRUWKHHOHPHQWVRI/$6WRDVVHVVLWV
TXDOLW\ ZHUH FODVVLILHG WKURXJK H[KDXVWLYH UHYLHZ RI UHVHDUFK
VWXGLHVFDUULHGRXWLQWKHILHOGRIFDGDVWUHDQGODQGDGPLQLVWUDWLRQ
0RUHGHWDLOVDERXWWKHVHLQGLFDWRUVDQGYDULDEOHV7KHVHOHFWLRQRI
WKHVHTXDOLW\LQGLFDWRUVDQGYDULDEOHVLVEDVHGRQWKHSULQFLSOHVRI
LQWHUQDWLRQDO %HVW 3UDFWLFHV DQG RWKHU UHVHDUFK VWXGLHV FDUULHG
RXWLQDVVHVVLQJDQGHYDOXDWLQJODQGDGPLQLVWUDWLRQV\VWHPV
7KHVHLQGLFDWRUVDQGYDULDEOHVZHUHDQDO\VHGIRUWKHHOHPHQWVRI
/$6LQ3DNLVWDQWKURXJKTXDOLWDWLYHDQGTXDQWLWDWLYHGDWDFROOHFWHG
LQ WKH VWXG\ DUHD WR FDUU\ RXW LQGHSWK TXDOLW\ DVVHVVPHQW 7KLV


Chapter 5: Discussing the Quality Assessment Framework

DVVHVVPHQW LGHQWLILHG WKH TXDOLW\ LVVXHV IRU HDFK HOHPHQW RI


H[LVWLQJ /$6 LQ WKH FRXQWU\ $OL DQG 1DVLU D E $OL HW
DO ZKLFKDUHV\QWKHVLVHGEHORZ
5.3.1 Synthesis of Institutional Aspect
7KH TXDOLW\ LVVXHV LQ WKH H[LVWLQJ /$6 DV LGHQWLILHG IRU HDFK
HOHPHQW RI LQVWLWXWLRQDO DVSHFW KLJKOLJKWLQJ WKH LPSRUWDQW RQHV LQ
LWDOLFDUHVXPPDULVHGLQ7DEOH
7DEOH4XDOLW\VLWXDWLRQRILQVWLWXWLRQDODVSHFW
Elements

Quality Indicators

Quality Situation

x5HGXFWLRQLQODQGGLVSXWHV
x(TXDODFFHVVWRODQGRIILFHV
x,QFUHDVHGODQGYDOXHV
Tenure
security

x,QFUHDVHGDFFHVVWRIRUPDO
FUHGLWV

8QFOHDU

x2ZQHUVSHUFHSWLRQDERXW
WHQXUHVHFXULW\
x5ROHRI,VODPLFWHQXUHV\VWHP
x7\SHVRIIRUPDOO\DQG
LQIRUPDOO\UHFRJQLVHGULJKWV
/DQGSROLF\

x3URYLQFHDQGSRSXODWLRQ
FRYHUHGE\IRUPDOV\VWHP
x([LVWHQFHRIODQGSROLF\

8QFOHDU

x$FFHVVWRODQGULJKWV
x/DQGXVHSROLF\
x/DQGULJKWXVHDQGYDOXDWLRQ
x5HJLVWUDWLRQPHFKDQLVP
/HJDO
IUDPHZRUN

x/HJLWLPLVDWLRQRI*RYW
UHJXODWLRQV
x/HJLVODWLRQJRYHUQLQJODQG
DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ


&RPSOH[

Chapter 5: Discussing the Quality Assessment Framework

x/HYHORIGLVSXWHVRYHUODQG
Land dispute
resolution

x7LPHWDNHQWRUHVROYHODQG
GLVSXWH

&RPSOH[

x3URFHGXUHVIRUODQGGLVSXWH
UHVROXWLRQ
x6WUDWHJLFWDUJHWV

6WUDWHJLF
SODQV

x5HYLHZRIREMHFWLYHVDQG
VWUDWHJLHV
x6WUDWHJLFDQGGHYHORSPHQW
SODQVIRU,7DGRSWLRQ

8QFOHDU

x$QDO\VLVRIXVHUVQHHGDQG
WKHLUUROH
x([LVWHQFHRIODQGERDUG
2UJDQLVDWLRQ
DQG
PDQGDWHV

x2UJDQLVDWLRQVWUXFWXUH
x0DQGDWHVDOORFDWLRQ

&OHDU

x&XVWRPHUUHODWLRQ
x+XPDQUHVRXUFHFDSDFLW\
+XPDQ
UHVRXUFH
GHYHORSPHQW

x+XPDQUHVRXUFH
GHYHORSPHQWIDFLOLWLHV

,QDGHTXDWH

x(IIRUWVWDNHQIRUKXPDQ
UHVRXUFHGHYHORSPHQW
x&ODULW\DQGVLPSOLFLW\

x5HOLDELOLW\
Land
x6HFXULW\
administration
x7LPHOLQHVV
processes
x/DQGUHJLVWUDWLRQSURFHVV

&RPSOH[

x/DQGVXUYH\LQJSURFHVV

&RRUGLQDWLRQ
DQGGDWD
VKDULQJ

x,QVWLWXWLRQDODQG
RUJDQLVDWLRQDODUUDQJHPHQWV
x&RRSHUDWLRQDQG
FRPPXQLFDWLRQ
x3ULYDWHVHFWRULQYROYHPHQW


&OHDU

Chapter 5: Discussing the Quality Assessment Framework

x)RUHLJQ H[WHUQDO IXQGLQJ


Financing
and data
costs

x7D[FROOHFWLRQ
x)HHVWUXFWXUH

,QDGHTXDWH

x)LQDQFLDOUHVRXUFHV
Tenure Security: 7KH WHQXUH VHFXULW\ VLWXDWLRQ LV IRXQG XQFOHDU
DVDZKROHGXHWRWKHIDFWWKDWWKHV\VWHPZDVGHYHORSHGLQWKH
SDVWIRUUHYHQXHFROOHFWLRQSXUSRVHRQO\DQGQRVSHFLILFDWWHQWLRQ
ZDV JLYHQ WR WHQXUH VHFXULW\ 7KH ODQG RZQHUV SHUFHSWLRQ DERXW
VHFXULW\ RI WHQXUH LV IRXQG XQFOHDU DV WKH ODQG RZQHUV IHOW WKHLU
ULJKWVXQVHFXUHLQH[LVWLQJV\VWHP7KHLQFUHDVLQJQXPEHURIODQG
GLVSXWHV DV DQDO\VHG LQ GLIIHUHQW SHULRGV RI WLPH DOVR UHYHDOHG
WKDWWKHLVVXHRIWHQXUHVHFXULW\KDVQRWEHHQWDFNOHGHIIHFWLYHO\LQ
SUHVHQW V\VWHP 7KH ODQG PDUNHW DQG DFFHVV WR IRUPDO FUHGLW
DVSHFWVDUHIRXQGLQSRRUFRQGLWLRQVGXHWRSUREOHPVLQDFFHVVWR
ODQGLQIRUPDWLRQIRUDFRPPRQFLWL]HQ
Land Policy: 7KHUH LV QR FRPSUHKHQVLYH ODQG SROLF\ DW QDWLRQDO
OHYHO UDWKHU WKDQ D QXPEHU RI ODQG ODZV DQG DFWV VXFK DV /DQG
5HIRUPV 5HJXODWLRQ  /DQG 5HYHQXH $FW  DQG /DQG
&RQVROLGDWLRQ$FWHWF$OOWKHVHODZVDQGDFWVDUHPRGLILHG
ZLWK PLQRU DPHQGPHQWV WR LPSOHPHQW LW DW SURYLQFLDO OHYHO 7KH
ODQG SROLF\ VLWXDWLRQ LV DOVR REVHUYHG XQFOHDU GXH WR
HTXLYRFDOQHVVLQGHILQLQJGLIIHUHQWIRUPVRIIRUPDOO\DQGLQIRUPDOO\
UHFRJQLVHGULJKWVLQODQG,WLVIRXQGWKDWOHJDOO\WKHUHJXODWLRQVLQ
H[LVWLQJODQGSROLF\DGGUHVVHTXLW\DQGIDLUQHVVRQDFFHVVWRODQG
ULJKWV ODQG UHIRUP  LQODQG ODZV DQG DFWV EXW SUDFWLFDOO\ LW LV QRW
7KH OHJDO DQG UHJXODWRU\ IUDPHZRUN WR DVVXUH WKH VHFXULW\ DQG
DVVXUDQFH RI ODQG IRU WKH LQYHVWRUV LV REVHUYHG YHU\ ZHDN LQ
H[LVWLQJODQGSROLF\



Chapter 5: Discussing the Quality Assessment Framework

Legal Framework: 7KH H[LVWLQJ OHJDO IUDPHZRUN IRU ODQG


PDQDJHPHQW LQ VWXG\ DUHD LV ZLWQHVVHG FRPSOH[ ZLWK OHVV
FOHDUQHVV DQG WUDQVSDUHQF\ 7KH VWDWXV RI OHJLVODWLRQ JRYHUQLQJ
ODQG DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ LQ H[LVWLQJ /$6 LV IRXQG RXWGDWHG DQG
VFDWWHUHG DPRQJ PDQ\ ODZV ZKLFK DOZD\V FDXVH GLIILFXOWLHV LQ
SURSHU LPSOHPHQWDWLRQ DQG HQIRUFHPHQW RI WKHVH ODZV 7KH OHJDO
IUDPHZRUN GRHV QRW SURYLGH HQRXJK FOHDUQHVV DQG WUDQVSDUHQF\
RQ ODQG KROGLQJV 7KH ZKROH VWUXFWXUH RI ODQG YDOXDWLRQ DQG
WD[DWLRQ IRU JDWKHULQJ ODQG UHYHQXHV LV QHLWKHU GHILQHG QRU
HQIRUFHG HIIHFWLYHO\ )XUWKHUPRUH WKH YDOXDWLRQ PHWKRG IRU ODQG
WD[DWLRQGRHVQRWILWWRVRFLHWDOQHHGVRIDOOWKHVWDNHKROGHUV
Land

Dispute

Resolution: 7KH ODQG FRQIOLFW UHVROXWLRQ

PHFKDQLVP LQ 3DNLVWDQ LV QRWLFHDEOH FRPSOLFDWHG DQG WDNHV ORQJ


WLPH WR UHVROYH WKHVHODQGGLVSXWHV7KHODQG GLVSXWHVUHVROXWLRQ
PHFKDQLVP LQ WKH VWXG\ DUHD LV DOVR IRXQG WLPH FRQVXPLQJ DQG
KLJKFRVWVZKLFKDOZD\VFDXVHGHOD\VLQUHVROYLQJODQGGLVSXWHV
7KHODQGUHODWHGPDWWHUVDUHJRYHUQHGXQGHUWZRSDUDOOHOV\VWHPV
RIDGMXGLFDWLRQXQGHUWKHUHYHQXHFRXUWVDQGFLYLOFRXUWV7KHULVN
FDXVHG E\ WKH WZR SDUDOOHO PRGHV RI DGMXGLFDWLRQ FRQWULEXWHV
WRZDUGV GHOD\HG DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ RI MXVWLFH KLQGHULQJ LQYHVWPHQWV
DQG LQFUHDVHG WUDQVDFWLRQ FRVWV 7KH VWDNHKROGHUV SRLQWHG RXW
WKDWODQGGLVSXWHVUHVROXWLRQSURFHGXUHVDUHQRWFOHDUWRWKHPDQG
WKH\GRQRWNQRZZKRVKRXOGEHFRQVXOWHGLQZKLFKFDVH
Strategic Plans:7KHGHYHORSPHQWRIVWUDWHJLFSODQVIRUGHILQLQJ
DQG DFKLHYLQJ WKH VWUDWHJLF WDUJHWV LV REVHUYHG XQFOHDU 7KH
H[LVWHQFH RI VWUDWHJLF DQG GHYHORSPHQW SODQV IRU *HR,&7
DGRSWLRQ LV DOVR DGYRFDWHG E\ %25 RIILFLDOV 7KHUH LV QR
PHFKDQLVP IRU UHJXODU UHYLHZ RI REMHFWLYHV DQG VWUDWHJLHV WR
DFKLHYHWDUJHWVDQGPDNHWKHVWUDWHJLFSODQVPRUHHIIHFWLYH,WLV
DOVRREVHUYHGLQWKDWQRGHYHORSPHQWSODQH[LVWVIRUWKHDGRSWLRQ


Chapter 5: Discussing the Quality Assessment Framework

RI LQIRUPDWLRQ WHFKQRORJ\ DQG DQDO\VLQJ XVHUV QHHGV LQ SUHVHQW


V\VWHP
Organisation and Mandates: ,W LV VHHQ WKDW %25 LV WKH RQO\
RUJDQLVDWLRQ LQ WKH FRXQWU\ DW SURYLQFLDO OHYHO ZLWK D PDQGDWH WR
PDQDJH ODQG GDWD 7KH %25 ZRUNV XQGHU WKH SURYLQFLDO
JRYHUQPHQW DQG WKHLU PDQGDWHV DUH GHILQHG E\ WKH SURYLQFLDO
JRYHUQPHQW7KHRUJDQLVDWLRQDOVWUXFWXUHDQGPDQGDWHVDOORFDWLRQ
HOHPHQW LV IRXQG FOHDU LQ ODQG DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ DJHQF\ 7KH %25
RIILFLDOV WROG WKDW WKHVH PDQGDWHV DUH FOHDU DQG PDQDJHDEOH +H
DOVR DFFHSWHG WKDW WKH PDQGDWHV DUH QRW RYHUODSSLQJ DQG WKH
DOORFDWLRQRIWKHVHPDQGDWHVUHIOHFWVDZHOOEDODQFHGDSSURDFKWR
GHFHQWUDOLVDWLRQ)XUWKHUPRUHWKHRUJDQLVDWLRQDOVWUXFWXUHRI%25
LVVHHQZHOOGHVLJQHGIRUH[HFXWLRQRIZRUNSURFHVVHV
Human

Resource

Development: 7KH KXPDQ UHVRXUFH

GHYHORSPHQW LVVXH LV QRWLFHG LQDGHTXDWH DV WKLV LVVXH LV QRW
FRQVLGHUHG HIIHFWLYHO\ LQ H[LVWLQJ /$6 ,W LV QRWHG WKDW RQO\ RQH
WUDLQLQJ VFKRRO LV DYDLODEOH DW SURYLQFLDO OHYHO ZLWK OHVV WUDLQLQJ
IDFLOLWLHVIRUWKHWUDLQLQJRI%25VWDII1RHIIRUWVDUHFDUULHGRXWLQ
SUHVHQW V\VWHP WR GHYHORS KXPDQ UHVRXUFH FDSDFLW\ ERWK DW
LQGLYLGXDO DQG RUJDQLVDWLRQDO OHYHOV ,W LV DOVR IRXQG WKDW WKH
TXDOLILFDWLRQFULWHULDIRUDSSRLQWPHQWVRIVWDIILQODQGDGPLQLVWUDWLRQ
DJHQF\ DUH QRW XSGDWHG WR RYHUFRPH QHZ FKDOOHQJHV RQ KXPDQ
UHVRXUFHGHYHORSPHQWVLGH
Land Administration Processes: 7KH ODQG DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ
SURFHVVVLWXDWLRQLVREVHUYHGFRPSOH[LQVWXG\DUHD,WLVHYLGHQW
IURP WKH ILHOGZRUN GDWD WKDW PRVW RI WKHVH ODQG DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ
SURFHVVHVDUHQRWFOHDUDQGVLPSOHIRUWKHVWDNHKROGHUVWRHDVLO\
XQGHUVWDQG 7KH VHFXULW\ DQG IDLUQHVV LVVXHV RI ODQG
DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ SURFHVVHV DUH QRWLFHG YHU\ ZHDN 0RVW RI WKH
VWDNHKROGHUVTXHVWLRQHGDERXWWKHUHOLDELOLW\RIODQGDGPLQLVWUDWLRQ


Chapter 5: Discussing the Quality Assessment Framework

SURFHVVHV DQG ODQG UHFRUGV )XUWKHUPRUH WKH WLPH SHULRG IRU


XSGDWLQJODQGLQIRUPDWLRQLQGLIIHUHQWODQGUHJLVWHUVDQGFDGDVWUDO
PDSVLVIRXQGYHU\ORQJLQWKHSUHVHQWV\VWHP
Coordination and Data Sharing: 7KH FRRUGLQDWLRQ DQG GDWD
VKDULQJ HOHPHQW LV IRXQG FOHDU LQ H[LVWLQJ /$6 7KH %25 KDV LWV
RZQ LQVWLWXWLRQDO DQG RUJDQLVDWLRQDO DUUDQJHPHQWV DW SURYLQFLDO
OHYHOWRFDUU\RXWODQG UHODWHG DFWLYLWLHV 7KHVH DUUDQJHPHQWV DUH
IXUWKHU QDUURZHG GRZQ DW ORFDO OHYHO LQ HDFK GLVWULFW XQGHU WKH
%25 RUJDQLVDWLRQDO VHWXS WR SUHSDUH DQG PDLQWDLQ ODQG UHFRUGV
ORFDOO\,WLVREVHUYHGWKDWQRSULYDWHVHFWRULVLQYROYHGLQSUHVHQW
V\VWHPWRFDUU\RXWDQ\ODQGUHODWHGDFWLYLWLHVLQWKHSURYLQFH
Financing and Data Costs: 7KH ILQDQFLQJ DQG GDWD FRVWV
HOHPHQW LV REVHUYHG LQDGHTXDWH LQ H[LVWLQJ V\VWHP 7KH %25
RIILFLDOV DJUHHG WKDWWKH ILQDQFLDO DUUDQJHPHQWV DUH LQVXIILFLHQW WR
IXOILO WKHLU EXVLQHVV UHTXLUHPHQW 7KH VWDNHKROGHUV DOVR VKRZHG
WKHLU GLVDJUHHPHQW ZLWK IHHV DQG FRVWV VWUXFWXUH LQ H[LVWLQJ /$6
)XUWKHUPRUHWKHDVVHVVPHQWRIH[LVWLQJIXQGLQJVLWXDWLRQDQGWKH
ILQDQFLDO UHVRXUFH DOORFDWLRQ LV IRXQG XQHTXDO LQ WKH SUHVHQW
V\VWHP
7KHTXDOLW\VLWXDWLRQIRUHOHPHQWVRIWKHLQVWLWXWLRQDODVSHFWLQWKH
H[LVWLQJ /$6 RI 3DNLVWDQ LV IRXQG XQFOHDU LQDGHTXDWH DQG
FRPSOH[$OOWKHFRQFHUQHGLVVXHVDQGSUREOHPVUHODWLQJWRTXDOLW\
RI WKH V\VWHP DUH KLJKOLJKWHG LQ WKLV UHJDUG E\ FROOHFWLQJ
TXDOLWDWLYH DV ZHOO DV TXDQWLWDWLYH GDWD LQ WKH ILHOG 7KLV
DVVHVVPHQWDQDO\VHGDOOWKHTXDOLW\LVVXHVLQWKHSUHVHQWV\VWHP
RQ WKH LQVWLWXWLRQDO DVSHFW VLGH 7KLV DQDO\VLV ZLOO DVVLVW LQ WKH
GHYHORSPHQWRITXDOLW\LPSURYHPHQWJXLGHOLQHVWRRYHUFRPHWKHVH
TXDOLW\ LVVXHV DQG XOWLPDWHO\ LPSURYH WKH TXDOLW\ RI /$6 DV SHU
TXDOLW\UHTXLUHPHQWV



Chapter 5: Discussing the Quality Assessment Framework

5.3.2 Synthesis of Technical Aspect


7KH TXDOLW\ LVVXHV LQ WKH H[LVWLQJ /$6 DV LGHQWLILHG IRU HDFK
HOHPHQW RI WHFKQLFDO DVSHFW KLJKOLJKWLQJ WKH LPSRUWDQW RQHV LQ
LWDOLFDUHVXPPDULVHGLQ7DEOH
7DEOH4XDOLW\VLWXDWLRQRIWHFKQLFDODVSHFW
Elements

Quality Indicators

x$FFHVVWRGDWD
8VHUVQHHGV x$YDLODELOLW\RIUHTXLUHG
GDWD

Quality Situation
,QDGHTXDWH

x3UHVHQW*,6VWDWXV
Technology
adoption

x'LJLWDOGDWDDYDLODELOLW\
x+DUGZDUH VRIWZDUH

,QDGHTXDWH

x&DSDFLW\EXLOGLQJ
x&RYHUDJHDQG
FRPSOHWHQHVV
Data
organisation

x3URWHFWLRQ

,QDGHTXDWH

x8SGDWLRQ
x$YDLODELOLW\
x6KDULQJ
x)DFLOLWLHVIRUHGXFDWLRQ
DQGWUDLQLQJ

7UDLQLQJDQG x&ROODERUDWLRQZLWK
GHYHORSPHQW
HGXFDWLRQDOLQVWLWXWLRQV

,QDGHTXDWH

x&ROODERUDWLRQZLWK
UHVHDUFKLQVWLWXWLRQV
/DQG
LQIRUPDWLRQ
V\VWHP
GHVLJQ

x6WUXFWXUDOGHILQLWLRQRIWKH
V\VWHP
x&RQVXOWDWLRQZLWKIRUHLJQ 8QFOHDU
H[WHUQDO DJHQFLHV
x&RQVLVWHQF\


Chapter 5: Discussing the Quality Assessment Framework

x,QIRUPDWLRQIORZ
Workflows for
x*RRGPDQDJHPHQW
LA processes
x3HUIRUPDQFHPRQLWRULQJ

8QFOHDU

x(YDOXDWLRQ
Quality
standards

x1DWLRQDO,QWHUQDWLRQDO
VWDQGDUGV
x4XDOLW\FRQWURO

,QDGHTXDWH

x$FFXUDF\
x&RYHUDJH
6HUYLFHVDQG x6HUYLFHGHOLYHU\
SURGXFWV
x(IILFLHQF\

,QDGHTXDWH

Users Needs: 7KH XVHUV QHHGV DQDO\VLV HOHPHQW LV QRWLFHG


LQDGHTXDWH LQ H[LVWLQJ V\VWHP 0RVW RI WKH VWDNHKROGHUV SRLQWHG
RXW GLIILFXOWLHV LQ DFFHVV WR WKHLU ODQG UHFRUGV 7KH VWDNHKROGHUV
VDLG WKDW WKH SUHVHQW V\VWHP GRHV QRW SURYLGH QHFHVVDU\ GDWD
DFFRUGLQJWRWKHLUQHHGV7KH\DOVRGHPDQGHGIRUWKHDYDLODELOLW\
RIWKHLUUHTXLUHGODQGGDWDZLWKOHVVFRVWDQGWLPHDWORFDOOHYHO
Technology Adoption: 7KH VWDWXV RI *HRJUDSKLF ,QIRUPDWLRQ
6\VWHP *,6  LV REVHUYHG LQDGHTXDWH LQ H[LVWLQJ V\VWHP 7KH
DYDLODELOLW\ RI VRIWZDUH  KDUGZDUH IDFLOLWLHV IRU ODQG UHFRUG
GDWDEDVHPDQDJHPHQWDQGH[LVWHQFHRIVXIILFLHQWWUDLQHGVWDIILQ
WHUP RI FDSDFLW\ EXLOGLQJ LV DOVR IRXQG LQVXIILFLHQW LQ WKH SUHVHQW
V\VWHP 7KH DGRSWLRQ RI ODWHVW WHFKQRORJ\ LQ H[LVWLQJ V\VWHP LV
DFFHSWHGE\DOOWKHVWDNHKROGHUVDQG%25RIILFLDOV
Data Organisation: 7KH GDWD RUJDQLVDWLRQ HOHPHQW RI H[LVWLQJ
/$6LVREVHUYHGLQDGHTXDWHLQVWXG\DUHD,WLVVHHQWKDWWKH%25
LV WKH RQO\ DXWKRULW\ DW SURYLQFLDO OHYHO ZKLFK LV UHVSRQVLEOH IRU
NHHSLQJ DQG XSGDWLQJ ODQG UHFRUGV $OWKRXJK ODQG UHFRUGV LV
PDLQWDLQHG DW ORFDO OHYHO LQ HDFK GLVWULFW EXW LPSURSHU


Chapter 5: Discussing the Quality Assessment Framework

PDLQWHQDQFH RI WKHVH ODQG UHFRUGV OHDGV WR ORW RI GLIILFXOWLHV LQ
PDQDJLQJ WKHVH UHFRUG 7KH VWDNHKROGHUV VDLG WKDW LPSURSHU
PDLQWHQDQFHRIODQGUHFRUGVDQGLQWHUSRODWLRQVLQUHFRUGRIULJKWV
FRQWULEXWH PRVW RI GLIILFXOWLHV FRQFHUQLQJ WKH SURWHFWLRQ RI ODQG
GDWD7KHVWRUDJHRIODQGUHFRUGVLVPDGHRQO\DWORFDOOHYHOZKLFK
LV DOZD\V GDQJHURXV ZKHUH WKHUH DUH FKDQFHV WKDW WKH HQWLUH
UHFRUG PLJKW EH ZLSHG RXW GXH WR ILUH RU IORRGV 7KH DFFHVV WR
WKHVH ODQG UHFRUGV LV DOVR REVHUYHG YHU\ GLIILFXOW IRU WKH
VWDNHKROGHUV
Training and Development: 7KH LQVWLWXWLRQDO DQG KXPDQ
FDSDFLW\ EXLOGLQJ LV IRXQG LQDGHTXDWH LQ WHUP RI WUDLQLQJ DQG
GHYHORSPHQW LQ H[LVWLQJ V\VWHP ,W LV QRWLFHG WKDW WKHUH LV QR
FROODERUDWLRQ EHWZHHQ %25 DQG RWKHU UHVHDUFK DQG HGXFDWLRQDO
LQVWLWXWLRQV WR LPSURYH KXPDQ FDSDFLW\ RI ODQG DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ
DJHQF\LQWKHSURYLQFH
Land Information System Design: 7KHODQGLQIRUPDWLRQV\VWHP
GHVLJQHOHPHQWRIH[LVWLQJ/$6LVREVHUYHGXQFOHDULQWHUPVRIWKH
VWUXFWXUDO GHILQLWLRQ RI WKH V\VWHP 7KH H[LVWLQJ V\VWHP LV DOVR
IRXQG YHU\ ZHDN LQ FRQVXOWDWLRQ ZLWK IRUHLJQ H[WHUQDO  DJHQFLHV
DQG FRQVLVWHQF\ ZLWK QHZ GHYHORSPHQWV LQ *,6 WHFKQRORJ\ 7KH
%25 RIILFLDO UHFRPPHQGHG WKDW QHZ FRQFHSWV DQG LGHDV VKRXOG
EH EURXJKW LQWR FRQVLGHUDWLRQ WR LPSURYH WKH SHUIRUPDQFH RI WKH
V\VWHP
Workflows for Land Administration Processes: 7KH LQWHUQDO
DQGH[WHUQDOLQIRUPDWLRQIORZLQH[LVWLQJV\VWHPLVQRWLFHGXQFOHDU
/HVV FRRUGLQDWHGHIIRUWV RI DOO WKH VWDNHKROGHUV LV IRXQG WR VKDUH
WKHLU YDOXDEOH FRPPHQWV DQG NQRZOHGJH WR LPSURYH WKH
SHUIRUPDQFH RI H[LVWLQJ /$6 )XUWKHUPRUH WKH SHUIRUPDQFH
PRQLWRULQJ V\VWHP IRU WKH ZRUNIORZV RI ODQG DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ
SURFHVVHVLVREVHUYHGLQDSSURSULDWHWRZDUGJRRGSHUIRUPDQFH


Chapter 5: Discussing the Quality Assessment Framework

Quality Standards: 7KH TXDOLW\ VWDQGDUGV HOHPHQW LV QRWLFHG


LQDGHTXDWH LQ WKH H[LVWLQJ /$6 RI 3DNLVWDQ 7KH TXDOLW\ RI
FDGDVWUDO PDS LV TXHVWLRQHG E\ WKH VWDNHKROGHUV GXH WR
XQDYDLODELOLW\ RI TXDOLW\ VWDQGDUGV WR FUHDWH DQG PDLQWDLQ WKHVH
FDGDVWUDO PDSV 1R SHUIRUPDQFH PRQLWRULQJ V\VWHP LV IRXQG WR
PRQLWRU WKH SHUIRUPDQFH RI ODQG DJHQF\ ERWK LQWHUQDOO\ DQG
H[WHUQDOO\ )XUWKHUPRUH QR TXDOLW\ SDUDPHWHU PDWUL[ LV IRXQG WR
PDLQWDLQDQGLWLVREVHUYHGWKDWDOOWKHSURFHVVHVDUHFDUULHG RXW
RQFRQYHQWLRQDOPDQQHUV
Services and Products: 7KH VHUYLFHV DQG SURGXFWV GHOLYHU\
HOHPHQW LV REVHUYHG LQDGHTXDWH LQ WKH SUHVHQW V\VWHP 0RVW RI
WKH VWDNHKROGHUV GHPDQGHG IRU SURYLVLRQ RI DOO WKH SURGXFWV DQG
VHUYLFHV DW ORFDO OHYHO ,W LV IRXQG GXULQJ WKH ILHOGZRUN WKDW WKH
TXDOLW\ RI VHUYLFHV DQG SURGXFWV LV DIIHFWHG E\ XQDYDLODELOLW\ RI
VXIILFLHQWRIILFHVDQGLQIUDVWUXFWXUHDWORFDOOHYHO
7KLV DVVHVVPHQW SRLQWHG RXW DOO WKH TXDOLW\ LVVXHV RQ WKH SDUW RI
WKH WHFKQLFDO DVSHFW IRU WKH SUHVHQW /$6 LQ WKH FRXQWU\ 7KH
TXDOLW\VLWXDWLRQIRUDOOWKHHOHPHQWVRIWHFKQLFDODVSHFWLVIRXQGDV
DZKROHXQFOHDURULQDGHTXDWH$OOWKHVHLVVXHVIRUWKHLQVWLWXWLRQDO
DVSHFWPXVWEHLQFOXGHGLQWKHTXDOLW\LPSURYHPHQWJXLGHOLQHVWR
LPSURYHWKHTXDOLW\





Quality Improvement Guidelines



Chapter 6: Quality Improvement Guidelines

6.1

LAS Quality Improvement Framework

,W LV PHQWLRQHG HDUOLHU WKDW WKH V\VWHPDWLF SURFHVV RI TXDOLW\
LQFOXGHV WKH GHYHORSPHQW RI 4XDOLW\ ,QVSHFWLRQ 4,  WKURXJK
4XDOLW\ &RQWURO 4&  ZLWKLQ WKH FRQWH[W RI V\VWHPV RI 4XDOLW\
$VVXUDQFH 4$ XQGHUWKHZLGHUPDQDJHPHQWDSSURDFKRI7RWDO
4XDOLW\0DQDJHPHQW 740  'DV0XOP ,QWKLVZD\740
LVWKHWRWDORIDFWLYLWLHVDQGPHWKRGVXVHGE\DQRUJDQLVDWLRQDWDOO
LWV RUJDQLVDWLRQDO OHYHOV LQ RUGHU WR IXOILO WKH UHTXLUHPHQWV RI D
FOLHQWXVHUZLWKOHDVWFRVW /DNDNLVHWDO ,QWKLVZD\740
FDQEHXVHGDVDQHIILFLHQWWRROWRLPSURYHWKHTXDOLW\RIDZKROH
V\VWHPFRQVLGHULQJDOOLWVFRPSRQHQWV7KHUHIRUHWKHSULQFLSOHVRI
740 PXVW EH DSSOLHG DW DOO RUJDQLVDWLRQDO OHYHOV SROLF\ OHYHO
PDQDJHPHQW OHYHO DQG RSHUDWLRQDO OHYHO  RI /$6 WR LPSURYH WKH
TXDOLW\RIWKHV\VWHPDVDZKROH
740 LQYROYHV HPSOR\HH LQYROYHPHQW DQG WHDPZRUN LQ RUGHU WR
GHYHORSDV\VWHPWKDWPHHWVWKHQHHGVRISURGXFWTXDOLW\SURFHVV
TXDOLW\DQGRUJDQLVDWLRQDOTXDOLW\,QWKLVZD\740LQFOXGHVDVHW
RI SULQFLSOHV WRROV DQG SURFHGXUHV WKDW SURYLGH JXLGDQFH LQ WKH
SUDFWLFDODIIDLUVRIUXQQLQJDQRUJDQLVDWLRQ$OOWKHPHPEHUVRIDQ
RUJDQLVDWLRQDUHLQYROYHGLQ740IRUFRQWUROOLQJDQGFRQWLQXRXVO\
LPSURYLQJKRZZRUNLVGRQH 0DDV 7KLVLPSOLHVWKDW740
VKRXOG EH LQFRUSRUDWHG QRW RQO\ LQ HYHU\ SURGXFW RU VHUYLFH EXW
DOVRWRDOODFWLYLWLHVFDUULHGRXWDWGLIIHUHQWRUJDQLVDWLRQDOOHYHOVRI
/$6
7KH EDVLF FRPSRQHQWV DQG DFWLRQV RI 740 DUH FRQWLQXRXV
LPSURYHPHQWSDUWLFLSDWLRQRIFOLHQWVDQGVXSSOLHUVSDUWLFLSDWLRQRI
DOO OHYHOV RI WKH RUJDQLVDWLRQ HYDOXDWLRQ RI SHUIRUPDQFH WHDP
ZRUN DQG LQYROYHPHQW RI DOO WKH SHUVRQQHO ,W PHDQV WKDW WKH
ZKROH VWUXFWXUH RI D V\VWHP VKRXOG EH FRQVLGHUHG ZKLOH
LQWURGXFLQJ WKH FRQFHSW RI 740 LQ D V\VWHP  VWDUWLQJ IURP LQSXW


Chapter 6: Quality Improvement Guidelines

WKURXJK WKH SURFHVVLQJ WR WKH ILQDO SURGXFWVHUYLFHV 6LQFH D


V\VWHP RI ODQG DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ DOVR FRPSULVHV DOO WKHVH EDVLF
FRPSRQHQWV D VHW RI TXDOLW\ LPSURYHPHQW JXLGHOLQHV LV WKXV
UHTXLUHGWRLPSOHPHQWWKHFRQFHSWRI740DQGXOWLPDWHO\LPSURYH
WKHTXDOLW\RIWKHV\VWHP)XUWKHUPRUHDOOWKHRUJDQLVDWLRQOHYHOV
PXVWEHEURXJKWLQWRFRQVLGHUDWLRQZKLOHDGRSWLQJWKHFRQFHSWRI
740 ZLWKLQ RUJDQLVDWLRQ VLQFH DOO WKH EDVLF FRPSRQHQWV DQG
DFWLRQVRI740FRQWULEXWHWRGLIIHUHQWOHYHOVRIDQRUJDQLVDWLRQ
,Q FDVH RI ODQG DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ V\VWHPV LW LV PRVW LPSRUWDQW WR
GHYHORS TXDOLW\ LPSURYHPHQW JXLGHOLQHV E\ FRQVLGHULQJ DOO WKH
RUJDQLVDWLRQDO OHYHOV VR WKDW DOO WKH SURFHVVHV DQG VWDNHKROGHUV
FRXOGEHEURXJKWLQWRFRQVLGHUDWLRQWRLPSURYHLWVTXDOLW\RIWKHVH
V\VWHPV7KHUHIRUHDOOWKHVHTXDOLW\LPSURYHPHQWJXLGHOLQHVPXVW
EH GHYHORSHG ZLWKLQ WKH S\UDPLG RI RUJDQLVDWLRQDO OHYHOV E\
DGRSWLQJ V\VWHPDWLF SURFHVV RI TXDOLW\ XQGHU WKH ZLGHU
PDQDJHPHQW DSSURDFK RI 740 $ IUDPHZRUN IRU LPSURYLQJ WKH
TXDOLW\ RI /$6 LQ RUGHU WR GUDZ WKHVH TXDOLW\ LPSURYHPHQW
JXLGHOLQHV LV VKRZQ LQ )LJXUH  ,Q WKLV IUDPHZRUN WKH PRVW
LPSRUWDQW HOHPHQWV RI /$6 LQ 3DNLVWDQ DUH KLJKOLJKWHG LQ LWDOLF
ZKLOHWKHFRQWULEXWLQJHOHPHQWVRI/$6DUHLQQRUPDOIRQW



Chapter 6: Quality Improvement Guidelines


)LJXUH/$64XDOLW\,PSURYHPHQW)UDPHZRUN
)URP WKH OLWHUDWXUH UHYLHZ DQG WKH ILHOGZRUN GDWD FROOHFWHG LQ WKH
ILHOG LW LV HYLGHQW WKDW LQ FDVH RI /$6 WKH 4XDOLW\ ,QVSHFWLRQ
IRFXVHV RQ WKH WHFKQLFDO LVVXHV FRQFHUQLQJ WKH H[LVWLQJ V\VWHP
DQGDGRSWLQJQHZWHFKQRORJLHVIRURYHUFRPLQJWKRVHLVVXHV7KLV
LVPRVWO\FRQFHUQHGZLWKWKHRSHUDWLRQDOOHYHORI/$6ZKHUHPRVW
RI WKH SURGXFWV RU VHUYLFHV DUH GHOLYHUHG DW WKH XVHUV HQG 7KH
4XDOLW\ &RQWURO FRQFHQWUDWHV RQ LVVXHV DW PDQDJHPHQW OHYHO VR
WKDW WKH TXDOLW\ RI SURGXFW RU VHUYLFH FDQ EH PHDVXUHG DQG
HYDOXDWHG7KH4XDOLW\$VVXUDQFHSOD\VDQLPSRUWDQWUROHDWWKH
SROLF\OHYHOZKHUHDVHWRIUXOHVDQGUHJXODWLRQVKRXOGEHGHILQHG
WR HQVXUH WKH TXDOLW\ RI SURGXFWV RU VHUYLFHV 7KHUHIRUH WKH
GHYHORSPHQW RI WKHVH TXDOLW\ LPSURYHPHQW JXLGHOLQHV LQ WKLV
GLUHFWLRQ ZLOO KHOS WR LPSOHPHQW WKH FRQFHSW RI 740 ZLWKLQ WKH
ZKROH VWUXFWXUH RI ODQG DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ V\VWHP IRU LPSURYLQJ WKH
TXDOLW\RIWKHV\VWHP
%DVHGRQWKHDQDO\VLVDQGUHVXOWVREWDLQHGIURPWKLVUHVHDUFK D
VHW RI TXDOLW\ LPSURYHPHQW JXLGHOLQHV LV GHYHORSHG IRU LPSURYLQJ
WKH TXDOLW\ RI GHWHULRUDWHG /$6 LQ 3DNLVWDQ 7KH GHVLJQ RI WKHVH


Chapter 6: Quality Improvement Guidelines

TXDOLW\ LPSURYHPHQW JXLGHOLQHV LV YDU\LQJ IURP V\VWHP WR V\VWHP


GHSHQGLQJ RQ WKH H[LVWLQJ VLWXDWLRQ RI /$6 ZLWKLQ WKH FRXQWU\ LQ
ZKLFKWKHV\VWHPLVEHLQJH[DPLQHG
6.2

Quality Improvement Guidelines on Quality Inspection

4XDOLW\ LPSURYHPHQW JXLGHOLQHV GHDOLQJ ZLWK 4, VWDJH RI 740 LQ
/$6 DUH WUHDWHG E\ WKH VWDNHKROGHUV DW RSHUDWLRQDO OHYHO 7KH
VWDNHKROGHUV DW WKLV OHYHO PDLQO\ LQFOXGH WKH RSHUDWLRQDO XQLWV
ZKLFK DUH UHVSRQVLEOH IRU FDUU\LQJ RXW GDLO\ WDVNV RI ODQG
DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ VXFK DV 7HKVLOGDUV DQG 3DWZDULHV IURP %25 VLGH
DQG UHDO HVWDWH DJHQWV DQG ILQDQFLDO LQVWLWXWLRQV OLNH EDQNV IURP
WKH XVHUV VLGH 7KHLU GHFLVLRQV KDYH D VKRUWWHUP HIIHFW WKDW
PRVWO\ GHSHQGHG RQ XVHUV QHHGV DQG WKHLU UHTXLUHPHQWV 7KH
HOHPHQWV RI /$6 FRYHUHG LQ WKLV VWDJH RI 740 LQFOXGH GDWD
RUJDQLVDWLRQXVHUVQHHGVDQDO\VLVWHFKQRORJ\DGRSWLRQWUDLQLQJ
DQG GHYHORSPHQW DQG VHUYLFHV  SURGXFWV RIIHUHG E\ ODQG
DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ DJHQF\ 7KH 4, VWDJH RI 740 LQYHVWLJDWHV WKHVH
HOHPHQWV RI /$6 WR IXOILO GHILFLHQFLHV LQ WKH SUHVHQW V\VWHP DQG
LPSURYHVWKHTXDOLW\RISURGXFWVDQGVHUYLFHVRIIHUHGE\/$67KH
JXLGHOLQHVRQWKH4,VLGHDUH
Adopting New Technology: $SSURSULDWH *,6 WHFKQRORJ\ VKRXOG
EHDGRSWHGWRPDSDQGPDLQWDLQJHRPHWULFDOFDGDVWUDOLQIRUPDWLRQ
ZLWKLQVWUDWHJLFREMHFWLYHV ),*   &DGDVWUDOLQIRUPDWLRQ FDQ
EH FROOHFWHG DQG FDGDVWUDO SDUFHO ERXQGDULHV FDQ EH VXUYH\HG
ZLWKOHVVODERXUWLPHDQGFRVWDVFRPSDUHGWRWKHROGIDVKLRQHG
ILHOGVXUYH\LQJWHFKQLTXHE\LQWHJUDWLQJJOREDOSRVLWLRQLQJV\VWHP
GDWD UHPRWH VHQVLQJ LPDJHU\ DQG H[LVWLQJ FDGDVWUDO PDSV
WKURXJK SDUWLFLSDWRU\ JHRJUDSKLF LQIRUPDWLRQ V\VWHP WHFKQLTXH
$OL$OLDQG$KPHG$OLDQG6KDNLU$OLHWDO
 7HFKQRORJ\PXVWEHDGRSWHGWRPDNHWKHV\VWHPSURFHVV


Chapter 6: Quality Improvement Guidelines

TXLFN DQG SURYLGH IDVW VHUYLFHV DW WKH XVHUV HQG WR IXOILO ODQG
PDUNHW QHHGV IRU HQKDQFHG HFRQRP\ JHQHUDWLRQ DQG XVHUV
VDWLVIDFWLRQ 7KHUH VKRXOG EH HDV\ ZD\V IRU VRUWLQJ DFFHVVLQJ
DQGGLVVHPLQDWLQJWKLVGDWDDWORFDOOHYHOIRUWKHXVHUVWRSURGXFH
HIILFLHQW ODQG PDUNHW ,Q WKLV FRQQHFWLRQ QHZ LQIRUPDWLRQ V\VWHP
FRQFHSWVIRUGDWDPRGHOOLQJDQGSURFHVVPRGHOOLQJVKRXOGEHDOVR
FRQVLGHUHG DV LW FDQ KHOS LQ JDWKHULQJ SURFHVVLQJ VWRULQJ DQG
GLVVHPLQDWLQJ TXDOLW\ GDWD DW DIIRUGDEOH FRVW ,Q WKLV FRQWH[W WKH
SUHVHQWVWDWXVRIWHFKQRORJ\DYDLODELOLW\RIKDUGZDUHDQGVRIWZDUH
IDFLOLWLHV DQG KXPDQ FDSDFLW\ VKRXOG EH FRQVLGHUHG ILUVW ZKLOH
DGRSWLQJ QHZ WHFKQRORJ\ LQ H[LVWLQJ V\VWHP )XUWKHUPRUH WKH
DGRSWLRQ RI *HR,&7 LQ /$6 VKRXOG EH ORRNHG DW DOO WKH WKUHH
RUJDQLVDWLRQDO OHYHOV EHLQJ WKH SROLF\ OHYHO PDQDJHPHQW OHYHO
DQGRSHUDWLRQDOOHYHOLQDFFRUGDQFHZLWKXVHUVQHHGV
Organising Land Data: 2Q GDWD RUJDQLVDWLRQ VLGH WKHUH LV D
QHHG WR VRUW RXW DGHTXDWH GDWD DQG LQIRUPDWLRQ PRGHOV IRU
VXVWDLQDEOHODQGLQIRUPDWLRQPDQDJHPHQW YDQGHU0ROHQ 
/DQG UHFRUGV VKRXOG EH PDLQWDLQHG DW ORFDO OHYHO DQG WKH FRSLHV
VKRXOGEHDOVRNHSWDWFHQWUDOOHYHOVRWKDWRULJLQDOUHFRUGFRXOGEH
UHFRYHUHGLQFDVHRIDQ\WURXEOHVLQODQGUHFRUGVDWORFDOOHYHORU
DQ\ORVWGXHWRRWKHUGLVDVWHUVVXFKDVIORRGDQGILUHHWF6LPLODUO\
WKH LQWURGXFWLRQ RI IURQW GHVN IDFLOLW\ DQG RQH ZLQGRZ RSHUDWLRQ
FDQKHOSWKHVWDNHKROGHUVWRDFFHVVWKHLUODQGUHFRUGVPRUHHDVLO\
DWDOOOHYHOV
Analysing Users Needs:,QRUGHUWRLPSURYHWKHSHUIRUPDQFHRI
/$V\VWHPXVHUVQHHGVVKRXOGEHDQDO\VHGRQUHJXODUEDVLVDQG
D OLVW RI GLIIHUHQW VWDNHKROGHUV VXFK DV SURIHVVLRQDO ODZ\HUV
ILQDQFLDO LQVWLWXWLRQV HWF  DQG QRQSURIHVVLRQDOV ODQG RZQHUV
UHDO HVWDWH DJHQWV HWF  PXVW EH FUHDWHG DQG PDLQWDLQHG WR
XQGHUVWDQGWKHLUQHHGV7KHQHHGVRUUHTXLUHPHQWVRIXVHUVFDQ


Chapter 6: Quality Improvement Guidelines

EH FDSWXUHG LQ D YDULHW\ RI ZD\V VXFK DV GLUHFW GLVFXVVLRQ RU
LQWHUYLHZV VXUYH\V IRFXV JURXSV XVHUV VSHFLILFDWLRQV
REVHUYDWLRQ ZDUUDQW\ GDWD ILHOG UHSRUWV HWF &URZ   7KH
XVHRIPDVVPHGLDFDQDOVRKHOSLQDWWUDFWLQJXVHUVDWWHQWLRQDQG
JLYLQJWKHLULQSXWVWKURXJKGLIIHUHQWTXHVWLRQQDLUHVDQGSDPSKOHWV
DV ZHOO DV RWKHU PHGLD SURJUDPV 7KH XQGHUVWDQGLQJ RI WKHVH
XVHUV QHHGV FDQ EH WKHQ VXPPDULVHG LQ D SURGXFW RU VHUYLFH WR
VDWLVI\WKHLUQHHGV
Improving Services and Products Delivery: $OOWKHVHUYLFHVDQG
SURGXFWV DUH SDUWLDOO\ GHOLYHUHG WR XVHUV DW ORFDO OHYHO. 7KHVH
VHUYLFHVDQGSURGXFWVGHOLYHU\VKRXOG EH PDGH PRUH HIILFLHQW E\
SURYLGLQJ VXIILFLHQW ODQG RIILFHV DQG LQIUDVWUXFWXUH E\ ODQG
DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ DJHQF\ 7KH RUJDQLVDWLRQDO FDSDFLW\ VKRXOG EH
DVVHVVHG LQ WHUPV RI KXPDQ UHVRXUFH DQG EXLOGLQJ LQIUDVWUXFWXUH
WR SURYLGH DOO WKH SURGXFWV DQG VHUYLFHV DW ORFDO OHYHO WR DOO WKH
VWDNHKROGHUV 7KLV ZLOO DOVR KHOS WKH ODQG DJHQF\ WR FROOHFW WKH
WD[HV DQG RWKHU UHYHQXH JHQHUDWHG WKURXJK ODQG WUDQVDFWLRQV DV
ZHOO DV WR PDQDJH WKH ODQG UHFRUGV HIIHFWLYHO\ 7KH XVH RI
LQIRUPDWLRQWHFKQRORJ\VXFKDVLQWHUQHWDQGZHEVHUYLFHVFDQEH
XVHG WR LPSURYH WKH SURGXFW DQG VHUYLFH GHOLYHU\ 6LPLODUO\ WKH
IURQW GHVN VHUYLFHV FDQ DOVR KHOS LQ LPSURYLQJ WKH TXDOLW\ RI
VHUYLFHV DW XVHUV HQG WR JHW WKHLU GHVLUHG SURGXFWV LQ DQ HDVLHU
ZD\0RUHRYHUWKHH[LVWHQFHRIDOOFDGDVWUDOLQIRUPDWLRQLQGLJLWDO
IRUP FDQ KHOS WR VWRUH XSGDWH DQG GLVVHPLQDWH DOO WKH ODQG
UHODWHGGDWDLQDQHIILFLHQWPDQQHU
7KH FRQVLGHUDWLRQ RI WKHVH TXDOLW\ LPSURYHPHQW JXLGHOLQHV RQ 4,
VWDJHZLOOOHDGWRLPSURYHPHQWRIWKHTXDOLW\RIWKHVHHOHPHQWVRI
3DNLVWDQV/$6DVSHUTXDOLW\UHTXLUHPHQWV7KLVZLOOPDLQO\IRFXV
RQ WKRVH SUREOHPV DQG LVVXHV ZKLFK RULJLQDWHG E\ WKH WUDGLWLRQDO
SUDFWLFHVLQWKHSUHVHQW/$6


Chapter 6: Quality Improvement Guidelines

6.3

Quality Improvement Guidelines on Quality Control

4XDOLW\LPSURYHPHQWJXLGHOLQHVFRQFHUQLQJWKH4&VWDJHRI740
LQ /$6 DUH PRVWO\ FRYHUHG E\ WKH VWDNHKROGHUV DW PDQDJHPHQW
OHYHO 7KH VWDNHKROGHUV DW PDQDJHPHQW OHYHO LQFOXGH ODQG
DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ DJHQF\ RIILFLDOV FRQWUROOLQJ GLIIHUHQW WDVNV DW WRS
PDQDJHPHQWOHYHO SURYLQFLDOQDWLRQDOOHYHO GHSHQGLQJXSRQWKH
RUJDQLVDWLRQDO VWUXFWXUH RI /$6 LQ WKH FRXQWU\ 7KH\ DUH PDLQO\
UHVSRQVLEOH IRU VHWWLQJ WKH VWUDWHJLF WDUJHWV WKDW KDYH PHGLXP
WHUPHIIHFWVGHSHQGLQJXSRQWKHFKDQJLQJUROHRI*HR,&7LQWKH
RUJDQLVDWLRQ DQG IXWXUH SODQV DV SHU VRFLHWDO GHPDQGV 7KH
HOHPHQWV RI /$6 FRQWUROOHG E\ 4& VWDJH RI 740 LQFOXGH WKH
PHFKDQLVP IRU ODQG GLVSXWH UHVROXWLRQ GHILQLWLRQ RI RUJDQLVDWLRQ
DQGPDQGDWHVKXPDQUHVRXUFHGHYHORSPHQWODQGDGPLQLVWUDWLRQ
SURFHVVHV FRRUGLQDWLRQ DQG GDWD VKDULQJ VWUDWHJLF SODQV ODQG
LQIRUPDWLRQ V\VWHP GHVLJQ ZRUNIORZV IRU ODQG DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ
SURFHVVHV DQG GHILQLWLRQ RI TXDOLW\ VWDQGDUGV 7KH 4& VWDJH
ORRNV DIWHU WKHVH HOHPHQWV RI /$6 WR WDNH QHFHVVDU\ DFWLRQV IRU
LPSURYLQJ WKH TXDOLW\ RI /$6 ZLWKLQ FRXQWU\V HQYLURQPHQW 7KH
4& VWDJH ORRNV DIWHU WKHVH HOHPHQWV RI /$6 WR WDNH QHFHVVDU\
DFWLRQV IRU LPSURYLQJ WKH TXDOLW\ RI /$6 ZLWKLQ FRXQWU\V
HQYLURQPHQW7KHTXDOLW\LPSURYHPHQWJXLGHOLQHVRQWKH4&VLGH
LQFOXGH
Developing Strategic Plans: 6WUDWHJLF DQG GHYHORSPHQW SODQ
VKRXOG EH GHYHORSHG IRU WKH DGRSWLRQ RI *,6 WHFKQRORJ\ LQ
H[LVWLQJ /$6 WR LPSURYH WKH RYHUDOO SHUIRUPDQFH RI WKH V\VWHP
6LPLODUO\ WKH ,&7EXVLQHVV VWUDWHJ\ IRU FDGDVWUDO DQG ODQG
UHJLVWUDWLRQ ZRXOG JUHDWO\ VXSSRUW WKH H[SDQVLRQ RI D ODQG
DGPLQLVWUDWLRQV\VWHPVVSDWLDO,&7EDVHGVHUYLFHVSDUWLFXODUO\LQ
WKH DUHD RI ODQG PDUNHWV DQG YDOXDWLRQ %XUQV HW DO   7KH
VWUDWHJLF WDUJHWV VKRXOG EH GHILQHG LQ WKLV UHJDUG DQG VWUDWHJLF


Chapter 6: Quality Improvement Guidelines

SODQ VKRXOG EH SXEOLVKHG RQ UHJXODU EDVLV WR DFKLHYH WKH SUH
GHILQHG REMHFWLYHV DQG WDUJHWV $ FROOHFWLYH VWUDWHJLF DSSURDFK
VKRXOGEHDGRSWHGWRLQFOXGHDQXPEHURIIXQGDPHQWDOSULQFLSOHV
LVVXHVDQGFRPSRQHQWVZKLFKDUHUHTXLUHGLQWKHIRUPXODWLRQRID
ODQG LQIRUPDWLRQ V\VWHP /,6  VWUDWHJLF SODQ IRU D MXULVGLFWLRQ
6HGXQDU\  $0 7XODGKDU HW DO   $ VWUDWHJLF SODQ LV
WKXV UHTXLUHG DV QR VXFK SODQ ZDV IRXQG IRU DGRSWLQJ *,6
WHFKQRORJ\LQWKHH[LVWLQJV\VWHP)XUWKHUPRUHDOOWKHREMHFWLYHV
DQGVWUDWHJLHVVKRXOGEHUHJXODUO\UHYLHZHGZLWKFKDQJLQJUROHRI
WHFKQRORJ\DQGXVHUVQHHGV
Defining the Mandates of Land Administration Organisation:
7KH RUJDQLVDWLRQDO VWUXFWXUH RI /$ DJHQF\ LQ 3DNLVWDQ LV IRXQG
JRRG IRU H[HFXWLRQ RI ZRUN SURFHVVHV ZLWK LWV PDQGDWHV IRU ODQG
DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ DQG PDQDJHPHQW DW WRS PDQDJHPHQW OHYHO
+RZHYHU WKH DOORFDWLRQ RI WDVNV DQG UHVSRQVLELOLWLHV IRU %25
SHUVRQDOV QHHG WR EH UHYLVHG DW ORFDO OHYHO 7KH PDQDJHPHQW RI
FXVWRPHU UHODWLRQ VKRXOG EH DOVR FOHDUO\ GHILQHG LQ WKHVH
PDQGDWHVWRPHHWWKHGHPDQGVRIDOOWKHVWDNHKROGHUV6LPLODUO\
WKH UROH RI RWKHU VHFWRUV VXFK DV DFDGHPLF VHFWRU DQG SULYDWH
VHFWRU ),*D VKRXOGEHFOHDUO\GHILQHGLQWKHPDQGDWHVRI
ODQG DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ RUJDQLVDWLRQ 7KH DFDGHPLF VHFWRU FDQ KHOS
RQ WKH FDSDFLW\ EXLOGLQJ VLGH WKURXJK RUJDQLVLQJ UHIUHVKHU DQG
WUDLQLQJ FRXUVHV IRU WKH ODQG DJHQF\ SHRSOH ZKHUHDV WKH
LQYROYHPHQWRISULYDWHVHFWRUFDQKHOSWRUHGXFHWKHFRVWDQGWLPH
IRUFDUU\LQJGLIIHUHQWWDVNVWKDWFDQEHHDVLO\GRQHE\WKHP
Improving

Land

Dispute

Resolution

Mechanisms:

7KH

UHODWLRQVKLS EHWZHHQ ODQG DQG GLVSXWH LV H[WUDRUGLQDULO\ FRPSOH[


$GGUHVVLQJ ODQG LVVXHV HIIHFWLYHO\ GHPDQGV D EURDG LQWHJUDWHG
DQG LQWHUGLVFLSOLQDU\ DSSURDFK /DFN RI DFFXUDWH LQIRUPDWLRQ
DERXW ODQG ULJKWV DQG RWKHU ODQG LVVXHV FDQ IXHO FRQIXVLRQ DQG


Chapter 6: Quality Improvement Guidelines

VXVSLFLRQ WKDW FDQ OHDG WR ODQG GLVSXWHV (DUO\ SXEOLF LQIRUPDWLRQ
DQG HGXFDWLRQ FDPSDLJQV DERXW ODQGUHODWHG LVVXHV FDQ KHOS WR
FODULI\LVVXHVDQGFRUUHFWIDOVHDVVXPSWLRQV 86$,' :KLOH
LQWHUYLHZLQJ WKH ODQG RZQHUV LQ WKH ILHOG LW LV REVHUYHG WKDW WKH
H[LVWLQJ PHFKDQLVPV IRU UHVROYLQJ ODQG GLVSXWHV DUH YHU\
FRPSOLFDWHG DQG WLPH FRQVXPLQJ 7KHUHIRUH ODQG GLVSXWH
UHVROXWLRQPHFKDQLVPVVKRXOGEHPDGHPRUHVLPSOHDQGORZFRVW
IRUWKHODQGRZQHUVE\LQWURGXFLQJDOWHUQDWLYHDSSURDFKHVVXFKDV
QHJRWLDWLRQ DUELWUDWLRQ DQG PHGLDWLRQ 7KLV ZLOO KHOS WR UHVROYH
ODQG GLVSXWHV DW ORFDO OHYHO WKURXJK PHGLDWLRQ EHWZHHQ WKH
FRQFHUQHG SDUWLHV DQG LQYROYLQJ ORFDO JRYHUQPHQW DQG ORFDO
FLWL]HQV
Improving

Land

Administration

Processes:

/DQG

DGPLQLVWUDWLRQSURFHVVHVVKRXOGEHPDGHFOHDUDQGVLPSOHZKLFK
FDQ EH HDVLO\ XQGHUVWRRG E\ D FRPPRQ FLWL]HQ 7KHVH /$
SURFHVVHV VKRXOG EH WUDQVSDUHQW DQG HIIHFWLYH LQ RSHUDWLRQ WR
LQFUHDVHFRQILGHQFHOHYHODPRQJDOOWKHSHRSOH7KHH[LVWLQJODQG
DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ SURFHVVHV FDQ EH PDGH VLPSOH FKHDS DQG
WUDQVSDUHQW E\ FRQVLGHULQJ SURFHVV GHVLJQ SURFHVV VLPXODWLRQ
DQG EHQFKPDUNLQJ WHFKQLTXHV 5DGZDQ HW DO   7KH WLPH
UHTXLUHG IRU XSGDWLQJ LQIRUPDWLRQ LQ ODQG UHJLVWHU DQG FDGDVWUDO
PDS VKRXOG EH VKRUWHQHG DV SHU FKDQJLQJ VRFLHWDO QHHGV DQG
XVHUVUHTXLUHPHQW7KHH[LVWLQJWUDGLWLRQDOERXQGDU\GHPDUFDWLRQ
SURFHVV FDQ EH LPSURYHG E\ LQWURGXFLQJ D SKRWRJUDPPHWULF
WHFKQLTXH ZKLFK XVHV DHULDO SKRWRJUDSKV RU KLJK UHVROXWLRQ
VDWHOOLWH LPDJHV DV DQ DOWHUQDWLYH IRU VSDWLDO GDWD DFTXLVLWLRQ ,Q
WKLV FDVH PRVW PHDVXUHPHQWV FDQ EH GRQH LQ WKH RIILFH $ 0
7XODGKDU E  7KH H[LVWLQJ GLVFLSOLQHRULHQWHG VXUYH\LQJ
WHFKQLTXH FDQ EH DOVR UHSODFHG E\ DGRSWLQJ WKH PHWKRGRORJ\
RULHQWHGLQWHJUDWHGWHFKQLTXHLQZKLFKWKHSDUFHOVERXQGDULHVFDQ


Chapter 6: Quality Improvement Guidelines

EH GHOLQHDWHG DQG RWKHU FDGDVWUDO LQIRUPDWLRQ FDQ EH FROOHFWHG


PRUHHIILFLHQWO\ $OLHWDO 6LPLODUO\WKHUHJLVWUDWLRQSURFHVV
FDQ EH LPSURYHG E\ UHHQJLQHHULQJ LW DQG LQWURGXFLQJ IURQW GHVN
DQGRQHZLQGRZRSHUDWLRQIDFLOLW\
Introducing new Concepts in Land Information System
Design: 7KH QHZ FRQFHSWV LQ LQIRUPDWLRQ V\VWHP IRU GDWD
PRGHOOLQJDQGSURFHVVPRGHOOLQJVKRXOGEHLQWURGXFHGLQH[LVWLQJ
/$6 WKURXJK FRQVXOWDWLRQ ZLWK IRUHLJQ H[WHUQDO  DJHQFLHV WR
JDWKHU SURFHVV VWRUH DQG GLVVHPLQDWH TXDOLW\ GDWD DW DIIRUGDEOH
FRVW ZLWK PDQ\ GDWD DFFHVV SRLQWV VXFK DV D IURQW GHVN RU WKH
LQWHUQHW )RU WKLV SXUSRVH WKH H[LVWLQJ SURFHVVHV LQ ODQG
LQIRUPDWLRQ V\VWHP LQFOXGLQJ ODQG VXUYH\LQJ PXWDWLRQ SURFHVV
DQG ODQG UHJLVWUDWLRQ SURFHVV PXVW EH UHHQJLQHHUHG DV SHU
XVHUTXDOLW\ UHTXLUHPHQWV DQG QHZ GHYHORSPHQWV LQ WKH ILHOG RI
LQIRUPDWLRQ WHFKQRORJ\ 2Q V\VWHP GHYHORSPHQW VLGH WKH
FDGDVWUDO PRGHOOLQJ VXFK DV /DQG $GPLQLVWUDWLRQ 'RPDLQ 0RGHO
/$'0  LV FRQVLGHUHG DV D EDVLF WRRO IRU IDFLOLWDWLQJ DSSURSULDWH
V\VWHP GHYHORSPHQW DQG IRUPLQJ WKH EDVLV IRU PHDQLQJIXO
FRPPXQLFDWLRQ EHWZHHQ GLIIHUHQW SDUWV RI WKH  V\VWHPV YDQ
2RVWHURP HW DO   2Q WKH GDWD FDSWXUH VLGH GXH WR
DGYDQFHPHQWV LQ *HR,&7 WKH WUDGLWLRQDO VXUYH\LQJ FRQFHSW KDV
WDNHQRQDQHZVKDSHIURPGLVFLSOLQHRULHQWHGWHFKQRORJLHVVXFK
DV JHRGHV\ VXUYH\LQJ SKRWRJUDPPHWU\ DQG FDUWRJUDSK\ LQWR D
PHWKRGRORJ\RULHQWHG LQWHJUDWHG GLVFLSOLQH RI JHRLQIRUPDWLRQ
VFLHQFH $ SDUWLFLSDWRU\ JHRJUDSKLF LQIRUPDWLRQ V\VWHP 3*,6 
FRPELQHG ZLWK UHPRWH VHQVLQJ LPDJHV LV TXLWH LQWHUHVWLQJ IRU
JDWKHULQJ TXDOLW\ GDWD ZLWK WKH LQYROYHPHQW RI ODQG RZQHUV
WHQDQWVDQGRWKHUVWDNHKROGHUV $OLHWDO 
Developing Workflows for Land Administration Processes:
&RUHODQGDGPLQLVWUDWLRQIXQFWLRQVDUHWKHUHJLVWUDWLRQRIULJKWVLQ


Chapter 6: Quality Improvement Guidelines

ODQGDQGWKHVXUYH\DQGPDSSLQJRIWKHERXQGDULHVRIWKHH[WHQW
RI WKHVH ULJKWV $ NH\ GHWHUPLQDWH LQ WKH HIILFLHQF\ RI D ODQG
DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ V\VWHP LV WKH LQVWLWXWLRQDO VWUXFWXUH WKDW VXSSRUWV
WKHVH FRUH IXQFWLRQV %XUQV HW DO   ,Q WKLV UHJDUG WKH
LQWHUQDO DQG H[WHUQDO LQIRUPDWLRQ IORZ IRU DOORFDWLRQ RI WDVNV DQG
UHVSRQVLELOLWLHV WR PDQDJHUV ZLWKLQ WKH ODQG DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ
RUJDQLVDWLRQVKRXOGEHDSSURSULDWHDQGFOHDUO\VSHFLILHGIRUEHWWHU
SHUIRUPDQFHRI/$66WDQGDUGRSHUDWLQJLQVWUXFWLRQVIRUHDFKVWHS
RI ZRUNIORZ VKRXOG EH GHYHORSHG DQG LPSOHPHQWHG DV D SDUW RI
WRWDOTXDOLW\IUDPHZRUN*,6DQGGDWDEDVHWHFKQRORJLHVDUHWREH
HPSOR\HG IRU ODQG GDWD SURFHVVLQJ XSGDWLQJ VWRULQJ DQG
GLVVHPLQDWLRQ7KHLQWHJUDWLRQDQGVKDULQJRIJHRUHIHUHQFHGGDWD
EHFRPHVPRUHDQGPRUHFUXFLDODQGWKHUHLVDQLQFUHDVLQJQHHG
IRU HIILFLHQW DQG UHOLDEOH GDWD H[FKDQJH 6WHXGOHU   ,Q WKLV
FRQWH[W 2SHQ*,6 DQG *0/;0/ DUH LPSRUWDQW WRROV IRU HIILFLHQW
DQG WUDQVSDUHQW GDWD DFFHVV LQ GLIIHUHQW ODQG DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ
DFWLYLWLHV
Defining Quality Standards: 6LQFH GDWDEDVHV RI /$6 UHVLGH LQ
GLIIHUHQW RUJDQLVDWLRQV DQG GDWD DUH JDWKHUHG XVLQJ GLIIHUHQW
VRXUFHV WKH GDWD TXDOLW\ QHHGV WR EH WUDQVSDUHQW IRU XVHUV DQG
VWDNHKROGHUV 'LIIHUHQW HOHPHQWV RI JHRJUDSKLF GDWD TXDOLW\ PXVW
EHGHILQHGOLNHSRVLWLRQDOTXDOLW\WHPSRUDOTXDOLW\FRPSOHWHQHVV
GDWD VWDWXV ORJLFDO FRQVLVWHQF\ OLQHDJH DQG WLPHOLQHVV )*'&
6WDQHNDQG)UDQN $VHWRIQDWLRQDOGDWDVWDQGDUGV
IRU VHUYLFH TXDOLW\ DQG VSDWLDOQRQVSDWLDO GDWD TXDOLW\ VWDQGDUGV
VKRXOG EH GHILQHG E\ WKH ODQG DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ DJHQF\ EDVHG RQ
LQWHUQDWLRQDO VWDQGDUGV VXFK DV ,62 7KHVH TXDOLW\ VWDQGDUGV
VKRXOG EH HYDOXDWHG RQ UHJXODU EDVLV WR LQFRUSRUDWH XVHUV QHHG
DQG TXDOLW\ UHTXLUHPHQWV ZLWK FKDQJLQJ UROH RI WHFKQRORJ\ LQ D
VRFLHW\,QWKLVUHJDUGWKHFRYHUDJHYVDFFXUDF\RSWLRQPXVW EH


Chapter 6: Quality Improvement Guidelines

FRQVLGHUHG ZKLOH FRQYHUWLQJ WKH H[LVWLQJ PDQXDO FDGDVWUDO GDWD


LQWRGLJLWDOIRUPDWWRUHGXFHWKHUHTXLUHGFRVWDQGWLPH6LPLODUO\
WKHSULYDWHVHFWRUFDQEHLQYROYHGLQODQGUHODWHGDFWLYLWLHV %XUQV
HW DO   VR WKDW WKH ZRUN ORDG ZRXOG EH VKDUHG DQG ODQG
DGPLQLVWUDWLRQDJHQF\FDQGHOLYHUWKHLUVHUYLFHVHIILFLHQWO\
Building Human Resource Capacity: /DQG $GPLQLVWUDWLRQ LV
DERXWLQGLYLGXDOVRUSHRSOHIURPSROLWLFLDQVVHQLRUSURIHVVLRQDOV
DQGPDQDJHUVPLGGOHPDQDJHUVDQGDGPLQLVWUDWRUVWRRIILFHDQG
ILHOGSHUVRQQHO$OOWKHSOD\HUV LQWKHV\VWHPQHHGWRKDYHVRPH
XQGHUVWDQGLQJRIWKHRYHUDOOV\VWHPDVZHOODVPRUHGHWDLOHGDQG
VSHFLILFVNLOOVZKLFKQHHGWREHGHYHORSHG)RUWKLVSXUSRVH WKH
FDSDFLW\ DVVHVVPHQW DQG GHYHORSPHQW LQ WKH DUHD RI ODQG
DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ VKRXOG EH DQDO\VHG DW DOO WKUHH OHYHOV VRFLHWDO
RUJDQLVDWLRQDO LQGLYLGXDO OHYHO  RI FDSDFLW\ EXLOGLQJ WKURXJK D
FRQFHSWXDO IUDPHZRUN (QHPDUN DQG :LOOLDPVRQ   $W
VRFLHWDOOHYHOLWORRNVDWLVVXHVDQGSULQFLSOHVRISROLF\DQGOHJDO
IUDPHZRUNVWHQXUHDQGDGPLQLVWUDWLRQV\VWHPV$WRUJDQLVDWLRQDO
OHYHO LW ORRNV PRUH FORVHO\ DW HQDEOLQJ JRRG JRYHUQDQFH
LQVWLWXWLRQDO

VWUHQJWKHQLQJ

FRQVLGHUDWLRQ

RI

VSDWLDO

GDWD

LQIUDVWUXFWXUHSULQFLSOHVDQGGHYHORSPHQWRIDSURIHVVLRQDOERG\
$W LQGLYLGXDO OHYHO LW GHDOV ZLWK WKH SURIHVVLRQDO DQG WHFKQLFDO
FRPSHWHQFHFDSDFLW\QHHGVDQGHGXFDWLRQDOUHVRXUFHV7KLVFDQ
EH DFKLHYHG WKURXJK FROODERUDWLRQ ZLWK DFDGHPLF DQG UHVHDUFK
LQVWLWXWLRQV WKURXJK VKRUW FRXUVHV DQG WUDLQLQJ RSSRUWXQLWLHV LQ
ODQG DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ :KLOH EXLOGLQJ WKH KXPDQ UHVRXUFH FDSDFLW\
WKHFDSDFLW\QHHGVRIKXPDQUHVRXUFHGHYHORSPHQWLQWKHH[LVWLQJ
V\VWHPPXVWEHDQDO\VHGLQWHUPVRIH[LVWLQJKXPDQUHVRXUFHDQG
WUDLQLQJ HGXFDWLRQ IDFLOLW\ 7KLV ZLOO KHOS WR LGHQWLI\ WKH JDSV
EHWZHHQ WKH H[LVWLQJ KXPDQ UHVRXUFH FDSDFLW\ DQG WKH FDSDFLW\



Chapter 6: Quality Improvement Guidelines

QHHGHG IRU XQGHUWDNLQJ DOO ODQG DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ WDVNV LQ VKRUW


PHGLXPDQGORQJWHUP
7KH VHOHFWLRQ RI WKHVH TXDOLW\ LPSURYHPHQW JXLGHOLQHV RQ 4&
VWDJHZLOODVVLVWWRLPSURYHWKHTXDOLW\RIWKHVHHOHPHQWVRI/$6LQ
3DNLVWDQ DV SHU TXDOLW\ UHTXLUHPHQWV DQG FKDQJLQJ UROH RI
LQIRUPDWLRQ WHFKQRORJ\ LQ D VRFLHW\ 7KHVH JXLGHOLQHV ZLOO PDLQO\
FRQFHQWUDWH RQ WKH FRQFHUQ HOHPHQWV RI /$6 WR LPSURYH WKHLU
TXDOLW\
6.4

Quality Improvement Guidelines on Quality Assurance

4XDOLW\ LPSURYHPHQW JXLGHOLQHV UHODWLQJ WR WKH 4$ VWDJH RI 740
LQ /$6 DUH KDQGOHG E\ WKH VWDNHKROGHUV DW SROLF\ OHYHO 7KH
VWDNHKROGHUVDWSROLF\OHYHOPDLQO\LQFOXGHWKH3DUOLDPHQWDQGWKH
*RYHUQPHQW DV ZHOO DV WKH KLJKHU DXWKRULWLHV RI ODQG
DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ DJHQF\ DV REVHUYHG LQ WKLV UHVHDUFK  ZKR DUH
UHVSRQVLEOH IRU VHWWLQJ WKH REMHFWLYHV DQG RYHUDOO GHILQLWLRQV IRU
/$6 7KH LPSOLFDWLRQV RI WKHLU GHFLVLRQV ZRXOG W\SLFDOO\ EH ORQJ
WHUP GHSHQGLQJ XSRQ WKH QDWXUH RI WKHLU GHFLVLRQV DQG HIIHFW
ZLWKLQFRXQWU\VHQYLURQPHQW7KHHOHPHQWVGHDOLQJZLWKTXDOLW\RI
/$6 DW 4$ VWDJH LQFOXGH WHQXUH VHFXULW\ ODQG SROLF\ OHJDO
IUDPHZRUN DQG ILQDQFLQJ DQG GDWD FRVWV 1HFHVVDU\ GHFLVLRQV
VKRXOG EH PDGH DW WKLV VWDJH IRU WKHVH HOHPHQWV RI /$6 WR
LPSURYH WKH TXDOLW\ RI H[LVWLQJ V\VWHP 7KH TXDOLW\ LPSURYHPHQW
JXLGHOLQHVRQWKH4$VLGHDUH
Improving Tenure Security: 7KH QDWXUH DQG H[WHQW RI ULJKWV LQ
ODQG VKRXOG EH FOHDUO\ GHILQHG IRU WKH ODQG RZQHUV DQG GLIIHUHQW
FDPSDLJQVVKRXOGEHODXQFKHGWRHGXFDWHFRPPRQFLWL]HQVDERXW
WKHLU ULJKWV LQ ODQG DQG WHQXUH VHFXULW\ 7HQXUH VHFXULW\ DOVR FDQ
EH HQKDQFHG E\ H[SORULQJ LQQRYDWLYH DUUDQJHPHQWV LQ ODQG
PDQDJHPHQW WKURXJK VLPSOLILHG SURFHGXUHV DQG LQWHUOLQNLQJ


Chapter 6: Quality Improvement Guidelines

FDGDVWUDO DQG /DQG ,QIRUPDWLRQ 6\VWHPV /,6  WR SURYLGH ODQG


LQIRUPDWLRQDWORFDOOHYHOWRXVHUVLQDQHIILFLHQWPDQQHU6LPLODUO\
DOWHUQDWLYH ODQG WUDQVIHU WHFKQLTXHV ODQG GHOLYHU\ WUDQVDFWLRQV
HWF VKRXOGEHGHYHORSHGWKDWFDQEHXVHGE\ORZLQFRPHSHRSOH
WR JHW HDV\ DFFHVV WR ODQG LQIRUPDWLRQ WR UHPRYH WKH KLQGUDQFHV
WR HIILFLHQW ODQG PDUNHW DQG DFFHVV WR IRUPDO FUHGLWV 81
+$%,7$7 )XUWKHUPRUHQHJRWLDWLRQPHFKDQLVPVKRXOGEH
DGDSWHG WR UHVROYH VRPH RI WKH WHQXUH LVVXHV E\ LQYROYLQJ ORFDO
FRPPXQLW\DQGODQGRZQHUVDWORFDOOHYHO
Developing Land Policy: 7KHODQGSROLF\PXVWGHVFULEHKRZWKH
JRYHUQPHQW LQWHQGV WR GHDO ZLWK WKH DOORFDWLRQ RI ODQG DQG ODQG
UHODWHG EHQHILWV WR IDFLOLWDWH WKH LPSOHPHQWDWLRQ RI UXOHV IRU ODQG
WHQXUH DQG ODQG WHQXUH VHFXULW\ WKH IXQFWLRQLQJ RI WKH ODQG
PDUNHW ODQG XVH SODQQLQJ DQG GHYHORSPHQW ODQG WD[DWLRQ
PDQDJHPHQWRIQDWXUDOUHVRXUFHVODQGUHIRUPHWF ),*E 
7KH ODQG SROLF\ IUDPHZRUN VKRXOG UHFRJQLVH WKH JURZLQJ
FRPSOH[LW\ RI ULJKWV UHVWULFWLRQV DQG UHVSRQVLELOLWLHV UHODWLQJ WR
ODQG DQG FRQVHTXHQW GHPDQGV RQ ODQG DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ
LQIUDVWUXFWXUHV ,DQ 3 :LOOLDPVRQ   ,Q FDVH RI 3DNLVWDQ D
FRPSUHKHQVLYH ODQG SROLF\ LV QHHGHG WR DGGUHVV DOO ODQG UHODWHG
LVVXHV 'LIIHUHQW W\SHV RI IRUPDO DQG LQIRUPDO ULJKWV LQ ODQG PXVW
EH FOHDUO\ GHILQHG VR WKDW DOO WKH VWDNHKROGHUV FDQ HDVLO\
XQGHUVWDQGWKHLUODQGULJKWV
Re-structuring Legal Framework: 7KH OHJDO IUDPHZRUN VKRXOG
EHUHVWUXFWXUHGWRSURYLGHHQRXJKFOHDUQHVVDQGWUDQVSDUHQF\RQ
ODQG KROGLQJV DQG ULJKWV 7KLV FDQ EH GRQH E\ UHDQDO\VLQJ WKH
H[LVWHQFHPHFKDQLVPDQGODZVIRUDOORFDWLQJODQGULJKWVODQGXVH
DQG ODQG YDOXDWLRQ 7KH ZKROH VWUXFWXUH RI ODQG YDOXDWLRQ DQG
WD[DWLRQ IRU JDWKHULQJ UHYHQXHV VKRXOG EH GHILQHG VR WKDW WKH
YDOXDWLRQ PHWKRG VKRXOG ILW WR WKH VRFLHWDO QHHGV )RU WKLV


Chapter 6: Quality Improvement Guidelines

SXUSRVH DQ HYDOXDWLRQ V\VWHP PXVW EH HYROYHG WR WDNH LQWR
DFFRXQWWKHLPSDFWRIWD[DWLRQRQXVHRIODQGDQGODQGPDUNHWVE\
LQYROYLQJ ODQG RZQHUV DQG RWKHU VWDNHKROGHUV IURP UHDO HVWDWH
DJHQFLHV 7KH OHJLVODWLRQ JRYHUQLQJ ODQG DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ DOVR
QHHGV WR EH UHIRUPHG VR WKDW QHZ ODZV VKRXOG EH LQFOXGHG DQG
WKHRXWGDWHGODZVFRXOGEHUHPRYHG)XUWKHUPRUHWKHGLYLVLRQRI
WKH MXULVGLFWLRQ RI UHYHQXH FRXUW DQG FLYLO FRXUW PXVW EH FOHDUO\
GHILQHG VR WKDW WKH VWDNHKROGHUV FDQ HDVLO\ FRQWDFW WKH FRQFHUQ
FRXUWLQFDVHRIWKHLUODQGGLVSXWHV
Structuring Financing and Data Costs: )LQDQFLDO PHFKDQLVPV
VKRXOG EH LPSURYHG E\ LPSURYLQJ WKH WD[ FROOHFWLRQ SURFHVV DQG
LQWURGXFLQJFRVWVUHFRYHU\FRQFHSWLQWKHH[LVWLQJV\VWHPWKURXJK
RIIHULQJGLIIHUHQWW\SHVRISURGXFWVDQGVHUYLFHVWRWKHXVHUV7KH
IHHVDQGFRVWVVWUXFWXUHVKRXOGEHFRQVLGHUHGLQVXFKDZD\WKDW
YXOQHUDEOHVHFWLRQVRISRSXODWLRQPD\QRWEHH[FOXGHGEHFDXVHRI
WKH FRVW IDFWRU ,QWHUQDWLRQDO H[SHULHQFH FDQ EH VWXGLHG IRU
ILQDQFLDO VXVWDLQDELOLW\ RI H[LVWLQJ /$6 %XUQV HW DO   WKDW
W\SLFDOO\ LQYROYH LQYHVWLJDWLRQ RI D QXPEHU RI IDFWRUV VXFK DV
DSSURSULDWH IHH DQG WD[ VWUXFWXUHV LQFOXGLQJ WKH EDODQFH RI
WUDQVDFWLRQEDVHG  DQG DQQXDO IHHV DQG WD[HV HIIHFWLYHQHVV RI
FROOHFWLQJ IHHV DQG WD[HV ILVFDO SROLF\ FRQFHUQLQJ WKH UDLVLQJ RI
UHYHQXHDWWKHYDULRXVOHYHOVRIJRYHUQPHQWDOWHUQDWLYHVIRUODQG
DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ VHUYLFH GHOLYHU\ DQG FRVWLQJ RI WKHVH DOWHUQDWLYHV
EXGJHWDU\ VXSSRUW IRU ODQG DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ DW YDULRXV JRYHUQPHQW
OHYHOV DQG WKH DYDLODELOLW\ RI IXQGV IURP JRYHUQPHQW DQG GRQRU
DJHQFLHVWRVXSSRUWWKHLQLWLDOGHYHORSPHQWRI/$6
7KH LPSOLFDWLRQ RI WKHVH TXDOLW\ LPSURYHPHQW JXLGHOLQHV DW DOO
WKHVH WKUHH VWDJHV RI TXDOLW\ ZLOO OHDG WR LPSURYH WKH TXDOLW\ RI
ODQG DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ V\VWHP LQ 3DNLVWDQ ZLWKLQ WKH IUDPHZRUN RI
740




Conclusions and Recommendations



Chapter 7: Conclusions and Recommendations

7.1

Conclusions

7KLVUHVHDUFKZRUNGHYHORSHGDTXDOLW\DVVHVVPHQWIUDPHZRUNIRU
DVVHVVLQJWKHTXDOLW\RI/$E\DSSO\LQJ740FRQFHSWVWR/$XVLQJ
DVWHSZLVHDSSURDFKRIH[SORUDWRU\DQGH[SODQDWRU\FDVHVWXGLHV
PHWKRGRORJ\ ,Q SUHYLRXV VWXGLHV OLWWOH DWWHQWLRQ LV JLYHQ WR WKH
ULJRURXV XVH RI FDVH VWXG\ PHWKRGRORJ\ LQ DQDO\VLQJ ODQG
DGPLQLVWUDWLRQV\VWHPVDFURVVGLIIHUHQWFRXQWULHVLQWKHZRUOG$Q
H[SODQDWRU\ FDVH VWXG\ DSSURDFK LV XVHG LQ VRPH VWXGLHV
ZKHUHDV DQ H[SORUDWRU\ FDVH VWXG\ DSSURDFK LV DSSOLHG LQ WKH
RWKHUV 6LPLODUO\ TXDOLWDWLYH GDWD LV FROOHFWHG LQ VRPH FDVHV
ZKHUHDV RQO\ TXDQWLWDWLYH GDWD LV JDWKHUHG LQ WKH RWKHUV 7KLV
GHFUHDVHG WKH XQGHUVWDQGLQJ RI DFWXDO VLWXDWLRQ GXH WR LQKHULW
DGYDQWDJHV DQG GLVDGYDQWDJHV LQ XVLQJ WKHVH GDWD VHWV LQ
LVRODWLRQ
7KLV UHVHDUFK ILOOHG WKH JDS E\ XVLQJ D VWHSZLVH DSSURDFK RI
H[SORUDWRU\DQGH[SODQDWRU\FDVHVWXGLHVPHWKRGRORJ\WRDQDO\VH
WKH TXDOLW\ RI WKH H[LVWLQJ /$6 LQ 3DNLVWDQ E\ FROOHFWLQJ ERWK WKH
TXDOLWDWLYH DQG TXDQWLWDWLYH GDWD 7KLV VWUHQJWKHQHG WKH UHVHDUFK
WR DYRLG WKH UHVSHFWLYH ZHDNQHVVHV RI XVLQJ TXDOLWDWLYH RU
TXDQWLWDWLYH GDWD LQ LVRODWLRQ IRU GHVFULELQJ WKH H[LVWLQJ VLWXDWLRQ
7KH PHWKRGRORJ\ WRRN WKH LQVWLWXWLRQDO DQG WHFKQLFDO DVSHFWV RI
/$6LQWRDFFRXQWDQGVXJJHVWHGWKHLUHOHPHQWVDQGLQGLFDWRUVIRU
FROOHFWLQJ WKH TXDOLWDWLYH DQG TXDQWLWDWLYH GDWD WR HYDOXDWH WKH
TXDOLW\ PDNLQJ D GLVWLQFWLRQ EHWZHHQ GLIIHUHQW RUJDQLVDWLRQDO
OHYHOV DQG WKH WKUHH VWDJHV RI TXDOLW\ DFKLHYHPHQW WR LPSOHPHQW
WKH FRQFHSWV RI 740 LQ /$ $V VXFK LW SURYLGHG WKH EDVLV IRU D
VWUXFWXUHG DQG V\VWHPDWLF DSSURDFKWRDVVHVVWKH TXDOLW\ RI /$6
ZLWKLQFRXQWU\VHQYLURQPHQW



Chapter 7: Conclusions and Recommendations

7KH HOHPHQWV RI /$6 FDQ EH FDWHJRULVHG LQWR LQVWLWXWLRQDO DQG
WHFKQLFDO DVSHFWV 7KH TXDOLW\ VLWXDWLRQ RI WKHVH HOHPHQWV DIIHFWV
WKH TXDOLW\ RI /$6 GLUHFWO\ RU LQGLUHFWO\ ,W LV HVVHQWLDO WR DQDO\VH
WKH HOHPHQWV RI LQVWLWXWLRQDO DQG WHFKQLFDO DVSHFWV RI /$6 EHIRUH
JRLQJ WR GR IXUWKHU GHYHORSPHQW LQ WKH V\VWHP 7KH HOHPHQWV RI
WKH H[LVWLQJ V\VWHP QHHG WR EH DQDO\VHG LQ GHWDLO WKURXJK D
FRPSUHKHQVLYH DSSURDFK 7KLV ZLOO JLYH D FOHDU SLFWXUH RI WKH
H[LVWLQJVLWXDWLRQ
,Q WKLV UHVHDUFK WKH HOHPHQWV RI /$6 ZHUH FDWHJRULVHG LQWR
LQVWLWXWLRQDODQGWHFKQLFDODVSHFWV+RZHYHULWZDVLPSRVVLEOHWR
VHSDUDWH DOO WKHVH HOHPHQWV FRPSOHWHO\ EHFDXVH PRVW RI WKH
HOHPHQWV ZHUH FRPELQHG WRJHWKHU DW VRPH SRLQWV $ KROLVWLF
DSSURDFKLVDGRSWHGLQWKLVUHVHDUFKWKURXJKD/$63ULVP0RGHO
WR OLQN WKH /$6 TXDOLW\ LPSURYHPHQW JXLGHOLQHV LQVWLWXWLRQDO
DVSHFW WHFKQLFDO DVSHFW HOHPHQWV DQG LQGLFDWRUV RI WKH TXDOLW\
DVVHVVPHQW IUDPHZRUN 7KLV LQWHJUDWLRQ IXUWKHU HQDEOHG WR
GHYHORS D TXDOLW\ DVVHVVPHQW IUDPHZRUN WR DQDO\VH WKH TXDOLW\
VLWXDWLRQRIH[LVWLQJ/$6
7KH TXDOLW\ LVVXHV RI H[LVWLQJ /$6 QHHG WR EH DVVHVVHG E\
LGHQWLI\LQJ WKH LQGLFDWRUV DQG YDULDEOHV IRU DOO HOHPHQWV RI WKH
V\VWHP 7KLV FDQ EH GRQH E\ XVLQJ DQ DQDO\WLFDO DSSURDFK WR
FRQVLGHUDOOWKHQHFHVVDU\HOHPHQWVLQGLFDWRUVDQGYDULDEOHV IRU
ERWK WKH LQVWLWXWLRQDO DQG WHFKQLFDO DVSHFWV RI /$6 7KLV DQDO\VLV
ZLOO JLYH D FOHDU SLFWXUH RI WKH TXDOLW\ VLWXDWLRQ ZKLFK ZLOO OHDG WR
WKHTXDOLW\LPSURYHPHQWJXLGHOLQHVIRULPSURYLQJWKHTXDOLW\RIWKH
H[LVWLQJV\VWHP
7KH LQGLFDWRUV DQG YDULDEOHV IRU TXDOLW\ DVVHVVPHQW RI /$6 ZHUH
GHILQHG FDUHIXOO\ EHIRUH JRLQJ WR DQDO\VH WKHP LQ GHWDLO 7KHVH
LQGLFDWRUV DQG YDULDEOHV IRU WKH HOHPHQWV RI /$6 ZHUH LGHQWLILHG
WKURXJKDULJRURXVVWXG\RIWKHSUHYLRXVVWXGLHVFDUULHGRXWLQWKH


Chapter 7: Conclusions and Recommendations

ILHOG RI FDGDVWUH DQG ODQG DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ 7KH VHOHFWLRQ RI WKHVH
LQGLFDWRUV DQG YDULDEOHV JXLGHG WR GHWHUPLQH WKH FULWHULD IRU
PHDVXULQJWKHH[LVWLQJTXDOLW\VLWXDWLRQRIWKHV\VWHP7KHTXDOLW\
VLWXDWLRQRIWKHH[LVWLQJV\VWHPLVWKHQDQDO\VHGLQGHWDLOWKURXJK
WKHVH TXDOLW\ LQGLFDWRUV DQG YDULDEOHV E\ FROOHFWLQJ TXDOLWDWLYH DV
ZHOO DV TXDQWLWDWLYH GDWD 7KLV JDYH D IXOO XQGHUVWDQGLQJ RI WKH
TXDOLW\VLWXDWLRQIRUWKHH[LVWLQJV\VWHPLQWKHFRXQWU\
,Q RUGHU WR DSSO\ WKH FRQFHSW RI 740 WR /$ WKH TXDOLW\
LPSURYHPHQW JXLGHOLQHV PXVW EH GHYHORSHG WKURXJK WKH
KLHUDUFKLFDOSURFHVVRITXDOLW\ LHWKHGHYHORSPHQW RI WKH VWDJHV
RI 4XDOLW\ ,QVSHFWLRQ WKURXJK WR 4XDOLW\ &RQWURO ZLWKLQ WKH
FRQWH[W RI 4XDOLW\ $VVXUDQFH 7KH 4XDOLW\ ,QVSHFWLRQ LV PRVWO\
FRQFHUQHG ZLWK WKH RSHUDWLRQDO OHYHO RI /$6 ZKHUH PRVW RI WKH
SURGXFWVRUVHUYLFHVDUHGHOLYHUHGDWWKHXVHUVHQG7KH4XDOLW\
&RQWUROFRQFHQWUDWHV RQLVVXHVDWPDQDJHPHQW OHYHO VR WKDW WKH
TXDOLW\ RI SURGXFW RU VHUYLFH FDQ EH PHDVXUHG DQG HYDOXDWHG
HYHQWXDOO\7KH4XDOLW\$VVXUDQFHSOD\VDQLPSRUWDQWUROHDWWKH
SROLF\OHYHOZKHUHDVHWRIUXOHVDQGUHJXODWLRQVKRXOGEHGHILQHG
WRHQVXUHWKHTXDOLW\RISURGXFWRUVHUYLFHVDWDOOOHYHOV
,Q WKLV UHVHDUFK WKH HOHPHQWV RI /$ ZHUH DQDO\VHG FDUHIXOO\ WR
FDWHJRULVH WKHP DFFRUGLQJ WR WKH KLHUDUFKLFDO SURFHVV RI TXDOLW\
GHYHORSPHQW 7KLV FDWHJRULVDWLRQ KHOSHG WR IRUPXODWH WKH TXDOLW\
LPSURYHPHQWJXLGHOLQHVDVSHUTXDOLW\UHTXLUHPHQWRIHDFKVWDJH
ZLWKLQWKHEURDGFRQWH[WRI7407KHOLQNDJHDPRQJDOOWKHWKUHH
VWDJHVRITXDOLW\GHYHORSPHQWSURFHVVZDVPDLQWDLQHGGXULQJWKLV
IRUPXODWLRQ 7KH IRUPXODWLRQ RI WKHVH TXDOLW\ LPSURYHPHQW
JXLGHOLQHVDWDOOWKHWKUHHVWDJHVRITXDOLW\DFKLHYHPHQWSURFHVV
4XDOLW\ ,QVSHFWLRQ 4XDOLW\ &RQWURO DQG 4XDOLW\ $VVXUDQFH VWDJH
KHOSHGWRDSSO\WKHFRQFHSWVRI740WR/$



Chapter 7: Conclusions and Recommendations

7.2

Recommendations

7KLV UHVHDUFK UHFRPPHQGV WKDW WKH GHYHORSPHQW RI D TXDOLW\


DVVHVVPHQWIUDPHZRUNWRLQYHVWLJDWHWKHTXDOLW\RIH[LVWLQJ/$6LV
DYHU\KHOSIXOWRRO7KHDVVHVVPHQWLVPRUHPHDQLQJIXOZKHQLWLV
EDVHG RQ D VWHSE\VWHS DSSURDFK WR LQYHVWLJDWH WKH REMHFWLYHV
DQGLVVXHVRIWKHH[LVWLQJV\VWHPLQDKROLVWLFPDQQHU,QWKLVZD\
DQ DSSURSULDWHO\ GHVLJQHG DQG KROLVWLF DQDO\VLV DSSURDFK
FRPELQHGZLWKWKHVHOHFWLRQRIVXLWDEOHGDWDFROOHFWLRQWHFKQLTXHV
LVYHU\QHFHVVDU\IRUH[DPLQLQJWKHTXDOLW\RI/$6
7KLV UHVHDUFK KDV ILOOHG D JDS LQ DVVHVVLQJ WKH TXDOLW\ RI D
VWDQGDORQH ODQG DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ V\VWHP DQG SURYLGHG D EDVLV IRU
IXWXUH UHVHDUFK LQ LPSURYLQJ WKH TXDOLW\ RI /$6 ZLWKLQ WKH EURDG
FRQWH[W RI 740 FRQFHSWV +RZHYHU UHFRPPHQGDWLRQV IRU IXWXUH
UHVHDUFKZRXOGEURDGHQWKHVHOHFWLRQRIHOHPHQWVDQGLQGLFDWRUV
IRUGHYHORSLQJ740FRQFHSWVLQ/$ZKHQWKHTXDOLW\DVVHVVPHQW
IUDPHZRUNRIWKLVUHVHDUFKZRUNLVWHVWHGLQRWKHUVWXGLHVUHODWLQJ
WRFDGDVWUHDQGODQGDGPLQLVWUDWLRQV\VWHPV
)LUVWWKHDSSOLFDWLRQRIWKLVTXDOLW\DVVHVVPHQWIUDPHZRUNIRU/$6
LQ RWKHU SURYLQFHV RI 3DNLVWDQ ZRXOG EH KHOSIXO LQ UHH[DPLQLQJ
WKH YDOLGLW\ RI LWV ILQGLQJV )XUWKHU HPSLULFDO VWXGLHV XVLQJ ODUJHU
VDPSOH VL]HV JUHDWHU JHRJUDSKLFDO GLYHUVLW\ DQG /$6 GLYHUVLW\
ZRXOG EH KHOSIXO LQ YDOLGDWLQJ VSHFLILF FRPSRQHQWV RI WKH
WKHRUHWLFDOIUDPHZRUNVSURSRVHGLQWKLVVWXG\
6HFRQG VXEVHTXHQW UHVHDUFK QHHGV WR EH HQJDJHG LQ WKH
GHYHORSPHQWRIPRUHYDOLGDQGUHOLDEOHRSHUDWLRQDOGHILQLWLRQV IRU
WKH SURSRVHG FRQFHSWV RYHUFRPLQJ WKH OLPLWDWLRQV SRVHG E\ WKH
GDWD VRXUFH XVHG LQ WKLV VWXG\ )RU H[DPSOH PRUH VWDNHKROGHUV
HJ IURP WKH SULYDWH VHFWRU FRXOG EH FRQVLGHUHG DV QR SULYDWH
VHFWRU ZDV IRXQG WR EH LQYROYHG RWKHU WKDQ JRYHUQPHQW DJHQF\
LH %25 7KH GDWD RI WKHVH SULYDWH VWDNHKROGHUV ZRXOG EH


Chapter 7: Conclusions and Recommendations

REWDLQHG LQ RUGHU WR VFRUH WKH UHVSRQVHV IRU LQWHU RUJDQLVDWLRQV
UDWKHUWKDQLQWUDRUJDQLVDWLRQ
7KLUG WKH UHODWLRQVKLSV IRXQG LQ WKLV VWXG\ ZRXOG EH LQYHVWLJDWHG
LQ GLIIHUHQW FRXQWULHV WR WHVW ZKHWKHU WKH\ JR LQ WKH VDPH RU
GLIIHUHQWGLUHFWLRQV
)RXUWK PRUH FDVH VWXGLHV FRXOG EH FRQGXFWHG RQ GLIIHUHQW NLQGV
RI/$DFURVVGLIIHUHQWFRXQWULHVE\FRQVLGHULQJRWKHUDVVHVVPHQW
WRROV DQG VWDQGDUGV VXFK DV /DQG *RYHUQDQFH $VVHVVPHQW
)UDPHZRUN /*$)  :RUOG %DQN   DQG /DQG $GPLQLVWUDWLRQ
'RPDLQ 0RGHO /$'0  /HPPHQ   LQ RUGHU WR FRQWLQXRXVO\
LPSURYHWKHFRQFHSWVRI740LQ/$7KXVWKHVHFRQFHSWVFRXOG
EHWWHUPHHWWKHUHTXLUHPHQWVRIGLIIHUHQW/$V\VWHPV
)LQDOO\ WKH LQIOXHQFH RI H[WHUQDO IDFWRUV VXFK DV WKH LQYROYHPHQW
RISULYDWHVHFWRUDGRSWLRQRIQHZWHFKQRORJLHVVRFLDOQRUPVDQG
YDOXHVHWFFRXOGEHVWXGLHGLQRUGHUWRH[SORUHWKDWKRZH[WHUQDO
IDFWRUVDIIHFWWKHXVHRI740FRQFHSWVLQ/$




References
$'%  Nepal: Strengthening Land Administration
Services"Technical Assistance Report$VLDQ'HYHORSPHQW
%DQN
$O2PDUL0  The Role of Reliable Land Valuations in
Land Management and Land Administration Systems
Efficiency"3DSHUSUHVHQWHGDWWKH),*:RUNLQJ:HHN
,QWHJUDWLQJ*HQHUDWLRQV6WRFNKROP6ZHGHQ
$OHNVLF,/HPPHQ&+-DQG'DEDVV6  
Technological aspects of land administration systems in the
West Balkans".3DSHUSUHVHQWHGDWWKH),*:RUNLQJ:HHN
DQG*6',)URP3KDUDRKVWR*HLQIRUPDWLFV&DLUR
$OL=  Assessing Usefulness of High-Resolution Satellite
Imagery (HRSI) in GIS-based Cadastral Land Information
System"-RXUQDORI6HWWOHPHQWVDQG6SDWLDO3ODQQLQJ  
SS
$OL=DQG$KPHG6  Extracting parcel boundaries from
satellite imagery for a Land Information System".3DSHU
SUHVHQWHGDWWKH5HFHQW$GYDQFHVLQ6SDFH7HFKQRORJLHV
5$67 WK,QWHUQDWLRQDO&RQIHUHQFHRQ,VWDQEXO
7XUNH\
$OL=DQG1DVLU$ D Land Administration System in
Pakistan - Current Situation and Stakeholders Perception".
3DSHUSUHVHQWHGDWWKH),*&RQJUHVV)DFLQJWKH
&KDOOHQJHV%XLOGLQJWKH&DSDFLW\6\GQH\$XVWUDOLD
$OL=DQG1DVLU$ E "Land administration: Reliability is
the need of the hour"*,6'HYHORSPHQW7KH*OREDO
*HRVSDWLDO0DJD]LQH, ,SS


$OL=DQG6KDNLU0  Implementing GIS-based Cadastral


and Land Information System in Pakistan"-RXUQDORI
6HWWOHPHQWVDQG6SDWLDO3ODQQLQJ  SS
$OL=7XODGKDU$DQG=HYHQEHUJHQ-  An integrated
approach for updating cadastral maps in Pakistan using
satellite remote sensing data",QWHUQDWLRQDO-RXUQDORI
$SSOLHG(DUWK2EVHUYDWLRQDQG*HRLQIRUPDWLRQ
 $XJXVW SS
$OL=7XODGKDU$0DQG=HYHQEHUJHQ-$  
Developing a Framework for Improving the Quality of a
Deteriorated Land Administration System Based on an
Exploratory Case Study in Pakistan"1RUGLF-RXUQDORI
6XUYH\LQJDQG5HDO(VWDWH5HVHDUFK  SS
$OL==HYHQEHUJHQ-DQG7XODGKDU$  Quality
assessment of the land administration system in Pakistan"
-RXUQDORI6SDWLDO6FLHQFH  SS
$X]LQV$  Institutional Arrangements: A Gate Towards
Sustainable Land Use"1RUGLF-RXUQDORI6XUYH\LQJDQG
5HDO(VWDWH5HVHDUFKSS
$YLVRQ'-RQHV-3RZHOO3DQG:LOVRQ'  Using
and validating the strategic alignment model"7KH-RXUQDO
RI6WUDWHJLF,QIRUPDWLRQ6\VWHPV  SS
%DUU\0  Evaluating cadastral systems in periods of
uncertainty : a study of Cape Town's Xhosa - speaking
communities".8QLYHUVLW\RI1DWDO'XUEDQ
%HQQHWW55DMDELIDUG$:LOOLDPVRQ,DQG:DOODFH-  
On the need for national land administration
infrastructures"/DQG8VH3ROLF\  



%HQQHWW5:DOODFH-DQG:LOOLDPVRQ,  Organising


land information for sustainable land administration"/DQG
8VH3ROLF\  
%HUJ%/  Qualitative Research Methods for the Social
Sciences" )RXUWK(GLWLRQHG %RVWRQ0DVV/RQGRQ$OO\Q
DQG%DFRQ
%LOLFK)DQG1HWR$$  Total quality management:
quality macrofunction model for banks"7RWDO4XDOLW\
0DQDJHPHQW  SS
%LWWQHU6:ROII$9DQG)UDQN$8  The Structure of
Reality in a Cadaster"3DSHUSUHVHQWHGDWWKHUG
,QWHUQDWLRQDO:LWWJHQVWHLQ6\PSRVLXP 5DWLRQDOLW\DQG
,UUDWLRQDOLW\ .LUFKEHUJDP:HFKVHO$XVWULD
%RJDHUWV7DQG=HYHQEHUJHQ-$  Cadastral systems -alternatives"&RPSXWHUV(QYLURQPHQWDQG8UEDQ6\VWHPV
  SS
%RQRPD79  Case Research in Marketing:
Opportunities, Problems, and a Process"-RXUQDORI
0DUNHWLQJ5HVHDUFKSS
%XUQV7DQG'DOU\PSOH.  Land Administration Core
Comparisons"3DSHUSUHVHQWHGDWWKH),*:RUNLQJ:HHN
6WUDWHJLF,QWHJUDWLRQRI6XUYH\LQJ6HUYLFHV+RQJ
.RQJ6$5&KLQD
%XUQV7*UDQW&1HWWOH.%ULWV$0DQG'DOU\PSOH.
 Land Administration Reform: Indicators of Success
and Future Challenges":ROORQJRQJ$XVWUDOLD/DQG(TXLW\
,QWHUQDWLRQDO3W\/WG
%XUQV7*UDQW&1HWWOH.%ULWV$DQG'DOU\PSOH.  
Land Administration Reform: Indicators of Success and
Future Challenges"Agriculture and Rural Development


Discussion Paper 37:ROORQJRQJ$XVWUDOLD/DQG(TXLW\


,QWHUQDWLRQDO3W\/WG
dDJGDV9DQG6WXENMU(  Doctoral research on
cadastral development"/DQG8VH3ROLF\  SS

&DVWDQ\HU-DQG&DQHW,  El Catastro in Europa"
0DGULG0LQLVWHULRGH(FRQRPLD\+DFLHQGD
&KDQGUXSDWOD75  Quality and Reliability in
Engineering"&DPEULGJH8QLYHUVLW\3UHVV
&KDXGKDU\.$  Land Records Manual: incorporated
upto date amendments, case-laws and latest notification"
3DNLVWDQ3XEOLVKLQJ+RXVH
&KLJLLQJH)  The Balance Between Data Quality and
User's Information Needs - Thinking Strategically for
Rational Decision-Making"3DSHUSUHVHQWHGDWWKHWK),*
5HJLRQDO&RQIHUHQFHRQ3URPRWLQJ/DQG$GPLQLVWUDWLRQDQG
*RRG*RYHUQDQFH$FFUD*KDQD
&KLPKDPKLZD'$0ROHQ3YG0XWDQJD2DQG5XJHJH
'  Towards a framework for measuring end to end
performance of land administration business processes - A
case study"&RPSXWHUV(QYLURQPHQWDQG8UEDQ6\VWHPV
  SS
&ROHPDQ3DQG3DSS5  Strategic Alignment: Analysis
of Perspectives".3DSHUSUHVHQWHGDWWKH1LQWK$QQXDO
&RQIHUHQFHRIWKH6RXWKHUQ$VVRFLDWLRQIRU,QIRUPDWLRQ
6\VWHPV 6$,6 +\DWW5HJHQF\-DFNVRQYLOOH)ORULGD
&RRSHU-DQG)LVKHU0  Software Acquisition Capability
Maturity Model (SA-CMM )" 9HUVLRQ &086(,
75$'$ HG 3LWWVEXUJK&DUQHJLH0HOORQ
8QLYHUVLW\3$6RIWZDUH(QJLQHHULQJ,QVWLWXWH


&UHVZHOO-:  Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design:


Choosing Among Five Approaches" 6HFRQG(GLWLRQHG 
6DJH3XEOLFDWLRQV
&URZ.  &XVWRPHU)RFXVHG'HYHORSPHQWZLWK4)'
5HWULHYHG$XJXVWIURPKWWSZZZQSG
VROXWLRQVFRPTIGKWPO
'DOH3)DQG%DOGZLQ5  Lessons Learnt from the
Emerging Land Markets in Central and Eastern Europe"
Working Paper under the Action for Co-operation in the field
of Economics (ACE)(8SURJUDPPH
'DOH3)DQG0F/DXJKOLQ-  Land Administration"
2[IRUG2[IRUG8QLYHUVLW\3UHVV
'DOH3)DQG0F/DXJKOLQ-'  Land information
management : an introduction with special reference to
cadastral problems in third world countries"2[IRUG
&ODUHQGRQ3UHVV
'DV0XOP$  Quality Concepts"
'HNNHU+$/  In pursuit of land tenure security"
$PVWHUGDP7KH1HWKHUODQGV$PVWHUGDP8QLYHUVLW\3UHVV
'RXLH-0DQG*RUULH0  Punjab Land Administration &
Management Manual: Based on McC. Douie's & M. Gorrie's
Punjab Land Administration Manual & Land Management in
the Punjab Foothills"&LYLO &ULPLQDO/DZ3XE
'7,  Total Quality Management: a practical approach"
/RQGRQ'HSDUWPHQWRI7UDGHDQG,QGXVWU\
(QHPDUN6  Building Land Information Policies"3DSHU
SUHVHQWHGDWWKH81),*3&,'($,QWHUUHJLRQDO6SHFLDO
)RUXPRQ7KH%XLOGLQJRI/DQG,QIRUPDWLRQ3ROLFLHVLQWKH
$PHULFDV$JXDVFDOLHQWHV0H[LFR



(QHPDUN6  The Emerging Land Management Paradigm


- A Major Challenge for to Global Surveying Community"
5,&6/RQGRQ'HFHPEHU
(QHPDUN6 D Managing Rights, Restrictions and
Responsibilities in Land"3DSHUSUHVHQWHGDWWKH*6',
:RUOG&RQIHUHQFH5RWWHUGDP7KH1HWKHUODQGV
(QHPDUN6 E Sustainable Land Administration
Infrastructures to support Natural Disaster Prevention and
Management"3DSHUSUHVHQWHGDWWKH1LQWK8QLWHG1DWLRQV
5HJLRQDO&DUWRJUDSKLF&RQIHUHQFHIRUWKH$PHULFDV1HZ
<RUN
(QHPDUN6DQGYDQGHU0ROHQ3  Capacity assessment
in land administration")UHGHULNVEHUJ,QWHUQDWLRQDO
)HGHUDWLRQRI6XUYH\RUV ),* 
(QHPDUN6DQG:LOOLDPVRQ,3  Capacity Building in
Land Administration - A Conceptual Approach"6XUYH\
5HYLHZ  SS
)DUYDFTXH&DQG0F$XVODQ3  Reforming urban land
policies and institutions in developing countries"
:DVKLQJWRQ'&7KH:RUOG%DQN
)HDJLQ-2UXP$DQG6MREHUJ*  A case for case
study"8QLYHUVLW\RI1RUWK&DUROLQD3UHVV&KDSHO+LOO1&
)HGHU*DQG)HHQ\'  Land tenure and property rights
: theory and implications for development policy":RUOG
%DQN'HYHORSPHQW5HYLHZ  SS
)*'&  Content Standards for Digital Geospatial
Metadata":DVKLQJWRQ'&)HGHUDO*HRJUDSKLF'DWD
&RPPLWWHH
),*  FIG statement on the cadastre"%HOFRQQHQ7KH
,QWHUQDWLRQDO)HGHUDWLRQRI6XUYH\RUV ),* 


),*  Innovative IT for Land Administration"0DGLVRQ


:LVFRQVLQ86$),*&RPPLVVLRQ6\PSRVLXPRQ
,QQRYDWLYH7HFKQRORJ\IRU/DQG$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ
),* D Institutional and Organisational Development : A
Guide For Managers"&RSHQKDJHQ'HQPDUN,QWHUQDWLRQDO
)HGHUDWLRQRI6XUYH\RUV ),* 
),* E Land Governance in Support of The Millennium
Development Goals"&RSHQKDJHQ'HQPDUN7KH
,QWHUQDWLRQDO)HGHUDWLRQRI6XUYH\RUV ),* 
)LVKHU,DQG=LYLDQL-  Explanatory case studies:
Implications and applications for clinical research"
$XVWUDOLDQ2FFXSDWLRQDO7KHUDS\-RXUQDO  SS

)RXULH&DQGYDQ*\VHQ+  Constructing cadastral
reform theory in South Africa"*HRPDWLFD  SS

*DXKDU6  "Mapping Pakistan - Taking a Leaf Out of Sher
Shah's Book"%OXH&KLS, 
*HRUJLDGRX<5RGULJXH]3DEyQ2DQG/DQFH.7  
SDI and e-Governance: A quest for appropriate evaluation
approaches"85,6$-RXUQDO-RXUQDORIWKH8UEDQDQG
5HJLRQDO,QIRUPDWLRQ6\VWHPV$VVRFLDWLRQ  SS
*HUULQJ-  Case Study Research: Principles and
Practices" )LUVW(GLWLRQHG &DPEULGJH8QLYHUVLW\3UHVV
*LII*$  The value of performance indicators to spatial
data infrastructure development".3DSHUSUHVHQWHGDWWKH,Q
3URFHHGLQJRI*6',FRQIHUHQFH6DQWLDJR&KLOH
*LII*$DQG&URPSYRHWV-  Performance Indicators a
tool to Support Spatial Data Infrastructure assessment"



&RPSXWHUV(QYLURQPHQWDQG8UEDQ6\VWHPV  SS

*RYWRI.3.  5HYHQX (VWDWH'HSDUWPHQW5HWULHYHG
'HFHPEHUIURP
KWWSZZZNK\EHUSDNKWXQNKZDJRYSN5HYHQX'HSDUWPHQWL
QGH[SKS
+HQGHUVRQ-&7KRPDV-%DQG9HQNDWUDPDQ1  
Making sense of IT: Strategic Alignment and Organizational
Context"&HQWUHIRU,QIRUPDWLRQ6\VWHPV5HVHDUFK0,7
&DPEULGJH0DVVDFKXVHWWV
+HQVVHQ-/*  Basic Principles of the main cadastral
Systems in the World".3DSHUSUHVHQWHGDWWKH0RGHUQ
&DGDVWUHVDQG&DGDVWUDO,QQRYDWLRQV'HOIW
.DODQWDUL05DMDELIDUG$:DOODFH-DQG:LOOLDPVRQ,  
Toward e-Land Administration: Australian Online Land
Information Services".3DSHUSUHVHQWHGDWWKH66&
6SDWLDO,QWHOOLJHQFH,QQRYDWLRQDQG3UD[LV7KHQDWLRQDO
ELHQQLDO&RQIHUHQFHRIWKH6SDWLDO6FLHQFHV,QVWLWXWH
0HOERXUQH6SDWLDO6FLHQFHV,QVWLWXWH
.DODQWDUL660  Cadastral Data Modelling - A Tool for
e-Land Administration". 3K'7KHVLV 7KH8QLYHUVLW\RI
0HOERXUQH9LFWRULD$XVWUDOLD
.DSODQ%DQG0D[ZHOO-  Qualitative Research Methods
for Evaluating Computer Information Systems"Evaluating
the Organizational Impact of Healthcare Information
Systems SSSS 1HZ<RUN6SULQJHU
.KDOLG$.  Guaranteeing Title to Land"'$:1
KWWSZZZGDZQFRPHEUKWP



.RWKDUL&5  Research Methodology : Methods And


Techniques" 6HFRQG5HYLVHG(GLWLRQHG 1HZ$JH
,QWHUQDWLRQDO
.XPDU5  Research methodology : a step-by-step guide
for beginners" 6HFRQG(GLWLRQHG )UHQFKV)RUHVW
16:3HDUVRQ/RQJPDQ
/DNDNLV.6DYYDLGLV3DQG,IDGLV,  The
implementation of Quality Assurance in the Hellenic National
Cadastral Projects"3DSHUSUHVHQWHGDWWKH$WKHQV
:RUNVKRSRI),*&RP6SDWLDO,QIRUPDWLRQ0DQDJHPHQW
([SHULHQFHVDQG9LVLRQVIRUWKHVW&HQWXU\$WKHQV
*UHHFH
/HPPHQ&+-  A Domain Model For Land
Administration". 3K'7KHVLV 7HFKQLFDO8QLYHUVLW\'HOIW
78' 8QLYHUVLW\RI7ZHQWH)DFXOW\RI*HR,QIRUPDWLRQDQG
(DUWK2EVHUYDWLRQ ,7& 'HOIW
/\RQV.DQG6DWLVK&  Undertaking land administration
projects: sustainability, affordability, operational efficiency
and good practice guidelines"&DQEHUUD$XVWUDOLD1HZ
0LOOHQQLXP3ULQW
0DDV.)  7RWDO4XDOLW\0DQDJHPHQWDQG5HLQYHQWLQJ
*RYHUQPHQW5HWULHYHG)HEUXDU\IURP
KWWSZZZNIPDDVGHTBWTPKWPO
0lNHOl-0  The impact of Spatial Data Quality on
Companys Decision Making"3DSHUSUHVHQWHGDWWKHWK
,QWHUQDWLRQDO6\PSRVLXPRQ0RGHOOLQJTXDOLWLHVLQVSDFH
DQGWLPH,7&(QVFKHGH7KH1HWKHUODQGV
0DUF]\N*5'H0DWWHR'DQG)HVWLQJHU'  
Essentials of Research Design and Methodology"-RKQ
:LOH\ 6RQV


0DVXG7  Land Revenue System in Azad Jammu &


Kashmir",VODPDEDG3DNLVWDQ81+$%,7$7
0F1DPDUD&  3HUIRUPDQFHPDQDJHPHQW3HUIRUPDQFH
SODQFree Management Library".5HWULHYHG-DQXDU\
IURP
KWWSZZZPDQDJHPHQWKHOSRUJSHUIBPQJSUIBSODQKWP
0LOHV0DQG+XEHUPDQ0  Qualitative data analysis: A
source book for new methods"7KRXVDQG2DNV&$6DJH
3XEOLFDWLRQV
0LWFKHOO'&ODUNH0DQG%D[WHU-  Evaluating land
administration projects in developing countries"/DQG8VH
3ROLF\  SS
0RUHODQG:+  The Agrarian System of Moslem India"
$WODQWLF
0XPWD].DQG1RVKHUZDQL00  Womens Access and
Rights to Land and Property in Pakistan".DUDFKL6KLUNDW
*DK:RPHQ
V5HVRXUFH&HQWUH
1LFKROV6(  Land registration: managing information for
land administration". 3K'7KHVLV 8QLYHUVLW\RI1HZ
%UXQVZLFN)UHGHULFWRQ1%&DQDGD
1RUWK'&  Institutions, institutional change and
economic performance"1HZ<RUN&DPEULGJH8QLYHUVLW\
3UHVV
2DNODQG-6  Total Quality Management: The Route to
Improving Performance" 6HFRQG(GLWLRQHG %XWWHUZRUWK
+HLQHPDQQ2[IRUG
2QVUXG+--HIIUH\.3DQG$]DG%  Case Study
Research methods for Geographic Information Systems"
8UEDQDQG5HJLRQDO,QIRUPDWLRQ6\VWHPV$VVRFLDWLRQ
85,6$  6SULQJ 3DUW SS


2VFKPDQ--  A Framework for the Implementation of


Total Quality Management in the South African Air Force".
3K'7KHVLV 8QLYHUVLW\2I6RXWK$IULFD3UHWRULD*DXWHQJ
3DUp*  Using A Positivist Case Study Methodology to
Build and Test Theories in Information Systems: Illustrations
from Four Exemplary Studies"*URXSHGHUHFKHUFKHHQ
V\VWqPHVG
LQIRUPDWLRQ *5H6, 
3XQFK.)  Developing Effective Research Proposals"
6HFRQG(GLWLRQHG /RQGRQ6$*(3XEOLFDWLRQV/WG
4D]L08  Social Assessment of Land Record
Management Information System Programme"Background
Paper,VODPDEDG3DNLVWDQ7KH:RUOG%DQN3DNLVWDQ
&RXQWU\2IILFH
4D]L08  Computerization of Land Records in
Pakistan",VODPDEDG/($',QWHUQDWLRQDO
5DGZDQ002QFKDJD5DQG0RUDOHV-  A structural
approach to the management and optimization of geoinformation processes" 9RO )UDQNIXUWDP0DLQ
(XURSHDQ2UJDQL]DWLRQIRU([SHULPHQWDO3KRWRJUDPPHWULF
5HVHDUFK 2((3( 
5DMDELIDUG$:LOOLDPVRQ,6WHXGOHU'%LQQV$DQG.LQJ0
 Assessing the worldwide comparison of cadastral
systems"/DQG8VH3ROLF\  SS
5D]D)$OPDV0DQG$KPHG.  Land Records
Information Management System"3DSHUSUHVHQWHGDWWKH
WK$QQXDO(65,,QWHUQDWLRQDO8VHU&RQIHUHQFH6DQ
'LHJR&DOLIRUQLD
5RODQG:6DQG2ODI7  Embedded Case Study
Methods: Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative
Knowledge"7KRXVDQG2DNV6DJH3XEOLFDWLRQV


6FKRQEHUJHU5  Building a chain of customers: linking


business function to create a world-class company"1HZ
<RUN7KH)UHH3UHVV
6FRWW:5  Institutions and Organizations"7KRXVDQG
2DNV&DOLIRUQLD6DJH3XEOLFDWLRQV
6HGXQDU\0(  A strategic approach to land information
management"&RPSXWHUV(QYLURQPHQWDQG8UEDQ
6\VWHPV  SS
6HYDWGDO+  Land Administration and Land Management:
An Institutional Approach"3DSHUSUHVHQWHGDWWKH/DQG
$GPLQLVWUDWLRQIRUWKH1HZ0LOOHQQLXP),*;;,,
,QWHUQDWLRQDO&RQJUHVV:DVKLQJWRQ'&86$
6LOD\R(+  Searching for an Affordable and Acceptable
Cadastral Survey Method"3DSHUSUHVHQWHGDWWKH)URP
3KDUDRKVWR*HRLQIRUPDWLFV&DLUR(J\SW
6LOYD0$DQG6WXENMU(  A review of methodologies
used in research on cadastral development"&RPSXWHUV
(QYLURQPHQWDQG8UEDQ6\VWHPV  SS
6LQJK<.  Fundamentals of Research Methodology and
Statistics" )LUVW(GLWLRQHG 1HZ$JH,QWHUQDWLRQDO
6WDNH5  The art of case research"7KRXVDQG2DNV&$
6DJH3XEOLFDWLRQV
6WDQHN+DQG)UDQN$8  Data Quality - Necessary
Complement for GIS Based Decision Making"3DSHU
SUHVHQWHGDWWKHWK,QWHUQDWLRQDO6\PSRVLXP5HPRWH
6HQVLQJDQG*OREDO(QYLURQPHQW&KDQJH*UD]$XVWULD
6WHXGOHU'  A Framework for the Evaluation of Land
Administration Systems". 3K'7KHVLV 8QLYHUVLW\RI
0HOERXUQH0HOERXUQH$XVWUDOLD



6WHXGOHU'  Swiss cadastral core data model experiences of the last 15 years"&RPSXWHUV(QYLURQPHQW
DQG8UEDQ6\VWHPV  SS
6WHXGOHU'DQG.DXIPDQQ-  Benchmarking Cadastral
Systems",Q'6D-.DXIPDQQ (G 'HQPDUN
6WHXGOHU'5DMDELIDUG$DQG:LOOLDPVRQ,3  
Evaluation of land administration systems"/DQG8VH
3ROLF\  SS
6WHXGOHU'DQG:LOOLDPVRQ,3  A Framework for
Benchmarking Land Administration Systems"3DSHU
SUHVHQWHGDWWKH),*&RPPLVVLRQ$QQXDO0HHWLQJ*lYOH
6ZHGHQ
6WHXGOHU':LOOLDPVRQ,3.DXIPDQQ-DQG*UDQW'0
 Benchmarking cadastral systems"7KH$XVWUDOLDQ
6XUYH\RU  SS
6WHXGOHU':LOOLDPVRQ,3DQG5DMDELIDUG$  The
development of a cadastral template"-RXUQDORI*HRVSDWLDO
(QJLQHHULQJSS
6WXENMU(  Real estate and the ontology of
multidisciplinary, e.g. cadastral, studies".3DSHUSUHVHQWHGDW
WKH(XUR&RQIHUHQFHRQRQWRORJ\DQGHSLVWHPRORJ\IRU
VSDWLDOGDWDVWDQGDUGV
7DQ:  The development of cadastral systems: an
alternative view"7KH$XVWUDOLDQ6XUYH\RU  SS

7HOOLV:  Application of a case study methodology"7KH
4XDOLWDWLYH5HSRUW  
7KDNXU9.KDGDQJD*9HQNDWHVK'6DQG6KXNOD''5
 Land management system in India - Past, present
and future"*,6'HYHORSPHQW1HZ'HOKL


7KDNXU9.KDGDQJD*9HQNDWHVK'66KXNOD''5DQG
0HHQD6  Land Records Management System in
India - Technical Framework"3DSHUSUHVHQWHGDWWKH0DS
$VLD.XDOD/XPSXU0DOD\VLD
7LQJ/DQG:LOOLDPVRQ,3  Cadastral Trends: A
Synthesis"7KH$XVWUDOLDQ6XUYH\RU  SS
7XODGKDU$0  Parcel Based Geo - information System :
Concepts and Guidelines". 3K'7KHVLV ,7&(QVFKHGH
7XODGKDU$0 D Innovative Land Tools, Surveying and
Geo-information Technologies"3DSHUSUHVHQWHGDWWKH
*OREDO1HWZRUNIRU3URSRRU/DQG7RRO'HYHORSHUV
6WRFNKROP6ZHGHQ
7XODGKDU$0 E Innovative use of remote sensing
images for pro poor land management"3DSHUSUHVHQWHGDW
WKH6HFXUHODQGWHQXUHQHZOHJDOIUDPHZRUNVDQGWRROVLQ
$VLDDQGWKH3DFLILF%DQJNRN7KDLODQG
7XODGKDU$0.ULVKQD5DM%&DQG%XGKDWKRNL15  
Towards strategic planning for building land information
system LIS in Nepal".3DSHUSUHVHQWHGDWWKHUG$VLDQ
&RQIHUHQFHRQ5HPRWH6HQVLQJ$&56.DWKPDQGX
81(&$  An integrated geo-information system with
emphasis on cadastre and land information systems for
decision makers in Africa"$GGLV$EDED8QLWHG1DWLRQV
(FRQRPLF&RPPLVVLRQIRU$IULFD
81(&(  Land administration guidelines : with special
reference to countries in transition"*HQHYD8QLWHG1DWLRQV
81 
81(&(  Land Administration in the UNECE Region:
Development trends and main principles"1HZ<RUNDQG
*HQHYD8QLWHG1DWLRQV(FRQRPLF&RPPLVVLRQIRU(XURSH


81),*  The Bogor Declaration on Cadastral Reform"


3DSHUSUHVHQWHGDWWKH8QLWHG1DWLRQV,QWHUUHJLRQDO0HHWLQJ
RI([SHUWVRQWKH&DGDVWUH%RJRU,QGRQHVLD
81+$%,7$7  Handbook on best practices, security of
tenure and access to land : implementation of the Habitat
agenda"1DLUREL81+$%,7$7
86$,'  Land and Conflict - A Toolkit for Intervention"
:DVKLQJWRQ'&86$JHQF\IRU,QWHUQDWLRQDO'HYHORSPHQW
86$,' 
YDQGHU0ROHQ3  Institutional aspects of 3D cadastres"
&RPSXWHUV(QYLURQPHQWDQG8UEDQ6\VWHPV  SS

YDQGHU0ROHQ3  Good administration of land in Europe".
3DSHUSUHVHQWHGDWWKH7KH81),*DQG3&,'($
LQWHUUHJLRQDOVSHFLDOIRUXP7KHGHYHORSPHQWRIODQG
LQIRUPDWLRQSROLF\LQWKH$PHULFDV$JXDVFDOLHQWHV0H[LFR
YDQGHU0ROHQ3  Unconventional approaches to land
administration : the need for an international research
agenda".3DSHUSUHVHQWHGDWWKHWK),*UHJLRQDO
FRQIHUHQFHIRU$IULFDSURPRWLQJODQGDGPLQLVWUDWLRQDQG
JRRGJRYHUQDQFH$FFUD*KDQD
YDQ2RVWHURP3/HPPHQ&,QJYDUVVRQ7YDQGHU0ROHQ3
3ORHJHU+4XDN:6WRWHU-DQG=HYHQEHUJHQ-
 The core cadastral domain model"&RPSXWHUV
(QYLURQPHQWDQG8UEDQ6\VWHPV  SS
9DQGHU6WRHS6:DQG-RKQVWRQ''  Research
Methods for Everyday Life: Blending Qualitative and
Quantitative Approaches" )LUVW(GLWLRQHG 6DQ)UDQFLVFR
-RVVH\%DVV



:HKUPDQQ%  Land conflicts : a practical guide to daling


with land disputes"(VFKERUQ*7=
:LNLSHGLD  ([SORUDWRU\5HVHDUFK5HWULHYHG0DUFK
IURPKWWSHQZLNLSHGLDRUJZLNL([SORUDWRU\BUHVHDUFK
:LNLSHGLD  .K\EHU3DNKWXQNKZD5HWULHYHG$XJXVW
IURP
KWWSHQZLNLSHGLDRUJZLNL.K\EHUB3DNKWXQNKZD
:LOOLDPVRQ,3  Land administration "best practice"
providing the infrastructure for land policy implementation"
/DQG8VH3ROLF\  SS
:LOOLDPVRQ,3(QHPDUN6:DOODFH-DQG5DMDELIDUG$
 Land Administration for Sustainable Development"
5HGODQGV(65,
:LOOLDPVRQ,3DQG)RXULH&  Using the Case Study
Methodology for Cadastral Reform"*HRPDWLFD  SS

:LOOLDPVRQ,3DQG7LQJ/  Land administration and
cadastral trends -- a framework for re-engineering"
&RPSXWHUV(QYLURQPHQWDQG8UEDQ6\VWHPV  SS

:RUOG%DQN  World Development Report 1998-1999"
:DVKLQJWRQ'&:RUOG%DQN
:RUOG%DQN  Land policy and administration: lessons
learned and new challenges for the banks development
agenda":DVKLQJWRQ'&:RUOG%DQN
:RUOG%DQN  Land Records Management and Information
Systems Program (LRMIS-P) Province of Punjab" 9RO 1R
$% :RUOG%DQN
:RUOG%DQN  Doing business":DVKLQJWRQ86$



:RUOG%DQN  Land Governance Assessment Framework


Manual",Q7%XUQV (G World Bank Study on
Governance in Land Administration:DVKLQJWRQ'&7KH
:RUOG%DQN
:3/$8(  Land Administration Reviews"1RWH
SUHSDUHGE\0U3&UHX]HU *HUPDQ\ LQFRRSHUDWLRQZLWK
WKHVHFUHWDULDW+%3:3S
<LQ5.  Case study research : design and methods"
7KLUG(GLWLRQHG 1HZEXU\3DUN6DJH3XEOLFDWLRQV
=DLUL0  Total quality management for engineers"$GLW\D
ERRNVSURIHVVLRQDOSXEOLFDWLRQ
=HYHQEHUJHQ-$  The Interrelated Influence of the
Technical, Legal and Organisation Aspects on the
Functioning of Land Registration (Cadastre)"3DSHU
SUHVHQWHGDWWKH),*;;,,QWHUQDWLRQDO&RQJUHVV
&RPPLVVLRQ&DGDVWUHDQG/DQG0DQDJHPHQW%ULJKWRQ
(QJODQG
=HYHQEHUJHQ-$  Systems of land registration : Aspects
and Effects". 3K'7KHVLV 78'HOIW'HOIW
=HYHQEHUJHQ-$  A Systems Approach to Land
Registry and Cadastre"1RUGLF-RXUQDORI6XUYH\LQJDQG
5HDO(VWDWH5HVHDUFK  SS




Appendices




Appendix 1: Registers Maintained by a Patwari

Appendix 1: Registers Maintained by a Patwari


i)

Akhier Tasdiq Register Haqdaran Zamin: 'XULQJ WKH


SURFHVVRIFUHDWLQJWKHQHZ+DTGDUDQ=DPLQGRFXPHQW
WKH 7HKVLOGDU RU 1DLE 7HKVLOGDU FUHDWH WKLV GRFXPHQW WR
YHULI\ DOO PXWDWLRQV WKDW KDYH EHHQ LQFRUSRUDWHG LQWR WKH
QHZGRFXPHQWE\WKH3DWZDUL

ii)

Copy of Mutation order: (DFK 3DWZDUL ZLOO EH SURYLGHG


ZLWK D 5HJLVWHU VR WKDW KH FDQ LVVXH D IXUQLVK FRS\ RI
0XWDWLRQRUGHUWRWKHFRQFHUQHGSDUWLHV

iii)

Fard Badar: 7KLV LV D VWDWHPHQW IRU WKH FRUUHFWLRQ RI


FOHULFDO PLVWDNHV PDGH LQ FRS\LQJ WKH HQWULHV RI WKH
5HJLVWHU+DTGDUDQ=DPLQ7KH)DUG%DGDUFRQVLVWVRID
IRLODQGFRXQWHUIRLO

iv)

Fard Malkiyat Document: 7KH)DUG0DONL\DW'RFXPHQW


LVDFRS\RIDSDJHRI5HJLVWHU+DTGDUDQ=DPLQ

v)

Fard Taqseem Aab: ,Q WKH DUHDV ZKHUH WKH ODQGV DUH
LUULJDWHG E\ PHDQV RI .DUH] RU RWKHU VLPLODU VRXUFH D
VWDWHPHQWRIGLVWULEXWLRQRIZDWHU )DUG7DTVHHP$DE LV
SUHSDUHG ZKLFK VKRZV KRZ ZDWHU UHVRXUFHV DUH
GLVWULEXWHGLQWKHDUHD

vi)

Field Book Mahaal:)LHOG%RRNLVDSDUWRIWKHUHFRUGRI


ULJKWDQGFRQWDLQVIRUHDFK.KDVUDLWVOHQJWKDQGEUHDWK
FDOFXODWLRQ RI DUHD DQG FODVVLILFDWLRQ RI VRLO 7KH ILHOG
ERRN LV SUHSDUHG DW WKH WLPH RI VHWWOHPHQW DQG
FRQVROLGDWLRQRIKROGLQJV(DFKHQWU\LQWKHERRNLVWREH
VLJQHGE\WKH.DQXQJR

vii)

Index Manzoor Shudah Dakhil Kharij Mashmula Misal


Haqiyat or Misal Miyadi: 7KLV UHJLVWHU FRQWDLQV DOO WKH


Appendix 1: Registers Maintained by a Patwari

DWWHVWHG DQG DFFHSWHG 0XWDWLRQV :KHQHYHU D QHZ


-DPDEDQGL LV PDGH D FRS\ RI WKDW UHJLVWHU LV DWWDFKHG
ZLWKWKH-DPDEDQGL
viii)

Index Radiefwar Malikan and Marthehan: 7KLV IRUP LV


PHDQW WR ORFDWH WKH RZQHUV DQG PRUWJDJHV LQ DQ HVWDWH
WKURXJK DQ DOSKDEHWLFDO LQGH[ DQG DOVR WR ILQG RXW WKHLU
ULJKWVLQYDULRXVKROGLQJV .KHZDWV 

ix)

Index Survey/Khasra Number: 7KLV IRUP VKRZV ZKLFK


.KDVUD SDUFHO QXPEHUIDOOVLQZKLFK.KDWXQLQXPEHULQ
DUHYHQXHHVWDWH

x)

Interrogatories: ,IGXULQJ0XWDWLRQSURFHVV3DWZDULILQGV
WKDWKHQHHGVWRUHFRUGWKHVWDWHPHQWRIDQRWKHUSHUVRQ
IRUGLVSRVDORIWKHFDVHUHVLGLQJRXWVLGHWKHOLPLWVRIWKH
7HKVLO7KHQ3DWZDULLVVXHDQLQWHUURJDWRU\OHWWHUVWRWKH
FRQFHUQHGSHUVRQ

xi)

Memoranda Invoice: $ORQJ ZLWK HYHU\ PXWDWLRQ $


PHPRUDQGDLVVHQWLQWKHIRUPRIDQLQYRLFH

xii)

Naqsha Haqooq Chahaat-o-Nul Chahaat: $ VWDWHPHQW


RI ULJKWV LQ ZHOOV DQG WXEH ZHOOV FRQWDLQV LQIRUPDWLRQ RQ
WKH ORFDWLRQ W\SH VL]H DQG RZQHUVKLS RI :HOO DQG WXEH
ZHOOVLQWKHDUHD

xiii)

Parcha Khatuni: :KHQHYHU D QHZ -DPDEDQGL LV


SUHSDUHGDFRS\RISDUFKD.KDWXQLLVJLYHQWRDOOWKHODQG
RZQHUVIRUYHULILFDWLRQ

xiv)

Receipt of Mutation fee: ,Q FDVH RI FROOHFWLRQ RI


PXWDWLRQ IHHV LQ DGYDQFH WKH FRUUHVSRQGLQJ SHUVRQ ZLOO
SD\ WKH 0XWDWLRQ IHH WR WKH 5HYHQXH 2IILFHU DQG KH ZLOO
LVVXHDUHFHLSWWRWKHFRQFHUQHGSHUVRQ

xv)

Register Dakhil Kharij: Register Dakhil Kharij DOVR


NQRZQ DV 0XWDWLRQ 5HJLVWHU NHHSV WUDFN RI HYHU\


Appendix 1: Registers Maintained by a Patwari

PXWDWLRQ ,QWLTDO  7KLV UHJLVWHU FRQVLVWV RI IRLO DQG


FRXQWHUIRLO7KHFRXQWHUIRLOLVWKHNHSWE\WKH3DWZDULIRU
KLV UHFRUGV ZKLOH WKH IRLO FRS\ LV IRUZDUGHG WR 7HKVLO
RIILFH
xvi)

Register

Gardawari:

$ QHZ UHJLVWHU *DUGDZDUL

FRQWDLQLQJ WKH FRUSV UHFRUGV  LQWR WZR SDUWV ZLOO EH


EURXJKW LQWR XVH ZKHQHYHU D QHZ TXDGUHQQLDO UHJLVWHU
+DTGDUDQ=DPLQKDVEHHQSUHSDUHGRULJLQDOFRS\EHLQJ
LQWHQGHGIRUWKHXVHRI3DWZDULDQGWKHVHFRQGIRUXVHLQ
8QLRQ&RXQFLORIILFH
xvii)

Register Haqdaran Nakhlistan: ,Q FHUWDLQ DUHDV


RZQHUVKLSRIGDWHWUHHVLVFRQVLGHUHGWRDVVHVVUHYHQXH
7KLV UHJLVWHU GHWDLOV FRPSOHWH LQIRUPDWLRQ UHJDUGLQJ
QXPEHUW\SHDQGRZQHUVKLSRIGDWHWUHHV

xviii)

Register Haqdaran Zamin (Misal Miyadi):7KH5HJLVWHU


+DTGDUDQ=DPLQ0LVDO0L\DGLVKRZVWKHULJKWKROGHUVRI
ODQGLQFOXGLQJGHWDLOVRQRZQHUFXOWLYDWRUODQGVRLOUHQW
HWF ,W LV FUHDWHG HYHU\ IRXU \HDUV IURP LQFRUSRUDWLQJ
UHFHQW0XWDWLRQV

xix)

Register Jinswar: $V VRRQ DV WKH ILHOG LQVSHFWLRQ RI D


KDUYHVWLVILQLVKHGLQDQ\YLOODJHWKH3DWZDULZLOOFRPSOHWH
WKH FURS DEVWUDFW -LQVZDU  EHIRUH FRPPHQFLQJ ZRUN LQ
WKHVHFRQGYLOODJH:KHQWKHILHOG.DQXQJRKDVVHHQWKH
DEVWUDFWDQGVLJQHG LWDVFRUUHFWWKH 3DWZDULZLOOHQWHUD
FRS\ LQ KLV -LQVZDU UHJLVWHU DQG GLVSDWFK WKH DEVWUDFW WR
WKHRIILFH.DQXQJRRIWKH7HKVLO

xx)

Roznamcha Waqiati: ,Q WKLV UHJLVWHU 3DWZDUL VKRXOG


PDLQWDLQ DQ\ LQFLGHQW RFFXUUHG DORQJ ZLWK WKH GDWH
PHWKRGDQGWKHVRXUFHE\ZKLFKWKHHYHQWFDPHLQWRWKH
QRWLFHRI3DWZDUL,ISRVVLEOHKHVKRXOGDWWHVWWKDWWKURXJK


Appendix 1: Registers Maintained by a Patwari

FRUUHVSRQGLQJ/DPEDUGDUV
xxi)

Shajra Nasab (Part A): 7KLV UHJLVWHU FRQWDLQV EDVLF


LQIRUPDWLRQDERXWWKHPDQQHURIUHYHQXHFROOHFWLRQLQWKH
SDUWLFXODUUHYHQXHHVWDWHDQGDQLQGH[WRXQGHUVWDQGWKH
V\PEROV LQ WKH JHQHDORJLFDO WUHVV SUHSDUHG LQ WKH 3DUW
% 

xxii)

Shajra Nasab (Part B):7KLVSDUWRIWKHIRUPLQFOXGHVWKH


DFWXDO 6KDMUD 1DVDE *HQHDORJLFDO WUHH  RI WKH
ODQGRZQLQJIDPLOLHVLQWKH5HYHQXH(VWDWH

xxiii)

Shajra Nasab: 6KDMUD 1DVDE LV DQ LQKHULWDQFH RU


JHQHDORJLFDO WUHH GUDZQ SLFWRULDOO\ $Q DPHQGHG FRS\ RI
WKH 6KDMUD 1DVDE RU JHQHDORJLFDO WUHH RI RZQHUV
FRPSOHWH WR GDWH VKDOO EH ILOHG ZLWK HYHU\ PXWDWLRQ $Q\
FKDQJHLQWKHLQKHULWDQFHRUJHQHDORJLFDOWUHHLVPDGHWR
WKH Patwari 7KH FKDQJHV ZLOO EH GUDZQ SLFWRULDOO\ ,W
FRQVLVWVRIWZRSDUWV

xxiv)

Summary of Attested Mutations: 7KH3DWZDULSUHSDUHV


WKHOLVWVFRQWDLQDOOWKHDWWHVWHG0XWDWLRQVLQFOXGLQJDOOWKH
DSSURYHG 0XWDWLRQV DQG WKH DOO WKH XQDSSURYHG
0XWDWLRQV 7KH OLVWV VKRXOG EH SUHSDUHG IURP 3DUDW
3DWZDU $QG DIWHU FKHFNLQJ LW ZLWK WKH 5HJLVWHU 'DNKLO
.KDULMLWLVIRUZDUGHGWR7HKVLO2IILFH

xxv)

Tatimma Field Book Murabba Bandi: 7KLV UHJLVWHU


FRQWDLQVDOOWKHUHFRUGVLQZKLFKZHKDYHSDUWLWLRQRIODQG
DFFRUGLQJWR0XUDEED%DQGL

xxvi)

Tatimma Field Book Mustateel Bandi: 7KLV UHJLVWHU


FRQWDLQVDOOWKHUHFRUGVLQZKLFKZHKDYHSDUWLWLRQRIODQG
DFFRUGLQJWR0XVWDWHHO%DQGL

xxvii)

Tatimma Field Book: 7KH FDVH RI 0XWDWLRQ LQ ZH KDYH
SHUPDQHQWFKDQJHLQWKHSDUWLWLRQRIODQGDOOVXFKUHFRUGV


Appendix 1: Registers Maintained by a Patwari

DUH PDLQWDLQHG LQ WKLV UHJLVWHU DIWHU UH PHDVXUHPHQW RI


ODQG
xxviii)

Tatimma Shajra:$VXSSOHPHQWDU\PDS



Appendix 2: Questionnaires for Exploratory Case Study

Appendix 2: Questionnaires for Exploratory Case


Study
a. Questionnaire for Land Owners and Law
Professionals
1DPH
2FFXSDWLRQ
&RQWDFW1XPEHU
(PDLO
$GGUHVV
'DWH

No. Questions

Aspect

 $UH\RXVDWLVILHGZLWKWKHFXUUHQWV\VWHPRIODQG
PDQDJHPHQWDQGDGPLQLVWUDWLRQV\VWHP"

,QVWLWXWLRQDO

 ,VWKHUHDURRPIRUFRUUXSWLRQDQGXQRIILFLDO
FKDQJHVLQODQGUHFRUGGXHWR3DWZDUL"

,QVWLWXWLRQDO

 $UHWKHSURFHGXUHVRIODQGWUDQVDFWLRQPXWDWLRQ
WUDQVIHUDQGVXEGLYLVLRQVTXLWHROGDQGRXW
GDWHG"

,QVWLWXWLRQDO



'RHV%RDUGRI5HYHQXH %25 SHUIRUPLWVGXWLHV


,QVWLWXWLRQDO
HIILFLHQWO\"

 ,VWKHUHLQFUHDVHLQODQGUHODWHGGLVSXWHVLQ
SUHVHQWV\VWHP"

,QVWLWXWLRQDO

 $UHDWKHRIILFLDOSURFHGXUHVLQSUHVHQWV\VWHPDUH
FRPSOLFDWHGGXHWRZKLFKGHOD\VRFFXULQFRXUW
,QVWLWXWLRQDO
GHFLVLRQV"
 'RHVLQVXIILFLHQWNQRZOHGJHDQGLQIRUPDWLRQ
DERXWODQGUHFRUGFDXVHGHOD\LQPRVWRIODQG


7HFKQLFDO

Appendix 2: Questionnaires for Exploratory Case Study

GLVSXWHV"
 'RHV3DWZDULSURYLGHFRUUHFWDQGLQWLPH
LQIRUPDWLRQLQDOOODQGGLVSXWHV"

7HFKQLFDO

 &DQD3DWZDULPDQDJHWKHZKROHUHFRUGRIKLV
DUHDHIIHFWLYHO\"

,QVWLWXWLRQDO

 ,VWKHUHDFKDQFHWRUHGXFHWKHODQGGLVSXWH
UHVROXWLRQWLPHLI\RXJHWLQWLPHLQIRUPDWLRQDERXW 7HFKQLFDO
WKHODQG"
 $UHWKH%25RIILFLDOVFRRSHUDWLQJGXULQJODQG
UHODWHGGLVSXWHV"

,QVWLWXWLRQDO

 'RHVDFRPPRQFLWL]HQNQRZDERXWWKH
SURFHGXUHVDQGIHHVRI%RDUGRI5HYHQXH"

7HFKQLFDO



$SSHQGL[5HJLVWHUV0DLQWDLQHGE\D3DWZDUL

b. Questionnaire for Land Administration Personals


1DPH
3RVLWLRQ
&RQWDFW1XPEHU
(PDLO
2IILFH$GGUHVV
'DWH

No. Questions

Aspect

 &DQD3DWZDULPDQDJHWKHZKROHUHFRUGRIKLV
DUHDHIIHFWLYHO\"

,QVWLWXWLRQDO

 $UHWKHFKDQJHVLQ5HFRUGRI5LJKWWDNLQJSODFH
DIWHUHYHU\\HDUV"

7HFKQLFDO

 ,VWKH/DW/RQJLQIRUPDWLRQFRQWDLQHGLQD
FDGDVWUDOPDS"

7HFKQLFDO



'RHVWKHSUHVHQWODQGLQIRUPDWLRQH[LVWLQSDSHU
IRUPLQUHJLVWHUV"

 &DQD3DWZDULSHUIRUPKLVGXWLHVULJKWO\GXHWR
ZRUNORDG"

7HFKQLFDO
7HFKQLFDO

 'RWKHSURFHGXUHVIRUODQGUHFRUGSUHSDUDWLRQ
DQGNHHSLQJDUHFRPSOLFDWHGDQGLQYROYHVVHYHUDO ,QVWLWXWLRQDO
OHYHOVRIDGPLQLVWUDWLRQ"
 'RWKH5HFRUG5RRPVDUHPDGHDW'LVWULFWOHYHO
RQO\"

7HFKQLFDO

 $UH\RXVDWLVILHGZLWKWKHFRXUWSURFHGXUHVLQ
SUHVHQWV\VWHPRIODQGPDQDJHPHQW"

,QVWLWXWLRQDO

 'RHV%RDUGRI5HYHQXH %25 SXEOLVKDQ\


SDPSKOHWVIRUDFRPPRQFLWL]HQWRNQRZDERXW
FRXUWSURFHGXUHVLQFDVHRIODQGGLVSXWHV"

7HFKQLFDO



$SSHQGL[5HJLVWHUV0DLQWDLQHGE\D3DWZDUL

 ,VWKHGHOD\LQODQGPXWDWLRQSURFHVVHVDUHGXHWR
FRPSOLFDWHGSURFHGXUHVE\IROORZLQJDORQJFKDLQ ,QVWLWXWLRQDO
RIRIILFLDOVLQYROYHG"
 ,VWKHDQQXDOIXQGSURYLGHGE\WKHJRYHUQPHQWWR
,QVWLWXWLRQDO
UHSDLUUHFRUGURRPVLVXWLOLVHGLQDULJKWZD\"
 'RHVWKH*RYHUQPHQWSURYLGHDQ\IXQGLQJWR
3DWZDULHVIRUVWDWLRQDU\HWF"




,QVWLWXWLRQDO

Appendix 3: Research Matrices for Analysing the Indicators

Appendix 3: Research Matrices for Analysing the


Indicators
a. Research Matrix for Analysing Indicators of
Institutional Elements

Elements

Data
source

Indicators

Variables

o5HGXFWLRQLQ
ODQGGLVSXWHV

x1XPEHURIODQG &RXUWV
GLVSXWHVLQ
GLIIHUHQWSHULRGV

Methodology
Interview Visit Data


x3HUFHQWDJHRI
SUHVHQWO\VROYHG
DQGXQVROYHG
ODQGGLVSXWHV
o(TXDODFFHVV
WRODQGRIILFHV

7HQXUH
VHFXULW\

x'RDOOFLWL]HQV
KDYHHTXDO
DFFHVVWRODQG
RIILFHVIRU
JHWWLQJWKHLU
ODQGUHFRUGV"

o,QFUHDVHGODQG x'RHVWKHODQG
YDOXHV
YDOXHLV
LQFUHDVHGZLWK
WKHSDVVDJHRI
WLPHLQWHUPRI
LQYHVWPHQWLQ
SURSHUW\VHFWRU"
o,QFUHDVHG
DFFHVVWR
IRUPDOFUHGLWV

/DQG
RZQHUV
5HDO
HVWDWHV
%DQNV
/DQG
RZQHUV
5HDO
HVWDWHV

x$UHWKHILQDQFLDO /DQG
RZQHUV
LQVWLWXWLRQV
ZLOOLQJWR
%DQNV
PRUWJDJHODQG"
x'RWKHODQG
RZQHUVDSSO\IRU
FUHGLWVDJDLQVW
WKHLUSURSHUW\"
x,I\HVWKHQWKLV
QXPEHULV
LQFUHDVLQJRU
GHFUHDVLQJ"



Appendix 3: Research Matrices for Analysing the Indicators

Elements

Data
source

Methodology

Indicators

Variables

o2ZQHUV
SHUFHSWLRQ
DERXWWHQXUH
VHFXULW\

x+RZPXFKWKH
RZQHUIHHOV
VHFXUHKLVULJKW
LQWKHSUHVHQW
V\VWHP"

/DQG
RZQHUV

o5ROHRI,VODPLF x+RZPXFKWKH
WHQXUHV\VWHP
,VODPLFWHQXUH
V\VWHPLV
SUDFWLFHGLQWKH
SUHVHQW/$6"

%25
RIILFLDOV

o7\SHVRI
IRUPDOO\DQG
LQIRUPDOO\
UHFRJQLVHG
ULJKWV

%25
RIILFLDOV

x:KDWSHUFHQWRI %25
RIILFLDOV
WKHSURYLQFH
DQGSRSXODWLRQ
FRYHUHGZLWK
IRUPDOULJKWV"

x:KDWDUHWKH
W\SHVRIULJKWV
IRUPDOO\
UHFRJQLVHGLQ
ODQGVXFKDV
VWDWHODQG
SULYDWHODQG
FRPPXQDOODQG
HWF"

Interview Visit Data

x:KDWDUHWKH
W\SHVRIULJKWV
LQIRUPDOO\
UHFRJQLVHGLQ
ODQGVXFKD
:DTIODQG
FXVWRPDU\ODQG
HWF"

/DQGSROLF\
o3HUFHQWDJHRI
WKHSURYLQFH 
SRSXODWLRQ
FRYHUHGE\
IRUPDOV\VWHP

o&KDUDFWHULVWLFV x$UHWKHUH
RISRSXODWLRQ
XQUHJLVWHUHG
ZLWKRXWIRUPDO
SDUFHOVLI\HV
ULJKWV
WKHQZKDWLV
WKHLUQXPEHU
DQGLQZKLFK
UHJLVWHUWKHVH
LQIRUPDWLRQDUH
QRWHGDQG
HQWHUHG"



%25
RIILFLDOV

Appendix 3: Research Matrices for Analysing the Indicators

Elements

Indicators

Variables

o([LVWHQFHRI
ODQGSROLF\

x([LVWHQFHRID
JRYWSROLF\IRU
ODQG
DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ
\Q 

Data
source

Methodology
Interview Visit Data

%25
RIILFLDOV

%25
RIILFLDOV

x,VWKHUHDSROLF\ %25
RIILFLDOV
DWYDULRXV
JRYHUQPHQW

x'RHVWKHSROLF\
H[LVWDW1DWLRQDO
OHYHORU
SURYLQFLDOOHYHO"
x:KLFK
LQVWLWXWLRQVDUH
LQYROYHGLQWKH
GHYHORSPHQWRI
ODQGSROLF\"
o$FFHVVWRODQG x,VLWFOHDUZKR
ULJKWV
KDVDFFHVVWR
REWDLQLQJULJKWV
WRODQG"
x'RWKH
UHJXODWLRQV
DGGUHVVWKH
HTXLW\DQG
IDLUQHVVRQ
DFFHVVWRULJKWV
WRODQG ODQG
UHIRUP "
x$UHWKH
SURFHGXUHVIRU
HVWDEOLVKPHQW
WUDQVIHUDQG
DEROLWLRQRI
ULJKWVWRODQGV
FOHDUDQGZHOO
DFFHSWHG"
x,VLWFOHDUZKHQ
WKHJRYHUQPHQW
PLJKWLQWHUIHUH
LQSULYDWHULJKWV
WRGLVSRVHRI
WKHLUODQG"
o/DQGXVH
SROLF\



Appendix 3: Research Matrices for Analysing the Indicators

Elements

Indicators

Variables

Data
source

Methodology
Interview Visit Data

OHYHOVFODULI\LQJ
DERXWKRZWR
XVHWKHODQG"
o/HJDO
IUDPHZRUNIRU
o/DQGULJKWV
o/DQGXVHDQG
o/DQGYDOXH

x'RHVWKHOHJDO
IUDPHZRUN
SURYLGHHQRXJK
FOHDUQHVVDQG
WUDQVSDUHQF\
UHJDUGLQJWKH
ZKROHFRPSOH[
RIKROGLQJULJKWV
WRODQG"
x&DQOHJDODQG
DGPLQLVWUDWLYH
DUUDQJHPHQWV
HQIRUFHWKHVH
LVVXHVLQDZD\
WKDWFRPSO\ZLWK
JRRG
JRYHUQDQFH"

/HJDO
IUDPHZRUN

x$UHWKHUH
HQRXJK
RSSRUWXQLWLHVIRU
WKHJRYHUQPHQW
WRDFTXLUH
SULYDWHODQGIRU
SXEOLF
GHYHORSPHQW
SXUSRVHV"
x$UHWKHUXOHVIRU
WKH
JRYHUQPHQWDO
PDQDJHPHQWRI
VWDWHODQGVFOHDU
DQGDGHTXDWH"
x,VWKHZKROH
FRPSOH[RI
YDOXDWLRQDQG
WD[DWLRQRIODQG
IRUJDWKHULQJ
UHYHQXHVZHOO
GHILQHGDQG
HQIRUFHG"
x,VWKHLPSDFWRI
WD[DWLRQRQWKH



%25
RIILFLDOV
%25VWDII
/DQG
RZQHUV
5HDO
HVWDWHV

Appendix 3: Research Matrices for Analysing the Indicators

Elements

Indicators

Variables

Data
source

Methodology
Interview Visit Data

XVHRIODQGDQG
ODQGPDUNHWV
WDNHQLQWR
DFFRXQW"
x'RWKHYDOXDWLRQ
PHWKRGVILWWR
WKHVRFLHWDO
QHHGV"
x'RWKHSHRSOH
FRPSO\ZLWKWKH
UDWHVWKDW
FRQYHUWODQG
YDOXHLQWRWKH
OHYLHGWD[
DPRXQW"
o5HJLVWUDWLRQ
PHFKDQLVP

%25
x,VWKH
RIILFLDOV
UHJLVWUDWLRQRI
ODQGFRPSXOVRU\
RUPDQGDWRU\LQ
WKHSUHVHQW
V\VWHP"

x7KHSUHVHQW
V\VWHPLVHLWKHU
GHHGRUWLWOH
UHJLVWUDWLRQ"

/DQGGLVSXWH
UHVROXWLRQ

o/HJLWLPLVDWLRQ
RI*RYW
UHJXODWLRQV

x'RHVWKHOHJDO
IUDPHZRUN
SURYLGH
VXIILFLHQW
OHJLWLPL]DWLRQRI
WKH
JRYHUQPHQWV
UHJXODWLRQV"

o/HJLVODWLRQ
JRYHUQLQJ/$

%25
x3UHVHQWVWDWXV
RIWKHOHJLVODWLRQ RIILFLDOV
JRYHUQLQJODQG /DZ\HUV
DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ
VFDWWHUHGRXW
GDWHGXSGDWHG
HWF 

o/HYHORI
GLVSXWHVRYHU

x:KDWLVWKHOHYHO &RXUWV
RIGLVSXWHVLQ
ODQGLHORZRU



%25
RIILFLDOV

Appendix 3: Research Matrices for Analysing the Indicators

Elements

Indicators
ODQG

6WUDWHJLF
SODQV

Variables

Data
source

Methodology
Interview Visit Data

KLJK"

o7\SHVRIODQG
GLVSXWHV

x:KDWW\SHRI
ODQGGLVSXWHV
DUHWKHUHDQG
KRZWKH\
VROYHG"

o7LPHWDNHQWR
UHVROYHODQG
GLVSXWH

o0HDQVIRU
FRQIOLFW
UHVROXWLRQ

x+RZPXFKWLPH &RXUWV
LWWDNHVWR
/DZ\HUV
UHVROYHGLIIHUHQW
/DQG
W\SHRIODQG
RZQHUV
GLVSXWHV"

x$UHWKHUH
DSSURSULDWH
PHDQVIRU
FRQIOLFW
UHVROXWLRQLQ
SODFH FRXUWV
PHGLDWLRQDQG
WUDGLWLRQDO
PHDQV "

/DQG
o3URFHGXUHVIRU x3URFHGXUHVLQ
RZQHUV
ODQGGLVSXWH
ODQGGLVSXWHV
UHVROXWLRQ
UHVROXWLRQDUH
/DZ\HUV
FOHDUDQGNQRZQ
E\WKHXVHUV"

o6WUDWHJLF
WDUJHWV

%25
RIILFLDOV

%25
RIILFLDOV

x'LG\RXGHYHORS %25
RIILFLDOV
DVWUDWHJLF

x/LVWRIVWUDWHJLF
WDUJHWV

%25VWDII
/DZ\HUV

/DZ\HUV
/DQG
RZQHUV

x$UHWKH
VWUDWHJLHVDUH
DSSURSULDWHWR
UHDFKDQG
VDWLVI\
REMHFWLYHV
o5HYLHZRI
REMHFWLYHV 
VWUDWHJLHV

x5HYLHZRI
REMHFWLYHVDQG
VWUDWHJLHV \Q 
x5HJXODUUHYLHZ
SURFHVV \Q 

o6WUDWHJLF 
GHYHORSPHQW



Appendix 3: Research Matrices for Analysing the Indicators

Elements

Indicators
SODQVIRU,7
DGRSWLRQ

Variables

Data
source

Methodology
Interview Visit Data

GHYHORSPHQW
SODQIRU*,6
DGRSWLRQ"
x,V\RXU*,6
GHYHORSPHQW
SODQSXEOLVKHG"
x'LG\RXUHFHLYH
RXWVLGH
DVVLVWDQFHLQ
WKHSODQQLQJ
GHVLJQSKDVHRI
WKHSURJUDP"

o$QDO\VLVRI
XVHUVQHHG 
WKHLUUROH

%25
x,VWKHXVHUV
RIILFLDOV
UHTXLUHPHQWV
LQFOXGLQJWKHLU
UROHLVSURSHUO\
DQDO\VHGZKLOH
GHYHORSLQJ
VWUDWHJLFSODQV"

o([LVWHQFHRI
ODQGERDUG

%25
x([LVWHQFHRI
RIILFLDOV
LQGHSHQGHQW
ODQGERDUG \Q 

x:KLFKLVODQG
DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ
DXWKRULW\"
x:KLFKPLQLVWU\
FRQWUROVWKLV
DXWKRULW\"
2UJDQLVDWLRQ
DQG
PDQGDWHV

o2UJDQLVDWLRQ
VWUXFWXUH

%25
x:KHWKHUODQG
RIILFLDOV
DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ
DXWKRULW\ZRUNV
XQGHUFHQWUDORU
SURYLQFLDO
JRYHUQPHQW"
x,VWKH
RUJDQLVDWLRQDO
VWUXFWXUHZHOO
GHVLJQHGIRUWKH
H[HFXWLRQRIWKH
ZRUN
SURFHVVHV"



Appendix 3: Research Matrices for Analysing the Indicators

Elements

Indicators

Variables

o0DQGDWHV
DOORFDWLRQ

x:KDWLVWKH
PDQGDWHRIWKH
ODQG
DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ
DXWKRULW\"
x$UHWKH
PDQGDWHVFOHDU
DQG
PDQDJHDEOH"
x$UHWKH
PDQGDWHV
RYHUODSSLQJ"
x'RHVWKH
DOORFDWLRQRI
PDQGDWHV
UHIOHFWDZHOO
EDODQFHG
DSSURDFKWR
GHFHQWUDOLVDWLRQ
"
x$UHWKHOLQNDJHV
EHWZHHQWKH
PDQGDWHG
RUJDQLVDWLRQV
ZHOOGHILQHGWR
HQVXUHJRRG
LQVWLWXWLRQDOFR
RSHUDWLRQ"
x$UHWKH
EXVLQHVV
REMHFWLYHVIRU
PDQGDWHG
RUJDQLVDWLRQV
FOHDUDQG
VSHFLILF"
x'RHVWKH
PDQGDWHLQFOXGH
PHHWLQJWKH
GHPDQGVRIWKH
FXVWRPHUVDQG
RWKHU
VWDNHKROGHUV"
x$UHWKHZRUN
SURFHVVHVIRU



Data
source
%25
RIILFLDOV

Methodology
Interview Visit Data


Appendix 3: Research Matrices for Analysing the Indicators

Elements

Indicators

Variables

Data
source

Methodology
Interview Visit Data

UHDOL]DWLRQRIWKH
PDQGDWHZHOO
GHILQHGDQG
PDQDJHDEOH"

o&XVWRPHU
UHODWLRQ

+XPDQ
UHVRXUFH
GHYHORSPHQW

x,VWKH
PDQDJHPHQWRI
FXVWRPHU
UHODWLRQLV
FOHDUO\GHILQHG
LQPDQGDWHV"

%25
RIILFLDOV

o+XPDQ
UHVRXUFH
FDSDFLW\

%25
x,VWKHH[LVWLQJ
KXPDQUHVRXUFH RIILFLDOV
FDSDFLW\LV
HQRXJK"

o+XPDQ
UHVRXUFH
GHYHORSPHQW
IDFLOLWLHV

x'RHV%25KDYH %25
RIILFLDOV
HQRXJKIDFLOLWLHV
IRUGHYHORSLQJ
LWVKXPDQ
UHVRXUFH"

%25
x+RZPXFKLV
RIILFLDOV
EHLQJFDUULHG
RXWIRU
GHYHORSLQJ
KXPDQUHVRXUFH
FDSDFLW\"

o(IIRUWVWDNHQ
IRUKXPDQ
UHVRXUFH
GHYHORSPHQW

x/LVWRIPDLQ
SURFHVVHV
FDUULHGRXWE\
WKHODQG
DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ
DXWKRULW\"

%25VWDII

/DQG
x,VWKHV\VWHP
FOHDUDQGVLPSOH RZQHUV
WRXQGHUVWDQG
5HDO
E\WKHJHQHUDO
HVWDWHV
SXEOLFDQG
%25VWDII
DGPLQLVWUDWRUV"

o/LVWRI
SURFHVVHV

/DQG
DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ
o&ODULW\ 
SURFHVVHV
VLPSOLFLW\



Appendix 3: Research Matrices for Analysing the Indicators

Elements

Indicators

Variables

Data
source

Methodology
Interview Visit Data

x,VWKHSUHVHQW
V\VWHPIDLULQ
GHYHORSPHQW
DQGRSHUDWLRQ"
o5HOLDELOLW\

x+RZUHOLDEOHLV /DQG
RZQHUV
WKHSURFHVVDQG
WKHUHFRUG
5HDO
LWVHOI"
HVWDWHV

%DQNV
o6HFXULW\

o7LPHOLQHVV

x+RZVLJQLILFDQW
LVWKHDFFHVVWR
ODQGUHFRUGIRU
WKHFUHDWLRQRI
GLVSXWHV"

/DQG
RZQHUV
%25VWDII

%25VWDII
x,VWKHV\VWHP
SURYLGLQJXSWR
GDWHLQIRUPDWLRQ
LQDWLPHO\
IDVKLRQ"
x:KDWLVWKHWLPH
LQWHUYDOGHILQHG
WRXSGDWH
GLIIHUHQWODQG
UHODWHG
LQIRUPDWLRQDQG
DWZKLFKOHYHO
HJODQG
UHJLVWHU
FDGDVWUDOPDS
HWF"

o/DQG
UHJLVWUDWLRQ
SURFHVV

x:KDWLVWKH
SURFHGXUHIRU
VDOHGHHG
UHJLVWUDWLRQDQG
KRZPXFKWLPH
LWWDNHVWR
UHJLVWHU"
x3URYLGHDFRS\
RIWKH
UHJLVWUDWLRQ
IRUP"
x+RZPXFK



%25VWDII
/DQG
RZQHUV
5HDO
HVWDWHV

Appendix 3: Research Matrices for Analysing the Indicators

Elements

Indicators

Variables

Data
source

Methodology
Interview Visit Data

VWHSVDUH
LQYROYHGLQWKH
ODQGWUDQVIHU
DQGKRZPXFK
WLPHLWWDNHV"
o/DQG
VXUYH\LQJ
SURFHVV

x:KLFKVXUYH\
WHFKQLTXHLV
XVHGIRUWKH
ODQGVXUYH\LH
ILHOGVXUYH\RU
DLUVXUYH\HWF"

%25VWDII

%25
RIILFLDOV

x:KDWLVWKHWLPH
LQWHUYDOEHWZHHQ
WZRVXUYH\V"
o,QVWLWXWLRQDO 
RUJDQLVDWLRQDO
DUUDQJHPHQWV

x/LVWRI
LQVWLWXWLRQVDQG
WKHLU
UHVSRQVLELOLWLHV
DQGVWUDWHJLHV

o&RRSHUDWLRQ

FRPPXQLFDWLR
QEHWZHHQ
LQVWLWXWLRQV

x$UHWKHLQYROYHG %25
RIILFLDOV
LQVWLWXWLRQVKDYH
HDFKFOHDUO\
%25VWDII
GHILQHGWDVNV
DQGZHOOFR
RSHUDWH 
FRPPXQLFDWH
HDFKRWKHU

&RRUGLQDWLRQ
DQGGDWD
VKDULQJ

x+RZWKH
LQYROYHG
LQVWLWXWLRQVJHW
DFFHVVWRODQG
UHFRUGV
x+RZWKHVH
LQVWLWXWLRQV
VKDUHGDWDZLWK
HDFKRWKHU
ORFDOOHYHO
FHQWUDOOHYHO 
o3ULYDWHVHFWRU
LQYROYHPHQW

x3ULYDWHVHFWRU
LQYROYHPHQW
QXPEHUDQG
YROXPHRI



%25
RIILFLDOV

Appendix 3: Research Matrices for Analysing the Indicators

Elements

Indicators

Variables

Data
source

Methodology
Interview Visit Data

FRQWUDFWV
o)XQGLQJ
DXWKRULW\

%25
x:KRLV
RIILFLDOV
SURYLGLQJ
ILQDQFLDOVXSSRUW %25VWDII
WRODQGDJHQF\"

o)RUHLJQ
H[WHUQDO 
IXQGLQJ

x:KRLVWDNLQJ
FDUHRIWKH
IRUHLJQ
H[WHUQDO 
IXQGLQJIRUWKH
ODQGDJHQF\"

%25
RIILFLDOV

o7D[FROOHFWLRQ

x+RZPXFK
SRUWLRQRIWKH
ODQGDJHQF\
FRVWVLV
UHFRYHUHGIURP
WKHIHHVDQG
GDWDVDOH
SULFHV"

%25
RIILFLDOV

o

%25VWDII

x:KHUHWKHODQG
UHYHQXHXVHG
DIWHUFROOHFWLRQ"

)LQDQFLQJ
DQGGDWD
FRVWV
o)HHVWUXFWXUH

/DQG
x$UH\RXDJUHH
RZQHUV
ZLWKWKHIHHV
DQGFRVWV
5HDO
VWUXFWXUHLQWKH
HVWDWHV
SUHVHQWV\VWHP"
x:KDWPHDVXUHV
FDQ\RXVXJJHVW
WRHQVXUHWKDW
WKHYXOQHUDEOH
VHFWLRQVRI
SRSXODWLRQDUH
QRWH[FOXGHG
EHFDXVHRIWKH
FRVWIDFWRU"

o)LQDQFLDO
UHVRXUFHV

%25
x'RHVWKH
RIILFLDOV
JRYHUQPHQW
SURYLGHDQ\
%25VWDII
VXEVLG\IRUWKH
ILUVWWLPHVXUYH\
VHWWOHPHQW DQG



Appendix 3: Research Matrices for Analysing the Indicators

Elements

Indicators

Variables
RWKHUGDWD
JDWKHULQJ
SURFHVV"
x,I\HVWKHQKRZ
PXFKDJHRI
WKHWRWDOFRVWVLV
SURYLGHGE\
JRYHUQPHQW"
x'RHVWKH
RUJDQLVDWLRQ
KDYHVXIILFLHQW
WUDLQHGVWDIIDQG
ILQDQFLDO
UHVRXUFHVWR
DGDSW*HR,&7"
x$UHWKHILQDQFLDO
PHFKDQLVPV
DSSURSULDWHDQG
GRWKH\PHHW
WKHEXVLQHVV
GHPDQGV"



Data
source

Methodology
Interview Visit Data

Appendix 3: Research Matrices for Analysing the Indicators

b. Research Matrix for Analysing Indicators of


Technical Elements
Elements

Indicators

Variables

Data source

o/LVWRIXVHUV
LQ

x:KDWDUHWKH
XVHUVDW*RYW
DQGSULYDWH
VHFWRUWRXVH
\RXUGDWD"

%25RIILFLDOV

x

Govt.
sector

x

Private
sector

o$FFHVVWR
GDWD

Methodology
Interview Visit Data


%25VWDII

x+RZVLPSOHLV /DQGRZQHUV
WKHSURFHVVWR 5HDOHVWDWHV
DFFHVVWRODQG
%DQNV
GDWD"
x+RZFDQWKH
ODQGUHFRUGV
EHPDGHPRUH
DFFHVVLEOHWR
HYHU\ERG\"

8VHUV
QHHGV

x,VLWHDV\WR
DFFHVVODQG
UHFRUGV"
x+RZ
FRQYHQLHQWLV
WKLVSURFHVV"
x+RZPXFK
WLPHGRHVLW
WDNH"
x+RZPXFK
IRUPDODQG
LQIRUPDO 
SD\PHQWLV
LQYROYHG"
o$YDLODELOLW\RI x'RHVWKH
UHTXLUHGGDWD
V\VWHP
SURYLGHDOOWKH
HVVHQWLDOGDWD
DFFRUGLQJWR
WKHXVHUV
QHHG"



/DQGRZQHUV
5HDOHVWDWHV
%DQNV

Appendix 3: Research Matrices for Analysing the Indicators

Elements

Indicators

Variables

Data source

o3UHVHQW*,6
VWDWXV

x$WZKLFKOHYHO
WHFKQRORJ\LV
LQWURGXFHGLQ
WKHSUHVHQW
V\VWHP"

%25RIILFLDOV

Methodology
Interview Visit Data


/DQGRZQHUV
5HDOHVWDWHV
%DQNV

x'R\RXSUHIHU
WKHDGRSWLRQRI
ODWHVW
WHFKQRORJ\LQ
WKHSUHVHQW
V\VWHP"
o'LJLWDOGDWD
DYDLODELOLW\

%25RIILFLDOV
x,VWKHUHDQ\
HIIRUWWDNHQWR
FRQYHUWWKH
SUHVHQW
PDQXDOGDWDLQ
WRGLJLWDOIRUP"

x:KDWLVWKH
VXFFHVVUDWH"
7HFKQRORJ\
DGRSWLRQ

o+DUGZDUH 
VRIWZDUH

%25RIILFLDOV
x'RHV\RXU
RUJDQLVDWLRQ
KDYHVXIILFLHQW
VWDIIDQG
KDUGZDUHWR
DGRSWWKHQHZ
WHFKQRORJLHV"

o&DSDFLW\
EXLOGLQJ

%25RIILFLDOV
x+RZPXFK
HIIRUWZLOOEH
UHTXLUHGRQ
LQVWLWXWLRQDO
DQGKXPDQ
FDSDFLW\
EXLOGLQJE\WKH
LQWURGXFWLRQRI
WHFKQRORJ\"

x:KDWVRUWRI
FDSDFLWLHV
QHHGWREH
GHYHORSHGIRU
DQHIIHFWLYH
LPSOHPHQWDWLR
QRI
FRPSXWHULVHG



Appendix 3: Research Matrices for Analysing the Indicators

Elements

Indicators

Variables

Data source

Methodology
Interview Visit Data

ODQGUHFRUG
V\VWHP"$W
ZKDWOHYHO"
o(GXFDWLRQ 
WUDLQLQJ

x:KDWNLQGRI
HGXFDWLRQDO
DQGWUDLQLQJ
UHVRXUFHVDUH
FXUUHQWO\
DYDLODEOH"

%25RIILFLDOV

%25RIILFLDOV
x+RZPXFK
GDWD RXWRI %25VWDII
GLVWULFWV LV
DYDLODEOHZLWK
%25"

x'RWKH
HGXFDWLRQDO
DQGWUDLQLQJ
SURJUDPVKDYH
VXIILFLHQW
FDSDFLW\"
o&RYHUDJH 
FRPSOHWHQHV
V

x+RZPXFK
GDWD RXWRI
GLVWULFWV LV
DYDLODEOHLQ
GLJLWDOIRUP
ZLWK%25"
o3URWHFWLRQ
'DWD
RUJDQLVDWLRQ

x:KHWKHUWKH
GDWDLVVWRUHG
DWORFDORU
FHQWUDOOHYHO

%25RIILFLDOV
%25VWDII

x,VDQ\RWKHU
DXWKRULW\
UHVSRQVLEOHIRU
NHHSLQJODQG
GDWD
o8SGDWLRQ

%25RIILFLDOV
x,VWKHGDWD
PDLQWDLQLQJ
%25VWDII
V\VWHP
FHQWUDOLVHGRU
GHFHQWUDOLVHG"
x,QWKDWFDVH
ZKRLV



Appendix 3: Research Matrices for Analysing the Indicators

Elements

Indicators

Variables

Data source

Methodology
Interview Visit Data

UHVSRQVLEOHIRU
XSGDWLQJWKH
GDWD
o$YDLODELOLW\

/DQGRZQHUV
x'RHVWKH
XVHUVKDYH
5HDOHVWDWHV
HDV\DFFHVVWR
%DQNV
WKHVHGDWD

o6KDULQJ

x'RHVWKHXVHU %25VWDII
DJHQFLHV
VKDUHODQG
UHODWHGGDWD",I
\HVWKHQDW
ZKLFKOHYHO"

x$UHWKH
HGXFDWLRQDQG
WUDLQLQJ
IDFLOLWLHV
VXIILFLHQW"

%25RIILFLDOV




x'RHV%25
KDYHDQ\
FROODERUDWLRQ
ZLWK
HGXFDWLRQDO
LQVWLWXWLRQV"

%25RIILFLDOV

o&ROODERUDWLRQ
ZLWK
7UDLQLQJDQG
HGXFDWLRQDO
GHYHORSPHQW
LQVWLWXWLRQV

o&ROODERUDWLRQ
ZLWK
UHVHDUFK
LQVWLWXWLRQV

x'RHV%25
KDYHDQ\
FROODERUDWLRQ
ZLWKUHVHDUFK
LQVWLWXWLRQV"

%25RIILFLDOV

o6WUXFWXUDO
GHILQLWLRQRI
WKHV\VWHP

x'HILQLWLRQDQG %25RIILFLDOV
FKDUDFWHULVWLFV
RIV\VWHP

o)DFLOLWLHVIRU
HGXFDWLRQ
DQGWUDLQLQJ

/DQG
LQIRUPDWLRQ
V\VWHP
GHVLJQ

x6WUXFWXUHRI
WKHV\VWHPLV
XVHIXODQG
FOHDUO\GHILQHG
o&RQVXOWDWLRQ
ZLWKIRUHLJQ
H[WHUQDO 
DJHQFLHV

x'RHV\RXU
RUJDQLVDWLRQ
KDYH
FRQVXOWDWLRQ
ZLWKIRUHLJQ



%25RIILFLDOV

Appendix 3: Research Matrices for Analysing the Indicators

Elements

Indicators

Variables

Data source

Methodology
Interview Visit Data

H[WHUQDO 
DJHQFLHVIRU
V\VWHP
GHVLJQ"
o&RQVLVWHQF\

x'RVHWKH
V\VWHPLV
FRQVLVWHQWWR
QHZ
GHYHORSPHQWV
LQWKHILHOGRI
,&7"

%25RIILFLDOV

%25VWDII

x,VWKHUHDQ\
UHIHUHQFH
FRRUGLQDWH 
V\VWHP
IROORZHGE\WKH
ODQGDJHQF\
IRUPDSV
JHQHUDWLRQ"
x,VWKHVDPH
SDUFHO
UHIHUHQFLQJ
V\VWHPLVXVHG
LQWKHODQG
ERRNWKH
FDGDVWUHWKH
WD[UHJLVWHU
DQGLQWKH
PXQLFLSDOLWLHV
RUQRW"
o,QIRUPDWLRQ
IORZ

:RUNIORZV
IRU/$
SURFHVVHV

x,VWKHLQWHUQDO
DQGH[WHUQDO
LQIRUPDWLRQ
IORZFOHDUO\
VSHFLILHG"
x,VWKH
DOORFDWLRQRI
WDVNVDQG
UHVSRQVLELOLWLHV
WRPDQDJHUV
DSSURSULDWH
DQGGRWKH\
KDYHWKH
QHFHVVDU\
SRZHURI



%25RIILFLDOV
%25VWDII

Appendix 3: Research Matrices for Analysing the Indicators

Elements

Indicators

Variables

Data source

Methodology
Interview Visit Data

H[HFXWLRQ"

o*RRG
x$UHWKH
PDQDJHPHQW
PDQDJHULDO
WRROVLQWHUPV
RISODQQLQJ
FRQWURO
DFFRXQWDELOLW\
DQGOLDELOLW\
DSSURSULDWH"

%25RIILFLDOV

o3HUIRUPDQFH
PRQLWRULQJ

%25RIILFLDOV

x,VWKHV\VWHP
RI
SHUIRUPDQFH
PRQLWRULQJ
DSSURSULDWH"

%25VWDII

x'RHVWKH
RUJDQLVDWLRQDO
FXOWXUH
HQFRXUDJHWKH
VKDULQJRI
YDOXHVWRZDUGV
JRRG
SHUIRUPDQFH"

4XDOLW\
VWDQGDUGV

o(YDOXDWLRQ

%25RIILFLDOV
x,VWKH
SHUIRUPDQFH
%25VWDII
RIODQGDJHQF\
LVPRQLWRUHG
ERWKLQWHUQDOO\
DQGH[WHUQDOO\
RQUHJXODU
EDVLV"

o1DWLRQDO
,QWHUQDWLRQDO
VWDQGDUGV

%25VWDII
x,VWKHSDUFHO
LGHQWLILFDWLRQ
UHIHUHQFH
V\VWHPXQLTXH
LHWZRSDUFHOV
KDYHWKHVDPH
UHIHUHQFH
ZKHQWKH\DUH
ORFDWHGLQ
GLIIHUHQW
DGPLQLVWUDWLYH



Appendix 3: Research Matrices for Analysing the Indicators

Elements

Indicators

Variables

Data source

Methodology
Interview Visit Data

GLVWULFWV"
x'RWKH
DWWULEXWHVRI
SDUFHOVLQWKH
FDGDVWUDO
UHJLVWHUV
LQFOXGHVWUHHW
DGGUHVVHVDQG
DSDUWPHQW
QXPEHUHWF"
x,VWKHUHDQ\
QDWLRQDO
VWDQGDUGIRU
VWUHHW SRVWDO 
DGGUHVVLQJWR
DSDUFHO"
x:KDWW\SHVRI
LQIRUPDWLRQDUH
FRQWDLQHGE\
FDGDVWUDOPDS
HJURDG
ULYHUFDQDO
HWF "
x3URYLGHWKH
H[DFWQXPEHU
RIOHJHQGV"
x:KDWLVWKH
FODVVLILFDWLRQ
PHWKRGRI
ODQGVRLOIRU
UHYHQXH
FROOHFWLRQDQG
ZKDWDUHWKHVH
W\SHVRI
ODQGVRLO"
o4XDOLW\
FRQWURO

%25RIILFLDOV
x:KDWTXDOLW\
SDUDPHWHUV
DUHPDLQWDLQHG
E\\RXU
RUJDQL]DWLRQV"
x'RHV
WHFKQRORJ\
DGRSWLRQZLOO
KHOSWR



Appendix 3: Research Matrices for Analysing the Indicators

Elements

Indicators

Variables

Data source

Methodology
Interview Visit Data

LPSURYH
TXDOLW\RIWKH
GDWDRU
VHUYLFHV"
x,I\HVWKHQ
ZKLFKDVSHFW
ZLOOEH
LPSURYHG"
o$FFXUDF\

x+RZPXFK
DFFXUDF\LV
EHLQJ
FRQVLGHUHGLQ
WKHSUHVHQW
V\VWHP"

%25VWDII

/DQGRZQHUV
5HDOHVWDWHV

x:KLFKW\SHRI
DFFXUDF\
ZRXOG\RX
SUHIHUIRUWKH
LQWURGXFWLRQRI
WKH
WHFKQRORJ\"
x7KH
LQIRUPDWLRQ
VWRUHGDERXW
ODQGLQWKH
ODQGUHJLVWHUV
LVXSWRGDWH"
o&RYHUDJH

x$WZKLFKVFDOH %25VWDII
WKHFDGDVWUDO
%25RIILFLDOV
PDSVDUH
DYDLODEOHZLWK
ODQGDJHQF\"
x,QFRYHUDJH9V
DFFXUDF\
ZKLFKRQH\RX
ZLOOSUHIHULQ
WKHILUVW
SKDVH"

6HUYLFHV
DQG
SURGXFWV

o/LVWRI
VHUYLFHV

x/LVWRIVHUYLFHV %25RIILFLDOV
SURYLGHGE\
/DQGRZQHUV
WKH%25

o/LVWRI

x/LVWRI

%25VWDII



Appendix 3: Research Matrices for Analysing the Indicators

Elements

Indicators
SURGXFWV

o6HUYLFH
GHOLYHU\

Variables

Data source

Methodology
Interview Visit Data

SURGXFWV
SURGXFHGE\
WKH%25
x8QWLOQRZKRZ
PDQ\ODQG
SDUFHOVDUH
VXUYH\HGDQG
UHJLVWHUHGLQ
WKHSURYLQFH"

/DQGRZQHUV

%25RIILFLDOV
%25VWDII

x'RDOOWKH
VHUYLFHV 
SURGXFWVDUH
GHOLYHUHGDW
ORFDOOHYHOWR
WKHXVHUV"
o(IILFLHQF\

x'RHVWKHODQG
DJHQF\KDYH
VXIILFLHQWODQG
RIILFHVWR
GHOLYHUWKHLU
VHUYLFHV
HIILFLHQWO\"



/DQGRZQHUV
%25VWDII
%DQNV

Appendix 4 Questionnaires for Explanatory Case Study

Appendix 4: Questionnaires for Explanatory Case


Study
a. Questionnaire for Senior Member Board of
Revenue (SMBR)
1DPH
3RVLWLRQ
&RQWDFW1XPEHU
(PDLO
2IILFH$GGUHVV
'DWH
Institutional Aspect
 ([LVWHQFHRIDJRYWSROLF\IRUODQGDGPLQLVWUDWLRQ \Q 
 'RHVWKHSROLF\H[LVWDW1DWLRQDOOHYHORUSURYLQFLDOOHYHO"
 :KLFKLQVWLWXWLRQVDUHLQYROYHGLQWKHGHYHORSPHQWRIODQG
SROLF\"
 ,VLWFOHDUZKRKDVDFFHVVWRREWDLQLQJULJKWVWRODQG"
 'RWKHUHJXODWLRQVDGGUHVVWKHHTXLW\DQGIDLUQHVVRQDFFHVV
WRULJKWVWRODQG ODQGUHIRUP "
 $UHWKHSURFHGXUHVIRUHVWDEOLVKPHQWWUDQVIHUDQGDEROLWLRQRI
ULJKWVWRODQGVFOHDUDQGZHOODFFHSWHG"
 ,VLWFOHDUZKHQWKHJRYHUQPHQWPLJKWLQWHUIHUHLQSULYDWHULJKWV
WRGLVSRVHRIWKHLUODQG"
 +RZPXFKWKH,VODPLFWHQXUHV\VWHPLVSUDFWLFHGLQWKHSUHVHQW
/$6"
 :KDWDUHWKHW\SHVRIULJKWVIRUPDOO\UHFRJQLVHGLQODQGVXFK
DVVWDWHODQGSULYDWHODQGFRPPXQDOODQGHWF"


Appendix 4 Questionnaires for Explanatory Case Study

 :KDWDUHWKHW\SHVRIULJKWVLQIRUPDOO\UHFRJQLVHGLQODQG
VXFKD:DTIODQGFXVWRPDU\ODQGHWF"
 :KDWSHUFHQWRIWKHSURYLQFHDQGSRSXODWLRQFRYHUHGZLWK
IRUPDOULJKWV"
 $UHWKHUHXQUHJLVWHUHGSDUFHOVLI\HVWKHQZKDWLVWKHLU
QXPEHUDQGLQZKLFKUHJLVWHUWKHVHLQIRUPDWLRQDUHQRWHGDQG
HQWHUHG"
 ,VWKHUHDSROLF\DWYDULRXVJRYHUQPHQWOHYHOVFODULI\LQJDERXW
KRZWRXVHWKHODQG"
 'RHVWKHOHJDOIUDPHZRUNSURYLGHHQRXJKFOHDUQHVVDQG
WUDQVSDUHQF\UHJDUGLQJWKHZKROHFRPSOH[RIKROGLQJULJKWVWR
ODQG"
 &DQOHJDODQGDGPLQLVWUDWLYHDUUDQJHPHQWVHQIRUFHWKHVH
LVVXHVLQDZD\WKDWFRPSO\ZLWKJRRGJRYHUQDQFH"
 $UHWKHUXOHVIRUWKHJRYHUQPHQWDOPDQDJHPHQWRIVWDWH
ODQGVFOHDUDQGDGHTXDWH"
 :KDWLVWKHPDQGDWHRIWKHODQGDGPLQLVWUDWLRQDXWKRULW\"
 $UHWKHPDQGDWHVFOHDUDQGPDQDJHDEOH"
 $UHWKHPDQGDWHVRYHUODSSLQJ"
 'RHVWKHDOORFDWLRQRIPDQGDWHVUHIOHFWDZHOOEDODQFHG
DSSURDFKWRGHFHQWUDOLVDWLRQ"
 $UHWKHOLQNDJHVEHWZHHQWKHPDQGDWHGRUJDQLVDWLRQVZHOO
GHILQHGWRHQVXUHJRRGLQVWLWXWLRQDOFRRSHUDWLRQ"
 $UHWKHEXVLQHVVREMHFWLYHVIRUPDQGDWHGRUJDQLVDWLRQVFOHDU
DQGVSHFLILF"
 'RHVWKHPDQGDWHLQFOXGHPHHWLQJWKHGHPDQGVRIWKH
FXVWRPHUVDQGRWKHUVWDNHKROGHUV"
 $UHWKHZRUNSURFHVVHVIRUUHDOL]DWLRQRIWKHPDQGDWHZHOO
GHILQHGDQGPDQDJHDEOH"



Appendix 4 Questionnaires for Explanatory Case Study

 ,VWKHPDQDJHPHQWRIFXVWRPHUUHODWLRQLVFOHDUO\GHILQHGLQ
PDQGDWHV"
Technical Aspect
 /LVWRIVWUDWHJLFWDUJHWV
 $UHWKHVWUDWHJLHVDUHDSSURSULDWHWRUHDFKDQGVDWLVI\
REMHFWLYHV
 5HYLHZRIREMHFWLYHVDQGVWUDWHJLHV \Q 
 5HJXODUUHYLHZSURFHVV \Q 
 'LG\RXGHYHORSDVWUDWHJLFGHYHORSPHQWSODQIRU*,6
DGRSWLRQ"
 ,V\RXU*,6GHYHORSPHQWSODQSXEOLVKHG"
 'LG\RXUHFHLYHRXWVLGHDVVLVWDQFHLQWKHSODQQLQJGHVLJQ
SKDVHRIWKHSURJUDP"
 $UHWKHXVHUVUHTXLUHPHQWVLQFOXGLQJWKHLUUROHLVSURSHUO\
DQDO\VHGZKLOHGHYHORSLQJVWUDWHJLFSODQV"
 'R\RXSUHIHUWKHDGRSWLRQRIODWHVWWHFKQRORJ\LQWKHSUHVHQW
V\VWHP"
 $WZKLFKOHYHOWHFKQRORJ\LVLQWURGXFHGLQWKHSUHVHQW
V\VWHP"
 'RHV\RXURUJDQLVDWLRQKDYHVXIILFLHQWVWDIIDQGKDUGZDUHWR
DGRSWWKHQHZWHFKQRORJLHV"
 +RZPXFKHIIRUWZLOOEHUHTXLUHGRQLQVWLWXWLRQDODQGKXPDQ
FDSDFLW\EXLOGLQJE\WKHLQWURGXFWLRQRIWHFKQRORJ\"
 :KDWVRUWRIFDSDFLWLHVQHHGWREHGHYHORSHGIRUDQHIIHFWLYH
LPSOHPHQWDWLRQRIFRPSXWHULVHGODQGUHFRUGV\VWHP"$WZKDW
OHYHO"
 :KDWNLQGRIHGXFDWLRQDODQGWUDLQLQJUHVRXUFHVDUHFXUUHQWO\
DYDLODEOH"


Appendix 4 Questionnaires for Explanatory Case Study

 'RWKHHGXFDWLRQDODQGWUDLQLQJSURJUDPVKDYHVXIILFLHQW
FDSDFLW\"
 'HILQLWLRQDQGFKDUDFWHULVWLFVRIV\VWHP
 6WUXFWXUHRIWKHV\VWHPLVXVHIXODQGFOHDUO\GHILQHG
 'RHV\RXURUJDQLVDWLRQKDYHFRQVXOWDWLRQZLWKIRUHLJQ
H[WHUQDO DJHQFLHVIRUV\VWHPGHVLJQ"
 'RVHWKHV\VWHPLVFRQVLVWHQWWRQHZGHYHORSPHQWVLQWKH
ILHOGRI,&7"
 'RHVWHFKQRORJ\DGRSWLRQZLOOKHOSWRLPSURYHTXDOLW\RIWKH
GDWDRUVHUYLFHV"
 ,I\HVWKHQZKLFKDVSHFWZLOOEHLPSURYHG"
 ,QFRYHUDJH9VDFFXUDF\ZKLFKRQH\RXZLOOSUHIHULQWKHILUVW
SKDVH"



Appendix 4 Questionnaires for Explanatory Case Study

b. Questionnaire for Member Board of Revenue (MBR)


1DPH
3RVLWLRQ
&RQWDFW1XPEHU
(PDLO
2IILFH$GGUHVV
'DWH
Institutional Aspect
 ,VWKHZKROHFRPSOH[RIYDOXDWLRQDQGWD[DWLRQRIODQGIRU
JDWKHULQJUHYHQXHVZHOOGHILQHGDQGHQIRUFHG"
 ,VWKHLPSDFWRIWD[DWLRQRQWKHXVHRIODQGDQGODQGPDUNHWV
WDNHQLQWRDFFRXQW"
 'RWKHYDOXDWLRQPHWKRGVILWWRWKHVRFLHWDOQHHGV"
 'RWKHSHRSOHFRPSO\ZLWKWKHUDWHVWKDWFRQYHUWODQGYDOXH
LQWRWKHOHYLHGWD[DPRXQW"
 ,VWKHUHJLVWUDWLRQRIODQGFRPSXOVRU\RUPDQGDWRU\LQWKH
SUHVHQWV\VWHP"
 7KHSUHVHQWV\VWHPLVHLWKHUGHHGRUWLWOHUHJLVWUDWLRQ"
 'RHVWKHOHJDOIUDPHZRUNSURYLGHVXIILFLHQWOHJLWLPL]DWLRQRIWKH
JRYHUQPHQWVUHJXODWLRQV"
 3UHVHQWVWDWXVRIWKHOHJLVODWLRQJRYHUQLQJODQGDGPLQLVWUDWLRQ
VFDWWHUHGRXWGDWHGXSGDWHGHWF 
 ([LVWHQFHRILQGHSHQGHQWODQGERDUG \Q 
 :KLFKLVODQGDGPLQLVWUDWLRQDXWKRULW\"
 :KLFKPLQLVWU\FRQWUROVWKLVDXWKRULW\"
 :KHWKHUODQGDGPLQLVWUDWLRQDXWKRULW\ZRUNVXQGHUFHQWUDORU
SURYLQFLDOJRYHUQPHQW"


Appendix 4 Questionnaires for Explanatory Case Study

 ,VWKHRUJDQL]DWLRQDOVWUXFWXUHZHOOGHVLJQHGIRUWKHH[HFXWLRQ
RIWKHZRUNSURFHVVHV"
 +RZPXFKGDWD RXWRIGLVWULFWV LVDYDLODEOHZLWK%25"
 +RZPXFKGDWD RXWRIGLVWULFWV LVDYDLODEOHLQGLJLWDOIRUP
ZLWK%25"
 /LVWRILQVWLWXWLRQVDQGWKHLUUHVSRQVLELOLWLHVDQGVWUDWHJLHV
 $UHWKHLQYROYHGLQVWLWXWLRQVKDYHHDFKFOHDUO\GHILQHGWDVNV
DQGZHOOFRRSHUDWH FRPPXQLFDWHHDFKRWKHU
 +RZWKHLQYROYHGLQVWLWXWLRQVJHWDFFHVVWRODQGUHFRUGV
 +RZWKHVHLQVWLWXWLRQVVKDUHGDWDZLWKHDFKRWKHU ORFDOOHYHO
FHQWUDOOHYHO 
 3ULYDWHVHFWRULQYROYHPHQWQXPEHUDQGYROXPHRIFRQWUDFWV
 :KRLVSURYLGLQJILQDQFLDOVXSSRUWWRODQGDJHQF\"
 :KRLVWDNLQJFDUHRIWKHIRUHLJQ H[WHUQDO IXQGLQJIRUWKH
ODQGDJHQF\"
 'RHVWKHJRYHUQPHQWSURYLGHDQ\VXEVLG\IRUWKHILUVWWLPH
VXUYH\ VHWWOHPHQW DQGRWKHUGDWDJDWKHULQJSURFHVV"
 ,I\HVWKHQKRZPXFKDJHRIWKHWRWDOFRVWVLVSURYLGHGE\
WKHJRYHUQPHQW"
 'RHVWKHRUJDQLVDWLRQKDYHVXIILFLHQWWUDLQHGVWDIIDQG
ILQDQFLDOUHVRXUFHVWRDGDSW*HR,&7"
 $UHWKHILQDQFLDOPHFKDQLVPVDSSURSULDWHDQGGRWKH\PHHW
WKHEXVLQHVVGHPDQGV"
Technical Aspect
 :KDWDUHWKHXVHUVDW*RYWDQGSULYDWHVHFWRUWRXVH\RXU
GDWD"
 'RHV\RXURUJDQLVDWLRQKDYHVXIILFLHQWVWDIIDQGKDUGZDUHWR
DGRSWWKHQHZWHFKQRORJLHV"



Appendix 4 Questionnaires for Explanatory Case Study

 +RZPXFKHIIRUWZLOOEHUHTXLUHGRQLQVWLWXWLRQDODQGKXPDQ
FDSDFLW\EXLOGLQJE\WKHLQWURGXFWLRQRIWHFKQRORJ\"
 :KDWVRUWRIFDSDFLWLHVQHHGWREHGHYHORSHGIRUDQHIIHFWLYH
LPSOHPHQWDWLRQRIFRPSXWHULVHGODQGUHFRUGV\VWHP"$WZKDW
OHYHO"
 'RHV\RXURUJDQLVDWLRQKDYHFRQVXOWDWLRQZLWKIRUHLJQ
H[WHUQDO DJHQFLHVIRUV\VWHPGHVLJQ"
 'RVHWKHV\VWHPLVFRQVLVWHQWWRQHZGHYHORSPHQWVLQWKHILHOG
RI,&7"
 ,VWKHLQWHUQDODQGH[WHUQDOLQIRUPDWLRQIORZFOHDUO\VSHFLILHG"
 ,VWKHDOORFDWLRQRIWDVNVDQGUHVSRQVLELOLWLHVWRPDQDJHUV
DSSURSULDWHDQGGRWKH\KDYHWKHQHFHVVDU\SRZHURI
H[HFXWLRQ"
 $UHWKHPDQDJHULDOWRROVLQWHUPVRISODQQLQJFRQWURO
DFFRXQWDELOLW\DQGOLDELOLW\DSSURSULDWH"
 ,VWKHSHUIRUPDQFHRIODQGDJHQF\LVPRQLWRUHGERWKLQWHUQDOO\
DQGH[WHUQDOO\RQUHJXODUEDVLV"
 ,VWKHV\VWHPRISHUIRUPDQFHPRQLWRULQJDSSURSULDWH"
 /LVWRIVHUYLFHVSURYLGHGE\WKH%25"
 'R\RXSUHIHUWKHDGRSWLRQRIODWHVWWHFKQRORJ\LQWKHSUHVHQW
V\VWHP"
 'RHVWHFKQRORJ\DGRSWLRQZLOOKHOSWRLPSURYHTXDOLW\RIWKH
GDWDRUVHUYLFHV"
 ,I\HVWKHQZKLFKDVSHFWZLOOEHLPSURYHG"
 ,QFRYHUDJH9VDFFXUDF\ZKLFKRQH\RXZLOOSUHIHULQWKHILUVW
SKDVH"



Appendix 4 Questionnaires for Explanatory Case Study

c. Questionnaire for Director Land Records (DLR)


1DPH
3RVLWLRQ
&RQWDFW1XPEHU
(PDLO
2IILFH$GGUHVV
'DWH
Institutional Aspect
 'RHVWKHOHJDOIUDPHZRUNSURYLGHHQRXJKFOHDUQHVVDQG
WUDQVSDUHQF\UHJDUGLQJWKHZKROHFRPSOH[RIKROGLQJULJKWVWR
ODQG"
 &DQOHJDODQGDGPLQLVWUDWLYHDUUDQJHPHQWVHQIRUFHWKHVH
LVVXHVLQDZD\WKDWFRPSO\ZLWKJRRGJRYHUQDQFH"
 $UHWKHUXOHVIRUWKHJRYHUQPHQWDOPDQDJHPHQWRIVWDWHODQGV
FOHDUDQGDGHTXDWH"
 ,VWKHZKROHFRPSOH[RIYDOXDWLRQDQGWD[DWLRQRIODQGIRU
JDWKHULQJUHYHQXHVZHOOGHILQHGDQGHQIRUFHG"
 +RZPXFKSRUWLRQRIWKHODQGDJHQF\FRVWVLVUHFRYHUHGIURP
WKHIHHVDQGGDWDVDOHSULFHV"
 ,VWKHLPSDFWRIWD[DWLRQRQWKHXVHRIODQGDQGODQGPDUNHWV
WDNHQLQWRDFFRXQW"
 'RWKHYDOXDWLRQPHWKRGVILWWRWKHVRFLHWDOQHHGV"
 'RWKHSHRSOHFRPSO\ZLWKWKHUDWHVWKDWFRQYHUWODQGYDOXH
LQWRWKHOHYLHGWD[DPRXQW"
 :KHUHWKHODQGUHYHQXHXVHGDIWHUFROOHFWLRQ"
 /LVWRIPDLQSURFHVVHVFDUULHGRXWE\WKHODQGDGPLQLVWUDWLRQ
DXWKRULW\"


Appendix 4 Questionnaires for Explanatory Case Study

 ,VDQ\RWKHUDXWKRULW\UHVSRQVLEOHIRUNHHSLQJODQGGDWD
 ,QWKDWFDVHZKRLVUHVSRQVLEOHIRUXSGDWLQJWKHGDWD
 ,VWKHGDWDPDLQWDLQLQJV\VWHPFHQWUDOLVHGRUGHFHQWUDOLVHG"
 'RHVWKHXVHUDJHQFLHVVKDUHODQGUHODWHGGDWD",I\HVWKHQ
DWZKLFKOHYHO"
 :KRLVSURYLGLQJILQDQFLDOVXSSRUWWRODQGDJHQF\"
Technical Aspect
 ,VWKHDOORFDWLRQRIWDVNVDQGUHVSRQVLELOLWLHVWRPDQDJHUV
DSSURSULDWH"
D 1RWDSSURSULDWH


E /HVVDSSURSULDWH

F $SSURSULDWH

 ,VWKHLQWHUQDODQGH[WHUQDOLQIRUPDWLRQIORZFOHDUO\VSHFLILHG"
D 1RWFOHDU

E /HVVFOHDU

F &OHDU

 ,VWKHSHUIRUPDQFHRIODQGDJHQF\LVPRQLWRUHGLQWHUQDOO\DQG
H[WHUQDOO\RQUHJXODUEDVLV"
D 1RWPRQLWRUHG


E ,QWHUQDOO\PRQLWRUHG

F ([WHUQDOO\PRQLWRUHG

 G 0RQLWRUHGERWK

 ,VWKHV\VWHPRISHUIRUPDQFHPRQLWRULQJDSSURSULDWH"
D 1RWDSSURSULDWH


E /HVVDSSURSULDWH 

F $SSURSULDWH

 'R\RXSUHIHUWKHDGDSWLRQRIODWHVWWHFKQRORJ\LQWKHSUHVHQW
V\VWHP"
D 1R

E <HV

 /LVWRIVHUYLFHVSURYLGHGE\WKH%25
 /LVWRISURGXFWVSURGXFHGE\WKH%25
 'RDOOWKHVHUYLFHV SURGXFWVDUHGHOLYHUHGDWORFDOOHYHOWRWKH
XVHUV"
D 1R

E 3DUWLDOO\GHOLYHUHG 


F )XOO\GHOLYHUHG

Appendix 4 Questionnaires for Explanatory Case Study

 'RHVWKHODQGDJHQF\KDYHVXIILFLHQWODQGRIILFHVWRGHOLYHU
WKHLUVHUYLFHVHIILFLHQWO\"
 ,VWKHUHDQ\HIIRUWWDNHQWRFRQYHUWWKHSUHVHQWPDQXDOGDWDLQ
WRGLJLWDOIRUP"
 :KDWLVWKHVXFFHVVUDWH"
 'RHVWKHRUJDQLVDWLRQDOFXOWXUHHQFRXUDJHWKHVKDULQJRI
YDOXHVWRZDUGVJRRGSHUIRUPDQFH"
 :KDWTXDOLW\SDUDPHWHUVDUHPDLQWDLQHGE\\RXU
RUJDQL]DWLRQV"
 'RHVWHFKQRORJ\DGRSWLRQZLOOKHOSWRLPSURYHTXDOLW\RIWKH
GDWDRUVHUYLFHV"
 ,I\HVWKHQZKLFKDVSHFWZLOOEHLPSURYHG"
 ,QFRYHUDJH9VDFFXUDF\ZKLFKRQH\RXZLOOSUHIHULQWKHILUVW
SKDVH"
 8QWLOQRZKRZPDQ\ODQGSDUFHOVDUHVXUYH\HGDQGUHJLVWHUHG
LQWKHSURYLQFH"



Appendix 4 Questionnaires for Explanatory Case Study

d. Questionnaire for Tehsildars


1DPH
3RVLWLRQ
&RQWDFW1XPEHU
(PDLO
2IILFH$GGUHVV
'DWH
Institutional Aspect
 'RDOOFLWL]HQVKDYHHTXDODFFHVVWRODQGRIILFHV"
D 1R

E <HV

 'RWKHXVHUVKDYHHDV\DFFHVVWRODQGGDWD"
D 1RWHDV\

E /HVVHDV\

F )XOOHDV\

 :KDWLVWKHWLPHLQWHUYDOGHILQHGWRXSGDWHGLIIHUHQWODQGUHODWHG
LQIRUPDWLRQLQODQGUHJLVWHU"
D \HDU E \HDUV F \HDUV G 0RUHBBBBBBBBBBBB
 :KDWLVWKHWLPHLQWHUYDOGHILQHGWRXSGDWHGLIIHUHQWODQGUHODWHG
LQIRUPDWLRQLQFDGDVWUDOPDS"
D \HDU E \HDUV F \HDUV G 0RUHBBBBBBBBBBBB
 +RZVLJQLILFDQWLVWKHDFFHVVWRODQGUHFRUGIRUWKHFUHDWLRQRI
GLVSXWHV"
D 6LJQLILFDQW

E /HVVVLJQLILFDQW

F 1RWVLJQLILFDQW

 ,VWKHV\VWHPFOHDUDQGVLPSOHWRXQGHUVWDQGE\WKHJHQHUDO
SXEOLF"
D 1RWFOHDU

E /HVVFOHDU

F )XOO\FOHDU

 ,VWKHV\VWHPSURYLGLQJQHFHVVDU\LQIRUPDWLRQLQDWLPHO\
IDVKLRQ"
D 1R

E <HV


Appendix 4 Questionnaires for Explanatory Case Study

 ,VWKHSUHVHQWV\VWHPIDLULQGHYHORSPHQWDQGRSHUDWLRQ"
D /HVVIDLU

E $YHUDJH

F )DLU

 $UHWKHILQDQFLDOPHFKDQLVPVDSSURSULDWH"
D 1RWDSSURSULDWH


E /HVVDSSURSULDWH

F $SSURSULDWH

 'RWKHILQDQFLDOPHFKDQLVPVPHHWWKHEXVLQHVVGHPDQGV"
D 1RWPHHW

E 3DUWLDOO\PHHW

F )XOO\PHHW

Technical Aspect
 /LVWRIVHUYLFHVSURYLGHGE\WKH%25
 /LVWRISURGXFWVSURGXFHGE\WKH%25
 'RDOOWKHVHUYLFHV SURGXFWVDUHGHOLYHUHGDWORFDOOHYHOWRWKH
XVHUV"
D 1R

E 3DUWLDOO\GHOLYHUHG 

F )XOO\GHOLYHUHG

 'RHVWKHODQGDJHQF\KDYHVXIILFLHQWODQGRIILFHVWRGHOLYHU
WKHLUVHUYLFHVHIILFLHQWO\"
D 1RWVXIILFLHQW 

E /HVVVXIILFLHQW

F 6XIILFLHQW

 'DWDSURGXFHGE\WKH%25LVXVHGDWJRYHUQPHQWDQGSULYDWH
VHFWRU"
D *RYHUQPHQWVHFWRU

E 3ULYDWHVHFWRU

F %RWK

 ,VWKHDOORFDWLRQRIWDVNVDQGUHVSRQVLELOLWLHVWRPDQDJHUV
DSSURSULDWH"
D 1RWDSSURSULDWH


E /HVVDSSURSULDWH

F $SSURSULDWH

 'RWKH\KDYHWKHQHFHVVDU\SRZHURIH[HFXWLRQ"
D 1R

E <HV

 ,VWKHLQWHUQDODQGH[WHUQDOLQIRUPDWLRQIORZFOHDUO\VSHFLILHG"
D 1RW&OHDU

E /HVFOHDU

F &OHDU

 +RZPXFKDFFXUDF\LVEHLQJFRQVLGHUHGLQWKHSUHVHQW
V\VWHP"


Appendix 4 Questionnaires for Explanatory Case Study

D 1RQH E $YHUDJH

F 0D[LPXP

 'R\RXSUHIHUWKHDGDSWLRQRIODWHVWWHFKQRORJ\LQWKHSUHVHQW
V\VWHP"
D 1R

E <HV



Appendix 4 Questionnaires for Explanatory Case Study

e. Questionnaire for Patwaris


1DPH
3RVLWLRQ
&RQWDFW1XPEHU
(PDLO
2IILFH$GGUHVV
'DWH
Institutional Aspect
 'RDOOFLWL]HQVKDYHHTXDODFFHVVWRODQGRIILFHV"
D <HV

E 1R

F 'RQWNQRZ

 'RHVWKHODQGYDOXHLVLQFUHDVHGZLWKWKHSDVVDJHRIWLPH"
D 'HFUHDVLQJ E 6WDEOH 

F ,QFUHDVLQJ

 +RZPDQ\VWHSVDUHLQYROYHGLQWKHVDOHGHHGUHJLVWUDWLRQ
SURFHGXUH"
D VWHSV 


E VWHSV 

F VWHSV 

G 0RUHBBBBBBBBBBBB

 +RZPXFKWLPHLWWDNHVWRUHJLVWHUDVDOHGHHG"
D GD\ E GD\V 


F GD\V 

G 0RUHBBBBBBBBBBBBB

 3URYLGHDFRS\RIWKHUHJLVWUDWLRQIRUP"
 +RZPXFKVWHSVDUHLQYROYHGLQWKHODQGWUDQVIHU"
D VWHSV 


E VWHSV 

F VWHSV 

G 0RUHBBBBBBBB

 +RZPXFKWLPHLWWDNHVWRWUDQVIHUODQG"
D GD\ 


E GD\V 

F GD\V 

G 0RUHBBBBBBBBBB

 :KLFKVXUYH\WHFKQLTXHLVXVHGIRUWKHODQGVXUYH\"


Appendix 4 Questionnaires for Explanatory Case Study

D )LHOGVXUYH\ E $LUVXUYH\

F 2WKHUBBBBBBBBB

 :KDWLVWKHWLPHLQWHUYDOEHWZHHQWZRVXUYH\V"
 :KHWKHUWKHGDWDLVVWRUHGDWORFDORUFHQWUDOOHYHO"
D /RFDOOHYHO

E &HQWUDOOHYHO F %RWKOHYHOV

 +RZVLJQLILFDQWLVWKHDFFHVVWRODQGUHFRUGIRUWKHFUHDWLRQRI
GLVSXWHV"
D 6LJQLILFDQW

E /HVVVLJQLILFDQW

F 1RWVLJQLILFDQW

 ,VWKHV\VWHPFOHDUDQGVLPSOHWRXQGHUVWDQGE\WKHJHQHUDO
SXEOLF"
D 1RWFOHDU

E /HVVFOHDU

F )XOO\FOHDU

Technical Aspect
 $WZKLFKVFDOHWKHFDGDVWUDOPDSVDUHDYDLODEOHZLWKODQG
DJHQF\"
D  

E  F 2WKHUBBBBBBBBBBBBB

 :KDWW\SHVRILQIRUPDWLRQLVFRQWDLQHGE\DFDGDVWUDOPDS HJ


URDGULYHUFDQDOHWF "
 3URYLGHWKHH[DFWQXPEHURIOHJHQGV"
 ,VWKHUHDQ\QDWLRQDOVWDQGDUGIRUVWUHHW SRVWDO DGGUHVVLQJWR
DSDUFHO"
D 1R

E 'RQWNQRZ F <HV

 ,VWKHUHDQ\UHIHUHQFH FRRUGLQDWH V\VWHPIROORZHGE\WKHODQG


DJHQF\IRUPDSVJHQHUDWLRQ"
D 1R

E 'RQWNQRZ F <HV

 ,VWKHSDUFHOLGHQWLILFDWLRQUHIHUHQFHV\VWHPXQLTXHLHWZR
SDUFHOVKDYHWKHVDPHFRPSXWHUUHIHUHQFHZKHQWKH\DUH
ORFDWHGLQGLIIHUHQWDGPLQLVWUDWLYHGLVWULFWRUPXQLFLSDOLWLHV"
D 1R

E 'RQWNQRZ F <HV

 ,VWKHVDPHSDUFHOUHIHUHQFLQJV\VWHPLVXVHGLQWKHODQGERRN
WKHFDGDVWUHWKHWD[UHJLVWHUDQGLQWKHPXQLFLSDOLWLHVRUQRW"


Appendix 4 Questionnaires for Explanatory Case Study

D 1R

E 'RQWNQRZ F <HV

 :KDWLVWKHFODVVLILFDWLRQPHWKRGRIODQGVRLOIRUUHYHQXH
FROOHFWLRQDQGZKDWDUHWKHVHW\SHVRIODQGVRLO"
D 6RLOW\SH


E /RFDWLRQ

F %RWK

G 'RQWNQRZ

 'R\RXSUHIHUWKHDGRSWLRQRIODWHVWWHFKQRORJ\LQWKHSUHVHQW
V\VWHP"
D 1R

E <HV



Appendix 4 Questionnaires for Explanatory Case Study

f. Questionnaire for Revenue Courts


1DPH
3RVLWLRQ
&RQWDFW1XPEHU
(PDLO
2IILFH$GGUHVV
'DWH
Institutional Aspect
 :KDWW\SHVRIODQGGLVSXWHVDUHWKHUHLQWKHSUHVHQWV\VWHP"
D 2ZQHUVKLS

E %RXQGDU\

F 2WKHUBBBBBBBBBBBB

 1XPEHURIODQGGLVSXWHVLQGLIIHUHQWSHULRGV ODVW\HDUV 


 3HUFHQWDJHRISUHVHQWO\VROYHGDQGXQVROYHGODQGGLVSXWHV
 :KDWLVWKHOHYHORIGLVSXWHVLQODQGLHORZRUKLJK"
D /RZ

E 0RGHUDWH

F +LJK

 +RZPXFKWLPHLWWDNHVWRUHVROYHODQGGLVSXWHV"
D \HDU 


E \HDUV

F \HDUV 

G 0RUHBBBBBBBBBB

 $UHWKHSUHVHQWSURFHGXUHVLQODQGGLVSXWHVUHVROXWLRQDUH
FOHDU"
D 1RWFOHDU

E $PELJXRXV F &OHDU

 ,VWKHSUHVHQWV\VWHPSURYLGLQJQHFHVVDU\LQIRUPDWLRQLQD
WLPHO\IDVKLRQ"
D 1R

E <HV

 7KHLQIRUPDWLRQVWRUHGLQODQGUHJLVWHUVLVXSWRGDWH"
D 1RWXSGDWHG 


E /HVVXSGDWHG

F )XOOXSGDWHG

 'R\RXSUHIHUDGRSWLRQRI,&7LQWKHSUHVHQWV\VWHP"


Appendix 4 Questionnaires for Explanatory Case Study

D 1R

E <HV

 +RZPXFKWKHFRPSXWHULVHGODQGUHFRUGV\VWHPZLOODIIHFW
UHVROXWLRQRIODQGGLVSXWHV"
D 

E 

F 



G 2WKHUBBBBBBBBB

Appendix 4 Questionnaires for Explanatory Case Study

g. Questionnaire for Law Professionals


1DPH
3RVLWLRQ
&RQWDFW1XPEHU
(PDLO
2IILFH$GGUHVV
'DWH
Institutional Aspect
 3UHVHQWVWDWXVRIWKHOHJLVODWLRQJRYHUQLQJODQGDGPLQLVWUDWLRQ"
D 6FDWWHUHG


E 2XWGDWHG

F 8SGDWHG

G 2WKHUBBBBBBBB

 :KDWLVWKHOHYHORIGLVSXWHVLQODQG"
D /RZ

E 0RGHUDWH

F +LJK

 :KDWW\SHVRIGLVSXWHVDUHWKHUHLQODQG"
D 2ZQHUVKLS

E %RXQGDU\

 F 2WKHUBBBBBBBBBBB

 +RZPXFKWLPHLWWDNHVWRUHVROYHODQGGLVSXWHV"
D \HDU 


E \HDUV

F \HDUV 

G 0RUHBBBBBBBBB

 $UHWKHSUHVHQWSURFHGXUHVLQODQGGLVSXWHVUHVROXWLRQDUH
FOHDU"
D 1RWFOHDU

E $PELJXRXV 

F &OHDU

 +RZUHOLDEOHLVWKHSURFHVVDQGUHFRUGLWVHOI"
D /HVVUHOLDEOH 

E 5HOLDEOH

F 0RUHUHOLDEOH

 +RZVLJQLILFDQWLVWKHDFFHVVWRODQGUHFRUGIRUFUHDWLRQRI
GLVSXWHV"
D 6LJQLILFDQW

E /HVVVLJQLILFDQW



F 1RWVLJQLILFDQW

Appendix 4 Questionnaires for Explanatory Case Study

 ,VWKHV\VWHPSURYLGLQJQHFHVVDU\LQIRUPDWLRQLQDWLPHO\
IDVKLRQ"
D 1R

E <HV

 ,VWKHSUHVHQWV\VWHPIDLULQGHYHORSPHQWDQGRSHUDWLRQ"
D /HVVIDLU

E $YHUDJH

F )DLU

 'R\RXKDYHHDV\DFFHVVWRODQGGDWD"
D 1RWHDV\

E /HVVHDV\

F )XOOHDV\

 7KHLQIRUPDWLRQVWRUHGLQODQGUHJLVWHUVLVXSWRGDWH"
D 1RWXSGDWHG 


E /HVVXSGDWHG

F )XOOXSGDWHG

 +RZPXFKWKHFRPSXWHULVHGODQGUHFRUGV\VWHPDIIHFWVWKH
UHVROXWLRQRIGLVSXWHV"
D 

E 

F 



G 2WKHUBBBBBBBBBB

Appendix 4 Questionnaires for Explanatory Case Study

h. Questionnaire for Land Owners


1DPH
2FFXSDWLRQ
&RQWDFW1XPEHU
(PDLO
+RPH$GGUHVV
'DWH
Institutional Aspect
 'R\RXKDYHHDV\DFFHVVWRODQGRIILFHV"
D 1RWHDV\

E /HVVHDV\

F )XOOHDV\

 $UHWKHILQDQFLDOLQVWLWXWLRQVZLOOLQJWRPRUWJDJHODQG"
D 1RWZLOOLQJ

E /HVVZLOOLQJ F )XOO\ZLOOLQJ

 'LG\RXDSSO\IRUFUHGLWVDJDLQVW\RXUODQG"
D 1R

E <HV

 ,I\HVWKHQKRZPXFKWLPHVLWWDNHVWRPRUWJDJHODQG"
D ZHHN 


E ZHHNV

F ZHHNV

G 0RUHBBBBBBBB

 'RHVWKHODQGYDOXHLVLQFUHDVHGZLWKWKHSDVVDJHRIWLPHLQ
WHUPRILQYHVWPHQWLQSURSHUW\VHFWRU"
D 'HFUHDVLQJ E 6WDEOH F ,QFUHDVLQJ
 +RZPXFK\RXIHHOVHFXUH\RXUULJKWLQWKHSUHVHQWV\VWHP"
D 8QVHFXUH

E 6HFXUH 

F )XOOVHFXUH

 'R\RXKDYHDQ\ODQGGLVSXWH"
D 1R

E <HV

 ,I\HVWKHQZKDWW\SHRIODQGGLVSXWH\RXKDYH"
D 2ZQHUVKLS

E %RXQGDU\



F 2WKHUBBBBBBBBBBBB

Appendix 4 Questionnaires for Explanatory Case Study

 )RUKRZORQJWLPH\RXDUHDSSHDULQJLQWKHFRXUWWRUHVROYH
\RXUODQGGLVSXWH"
D \HDU 


E \HDUV

F  \HDUV

G 0RUHBBBBBBBBBBBB

 $UHWKHSUHVHQWSURFHGXUHVLQODQGGLVSXWHVUHVROXWLRQDUH
FOHDU"
D 1RWFOHDU

E $PELJXRXV F &OHDU

 +RZUHOLDEOHLVWKHSURFHVVDQGUHFRUGLWVHOI"
D /HVVUHOLDEOH 

E 5HOLDEOH

F 0RUHUHOLDEOH

 ,VWKHV\VWHPFOHDUDQGVLPSOHWRXQGHUVWDQGE\JHQHUDO
SXEOLF"
D 1RWFOHDU

E /HVVFOHDU

F )XOO\FOHDU

 ,VWKHV\VWHPSURYLGLQJQHFHVVDU\LQIRUPDWLRQLQDWLPHO\
IDVKLRQ"
D 1R

E <HV

 ,VWKHSUHVHQWV\VWHPIDLULQGHYHORSPHQWDQGRSHUDWLRQ"
D /HVVIDLU

E $YHUDJH

F )DLU

 'R\RXKDYHHTXDODFFHVVWR\RXUODQGGDWD"
D 1R

E <HV

 $UH\RXDJUHHLQJZLWKWKHIHHVDQGFRVWVVWUXFWXUHLQWKH
SUHVHQWV\VWHP"
D 1RWDJUHH

E /HVVDJUHH F $JUHH



Appendix 4 Questionnaires for Explanatory Case Study

Technical Aspect
 +RZLVWKHSURFHVVUHTXLUHGWRDFFHVVODQGUHFRUGV"
D 1RWVLPSOH

E /HVVVLPSOH F 6LPSOH

 +RZFRQYHQLHQWLVWKLVSURFHVVWRDFFHVVWKHODQGUHFRUG"
D 1RWFRQYHQLHQW


E /HVVFRQYHQLHQW

F &RQYHQLHQW

 +RZPXFKWLPHGRHVLWWDNH"
D 6KRUWWLPH

E $YHUDJHWLPH

F /RQJWLPH

 +RZPXFK IRUPDODQGLQIRUPDO SD\PHQWLVLQYROYHG"


D 1RWDIIRUGDEOH

E $IIRUGDEOH

 +RZPXFKDFFXUDF\LVEHLQJFRQVLGHUHGLQWKHSUHVHQW
V\VWHP"
D 

1RQH

E $YHUDJH

F 0D[LPXP

 7KHLQIRUPDWLRQVWRUHGDERXWODQGLQODQGUHJLVWHUVLVXSWR
GDWH"
D 1RWXSGDWHG E /HVVXSGDWHG

F )XOOXSGDWHG

 'RHVWKHODQGDJHQF\KDYHVXIILFLHQWODQGRIILFHVWRGHOLYHU
WKHLUVHUYLFHVHIILFLHQWO\"
D 1RWVXIILFLHQW 

E /HVVVXIILFLHQW

F 6XIILFLHQW

 'RHVWKHV\VWHPSURYLGHDOOWKHHVVHQWLDOGDWDDFFRUGLQJWR
\RXUQHHGV"
D 1R

E 3DUWLDOO\

F )XOO\

 +RZFDQWKHODQGUHFRUGVEHPDGHPRUHDFFHVVLEOHWR
HYHU\ERG\"
D ,QWURGXFLQJ*HR,&7
V\VWHP

E 5HVWUXFWXULQJSUHVHQW

F 2WKHUBBBBBBBBB

 +RZHDV\LVWKHSURFHGXUHIRUVDOHGHHGUHJLVWUDWLRQ"
D 1RWHDV\

E /HVVHDV\

F (DV\

 +RZPXFKWLPHLWWDNHVWRUHJLVWHUDGHHG"


Appendix 4 Questionnaires for Explanatory Case Study

D ZHHN 


E ZHHNV

F ZHHNV

G 0RUHBBBBBBBB

 +RZPXFKVWHSVDUHLQYROYHGLQWKHODQGWUDQVIHU"
D VWHSV 


E VWHSV 

F VWHSV 

G 0RUHBBBBBBBB

 +RZPXFKWLPHLWWDNHVWRWUDQVIHUODQG"
D ZHHN 


E ZHHNV

F ZHHNV

G 0RUHBBBBBBBB

 'R\RXSUHIHUWKHDGDSWLRQRIODWHVWWHFKQRORJ\LQWKHSUHVHQW
V\VWHP"
D 1R

E <HV



Appendix 4 Questionnaires for Explanatory Case Study

i. Questionnaire for Bank and Financial Institution


Officials
1DPH
3RVLWLRQ
&RQWDFW1XPEHU
(PDLO
2IILFH$GGUHVV
'DWH
Institutional Aspect
 ,V\RXULQVWLWXWLRQZLOOLQJWRPRUWJDJHODQG"
D 1R

E <HV

 'RWKHODQGRZQHUVDSSO\IRUFUHGLWVDJDLQVWWKHLUSURSHUW\"
D 1R

E <HV

 ,I\HVWKHQWKLVQXPEHULVLQFUHDVLQJRUGHFUHDVLQJ"
D 'HFUHDVLQJ E 6WDEOH F ,QFUHDVLQJ
 +RZPXFKWLPHLWWDNHVWRPRUWJDJHDODQG"
D ZHHN E ZHHNV F ZHHNV G 0RUHBBBBBBBB
 'R\RXKDYHHTXDODFFHVVWRODQGRIILFHVIRUJHWWLQJODQG
UHFRUGV"
D 1R

E <HV

 +RZUHOLDEOHLVWKHSURFHVVDQGWKHUHFRUGLWVHOI"
D /HVVUHOLDEOH 

E 5HOLDEOH

F 0RUHUHOLDEOH

 ,VWKHV\VWHPSURYLGLQJQHFHVVDU\LQIRUPDWLRQLQDWLPHO\
IDVKLRQ"
D 1R

E <HV

 'R\RXKDYHHDV\DFFHVVWRWKHVHGDWD
D 1RWHDV\

E /HVVHDV\


F )XOOHDV\

Appendix 4 Questionnaires for Explanatory Case Study

Technical Aspect
 ,VWKHGDWDDYDLODEOHIRUSRVVLEOHFRPPHUFLDOXVH"
D 1R

E <HV

 +RZLVWKHSURFHVVUHTXLUHGWRDFFHVVWKHODQGUHFRUGV"
D 1RWVLPSOH

E /HVVVLPSOH F 6LPSOH

 +RZFRQYHQLHQWLVWKLVSURFHVVWRDFFHVVWKHODQGUHFRUG"
D 1RWFRQYHQLHQW

E /HVVFRQYHQLHQW

F 

&RQYHQLHQW
 +RZPXFKWLPHGRHVLWWDNH"
D 6KRUWWLPH

E $YHUDJHWLPH

F /RQJWLPH

 +RZPXFK IRUPDODQGLQIRUPDO SD\PHQWLVLQYROYHG"


D 1RWDIIRUGDEOH

E $IIRUGDEOH

 +RZFDQWKHODQGUHFRUGVEHPDGHPRUHDFFHVVLEOHWR
HYHU\ERG\"
D ,QWURGXFLQJ*HR,&7
V\VWHP

E 5HVWUXFWXULQJSUHVHQW

F 2WKHUBBBBBBBBB

 'RHVWKHV\VWHPSURYLGHDOOWKHHVVHQWLDOGDWDDFFRUGLQJWR
\RXUQHHGV"
D 1R

E 3DUWLDOO\

F )XOO\

 'RHVWKHODQGDJHQF\KDYHVXIILFLHQWODQGRIILFHVWRGHOLYHU
WKHLUVHUYLFHVHIILFLHQWO\"
D 1RWVXIILFLHQW

E /HVVVXIILFLHQW

F 6XIILFLHQW

 7KHLQIRUPDWLRQVWRUHGDERXWODQGLQWKHODQGUHJLVWHUVDUH
XSWRGDWH"
D 1RWXSGDWHG E /HVVXSGDWHG


'R\RXSUHIHUWKHDGDSWLRQRIODWHVWWHFKQRORJ\LQWKH

SUHVHQWV\VWHP"
D 1R

F )XOOXSGDWHG

E <HV



Appendix 4 Questionnaires for Explanatory Case Study

j. Questionnaire for Real Estate Agents


1DPH
2FFXSDWLRQ
&RQWDFW1XPEHU
(PDLO
+RPH$GGUHVV
'DWH
Institutional Aspect
 'RKDYHHTXDODFFHVVWRODQGRIILFHV"
D 1R

E <HV

 'R\RXKDYHHDV\DFFHVVWRODQGGDWD"
D 1RWHDV\

E /HVVHDV\

F )XOOHDV\

 'RHVWKHODQGYDOXHLVLQFUHDVHGZLWKWKHSDVVDJHRIWLPH"
D 'HFUHDVLQJ E 6WDEOH F ,QFUHDVLQJ
 +RZUHOLDEOHLVWKHSURFHVVDQGWKHUHFRUGLWVHOI"
D /HVVUHOLDEOH 

E 5HOLDEOH

F 0RUHUHOLDEOH

 +RZVLJQLILFDQWLVWKHDFFHVVWRODQGUHFRUGIRUFUHDWLRQRI
GLVSXWHV"
D 6LJQLILFDQW

E /HVVVLJQLILFDQW

F 1RWVLJQLILFDQW

 ,VWKHV\VWHPFOHDUDQGVLPSOHWRXQGHUVWDQGE\WKHJHQHUDO
SXEOLF"
D 1RWFOHDU

E /HVVFOHDU

F )XOO\FOHDU

 ,VWKHV\VWHPSURYLGLQJQHFHVVDU\LQIRUPDWLRQLQDWLPHO\
IDVKLRQ"
D 1R

E <HV

 ,VWKHSUHVHQWV\VWHPIDLULQGHYHORSPHQWDQGRSHUDWLRQ"
D /HVVIDLU

E $YHUDJH



F )DLU

Appendix 4 Questionnaires for Explanatory Case Study

 $UH\RXDJUHHZLWKIHHVDQGFRVWVVWUXFWXUHLQWKHSUHVHQW
V\VWHP"
D 1RWDJUHH

E /HVVDJUHH F )XOO\DJUHH

 :KDWPHDVXUHVFDQ\RXVXJJHVWWRHQVXUHWKDWWKH
YXOQHUDEOHVHFWLRQVRISRSXODWLRQDUHQRWH[FOXGHGEHFDXVHRI
WKHFRVWIDFWRU"
Technical Aspect
 ,VWKHGDWDDYDLODEOHIRUSRVVLEOHFRPPHUFLDOXVH"
D 1R

E <HV

 +RZLVWKHSURFHVVUHTXLUHGWRDFFHVVWKHODQGUHFRUGV"
D 1RWVLPSOH

E /HVVVLPSOH F 6LPSOH

 +RZFRQYHQLHQWLVWKLVSURFHVVWRDFFHVVWKHODQGUHFRUG"
D 1RWFRQYHQLHQW


E /HVVFRQYHQLHQW

F &RQYHQLHQW

 +RZPXFKWLPHGRHVLWWDNH"
D 6KRUWWLPH

E $YHUDJHWLPH

F /RQJWLPH

 +RZPXFK IRUPDODQGLQIRUPDO SD\PHQWLVLQYROYHG"


D 1RWDIIRUGDEOH

E $IIRUGDEOH

 'RHVWKHV\VWHPSURYLGHDOOWKHHVVHQWLDOGDWDDFFRUGLQJWR
\RXUQHHGV"
D 1R

E 3DUWLDOO\

F )XOO\

 'RHVWKHODQGDJHQF\KDYHVXIILFLHQWODQGRIILFHVWRGHOLYHU
WKHLUVHUYLFHVHIILFLHQWO\"
D 1RWVXIILFLHQW 

E /HVVVXIILFLHQW

F 6XIILFLHQW

 7KHLQIRUPDWLRQVWRUHGDERXWODQGLQODQGUHJLVWHUVLVXSWR
GDWH"
D 1RWXSGDWHG E /HVVXSGDWHG

F )XOOXSGDWHG

 +RZFDQWKHODQGUHFRUGVEHPDGHPRUHDFFHVVLEOHWR
HYHU\ERG\"


Appendix 4 Questionnaires for Explanatory Case Study

D ,QWURGXFLQJ*HR,&7
V\VWHP

E 5HVWUXFWXULQJSUHVHQW

F 2WKHUBBBBBBBBB

 +RZHDV\LVWKHSURFHGXUHIRUVDOHGHHGUHJLVWUDWLRQ"
D 1RWHDV\

E /HVVHDV\

F (DV\

 +RZPXFKWLPHLWWDNHVWRUHJLVWHUDGHHG"
D ZHHN 


E ZHHNV

F ZHHNV

G 0RUHBBBBBBBB

 +RZPXFKVWHSVDUHLQYROYHGLQWKHODQGWUDQVIHU"
D VWHSV 


E VWHSV 

F VWHSV 

G 0RUHBBBBBBBB

 +RZPXFKWLPHLWWDNHVWRWUDQVIHUODQG"
D ZHHN 


E ZHHNV

F ZHHNV

G 0RUHBBBBBBBB

 'R\RXSUHIHUWKHDGDSWLRQRIODWHVWWHFKQRORJ\LQWKHSUHVHQW
V\VWHP"
D 1R

E <HV